Network+ 2005 Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network+

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Copyright© 2004 by Specialized Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 338 East Tarpon Street, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. Publisher: Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Contributing Writers: Bill Ferguson Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Editor: Bill Ferguson

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Suggestions/Comments Please forward all comments or suggestions to: Specialized Solutions, Inc. 338 East Tarpon St. Tarpon Springs, FL 34689

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... I

ABOUT SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS ...........................................................IX
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+ .............................................................2005 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ..................................................................................................9 YOUR VIDEO INSTRUCTOR .................................................................................................9 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST ..................................................................................................10 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................10 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................10 ABOUT THIS COURSE .......................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS ..................................................17 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING ....................................................................................17 Benefits of Networking Computers .............................................................................17 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) .................................18 The Client/Server Relationship ...................................................................................19 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................19 Peer-to-Peer Networking ............................................................................................20 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).....................................................................21 Bus Topology ..............................................................................................................21 Star Topology..............................................................................................................22 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................22 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES ......................................................................................................23 Hybrid Topologies ......................................................................................................23 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................23 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................24 NETWORK ACCESS ...........................................................................................................26 Token Passing .............................................................................................................26 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................26 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................27 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS ...........................................................................................28 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................28 Active Hubs .................................................................................................................29 Hub-Based Networks ..................................................................................................29 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................30 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................31 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1 ....................................................................................33 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS) ....................................35 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? ..................................................................................35 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking .............................................................36 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)? ........................................................37 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................37 Server/Client Software ................................................................................................39 NOS PACKAGES...............................................................................................................42 Specialized Solutions, Inc. i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Novell NetWare .......................................................................................................... 42 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System................................................... 45 Windows NT Minimum Requirements ...........................Error! Bookmark not defined. UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................ 47 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service)................................................ 48 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 50 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................. 51 REVIEW QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................ 52 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS.......... 55 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION ..................................................... 55 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL ................................................................................ 56 Application Layer ....................................................................................................... 56 Presentation Layer ..................................................................................................... 57 Session Layer.............................................................................................................. 57 Transport Layer.......................................................................................................... 57 Network Layer ............................................................................................................ 58 Data Link Layer.......................................................................................................... 58 Logical Link Control (LLC) ....................................................................................... 59 Media Access Control (MAC) .................................................................................... 59 Physical Layer............................................................................................................ 60 PROTOCOL STACKS ......................................................................................................... 62 Communication Between Peer Layers ....................................................................... 62 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD ............................................................................................ 64 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL ....................................................................................... 66 Repeaters .................................................................................................................... 66 Bridges........................................................................................................................ 66 Routers........................................................................................................................ 66 Brouters ...................................................................................................................... 67 Gateways .................................................................................................................... 67 IEEE 802 STANDARDS .................................................................................................... 68 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL ...................................................................... 70 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)......................................................... 70 ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ................................................................................ 70 PROTOCOLS AND OSI ...................................................................................................... 70 Protocol Binding ........................................................................................................ 71 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless ................................................................... 71 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols ........................................................................ 71 Networking Protocols and Stacks............................................................................... 72 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................... 73 DECnet ....................................................................................................................... 73 IPX/ SPX..................................................................................................................... 73 SMB (Server Message Block) ..................................................................................... 74 SNA (Systems Network Architecture) ......................................................................... 74 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ....................................................................... 74 IP (Internet Protocol)................................................................................................. 74 UDP (User Datagram Protocol)................................................................................ 74 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) ..................................................................................... 74 ii Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Table of Contents Telnet...........................................................................................................................75 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................75 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................75 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................75 NTP (Network Time Protocol) ....................................................................................75 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) ...............................................................................75 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................75 X.25 .............................................................................................................................76 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................76 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................76 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................76 LAT (Local Area Transport) .......................................................................................76 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................77 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................78 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................78 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) ...................................................................................78 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) ................................................................78 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) ........................................................78 ISO/OSI Standard .......................................................................................................78 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ...............................................................78 DNS (Domain Name System) ......................................................................................78 XDR (External Data Representation) .........................................................................78 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................78 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................80 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................81 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................82 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................85 NETWORK CABLING .........................................................................................................85 Coaxial Cable .............................................................................................................85 Coaxial Connectors ....................................................................................................86 Twisted-Pair Cable .....................................................................................................88 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................91 Summary of Cabling ...................................................................................................93 CABLING TERMS ..............................................................................................................94 AWG (American Wire Gauge) ....................................................................................94 Bandwidth ...................................................................................................................94 Plenum Grade Cabling ...............................................................................................94 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................95 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)..............................................................................97 Preparing the Data .....................................................................................................97 Signals and Clocking ..................................................................................................97 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel) .................................................................................98 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................98 Configurable Options..................................................................................................98 Wireless NICs............................................................................................................100 Specialized Solutions, Inc. iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Fiber-Optic NICs...................................................................................................... 100 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................ 101 Standard Bus Types .................................................................................................. 101 Laptops ..................................................................................................................... 101 NETWORK PERFORMANCE ............................................................................................. 102 WIRELESS NETWORKS ................................................................................................... 103 Why Wireless? .......................................................................................................... 103 Wireless Transmission Methods............................................................................... 104 Radio Transmission.................................................................................................. 105 Satellite Station Networking..................................................................................... 106 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 108 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 109 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.................................................................................... 112 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS .................................. 115 ACCESS METHODS......................................................................................................... 116 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) .................... 116 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) ................... 117 Token Passing........................................................................................................... 117 Demand Priority....................................................................................................... 117 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS) ............................................... 119 Packet Structure ....................................................................................................... 119 Packet Components .................................................................................................. 120 NETWORK STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 122 Logical Link Control (802.2).................................................................................... 122 Ethernet (802.3)........................................................................................................ 122 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................. 129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)................................................... 131 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 133 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 134 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.................................................................................... 136 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.......................................................................... 139 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT ................................................................................... 139 The Customer ........................................................................................................... 139 The Network Goals................................................................................................... 140 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE ......................................................................................... 142 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer.................................................................................. 142 When to Choose Client/Server ................................................................................. 143 Making the Choice.................................................................................................... 144 Public and Private networks .................................................................................... 144 DESIGN THE NETWORK.................................................................................................. 150 Media Selection ........................................................................................................ 151 Environmental Concerns.......................................................................................... 152 NOS Selection........................................................................................................... 152 Protocol Selection .................................................................................................... 152 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER ............................................................................................ 154 Cable to Computer ................................................................................................... 154 iv Specialized Solutions, Inc.

..161 HCL and Windows 2000 ................................................................................................................................................................................................159 PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ..................................................164 CHAPTER 7 .................................168 Carriers.............166 Repeaters.........................................................................................................................................................172 Packet Switching Networks....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................197 DNS ...........................................................................................................169 Analog Connectivity.............176 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS) ...................................157 Adapter Card Compatibility ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................165 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL ..........................................161 Minimum Requirements ...........................................................................Table of Contents Cable to Hub ......................................................................................................189 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP.......................197 Specialized Solutions.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................170 Circuit-switched Networks.....................................................................................................................................................173 Advanced WAN Environments .....................................................................192 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols .........................................................169 Digital Connectivity ................178 Connecting Two Computers..........................................................................189 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS ..........................................167 CONNECTION SERVICES .................162 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 ..........184 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 ...159 Computer Compatibility........................................................................................................................................174 MODEMS ...........................................................155 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................194 NAMING SYSTEMS ...................................................................157 Media Compatibility .................160 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS .........................................167 Gateway ....................................................................................................................................160 Hard Work ......................................................................................................................................................... v .........................................................................................172 VLAN................................................................................................ Inc..178 RAS Protocols ..........................................................................................................................................................................168 WAN Overview.........................................................EXPANDING A NETWORK ......................................................................165 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS...........166 Bridges .............................182 Limitations of RAS ..............................................182 Troubleshooting a RAS setup.....166 Routers ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................160 Standards ...........186 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................154 Network Adapter Cards ...........................................................................................................................................192 Other TCP/IP Protocols .......................................179 Installing and Configuring RAS.......................183 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .....................................189 RFC (Request For Comments)..................................................................

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Inc.................................................................................................................... 221 Management Software................................................................................... 227 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 228 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY ........................................................................................................................................ 200 IP Proxy Servers............................................................................................................................... 203 Class B Addresses ................................................................................................................ 203 IPv6 (IP Next Generation) .............................................................................................................................................................. 202 IPv4 ..... 200 NAT.......................................................................... 205 SUBNETTING .............................. 200 TCP/IP ADDRESSING................................................................................ 223 NBTSTAT ............................................................................................................................... 199 BOOTP ................................................... 225 PING............................................... 225 NSLOOKUP........ 223 ROUTE................................................................................ 229 vi Specialized Solutions...................................................... 199 IP Gateway ..................................... 215 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .......... 219 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES............................................................................................................................................................................ 221 NETWORK MANAGERS ........ 225 RARP..................... 203 Class C Addresses ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 222 EVENT VIEWER ....................................... 199 DHCP ............................................................................................................... 223 TRACERT....... 217 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8..............................................................................................................................................SNMP ............................................ 223 NETSTAT ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS.......... 198 NETBIOS ............................................................................................................................................................... 207 How to Subdivide a Network ........................................... 198 HOSTS file......................... 222 VALIDATION TOOLS ........................................................................................................... 225 ARP ............................... 222 Communities................................................................................................................................................... 209 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS .................................................... 202 IP Addresses ........................................ 223 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .. 225 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 229 USER AND SHARE LEVEL ........................................ 199 LMHOSTS file ....................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................. 225 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................. 225 IFCONFIG.......................................... 203 Class D and Class E Addresses............................................................................................................................. 203 Class A Addresses ............ 200 ICS ................................ 199 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES .................................................................................................................................................................................... 221 Agent Software ...................................

...........................................................................234 Fault Tolerance and Power ....................................................................................................................................................................245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .......................232 Backup Options............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................230 SECURITY TECHNIQUES .........................................................275 Specialized Solutions...............271 OSI MODEL ..............................................245 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING...............234 Full.......242 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................233 Backup Software .............259 NIC Indicator Lights ...............................X STANDARDS................................. Differential............................................................234 Volumes..................................................................................................................275 TCP/IP UTILITIES ..............................251 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS .............................................................239 Viruses..............232 Firewalls ............................................................................................................................................................................. Inc.229 Share-level Security ................................. and Incremental Backups .....260 Name Resolution ...................................Table of Contents User-level Security.......236 PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES ................................................................................239 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ..............................................................243 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK ..................274 TCP/IP PORTS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................264 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY ..........................................................................................257 Cable Problems..........................................................273 SUBNET MASKING ...............................................................268 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES ................260 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ......................................................270 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS ..............................................................264 CONCLUSION .................267 5-4-3 RULE .....................................................................................267 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES ................269 IEEE 802.......................................................255 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS .................... vii ..........................................................................................................................................................................................260 Performance...................................................................................263 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11 ........................238 Disaster Recovery .....................................................................................................................................................................................250 Hardware Networking Tools.............................................................................................................................250 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools............................................................................................................................................................................237 Encryption.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................267 ETHERNET CABLING ........234 Fault Tolerance and RAID..............................................................................................................................................269 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING) ...................................................................................................................................................232 Blocking Port Numbers........................................................................................232 Backing up Data ...........................................................................................................................................257 Misbehaving Protocols .......................................................................................

........................................................................... 281 COMPUSERVE ............................................................................................................... 283 IEEE ..... 304 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7.............................................................. OTHER HELPFUL SITES .............................................................................................. Inc....................................................................................... 283 CCITT ......... 320 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11.................... 323 viii Specialized Solutions............................................................................................................................................................................... 309 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.... 287 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS .................................... 281 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS ...................................................... 321 INDEX ......................... 283 EIA .................................................................................................................................... 318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9....................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2................................................................. 278 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .................................................................................................................................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED................................... 284 SAG ... 306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4................................................................................................................................... 281 MICROSOFT: ..................................................................... 284 ISO................................................................................. 283 ANSI.... 311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6..................................................................................... 276 TRANSMISSION MEDIA ....................................................................... 284 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM................................ 278 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES .................................. 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1............................................................... 281 NOVELL ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TOPOLOGY REVIEW ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 285 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY............................................... 285 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS .................................................................................................... 316 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8............................................. 319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10................. .................

Inc. cost-effective programs that are customized to suit your needs. course offerings. ix . We thank you for choosing our company as your resource for Information Technology SelfStudy Training. One hundred percent customer satisfaction and unmatched customer service is always our commitment to the computer professional. please visit us at: www.specializedsolutions. We will always provide a quality product to customers at a price that is within reach of most computer professionals. To see other Specialized Solutions. Specialized Solutions. We strive to provide training programs that far exceed the expectations of our customers. is dedicated to providing the computer professional the highest level of self-study training and certification materials the industry has to offer. Inc. Our highly skilled staff of computer and educational professionals are dedicated to delivering high quality.’s Network+ training and certification course. Inc. Inc. We are committed to always be on the leading edge of new computer environment training products.com Specialized Solutions.About Specialized Solutions About Specialized Solutions Welcome to Specialized Solutions.

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1 . Remember. We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! Specialized Solutions. or as a textbook in a classroom environment. easy to follow format. our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. as a stand-alone textbook. Inc. Inc. and Digital Video Studio Professionals. We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical. Technical Editors. It can be used in conjunction with the Specialized Solutions. Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals.Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives. Network+ video training series. at Specialized Solutions. Computer Graphics Experts. Technical Writers. We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program.

0 Network Support Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 25% 35% 100% 2 Specialized Solutions.” The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1.0 Protocols & Standards 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey. . The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content. Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination.0 Media & Topologies 2.0 Network Implementation 4. Inc. test objectives and example content.” “This examination includes blueprint weighting.

802. including: • Speed • Access method (CSMA / CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) and CSMA / CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection)) • Topology • Media 1.6 Identify the purposes. 1000BASE-CX.4 Recognize the following media connectors and describe their uses: • RJ-11 (Registered Jack) • RJ-45 (Registered Jack) • F-Type • ST (Straight Tip) • SC (Subscriber Connector or Standard Connector) • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) • Fiber LC (Local Connector) • MT-RJ (Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack) • USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1. length.3 (Ethernet).2 Specify the main features of 802. and 6 • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) • STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) • Coaxial cable • SMF (Single Mode Fiber) optic cable • MMF (Multimode Fiber) optic cable 1. 802.5 Recognize the following media types and describe their uses: • Category 3.11 (wireless). Inc.0 . 3 . and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) networking technologies.Media and Topologies – 20% 1. 10 GBASE-LR and 10 GBASE-ER 1.Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: Domain 1. topology.2 (Logical Link Control).5 (token ring).3 Specify the characteristics (For example: speed. features and functions of the following network components: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • Gateways • CSU / DSU (Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit) Specialized Solutions. 5e. 5. 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX • 10 GBASE-SR. 802.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a diagram. and cable type) of the following cable standards: • 10BASE-T and 10BASE-FL • 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX • 1000BASE-T. schematic or description: • Star • Bus • Mesh • Ring 1.

IPv6) and the required setting for connections across the Internet. frequency. antenna type and environmental factors).2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model and their functions.6 Identify classful IP (Internet Protocol) ranges and their subnet masks (For example: Class A.7 Identify the purpose of subnetting.3 Identify the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) layers at which the following network components operate: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • NICs (Network Interface Card) • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) 2. .9 Identify and differentiate between the following IP (Internet Protocol) addressing methods: • Static • Dynamic • Self-assigned (APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing)) 2.1 Identify a MAC (Media Access Control) address and its parts.7 Specify the general characteristics (For example: carrier speed.0 – Protocols and Standards – 20% 2. interoperability and naming conventions: • IPX / SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange / Sequence Packet Exchange) • NetBEUI (Network Basic Input / Output System Extended User Interface) • AppleTalk / AppleTalk over IP (Internet Protocol) • TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) 2. function and use of the following protocols used in the TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) suite: • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) 4 Specialized Solutions. 2.5 Identify the components and structure of IP (Internet Protocol) addresses (IPv4. addressing schemes. transmission type and topology) of the following wireless technologies: • 802. 2. 2.8 Identify the differences between private and public network addressing schemes.11 (Frequency hopping spread spectrum) • 802.11x (Direct sequence spread spectrum) • Infrared • Bluetooth 1. Domain 2.10 Define the purpose.4 Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing. 2. Inc. 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • NICs (Network Interface Card) • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) adapters • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) • Modems • Transceivers (media converters) • Firewalls 1. 2. B and C).8 Identify factors which affect the range and speed of wireless service (For example: interference.

15 Identify the basic characteristics of the following internet access technologies: • xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) • Broadband Cable (Cable modem) • POTS / PSTN (Plain Old Telephone Service / Public Switched Telephone Network) • Satellite • Wireless Specialized Solutions.11 Define the function of TCP / UDP (Transmission Control Protocol / User Datagram Protocol) ports.Introduction • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) • POP3 / IMAP4 (Post Office Protocol version 3 / Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • Telnet • SSH (Secure Shell) • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) • ARP / RARP (Address Resolution Protocol / Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) • NTP (Network Time Protocol) • NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) • IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) • LPR (Line Printer Remote) 2. WINS (Windows Internet Name Service).25 2.14 Identify the basic characteristics (For example: speed. SMB (Server Message Block). 2.13 Identify the purpose of network services and protocols (For example: DNS (Domain Name Service). 5 . capacity and media) of the following WAN (Wide Area Networks) technologies: • Packet switching • Circuit switching • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) • T1 (T Carrier level 1) / E1 / J1 • T3 (T Carrier level 3) / E3 / J3 • OCx (Optical Carrier) • X. 2.12 Identify the well-known ports associated with the following commonly used services and protocols: • 20 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 21 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 22 SSH (Secure Shell) • 23 Telnet • 25 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • 53 DNS (Domain Name Service) • 69 TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • 80 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • 110 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) • 119 NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • 123 NTP (Network Time Protocol) • 143 IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • 443 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) 2. Inc. NAT (Network Address Translation). LPD (Line Printer Daemon) and Samba). ICS (Internet Connection Sharing). NFS (Network File System). AFP (Apple File Protocol). SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). Zeroconf (Zero configuration).

benefits and characteristics of using a firewall.1 Identify the basic capabilities (For example: client support.5 Identify the purpose. determine the impact on network functionality of a particular security implementation (For example: port blocking / filtering. configure the connection.8 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks). and physical connectivity.7 Given a connectivity scenario. 6 Specialized Solutions.3 Identify the appropriate tool for a given wiring task (For example: wire crimper.16 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services: • RAS (Remote Access Service) • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) • PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) • VPN (Virtual Private Network) • RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) 2. 3.2 Identify the basic capabilities needed for client workstations to connect to and use network resources (For example: media.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. authentication and encryption). Kerberos and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)). application support and security) of the following server operating systems to access network resources: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. 3.9 Identify the main characteristics and purpose of extranets and intranets. Inc.18 Identify authentication protocols (For example: CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). an authentication scheme. media tester / certifier. file and print services. Domain 3. punch down tool or tone generator).17 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function: • IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Continued on the next page… Continued from the previous page… • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) • 802. Includes connection to the following servers: • UNIX / Linux / MAC OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. 3. 3. . 3.6 Identify the purpose. PAP (Password Authentication Protocol). interoperability.1x 2. authentication. MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service).4 Given a remote connectivity scenario comprised of a protocol. 3.0 Network Implementation – 25% 3. network protocols and peer and server services). benefits and characteristics of using a proxy service.

select the appropriate network utility from the following: • Tracert / traceroute • ping • arp • netstat • nbtstat • ipconfig / ifconfig • winipcfg • nslookup / dig 4.11 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance: • Power • Link redundancy • Storage • Services 3. physical connectivity and SOHO (Small Office / Home Office) router). 4.6 Given a scenario. 4.1).Introduction 3.2 Given output from a network diagnostic utility (For example: those utilities listed in objective 4.3 Given a network scenario. identify the utility and interpret the output.5 Given a troubleshooting scenario between a client and the following server environments. DNS (Domain Name Service) and WINS (Windows Internet Name Service)) for network resources and users. star. mesh or ring) and including a network diagram. 3. identify the cause of a stated problem: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 4. Inc.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario. interpret visual indicators (For example: link LEDs (Light Emitting Diode) and collision LEDs (Light Emitting Diode)) to determine the nature of a stated problem. network hardware or environment). identify the network area affected and the cause of the stated failure. identify the cause of a stated problem (For example: bad media. 4. benefits and characteristics of using antivirus software. Specialized Solutions.12 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery: • Backup / restore • Offsite storage • Hot and cold spares • Hot. interference. print services. 7 . determine the impact of modifying.10 Identify the purpose. warm and cold sites Domain 4.8 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving an infrastructure (For example: wired or wireless) problem. identify the cause of the problem (For example: file services. authentication failure.0 Network Support – 35% 4.4 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a client accessing remote network services. 4. 4. adding or removing network services (For example: DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). protocol configuration.7 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology (For example: bus.

Identify the affected area 3. Select the most probable cause 5. Test the result 7. select an appropriate course of action based on a logical troubleshooting strategy. . Identify the symptoms and potential causes 2.9 Given a network problem scenario. Identify the results and effects of the solution 8. Inc. Document the solution and process 8 Specialized Solutions. This strategy can include the following steps: 1.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. Establish what has changed 4. Implement an action plan and solution including potential effects 6.

MCSE. Originally in technical sales and sales management with Sprint. Network+. and CCNA. use a study plan. He is certified as an MCT. Bill is an enthusiastic. Bill has written the “MCDST Study Guide” for Sybex Inc. Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. and Security+. such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. results oriented computer specialist who has extensive knowledge of Microsoft networks. Bill made his transition to Certified Technical Trainer in 1997 with ExecuTrain. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary. Server+. However. To get the best results from your training.Introduction Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not extremely complicated. Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand. Hands-on experience is best. Use the “Help” button where available. teaching classes for most of the national training companies and some regional training companies. MCP+I. if this is your first exposure to networking. Bill says. Alabama. In addition he holds the CompTIA certifications of A+. In addition. Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding.” Specialized Solutions. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented. Practice the function on your computer. Bill now runs his own company as an independent contractor in Birmingham. CCSI. MCSA. not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation. Bill has been in the computer industry for over 15 years. as well as “Designing Security for Windows Server 2003 Network” for Exam Cram2. Inc. Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge. “My job is to understand the material so well that I can make it easier for my students to learn than it was for me to learn. it may seem so. 9 . MCDST. Your Video Instructor Your video instructor is Bill Ferguson.

Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs. How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English. 1999. Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find. Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test. The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry.com). there is no one method that will work for everyone. There are no specific requirements. hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 10 Specialized Solutions. YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Schedule the test for a few weeks from now so that you will have a guidepost that is constantly reminding you that you need to study the material. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive. The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. You can locate a testing center and schedule the test on the web. French and Japanese. You may be surprised at how near you are to a testing center! Evaluate your learning aptitudes. Inc. A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. Since most of us learn in different ways. German. • • • How do you learn best (reading. CONGRATULATIONS. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills. You can also call VUE at 877-551-7587 or Thomson Prometric at 888-8956116. watching. except payment of the test fee.com) or any Thomson Prometric testing center (2test. . This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. but A+ certification is not required. You can take the test at any Virtual University Enterprises testing center (vue.

Make an appointment with yourself. Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point.Introduction Make a plan to learn. Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read. • Complete the course a second time. What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through. go though the entire course again. Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time. Review the video presentation one more time if necessary. just get a feel for it. This workbook will make this task much easier. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. you want to begin to understand. If you need to. 11 . You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time. Re-read the test and review the video presentation. Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. Specialized Solutions. At this time. Use the rewind button as often as necessary. Inc. You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through. Based on your time to learn (and your schedule). set aside the time to learn. If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course. Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises.

The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer. If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams. it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them. You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted. It is a closed book exam. . You will be asked to sign the form. You will be required to show two forms of identification. including one photo ID. Evaluate the questions you missed. You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in. • • • • 12 Specialized Solutions. The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form. Inc. Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam As you prepare for your certification exam it will be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure. (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam. All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test. Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test.

Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam. Usually. Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers. (such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test. (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. or if you are unclear about what you should do. Inc. You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you. guess. you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score.Introduction HINT .Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials. you are given the ability to skip a question. but be sure to read it in its entirety. marked or skipped.) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. self-study training system. put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass. answer the question. You will have plenty of time as long as you use it wisely. The course contains five instructor led CD-ROMs. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. If you know the answer. a Network+ Training & Test Preparation Guide and a practice exam simulator. you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam. Before retaking the exam. If you positively don’t know the answer. Do not read too much into the question. Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions. Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! About This Course This Specialized Solutions Network+ course is a multi-media. skip it. If the administrator does not do this. mark it and come back to it. Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system. It lists your score by objective. (You don’t need to send them the score report. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides. If you’re not quite sure. mark a question or answer a question. At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered. If you don’t know the answer. ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam. Specialized Solutions. 13 . Keep track of the time and pace yourself. you can see which questions are not answered.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Video Chapters Include: CD 1: Introduction and Overview Network Topologies Network Technologies Cable Standards Media Connectors CD 2: Media Types Network Components Wireless Technologies Protocols and Standards The OSI Model IP Addressing CD 3: Ports Services WAN Internet Access Remote Access Security Protocols CD 4: Server Operating Systems Client Connectivity Tools for Networking Firewalls Proxy Service Network Connectivity Virtual Local Area Networks Antivirus Software Fault Tolerance Disaster Recovery CD 5: Troubleshooting Network Utilities Troubleshooting Network Services Troubleshooting Topologies Troubleshooting Strategy Preparation for a Certification Test 14 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Inc.Introduction This study guide is divided into 11 chapters. It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course. 15 . Specialized Solutions.

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This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment. as a networking professional. and applications (resources).) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents. Inc. Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need. After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment.” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do. 17 . Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage. a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data. Specialized Solutions. you understand exactly what a network is. Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources. A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented. a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files. files. An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?). It is very important that. Through networking. users can access programs. peripherals. It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than to purchase a printer for every user.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking. Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking. and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net.” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service. But for our purposes. You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN. Additionally.

When LANs are connected they create a WAN. A WAN can connect networks from building to building or across the world. A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network. it is still considered a LAN. the speed of communication between the computers is typically much faster in a LAN. Also. Inc. 18 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function. The Internet is the world’s largest WAN. or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information. . The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits.

Specialized Solutions. The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. However. one for printing (print server). including applications. Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. These terms are not interchangeable.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals There is actually a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). A large network may have more than one server. A mainframe will handle all the functions. A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or county. efficiency in backing up the data. or a mail server (E-mail). A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). when the user is getting information from the server. The advantages of this type of network are central administration. Also. if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access. Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity. A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. and is a client. The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation. configuration and management may be more challenging. that access would cause the workstation to become a server. Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. The Internet has replaced most MANs today. network security. Inc. It is important to know what a MAN is. log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network. including hard disk space and RAM. For example. one for applications (application server). that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files. 19 . since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client). The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer. and expandability. it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. also known as clients. Users. but they are not common.

Also. network security is unreliable. All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user. . Inc. In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal. a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand. This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved. Peer-to-Peer Network 20 Specialized Solutions. A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install.g. and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e. A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security. The computers are simply cabled together.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers. Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network.

they do not move the transmissions along. backbone. However. An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. also called Network Adapter Cards). 21 . and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). If not prevented. it prevents other devices from sending data. Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. scheme. As a network professional. While the signal is bouncing back and forth. NICs. a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable. map. or diagram. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address). (Network Interface Cards. connectors. and even how the cabling is run through a building. the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network. future growth needs. only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal. Devices only listen for data being transmitted. The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable. or segment. design. The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used. A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. are all determined by the topology used. or topology. the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other. The Bus topology is a passive topology. This cable is called a trunk. In a Bus network. refers to its physical layout. This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. Specialized Solutions. The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other. how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). if the cable breaks. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together. Different topologies have different cabling requirements. Inc. To stop signal bounce.

all devices are connected to a central point called a hub. 22 Specialized Solutions. it can affect the entire network. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable. There are no ends to terminate. Inc. A disadvantage is that if one computer fails. . It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Star Topology In a Star topology. Star Topology Ring Topology In a Ring topology. The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network. however. If the hub fails. The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network. the rest of the network will still continue to function. but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down. the entire network will go down.

but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. So far. you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology. Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals With IBM Token Ring networks. Inc. A logical topology. In these networks. Specialized Solutions. they operate between the hubs like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus. The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. we have been discussing physical topologies. You will be able to see a physical topology. is how the network actually works. This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. on the other hand. Before you can understand some of these special topologies. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations. some Ethernet networks today are wired using a using multiple hubs. For example. Token Ring networks are physical stars and logical rings. Also. These are the methods in which a network is actually wired. Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies. a computer can fail and not prevent the network from functioning. These are known as Hybrid topologies. 23 . This gives us a physical star topology. It consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. the ring is actually in a special type of hub called a Multistation Access Unit (MSAU). However.

Inc. . The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter 4 of this book. 24 Specialized Solutions. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points. the topology of a wireless network is that of an “invisible star”. Since each computer has its own connection to the wireless access point (WAP).

25 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Specialized Solutions. Inc.

they are called Token Ring and Ethernet. Since there is only one token. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected. A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit. The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network. only one device at a time can communicate on the network. Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message. we create kind of a “party line”. Inc. The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token. Multiple Access means that more than one computer 26 Specialized Solutions. and the message is delivered. Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages. Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices. . This is based on the media or wiring of the network. The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. With several devices connected to one media.

Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original. Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps. 27 . Inc. Specialized Solutions. Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted).Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals can be connected to the same cable. Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks.

Just remember. Hubs can be classified as either passive or active. they are called MSAUs (Multiple Station Access Units). they are all the same. The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator. Passive Hub – Patch Panel 28 Specialized Solutions. Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only. hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function. Today. . not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks. With a Token Ring. Essentially. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified. Passive hubs do not require any electrical power to function. since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network.

They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected. An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. 3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs. Inc. 2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available. This type type of hub requires electrical power to function. 29 . Specialized Solutions. 4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs. Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity.

Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. 30 Specialized Solutions. We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN. Topology is a term we use to describe the logical shape of the connection of computers in a network. and ring. star. A WAN is not geographically limited and typically has greater speed of communication than a WAN. The three main types of topology are bus. The two types of networks are LANs and WANs. Inc. go back and review the chapter again. It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 31 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 32 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6. 9. 5. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. 8. 7. Name the three basic topologies. What is the main reason for networking computers? 3. Specialized Solutions. What is a “sneaker net”? 4. Name some advantages of having centralized documents.Chapter 1 1. Inc. 11. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Review Questions . Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Name two media access methods. What are the key differences between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2. 33 . 10.

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The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e. we are referencing the built-in network operating system component. most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions.Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking. 35 . processor time. it is just a pile of metal and plastic. When we refer to the operating system in this chapter. but without an operating system. The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other. This chapter is all about the various operating systems with which a networking professional needs to be familiar. Today. Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment. In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 . it will just sit there. if you don’t have the software to run it. and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system. Specialized Solutions. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well. Hardware resources such as RAM. Most of today’s client and server operating systems have a built-in network operating system. We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities.g. and database programs). When we are talking about operating systems. word-processing. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment. You can get it all set up and turn on the power. What is an Operating System? Not that long ago. hard disk space. what we are really talking about are network operating systems. as well as the operating system. spreadsheet. Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe. Inc.

Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. Inc. put simply. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor. the processor is never taken away from a task. A true multitasking (multi-processing) operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors. It is used on all of the latest operating systems. 36 Specialized Solutions. In non-preemptive multitasking.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs. means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. . Preemptive multitasking began with Windows 95 and the Intel Pentium processor.

Then. 37 . all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems. moving photos to the Web. It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. Specialized Solutions. It is well-suited for editing home movies. such as BSD UNIX. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration. All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system. Windows 95/98 Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems that include a network operating system. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. Windows 95/98 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). and you have a working network. Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs. Novell NetWare. and archiving music. to communicate with other computers over a network. Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. Instead. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network. They use an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. turning on the computer and answering questions. Microsoft Client. or a similar program. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. Inc. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network. Their new graphical interface and networking capabilities make them a vast improvement over their predecessors.

It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies. like ME. driver certification. Inc. is equipped to be networked easily. IPsec and Kerberos support. It. It features file protection. like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here. which allows for safety when installing additional software or making changes to the computer’s configuration. EFS (Encrypting File System). peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT. Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across in real life but are unlikely to be on the test: 38 Specialized Solutions. It allows for faster user switching.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server. remote OS installation. a simplified visual design. . It also uses System Restore. multilingual support. Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is the newest edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users.

Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network. However.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. Inc. In a Serverbased network. This can also provide accessibility and security for all devices on a network. 39 . Inc. it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment. the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability. the computers act as both a client and a server. Specialized Solutions. Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (uses resources locally).

Servers exist to serve. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus. if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. Inc. Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server. the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access). most of the data is stored on the server. At the very least. Unlike most client software. the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. . Server Software As their name implies. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. Some networks even cluster server so that more that one server can share a database of information. The component that handles these requests is called the redirector. and to the server. Data Protection As we already discussed. Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task. Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access. However. out onto the network. This 40 Specialized Solutions. This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location.

called drive designators. It does not need to know anything about networks. The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server. If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus. or if they need to be redirected to the server. which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer. etc.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) provides for load balancing of the server resources as well as fault tolerance if one server were to fail. Basically. It does this by assigning drive letters. Specialized Solutions. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs. If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server. it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests. 41 . This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer. to resources. Inc.

deleted. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. With NDS’ single point logon. routing. which is a Windows-based utility.12 and 4. and volumes is also handled with NDS. management. name service. The earliest version (2. Version 4. which is a DOS-based utility.5 is now on the market. servers. NetWare Directory Services (NDS) NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. Versions 3. NetWare Security The purpose of a network may be to share resources.EXE. but it is losing market share to Microsoft servers every year. NetWare is administered through NetADMIN. time. Novell NetWare The NetWare operating system has been around for a long time. or changed.2) was designed to operate on 286 machines. messaging. Trustee rights regulate which directories and files a user can access. and file and print services.11 is called IntranetWare. It may be installed in either the client or server format. NetWare provides more than adequate network security by using a combination of approaches. In the past. non-shareable. . NetWare is based upon the industry standard X500 directory architecture. It is Novell’s push to gain market share and is a way of creating an Intranet. as well as what kind of access they have. copied. or Pentium machines. NetWare File Services The NetWare file server hard drive may be mapped to a client and the client machine will recognize the drive as a logical drive and be able to access it as it would any other drive in the computer. Version 6. shared. • NetWare’s popularity is due largely to its ability to provide services across multioperating system environments. which is like the Internet but within a network or company. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. In this section. and account restrictions. Organization of network resources such as users. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. or through NWADMIN. a user may logon from anywhere on the network and gain access with all of their assigned rights and privileges intact. Inc. First. Directory and file attributes are used to set the types of access for a file or directory such as viewed.11 operate on 386. 486. groups. password. 42 Specialized Solutions. It is a reliable operating system that provides performance and security. we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. but there will always be data in any network to which access must be restricted. web-publishing. it was the most popular server operating system. login security provides authentication and verification of user name.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use.

Inc. The file server and the print server can be the same computer. 43 . or directly to the network. Print requests are first routed to the file server.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Print Services NetWare Print Services can support up to 256 printers. as well as others. a workstation. NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS) MHS may be installed on any server and configured to be a network wide E-mail system. next to the print server. NetWare also provides a method of using simple commands to send messages to other users on the network. It is compatible with E-mail programs such as Novell’s GroupWise and Microsoft Mail. and finally to the printer. NetWare Minimum Requirements The following are the minimum installation requirements as specified by Novell for installing their server software: Specialized Solutions. except an individual workstation. You can send messages to individuals or to groups very easily. You can even send messages to everyone in a group. Printers may be attached to the server.

1 or later (Standard or Extended Edition) and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 OS/2 2.11 or OS/2 Warp and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 Macintosh 6.1 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS MS Windows 3.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 5: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Pentium Class or higher 64 MB 550 MB 386 or higher 16 MB 105 MB 386 or higher 6 MB 30 MB 286 or higher 2.5 MB 20 MB Client Software The client software may be installed on any computer running any of the following: • • • • • 44 DOS 3.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 4.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 3.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for Macintosh OS Specialized Solutions. Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Version 2.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS OS/2 1.

Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management. Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. but Windows NT contains services such as NWLink and Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW) that allow them to work together effectively. Full Control. Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software). the Windows servers may be configured to store each workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups. Specialized Solutions. The advanced security features of Windows are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT . Windows combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows . 45 . or No Access may be set on the directory. You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows network. Files in Windows may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network. its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows Servers. The attributes such as Read. As we’ve already discussed. but it does have several advantages. you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Interoperability As the word implies. and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier. The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of Microsoft’s server/workstation technology. Windows File Services Like NetWare. Change. The NT Kernel. Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments. which as at the base of all Microsoft’s servers. The newest of these server operating systems. Inc. Unlike NetWare. This type is performed by each workstation or server publicly sharing a directory on the network. Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version. It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories. The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of Windows security features. another security method must be utilized. actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2). offer even more advantages and stronger security than their predecessors. With this method. interoperability simply means the ability of an operating system to operate with other systems. Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems. Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. Problems do occur when trying to operate within the Windows NT domain. The NetWare client can be installed with almost any other operating system. NetWare is extremely efficient at operating with other systems. Today.File Allocation Table) during installation.

Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network. Inc. permissions. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer. This trend continued with the latest Windows server operating systems (Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. 46 Specialized Solutions. Workstation Service is the redirector service. especially with the latest Windows Server 2003 family. Windows Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in a Windows network. Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene. and user rights. you are given the option to share it to the network.) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer. . A domain is simply a group of users. Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in the domain. computers. Server Service provides access to network resources. Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible.. Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions).. Remember. At least one domain controller is assigned to each domain. (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows Server Security Security was a major concern in the development of Windows Servers. Even if you are installing a local printer. and resources with a shared security database. A domain controller is a server that maintains and manages all accounts. Windows Network Services There are many services available in Windows to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user. The following is a list of services included with Windows Server software to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between Microsoft and NetWare. Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service. Microsoft uses domains to control access and authenticate users and computers. more than one printer can be installed to any machine.

DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. It can be installed on the Microsoft client to allow it to connect the Netware server directly. UNIX is a Specialized Solutions. It allows Novell NDS computers to be managed just as Microsoft domain controllers.. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System. Inc.well serve. which govern what users can see and do on the network. This software is not included with Netware but can be purchased separately. Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 is the latest in the line of Microsoft server operating systems. It provides all of the advantages of Windows 2000 Server. Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory. Previous Microsoft server operating systems were built to serve and then had security features to protect them. This is necessary because all Microsoft client workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point.0) than the previous version in Windows 2000 (IIS 5. Installing GSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. it has more “locked down” security templates that make it less likely that users will try to go around the security. In fact. FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access Microsoft file and print services. In addition. Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to Microsoft’s domain controller. when using Windows Server 2003 you typically must remove or configure security boundaries in order to get the server to. In contrast. and is. It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives.0). used as such. Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an Microsoft domain and the NetWare server. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the Microsoft service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server.. Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be. but it adds many features that are designed exclusively for security. Windows Server 2003 is the first Windows server that was built primarily with security in mind. Installing CSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. 47 . Windows Server 2003 offers a more secure Web Server (IIS 6. Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to Windows. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional. It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators.

UNIX. TCP/IP. Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system. UNIX is a multi-tasking. It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms. Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows. Like Novell NetWare. StreetTalk provides directory. At its inception. security.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide bulky operating system. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources. A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users. VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments. It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system. to convert the UNIX host into a file server. in fact the software is available for a free download. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. Inc. . These terminals are not stand-alone computers. Software is available. The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS. and many other features associated with an OS. OS/2. as well as others. VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top. Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX. but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. Because of its open source nature. it was an extremely popular network operating system. Linux is open source. multi-user. The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. as well as file and printer sharing. 48 Specialized Solutions. At one time. which means that it can be changed by a software programmer. many variations of Linux have been created over the years such as Caldera and Red Hat. however. and messaging services. A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. general-purpose operating system.

and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984. both at home and on the go. they developed what later became known as the mouse and the first GUI display. Inc. The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction with the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book). but users also use them personally. In conjunction with Xerox. Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production. Specialized Solutions. 49 .

There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system. In a peer-to-peer network. Banyan VINES. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. Study through the chapter again if you need to. Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic. The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security. It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today. The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly. (UNIX. Inc. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems. Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. 50 Specialized Solutions. such as Novell NetWare and Windows server operating systems. etc. A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare). In a server-based network. Today. the most popular network operating systems also function as the network operating system. the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network).). centralization of administration. an application is unaware that it is working from a network. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer. and data backups. With the redirector. The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely). Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. and at least be familiar with others. Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems. the client computers rely on the server for their resources.

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS)

KEYWORDS Exercise
Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition

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Review Questions
1. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system?

2.

What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking?

3.

What is the purpose of the redirector?

4.

NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments.

5.

What is NDS?

6.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5?

7.

Define interoperability.

8.

Unlike NetWare, Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one.

9.

What is NTFS?

10.

What is a domain?

11.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server?

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Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) 12. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.

13.

What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system?

14.

What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984?

15.

What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system?

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Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards

Chapter 3- The OSI Model and Communication Standards
In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, what it is and its primary function. You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles each function, and which devices function at each layer. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam.

The Seven Layers of Network Communication
The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. As a result, some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other, and how they will communicate if they are using different languages. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit; when not to transmit; and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected; how the data will flow (at what speed); and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications.

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The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you should notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers, depending upon their functions.

Seven Layers of the OSI Model
The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network. These services include file, print, and messaging services. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer. The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. This is not the actual application or program, simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail, transfer files across the network, or access a

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The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence. The network redirector operates at this layer. etc. This layer is responsible for establishing. Sessions may be established using simplex. As its name implies. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. This layer is also responsible for data compression. Inc. and when. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh. The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them. it will break the data into packets. If Specialized Solutions. and ending connections. interpreting graphics commands. Each connection is called a session. and prepare it for its journey. This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local. The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. half-duplex. managing. or full-duplex communication. The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network. The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. and error free.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards network database. and un-packaging the data for transport. 57 .) character set conversion. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network. add any addressing information and error correction information. without duplication. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. It provides a logical connection between the two devices. they will be combined. it presents data to the application layer. bit ordering. These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. protocol conversion. The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure. or receive. In short. Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. if the packets are too small. and data encryption. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer. For example.

Connectionless protocols are faster. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. Should an error occur. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer. all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly. the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. segmentation information and routing information. 58 Specialized Solutions. This controls network congestion. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination. however. checked for errors. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks. Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols.) It also includes control information such as frame type. It receives a packet from the Network layer and packages it into what is called a frame. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. Once the data is reassembled. it will retransmit after a specified amount of time. When you are using a connectionless protocol. The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission. For example. stripped of its addressing information. they will be broken into smaller packets. it will be un-packed. This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide they are too large. This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side.518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. error free manner. Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards. UDP is a connectionless protocol. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses. delivery of packets is not guaranteed. . Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. Routers and NICs function on this layer. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers. When the data is received. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. In an ideal world. When you are using a connection-oriented protocol. Inc. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets.

It identifies a line protocol. the data is sent out on the wire to all computers. The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. Although quite rare.2 standard defines how this takes place. They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers. In a broadcast network such as Ethernet. the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers. MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized. The IEEE 802. such as SDLC. it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer. it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. 59 . NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame. The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer. In this way. It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). If it is not. the destination computer will not send an acknowledgement. It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not. The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address. The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. and Demand Priority. The way that a network shares the channel is called its carrier access method. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium. (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host). Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers. The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer. it will automatically resend the packet. The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. Inc. When the sending computer does not receive and acknowledgement. Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel. The following is an example of a MAC address: Specialized Solutions. If the calculation does not check out. Token Passing.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards In addition. it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer. then it discards the data. The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards. The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame. It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link. This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). If it is. TCP/IP is somewhat “self healing”.

synchronizes the data. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer. Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model. and determines when and how data may be transmitted. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets. 60 Specialized Solutions.iso. visit www. Switches. and what each one will do. it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals. Repeaters. hubs and transceivers. Inc. The last 3 bytes (35FD-AB) are the Device ID that is unique to the associated Vendor ID. Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer. . Bridges operate at the Data Link layer. The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames. It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium. For example.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 00-00-13-35-FD-AB The first 3 bytes (00-00-13) identify the manufacturer of the card. It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Note: For more information on the OSI Model. Point to point communication is often used between switches and routers on a network.ch/. an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable. Multipoint communication is the process of one device communicating with multiple devices on a network. data work at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. It identifies the NIC. Point-topoint communication is the process of one device communicating with one other device . The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses. all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model.

Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. 61 .

The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. . As the packet travels up through the layers. (Remember. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message. In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate. in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. For example: You send a request for services to the server. 62 Specialized Solutions. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers.) The request is in the form of a packet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task. You are communicating directly with the Application layer. Inc. In addition to reading the headers and performing the instructions. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted by you and the request is considered processed. the process of moving through the layers is reversed. protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. and provides services to the layer directly above it. each layer is also responsible for adding or removing headers so that the data is ready to be interpreted by the next layer. This is called a protocol stack. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions. These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task. In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer. the Application layer is not the actual application. each layer reads and performs the tasks specified in its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. or suite. it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. over the network medium. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer. When the destination computer receives the data. The Physical layer does not add a header. Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer. Headers contain instructions for tasks that need to be performed at that level.

but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Signals or Bits or Data Stream into Frames Frames into Packets Frames or Datagrams into Segments Segments into data Data Data Data into Data Files or Messages Specialized Solutions. Because of this. they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers. Inc. The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers. 63 .

you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model. you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed. the OSI Model is not a protocol. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program. Inc. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model. This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. Also. Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer. This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol. . In fact. By relating various protocols to the OSI model. Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers. we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. it would not match. The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 64 Specialized Solutions.

Without them we would not have as many software or hardware packages available to us. 65 . Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task. The specifications describe how components are supposed to function. because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system. This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate. it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers. These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments. The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer. Specialized Solutions. Inc. you do need to remember the different layers and the tasks for which each layer is responsible. etc.

and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network. This weakening is known as attenuation. Repeaters. Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols. you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer. etc. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X. Inc. are going to be used when they write a program. These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change. . Data Link layer and the Network layer. A repeater amplifies these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs. routers. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices. as well as where in the OSI model they operate.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT 66 Specialized Solutions. Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs. Routers are responsible for using logical addresses to move packets from one network to another and deliver them to a host. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself. bridges. Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model.

but usually in the Application layer). which can be used to connect an IBM mainframe computer to a Microsoft network. If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). Router tables can be entered manually by a network administrator or they can be dynamically updated using routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF. if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI. It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers. Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Each router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it. 67 . Specialized Solutions. A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols or even different technologies. A popular example is an SNA Gateway. Inc. However. the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers.10 802.standards.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards. but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible. 68 Specialized Solutions. . a little surfing might be in order. visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www.11 802. These standards were prepared before the OSI standards.2 802. This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started.9 802. The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802.3 802.12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN.5 802.6 802. Inc. 100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards.7 802. and if you would like more information on them.8 802.ieee.4 802. Inc.1 802. (IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs. February 1980).

Inc. 69 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions.

The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC. which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver. and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another). However. The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. the network. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments. Inc. which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols. and hence. Network 70 Specialized Solutions. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp. . the NIC also needs a device driver to function. Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks. NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC. It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver. Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer.

Connection-Oriented vs. Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication. For example. the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. Routable vs. In connection-oriented communication. but connection-oriented is more reliable. if TCP/IP is bound first. Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable. In a connectionless communication. and in full. Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. 71 . It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department. You have no confirmation (unless he calls you back) that he received the message. In a connectionless scenario. In today’s LANs however. Connectionless communication is faster. Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless. Protocol Binding In order to function. it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions. This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data. If that fails. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. Inc. Specialized Solutions. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on his answering machine. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function.) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received. it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected using a router. Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent. There is no guarantee that the message was delivered.

72 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X. As a networking professional. Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks. you should be familiar with these protocol stacks and you should know the OSI layer in which their components function. It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable. .25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet). Inc.

At the Presentation Specialized Solutions. DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer. 73 • • • • • • . It chooses the route with the fewest hops. This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite. (If data must cross a router SPX is used. Inc. NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model. In addition to hop count. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination. AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – Manages file sharing at the Application layer AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – Provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer. It has been modified over the years and now contains the following components: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces. Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – Provides transmission of packets across a network. and handles file and print services. This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – Provides Application layer services for Macintosh. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. IPX/ SPX This protocol is the proprietary protocol that was developed by Novell for Netware servers and clients. this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP. It resides in the Network layer. It resides in the Network layer. NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol. LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers. It is a routable protocol. regardless of speed.) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol. It uses the MAC address and is non-routable.

It is also layered on IP like TCP. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP. Inc.1 and later installs TCP/IP by default. • Many companies use Netware with the TCP/IP protocol stack. No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names. TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol. It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide layer it handles data translation. 74 Specialized Solutions. At the Transport layer it handles sequencing. SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol. SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems. It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with. TCP and IP. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. . Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent. while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network. APPC supports Transport and Session layer services. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers. so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary. and connection-oriented error control services. flow control. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead. At the Session layer it establishes and controls sessions. Novell Netware 5. The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking). • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server.

75 . NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. Inc. It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability. It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources. instead of only the number of hops. ARP keeps a table of corresponding IP and MAC addresses that have been resolved in the previous 10 minutes. ARP will add the information to its table for future use. Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely. but in addition. It is an Application layer protocol. it will broadcast on the local subnet to determine the MAC address of the computer with the associated IP address. OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). If you do not need to use passwords. Specialized Solutions. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. Telnet can also be used for remote configuration of servers and network devices such as routers and switches. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond to the broadcast by sending its MAC address. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP is responsible for resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses. RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function. then TFTP would be advisable over FTP. It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond. It resides in the Network layer. The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. without regard to speed. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. ARP will first check its table and if a matching address is not found. this is also a Network layer protocol. It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP. but in reverse. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP. making it connectionless.

It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers. which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines. it is out of the administrator’s control. Inc. packets are re-examined to determine whether they are damaged. which is the main reason that it is non-routable.25 is also an equipment specification. Instead. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end.25 a very slow but very reliable protocol. It is a DEC protocol used for interactive.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced). XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs. the X. The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment). This is the host on an X.25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud. Data goes in and comes out. asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN. Because of this. It uses standard telephone lines and switches. LAT (Local Area Transport) LAT does not have a Network layer. This means that routes change as conditions change.25 X. In addition. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable.25 network. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet. It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP. DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model.25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization. This protocol is not used for data communication. This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. but in between. only printing functions. This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits. It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer. making X. Data is routed via the best connection at a given time. The second part of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment). At each stop. This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use. X. . The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs. X. 76 Specialized Solutions. This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions. it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide X.

but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks. easy to configure and small. Inc. It may be used with bridges.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model. which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems. 77 . It is fast. Specialized Solutions.

and other protocols as well as TCP/IP. it detects congested areas and links that are down. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. . PPP supports IPX. and notifies upper layers to route around them. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands. SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. It also supports data encryption. RPC is used by the redirector to 78 Specialized Solutions. or DHCP. file transfers. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations. It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. DHCP. Inc. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. It handles session establishment. Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. NetBEUI. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Other Protocols The following are other protocols with which you should be familiar: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. administration. This database is typically dynamic in today’s modern networks. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures. ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. NetBEUI. SLIP is not used as much as PPP. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely over the Internet. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer. Like a traffic report on your radio. It maintains a database and provides hostname to IP address resolution. and connection release. It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. NWLink and NetBEUI. but it can also be modified manually by the network administrator. It does not support IPX. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications.

Specialized Solutions. Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text. Inc. It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards determine if a resource is local or on the network. 79 .

For example. we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter. . you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three. It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test. The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional. if you can get to the server through a router. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other. Inc. 80 Specialized Solutions.

Inc. 81 . Keyword 802.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11. 7. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. What is the function of the Application Layer? 9. Inc. 5. and ending connections? 12. 3. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. Which OSI layer is responsible for the MAC address? 8. 10. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. managing. Who developed the OSI model? 2. . What is a MAC address? 13. 6. 4. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? 00-01-A5-D3-B4-01 82 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions – Chapter 3 1.

Will this work? Why or Why not? Specialized Solutions. 83 . Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. What is the function of a Gateway? 18. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. 23. Inc. Describe protocol binding. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 22. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 19. 21. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 15. Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 14. without duplication and error free? 16. Which is faster. What are they? 17. What are NDIS and ODI? 20.

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There are several cabling options. 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology. which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector. and other hardware and peripherals. Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. which we will address here. Intel. It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC. and how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter. Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet). along with connectors. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation. network adapter cards. a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 . It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter). There are numerous kinds of cable. It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable. but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand. Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential. Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install. Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid. Specialized Solutions. Xerox). It can transmit voice. and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. Inc. How to properly configure and use network adapter cards. and the hardware aspect of network operations. it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. Because it is shielded. 85 . The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. video. or DIX (Digital. Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist.Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. It is not often used in today’s networks. but may still be used in some temporary installations such as a construction trailer (although wireless would be a much more likely alternative).

Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. Inc. 86 Specialized Solutions. it has been replaced by twisted-pair cable and fiber optic cable. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. . it is not as easy to install. In the past. In today’s networks. As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses. Thicknet was used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks. They are specified based on their impedance. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. It is expressed in ohms. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers. BNC Cable Connectors BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. as well as how they are attached to the cables. It is attached directly to the NIC but allows network signal to flow straight through it as well as to the NIC.

Inc. A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium. The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function. Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on. This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable. The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors). 87 . Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver. and is used to connect the device to the network. BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. One of the terminators must be grounded. N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet. It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection. and an AUI cable.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together. Specialized Solutions. It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver.

This types of connections have been largely replaced by newer cable methods such as twisted-pair and fiber optic cable. Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today. Inc. this was time-consuming and it absorbed signal so it was not the common approach. Instead. These clamp-on transceivers were often referred to as vampire taps because they utilized sharp teeth that punctured the cable to make the connection. The twist helps 88 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver. It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types. There are four pair strands in most twisted-pair cables. . most networking professionals used a clamp-on transceiver. This cable type consists of insulated pair strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another.

There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP). The following is a summary of UTP cables. Currently. The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per meter in each pair of wires. Since it is unshielded. 89 . This results in less sensitivity to EMI. Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 1000 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM and Gigabit Ethernet Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters. the faster the signal can be sent through the wires without crosstalk. Twisted Pair Cabling Specialized Solutions.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. Inc. UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular. Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling. there are six categories. The tighter the twist. UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs. it is more sensitive to EMI. Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps.

This is an excellent way to organize network cables. They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 10 Gbps . An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger. The front of the patch panel contains RJ-45 ports (a port is a female counterpart for the RJ-45 jack). Inc. Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium. Wall plates are typically used to make the connection to the computers themselves.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors. Wall Plates for RJ-45 90 Specialized Solutions. This gives the network administrator a greater degree of flexibility and provides fault tolerance for the network cabling system. . The RJ-45 jack’s position can therefore be changed from patch panel to patch panel to use a different set of cables for the same connection. The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location. RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector. The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a special tool punch down tool to make the proper connection by stripping the insulation from the wire without breaking the wire. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations. These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. An RJ-11 jack has four connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight.

. Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber. it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength. IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks. It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). which is easier to install. However. but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking.) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable. the data cannot be tapped or stolen. . The following is a summary of IBM Types: Specialized Solutions. Because of this feature. fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances. 91 . Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic). which reduces signal loss. it is therefore not as common as UTP. One strand transmits and one receives. They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP. IBM cabling is based on its Type. It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI. as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types. Inc. (The core can also be made up of plastic.

Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Not Defined Two 62. . Contains a shield for use under carpets. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications. These are very rarely used in today’s modern networks. IBM Connector 92 Specialized Solutions. The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors. Plenum grade. Six twisted pairs. Inc. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables.5/125-micron multimode fibers. An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet).

Specialized Solutions. Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter. 93 .

Inc. For example. • Simplex vs. Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum. . PVC grade cable is less expensive than Plenum grade cable but it gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned. • Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above. PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. 94 Specialized Solutions. the wire thickness increases. Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. Both you and the party you are talking to can talk and listen at the same time. For example. Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions. It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing). For example. but cannot send a message. fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. If this type of cable were used in the plenum. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cabling Terms The following are terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. a pager can receive a message. The signal flow is uni-directional. Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways. Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. these fumes would circulate throughout a building in the event of a fire. As the AWG wire number decreases. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire. The signal flow is bidirectional. Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions. Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps) or gigabits per second (Gbps). (send and receive) but only one at a time. An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time. This space is used to circulate air through a building. Because this space does circulate air through a building.Baseband vs.

) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals In contrast. It is therefore specifically designed to be used in these circulation areas. such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well.) Will the cable be installed in “noisy” areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting. how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners.) Specialized Solutions. A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling. shielded cable or fiber optic cable might be more appropriate. 95 . Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives. the flexibility of the medium should be considered. local fire codes will need to be addressed. Inc. For example. Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network.

cost are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network. fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small. On the other hand. last but not least. . Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance. Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 96 Specialized Solutions. Inc.) If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure. attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor. there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective.) Transmission speeds and.

The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses. The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium.) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port. We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later. Analog data has an infinite number of possible states. Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves. or 0’s (off). handles network addressing. It makes the physical connection to the network. Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side. Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). Network cabling moves data in a single data stream. Because these paths are side-by-side. (And of course to translate it back again. are also known as Network Adapter Cards. 97 . Specialized Solutions. Today. most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit. Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs. This is known as serial communication. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking. and controls the flow of data on the network. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. data is moved along in groups. Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. which constantly vary in one or more values. NICs are used to connect the computer to the network. Inc. This is known as parallel communication. Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time.

When this occurs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique MAC address. Inc. Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC. If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed. How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs. . Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC. This makes transferring data much faster. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. the two cards start sending and receiving data. The time intervals between data chunks. DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU. Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC. The amount of time between confirmations. This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the 98 Specialized Solutions. The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer. The speed of the transmission. Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer. Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium. they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. the NIC may need to be configured.

Other cards will need to be configured manually. See Appendix A for common address assignments. This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address. certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned. DMA channels are used by devices that frequently need access to large amounts of memory. DMA Channel Configuration of Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels is similar to IRQs. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by a device. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that typically no two devices can use the same interrupt. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. The good news is that unlike an IRQ. Specialized Solutions. such as: IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. in this case the NIC. these devices can access the memory that they need without interrupting the processor. The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU. This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. With a DMA channel. Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. The device is constantly listening to this channel for commands from the processor. These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor. 99 . Only devices like NIC cards that need this type of memory access are assigned DMA channels. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line. Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. Inc. The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. not all devices need one. In practice. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses. and some are set using software. Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings.

They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable. Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC. Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC. If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. 100 Specialized Solutions. Inc. or you may have to configure it manually. or both). . RJ-45. Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards. Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter. Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer. The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required.

The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus. Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers. Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus. but can be a 64-bit bus. Specialized Solutions. They are generally 32-bit buses. The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus. Today most buses are either EISA or PCI. 101 . They are also called PC-Card Buses. Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much. including network connectivity. Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus. Inc. With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer.

Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. 102 Specialized Solutions. but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. thereby improving network performance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Performance Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance. This type of card is expensive. thereby bypassing the CPU. Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data. Without this feature. Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data. Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data. Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer. Inc. This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus. it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally. the NIC would be a bottleneck. RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed. . The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks. Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU.

With some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down.Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking. This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. a user can access the network from anywhere in the building. Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly. – hubs). This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. Inc. Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. Extended Local Area Networks . Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems. • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective. With wireless systems. Mobile Computing . People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home. 103 .e. A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks. For example. or on the road.Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs. the office. a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings. Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations such as ocean dwelling oil platforms. but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN. They function just like other access points (i. They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. but through the use of an infrared or radio medium. making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. Specialized Solutions. Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems. Wireless networks use wireless access points (WAPs) to “connect” the network devices to each other.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling. Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created. Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared You use infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control. These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources. and because the transmissions are tightly focused. Infrared networks typically broadcast at about 10 Mbps. Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference. they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping. Inc. such as windows. The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet. This involves using infrared (below Red) light to carry signals to a receiver. . Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • 104 Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint Specialized Solutions.

the signal is beamed towards a central unit. or direct sequence modulation. The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping. but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. until it reaches the receiver. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. Specialized Solutions. which then routes the signal appropriately. uses broadband technology. Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. as the name implies. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. Inc. Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. etc. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems. which are then transmitted over separate frequencies.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time. the message is broken into parts (called chips). The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps. It does. ceilings. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint. 105 . In the direct sequence modulation method. In the hopping method. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. however.

or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts. The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication. Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances. Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally. It is used for line-of-sight communication. . mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network. Inc. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities. Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings. and only the destination device can receive and read the packet. There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite. These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information. 106 Specialized Solutions.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Specialized Solutions. 107 . Inc.

and controls data flow over the network. You should know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. As a networking professional. you should know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type. There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial. we took a look at the future. This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network. Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet. etc. it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals. Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). receives. and Microwave. Laser. Wireless networking is the trend of the future. Radio. Finally. RJ-45. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. The four basic wireless types are: Infrared. In addition. transmits. . and Fiber-Optic. 108 Specialized Solutions. Twisted Pair. it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks. AUI. As a network professional. It prepares. After discussing at network cabling we then took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 109 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Inc. Definition .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair 110 Specialized Solutions.

Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword Vampire Tap Definition Specialized Solutions. 111 .

What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9. What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5. What is the most popular of the cable types? 10. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2. . What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. What is the least expensive of the cable types? 112 Specialized Solutions. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4. How is a vampire tap connected? 6. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. What is the most expensive cable type? 13.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable.

15. What does AWG stand for and what is it?

16. Describe baseband.

17. Describe broadband.

18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication?

19. What is the function of a network adapter card?

20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available?

21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card?

22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network?

23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types?

24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network?

25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally?

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards
In previous chapters, we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed, along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets, or frames. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. In this chapter, we will discover how Ethernet works, as well as how Token-ring networks function. AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter. After completing this chapter, you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture, while not as popular as Ethernet, are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers, in this case, over a network. In Chapter 3, you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite, IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture, SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk

The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols; thus, they do not map directly to the OSI Model. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. Specialized Solutions, Inc. 115

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information, handle addressing, and check for errors. Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments.

A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card, also known as the network interface card (NIC), in order for it to be used with a network computer. In some instances, as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX, two protocols may be bound to one card. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC.

Access Methods
In a network, multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. If two or more computers were to send data at the same time, the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing

• Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free, it will send data. While there is data traveling on the cable, no computer will transmit data. Occasionally, however, two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. Naturally, the more users who are connected to a network, the denser network traffic becomes. Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method.

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. It is, however, the access method that works best with wireless connections; since the wireless channel can be verified before the data is sent. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. A token (a special type of packet) is circulated around the ring from computer to computer. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network, it must wait until it possesses the token. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. Data is transmitted in frames. The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. The trailer includes error control information. When the computer is ready, the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted, the frame would be resent. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. Because only one computer at a time may transmit, this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions. (Some more recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer, router, switch, or bridge. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes, addresses, and links are functioning. Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer, hub, and destination computer, instead of broadcasts over the entire network. Because of the cabling method used with this access method, (four pairs Specialized Solutions, Inc. 117

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of wires are used, which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time, but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously, the one with the highest priority is serviced first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests.

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Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission. Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data. if there is a transmission error.) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. Error checking information such as Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) information. Also.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Network Communications (Frames and Packets) As we’ve discussed previously. (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably. All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. but we will use the term packets. Inc. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files. Data files tend to be quite large. The data to be transmitted. or messages. and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. Specialized Solutions. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. Computer control data such as service requests and commands. data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium. information. 119 . only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection. The destination address of the receiving computer.

Inc. the calculation is run again. If the results are the same. Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network. the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit. If there is a discrepancy. the trailer contains the error checking information. . The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted. usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet. CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet. When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer. the source and destination addresses. Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission. Depending upon the network. packets can be various sizes. Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. Usually. A Packet 120 Specialized Solutions. and clocking information. the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact.

Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Specialized Solutions. 121 .

However. It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method. Ethernet (802. like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell). It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. Not all railroads are the same (some are electric. as addressed previously. Inc. There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards. It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2). Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802. Thicknet coaxial (10Base5). some are wide gauge. These provide the standards for the railroads.94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable.2) The Logical Link Control layer. The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL 122 Specialized Solutions. in a railroad. The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements. Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication. . or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT). and typically transmits at 10 Mbps. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology). data (in this case passengers and freight) is moved in various cars. There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points. but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data).3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. The original version was a 2. Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. The standards define the means of communications. but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol. some are diesel. and some are narrow gauge).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Standards Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network. it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data). we are going to look at different standards for networks.3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs. Logical Link Control (802. In this section. For example.

5 meters. The maximum number of nodes per network 100. While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling.) This is referred to as the “5-4-3 Rule”. to name a few. and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated. BNC connectors and a transceiver. And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling.5 meters. These applications include video. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system. is 185 meters. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. The maximum number of nodes per network 90. however. The minimum distance between nodes is .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps. If the segment must exceed this limitation. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30. 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable. 123 . 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. repeaters can be used for longer distances. The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters. it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. document and image storage. (There may be five segments but only three may be populated.5 meters. 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable. The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet Specialized Solutions. 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors. Inc. it is most commonly created with UTP cable. The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs. meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2. The actual maximum segment length. 10BaseT uses the star topology. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology. The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters. The minimum distance between nodes is 2. 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications. As its name implies. and computer aided design. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. indicating its maximum segment length.

It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology. It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet) 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard. When you see any of these terms. It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN. to some degree. ATM competes. 124 Specialized Solutions.12 is the standard that defines this technology. using the CSMA/CD access method. (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment. Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon. and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps. Inc. although copper can be used with much shorter distances. . VG. Because of its intense speed. and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards. and AnyLAN. It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. they are referring to the same thing. the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable. with Gigabit Ethernet. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable. the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs). and the longest cable length is 250 meters. but that will be referred to later in this book. The IEEE specification 802. 100BaseVG. Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks. There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know.

by joining with either a router or a bridge. Inc. It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance. Ethernet also works in the UNIX environment.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP. Specialized Solutions. 125 .

Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame. The Token Ring access method. A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub. This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data.5 standard. The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1. Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it. 2. IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984. more than the cable design. The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token. Actually. and 3). The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame. It is not as popular as Ethernet. This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802. Like Ethernet. How it Works Basically. The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes. The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable. 126 Specialized Solutions. Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished). Inc. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token. Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. but is still used today.5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. it is known as a data frame. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring. is what sets Token Ring apart. . and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. While the token is in use by a computer to send data. it uses the baseband technology. Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer.

The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon. the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted. Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful. It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected. Message This is the data or file to be transmitted. . called the active monitor. Beaconing In a Token Ring environment. As each new computer comes online. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected. the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. This computer. if there were errors.5 standards say it travels clockwise. while IBM says counter-clockwise. Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring. Inc. The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring. the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network. The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. 127 Specialized Solutions. The IEEE 802. Or. as well as its own address. The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. To accomplish this task. After encoding the data frame. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor. The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address.

it is only about 45 meters. Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. Using STP. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails. The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters. each ring can connect up to 260 computers. When a computer is connected. Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable. but types 1 and 2 may also be used. Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. . The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network.5 meters. The Type 128 Specialized Solutions. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. just as in other networks that use a hub. The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2. In a pure token passing environment. Using UTP. This hub is known by a few names. Each node is connected to the hub via a cable. Using STP. IBM states that it is only 46 meters. Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters. the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. as there are no male and female ends. but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters. Inc. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. Using UTP. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network.

Type 6 may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub. 129 . hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments. Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub. Therefore. Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters. All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures. care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software. A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. Patch panels are used to organize patch cables. AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment. Specialized Solutions. Using a pair of repeaters. Inc. therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers.

AppleShare also provides a print server. Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers. EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. Apple has always been open to third-party development. This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. Inc. mainframe computers. and even some UNIX computers. If it is not being used by another computer. EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable.5 Standard) environment. It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings. This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses. the device assigns itself an address. As such. Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones. it is very inexpensive to initiate.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. LocalTalk performance is rather limited. . UTP. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare. by using zones. LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP. A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it. it will store it to use each time it goes online. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer. or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address. TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. 130 Specialized Solutions.

5 Mbps. Instead of the token traveling around a ring. ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. ARCNet transmits data in packets. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters. this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order. or smart. Specialized Solutions. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors. These packets contain the destination address. Just like other token-passing access method architectures. but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable. Obviously. It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology. It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2. If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data. has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps. 131 . This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology. the token is passed in numerical order. If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other. the source address and up to 508 bytes of data. called ARCNet Plus. the token still passes in numerical order. A later version. the maximum cable distance is 244 meters.4 standards (Token Bus LAN). ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling. These hubs may be passive. Inc. If using an active hub in a Star topology.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology. a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data. active. but it can be adequately charted to the 802. ARCNet utilizes hubs.

The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well. Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range. Inc.11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology. Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four. 132 Specialized Solutions. generally). Speeds up to 54 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific).11) IEEE 802. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802.

It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. and the Trailer. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. Therefore. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD. the source and destination addresses. It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future. go back and review the chapter again. If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data. and 10BaseT. and clocking information.3 standards. the Data. Inc. Be sure that you understand how this architecture works. 133 . Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network. it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. Packets will include information to identify the source address. 10Base5. which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting. Specialized Solutions. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet. destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted. CSMA/CA. it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method. Packets consist of three components: the Header. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances. AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring. Managing network data is all about traffic control.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. but as a networking professional you will encounter them. etc. which is where the error checking calculation is located. Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames).

Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Definition 134 Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. .

Inc. 135 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Token Ring TokenTalk Trailer Zones Definition Specialized Solutions.

What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. Inc. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6. 3. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 136 Specialized Solutions. . What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11. How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7. Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4. 5. What are the three primary access methods? 2. CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods.

14. 19. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? Specialized Solutions. Describe a MIC connector. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. 137 . Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13. What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17. What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18. 22. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20. What is a SMAU? 21. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. Inc.

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Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks. We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows. how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them. You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. you are not designing for yourself. The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation. There are two things that you will need to know. your design will not work for them. etc. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. we will consider hardware compatibility. in many cases. you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. The size of the company and the portion of the network affected. Even if this network is your own. and goals. whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever indebted to you. dislikes. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office. The customer’s likes. etc? If. you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. this is a Macintosh-based company. (demographics). This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. for example. Most importantly. 139 . (If not. address. The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. However. who has them. The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. rather than a client’s. For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network. The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have. Finally. are there any printers or scanners. As a network professional. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. Specialized Solutions. pay attention to details.

So. Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources. For example. With this information in hand. print services. A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. at this time. You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility. The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later. or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale). you are not documenting your network. Inc. or as large as 8 GB. only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network. you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB. Once you collect this information. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint. 140 Specialized Solutions. Remember. if the file is compressed. This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components. or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps. . or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. you must get a clear definition of goals of the network. prepare a design document. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. files services. Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. etc. There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available.

141 . Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t. In a peer-to-peer network. you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it. If you do not have this information go back and get it. The commitment of management and users. As long as you have the original software disk (CD). you will have no problem. The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. may cause problems in the future. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. The most prominent are simplicity and cost. if you have a printer connected to your computer. you will need to start making some decisions. Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement. as generally it is not installed during a standard installation. Inc. The wrong choice now. They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. The first is the type of network you will be designing. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network. Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future).” That is. Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server. all computers are equal. . Also. This sharing is on a directory level. Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. You may have to add network cards and cabling. Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing. The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future. This means that every 142 Specialized Solutions. This can range from none to very high. First. they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network). but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. For example. You may need to install the software. Likewise. The level of security required.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. not all nodes may need the same level of security. Skill level of the network users.

only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. etc. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. The more sophisticated the network. the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. In a strict peer-topeer network. 143 . if employees need remote access. must less the workings of a network. 24-hours per day. Before you can use any resource. the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution. When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). such as your printer. all network resources are usually centralized. Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. and lots of memory. the network must operate transparent to them. While there are many advantages. instead of backing up individual workstations. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. In a server-based network. In large networks. This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations. As for size. You can connect more workstations. Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security. This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older. server-based networks are scaleable. and expand as your needs expand. In small networks. slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server.Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation. Remember. Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. administration can be a Specialized Solutions. have high-power processor. this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts. Inc. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added. Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. Since these computers are larger. a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network. if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. For these people. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. Last but not least. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer). Also. The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network. In a peer-to-peer situation. information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. is another advantage of a server-based network. the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. you will also need to consider the disadvantages. they will also be using your processor to do their printing. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. Also.

In some cases.255 255.0. If all else fails. let us define the difference between the terms public and private network.0. A public network would be the Internet.168.255.0 -172.0. in others it could go either way. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design. there are specific addresses that are filtered by the routers at the backbone of the Internet.0. Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult.0 255. you can use any address that you want to use inside of your own network and behind your firewalls.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified network professional. The only problem is that if your firewall were to come down.255. stick with it and move forward. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer). since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN. get more. present each case to the client and let them make the final decision.192. Once you have made this decision.0.255. If you are not sure you have enough information.0.255 172. For this reason. then you might have an address conflict with another entity on the Internet. with open access to the global community. .0. For this reason. Inc. 10.255. which would limit its access to those outside of the company. Actually.255. Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each. it is highly recommended that you use these addresses for your private addressing.32.0 144 Specialized Solutions.0 .255. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information. The use of these addresses will completely prevent the address conflict issue. When you are sitting on the fence.16.0 -10.168. A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet.0. the answer will be very obvious.0 255.0 192. Public and Private networks In addition.

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The following is an example of an inventory sheet. That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you. you must add new hardware. whether hardware or software. if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. This form should identify the equipment and its specifications. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have. When taking this inventory. The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. ask him or her to show you. . Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. Also. Remember. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. On the other hand. 146 Specialized Solutions. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software. Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form. The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like. this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment. Use it as a starting place to build your own. you can skip this section. if all or part of a network already exists.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: Computer Printer Telecommunication Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA. etc. PCI. Inc.) # of Free Slots Network Card Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Specialized Solutions. 147 .

148 Specialized Solutions. describe each program. Software: If this device uses software. . Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 149 . Inc.

. Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network. By assigning them a number now. make a drawing of the facility and each network node. it will make future documentation easier. A Network Layout 150 Specialized Solutions. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment. It is time to get out that pencil and paper. This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. Inc. or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility. and collect all of the documentation you have been working on.

Cable Grade – Local fire codes. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. if you are not sure if expansion is in your future. such as in an imaging environment. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. On the high end. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub. The 100 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. For example. (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics. It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. Therefore. consider Thinnet coaxial cable. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end). you will need to install CAT 5e or CAT 6 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 1000 Mbps speed. or just good common sense. repeaters and nodes. CAT 6 is the UTP of choice. If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small temporary LAN. it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5e or CAT 6 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years. Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network. Inc. 151 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly. or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files. Cable lengths must be considered. you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments. However. the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3. However. you might consider CAT 3. In most environments this will be no problem. but if this is a large facility. a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 5 UTP cables. The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the performance criteria of the network. Realistically. where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. 5-4-3 – If your installation is coaxial Ethernet. Specialized Solutions. and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace. In addition. may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation.

low-humidity. On the other hand. . you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. high-humidity. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). 152 Specialized Solutions. and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. they are sensitive to temperature changes. Variable temperatures. the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers. such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. it will work. Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment in which the computers will be operating. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise). Fiber optics are also a good alternative when the manufacturing environment cannot allow for any possibility of even a small spark. Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment. As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. which can generate damaging ESD. It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. Fortunately. since they don’t use electricity to transmit a signal. which requires the use of routers. Therefore. These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows 2000/2003. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. EMI. which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment. The equipment should be shielded from ESD. which can cause corrosion. The non-routable protocols. and RFI. on the surface. NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference. with a relative humidity of 30 percent. If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. However. are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. it doesn’t really matter. Like us. Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. Inc. Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically. but are not limited.

Inc. 153 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

. To keep these organized. One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable. Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable. The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub. it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet. So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables. Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. you will most likely need to install a wall outlet. This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors. There are a few more components that need to be installed. All the cables will be brought to one location.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. In most cases. The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet. 154 Specialized Solutions. the cables are connected to a patch panel. One advantage of using CAT 5 or CAT 6 cable in a star topology from a hub. The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding. Inc. is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network. if using CAT 5 or CAT 6. Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends. This way. This way you can identify each location.

That part is the network adapter card. Therefore you must know the requirements of each. This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media. Inc. there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network. Actually. Once that is done. 155 . Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. we must select a card that is compatible with both. there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC Specialized Solutions.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 156 Specialized Solutions.

An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. which can be a useful tool. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus. For example. Before purchasing a network card. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look. but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. 157 . This section will look at compatibility issues. Also. Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture. This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. These are little LEDs (one. In addition to being compatible with the network. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. Inc. a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). a Specialized Solutions. Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards. will change. you must have Token Ring cards. the speed of the card is important. Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection. The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. In general. you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. the number of connectors. two. but only at 10 Mbps. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. the card must be compatible with the computer. Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple. Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network. There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA. If you are installing a Token Ring network. The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. Resolving these issues is actually quite simple. EISA. but only at 10 Mbps. Depending on the vintage of the computer. Not all cards are the same. Therefore. there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. also called PC Cards. or three) that indicate the status of the card. and PCI). Micro Channel. administration. The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network. and therefore the speed at which data can be moved. and expansion projects. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus.

but you are not finished yet. you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. Each card must be configured for a different network. be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. Note: If you must remove the case. In addition. If there are any conflicts. If your system is not Plug-n-Play. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use. the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer). Now the network adapter card is installed. be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using. The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. . Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer. Inc. If you must do this manually. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches. Install the appropriate drivers for the card. 158 Specialized Solutions. it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. Connect the network cabling. Finally. Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light indicates that data is being transferred. Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards. Physically install the card. this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. Configure the IRQ and I/O address. If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver. You need to configure the card to work with your network software. In most cases with a new card. Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. Drivers are usually supplied with the network card. if you upgrade your operating system. Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. the computer may not boot or the conflicting devices might not be able to work simultaneously.

and possibly three. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day. For Thinnet or Thicknet. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector. some manufacturers will provide two. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it. Some STP cards require special connectors. the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based. 159 . The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy. as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines. AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector. For example. the card should have an RJ-45 connector. it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on. Inc. To increase marketability of their cards.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. the engineering department may be PC-based. Specialized Solutions. different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. If you encounter this type of situation. as well as possible solutions. However. These types of problems can be more personal in nature. For example. In the case of UTP.

With this done. and detail both its hardware and software. boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software. By defining the standards to which the network must comply. Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots. As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards. that were identically configured. . With this information in hand.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. we learned about network protocols and standards. Inc. As the network designer or administrator. 160 Specialized Solutions. you will need to establish the standards for your network. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly. Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network. if installed. with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier. and knowledge of the network operating system. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them. Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network. each component will work with the others. Standards Earlier in this training course. you are going to have your work cut out for you. Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system. hard work and standards. This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card.

there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. 161 . In this case. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems. you probably do not have the necessary drivers. For example. A good example is Windows 95. you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site. you find that your modem. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. when upgrading from Windows 98 to Windows XP. Specialized Solutions. you will need to upgrade. Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. Inc. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase. Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system. all you need to do is install the Windows XP drivers for the offending hardware. The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system. Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements. This is a true statement. If drivers exist. have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. however. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. Also. the system will not run. These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system. but your proficiency will be very low.Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are. network card and/or printer no longer work. you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers. the Internet is the answer. More than likely. You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device. The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind.

com/windows/catalog. .microsoft. If you want the latest list. This is part of the Windows Logo program. or hardware compatibility lists. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. You can also look for the corresponding logos on the boxes of hardware and software that you are considering purchasing for your network. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with Windows 2000. is the Microsoft Windows Catalog at www. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision. especially with the newest operating systems such as Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. Here you will find the latest information about hardware and software that is Designed for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 or at least tested to be compatible with these operating systems. you will need to check the HCL for that product. 162 Specialized Solutions. Inc. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000 is hardware dependent. If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary. Microsoft Windows Catalog Still another web site to check for compatibility of hardware and software. It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists an example of the minimum requirements for three operating systems: HCL and Windows 2000 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs. This list will ship with the 2000 package (on the CD-ROM) and 2000 will make a check during installation. it most likely will not work with Windows 2000.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 163 . Inc.

Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5. he intends to expand the network in the future. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3. but they are not all the same. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? 164 Specialized Solutions. However. . Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. Was this a good purchase? 9. Inc. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 6 1. 7.

There are several different types of hubs. it may be too small. An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals). Inc. 165 . Expanding a LAN with Hubs A common method for expanding networks is to use a hub. to larger hubs that can connect many more computers. sooner or later. For example. you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network. from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Chapter 7 . Specialized Solutions.” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive. This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network. Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series. In addition to being called “hubs. Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network. A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network.

have increased response times. Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model. Long waits to access a printer or file. but has one additional feature. They do not translate or filter any information. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network. They do however. . such as databases. thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths. When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. 166 Specialized Solutions. Depending on the objectives of the LAN.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. Traffic-generating applications. Fortunately. the simple hub just won’t do the job. Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. amplify the signal. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater. You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. Inc.

Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge. Inc. Specialized Solutions. It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. Not all network protocols will work with a router. Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. For example. the NetBEUI protocol is not routable. 167 . Routers work at the Network layer of the OSI model. Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment.

Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs. does not mean that it is the best value. these connections are slow and not very reliable. be sure to take into account your throughput. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway Connection Services When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries. The first is public dial-up network lines. Typically. but connecting at this rate is rare. the distance the data must travel. it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection. there are two levels of service to consider. Be careful when choosing a carrier. They are providing the cabling. Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps. These are our standard telephone connections. 168 Specialized Solutions. lines. Inc. When thinking of a carrier. Just because the cost looks good. With dial-up networking. each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates. or dedicated. An example of such a system is the telephone company. When thinking of telephone lines. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances. Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps. we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. microwave. When considering which connection service to use. and the cost of the service. and satellite connections. The second choice is leased.

Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded. A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN. items such as bridges. These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines. 169 . Inc. It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). routers and communications services are used to create a WAN. Specialized Solutions. It can regenerate the signal. as well as those transmitted to it. if necessary. It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back. The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN. Most WANs are a collection of LANs. and deals with timing issues. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity. WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs. The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with.

more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection. Voice and video. Voice and data over trunks between computers. Voice and data over trunk circuits. Dedicated lines are far more expensive.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Basic voice. Basic data. Voice/radio with tone conditioning. Digital Connectivity When you need a faster. The down-side of these lines is that you will have to pay for them 100% of the time instead of on an “as used” basis. Data applications below 1200 bps. The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. Application relays. This is because you lease the line 100% of the time and therefore do not have to dial-in. you need DDS (Digital Data Service). 170 Specialized Solutions. Voice with some quality control. Voice and data over private lines. Inc. but if you have sufficient traffic. they can be justified. Dedicated analog lines provide an instant connection. .

544 Mbps transmissions.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP.048 Mbps 34. It is capable of 1.080 (can reach 10 Gbps) OC-1 OC-3 ATM 1 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A The T1 and the T3 standard are American. It can be used to transmit digital voice. whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard.736 Mbps 2.520 or 622. faster download than upload 51.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line.8 Mbps 155. Inc. Specialized Solutions.52 Mbps Either 155.544 Mbps 44. and video signals. data. 171 . The following table lists the most common connection types: Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A Voice Channels DATA RATE (MBPS) 24 672 32 512 N/A 1.

all of which are considered reliable. this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs. so it can be both reliable and fast. With Frame Relay. 172 Specialized Solutions. a packet may be sent over multiple permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). . Frame Relay does not check the packet at each step in its route. For this reason. and reliable network messaging. Today’s networks use a different technology referred to as Frame Relay. This made for a very reliable and very slow connection. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network. each packet was examined at each step in the path to determine whether it was damaged. since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet. X. Obviously. however. A packet switched network provides multiple paths that packets could travel from source to destination. These lines can. Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast. convenient. Inc. In older.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. Standard PSTN lines have a very limited bandwidth of less than 56 Kbps. be used for somewhat secure remote access by employing the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) and tunneling protocols.25 based packet switched networks.

) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically. 173 . without having to change the physical picture of the network. etc. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN. or by the specific use of the computers. An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within his company. This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment. which lays out hosts (computers. adding computers or adjusting resources.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment.” Specialized Solutions. printers. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN. Inc. or any other logical means.

Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication. These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1. it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds. has two 64 Kbps 174 Specialized Solutions. and focuses on the home and business market. While not a good choice for WANs. they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps. or fiber optic. you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies. audio. and imaging. As well as the common voice and data. These cells can speed communication because the network always know exactly what to expect in regard the size of the next cell. It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles). ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential. video. ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial. it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services. This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network. One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need.Asynchronous transfer mode uses fixed length (53 byte) cells instead of packets. It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. ATM can be used with FAX. ATM . However. in actuality. ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface). Inc. which is intended for use in the home or small business. . while using copper telephone wires. It is.2 Gbps. twisted pair. FDDI . Because it is fiber optic-based. however.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN. media limited.

which is intended for use by large businesses. Specialized Solutions. It is capable of transmitting voice. To be more precise.84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768).Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. it is the European equivalent of SONET. Inc. like OCx with SONET. SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices. much like E1 is to T1. It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM). This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802. SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media. SMDS SMDS .544 Mbps).Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps). It carries all the bits from say. The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps). a call. has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1. It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx). 175 .6). ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface). and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control. it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network. and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control. Internationally. within one transmission frame. data and video at rates ranging from 51.

Modems transmit data at various speeds. Modems are classified by a “V” rating. Today. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate. However. or over long distances. 8. . To increase our network beyond a few computers. With early modems. A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable. The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V. times as fast as the Baud rate. the Baud rate was equal to the bps. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56.32 V. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. there is a limit of 2400 Baud.32 standard. a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2. the term Baud has disappeared and been replaced with bps.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections. Therefore. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. These speeds are measured as bits per second. Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion. Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud.22bis V. due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of transmitting signals over long distances.600 bps. designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle. Inc. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. and media. As we have already learned.400 High-speed version of the V. 176 Specialized Solutions. network cards. With this change. etc. 4. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems. 14. Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions. FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines. Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56.32bis bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard.400 bps. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines. connecting a few computers to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards.600 bps. The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication.

Specialized Solutions. 56. Backwards compatible with earlier V.FastClass.32terbo. modems. Inc.800 Improved V. 177 .90 19. 28.200 Not officially a standard yet. modems – error correction standard.32terbo V.600 Backwards compatible with earlier V.34 V. Will only communicate with another V.42 V.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network V. 57.

while a true server like Windows Server 2003 will allow 256 inbound connections. This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication. the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. For example. On the other hand. the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). Since the two computers are directly connected. or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. Any two computers can be connected.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. You must use a Null-Modem cable. there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number. either via modems and telephone lines. Windows XP has an feature called a direct cable connection. or directly via COM ports and a cable. In addition. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client. Let’s first look at connecting two computers. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building). With RAS. . Inc. The difference between a simple computer (Windows XP or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows Server 2003) is the number of inbound connections. all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer. By running Network Connections Wizard and following the simple 178 Specialized Solutions. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors. A system running Windows XP or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection. the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection. Also. both of these terms mean the same thing. Actually. The difference is how each computer is being utilized.

in this case. On the client side. Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but. you will use a modem to establish the connection. the RAS software must be installed and running. Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking. Normally. With this in place. On the server side. 179 . you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection. While this was the protocol of choice for a Specialized Solutions. Inc. RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work. the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software. both computers must be using the same protocol. you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number. RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security. This is a relatively old standard (1984). your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server. the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user. but is still in use with some systems. From this accessory. These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network instructions provided.

the limits of SLIP caused many problems. • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the Network layer of the OSI model. It provides data compression and error control. . VPN (Virtual Private Networks). PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today. AppleTalk. It transmits in text only. Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP. in today’s networks it has several disadvantages. It’s only supported by RAS clients. and DECnet. Inc. It can be used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private 180 Specialized Solutions. Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. such that only the sender and the receiver can accurately interpret the data that is being sent. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) provides for a secure encrypted tunnel for communication through the Internet. Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks. It enables highly private network links over the public Internet. created by PPTP and other tunneling protocols. Encrypted Connections. IPX. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. Many organizations are using tunnels. as a less explensive alternative to costly leased lines. It cannot encrypt logon information. It provides security. It supports encrypted passwords. RAS and Security.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide long time. It supports only TCP/IP. With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications. This is accomplished by encapsulating one protocol with another protocol. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. NetBEUI.

most relating to higher security.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network. Specialized Solutions. a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE).. meaning that the computers. both sending and receiving. L2TP offers many advantages over PPTP. it only establishes the user’s identity. UNIX.509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec. limited RAM. as does Novell Directory Services (NDS). AH only authenticates the user. IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header). Thin clients are computers with no hard drive. Linux. ICA can be used with Windows. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 Active Directory use this type of security by default. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. . TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL. It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS. Kerberos V5. discussed here in the next chapter. Inc. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket. SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server. and Macintosh computers. authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well. It uses a key to encrypt the data. Unlike PPTP. 181 . It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). It is based on an end-to-end security model. It is transparent to the user. ESP. certificates (like X. and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. usually a user’s credit card number. or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server. It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs. which is the highest security method. It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission. It does not provide authorization. L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the latest version of the tunneling protocol. Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. it does not require IP connectivity.

the modem configuration. you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one. and thus more security. 182 Specialized Solutions. Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. installing RAS can be frustrating. Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server. RAS provides several layers of security. you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server. As with all security measures. Inc. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary. you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on. All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly. and any other software that might use the modem. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to providing remote sharing of information. In addition. If it does not work the first time. you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. This provides for additional authentication. Before installation. If another software package has “control” of the modem. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. . At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system. The type of communication port you intend to configure. This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. Security Host (Bastion Host) A security host or bastion host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection.

183 . Specialized Solutions. it is not always the solution for every network.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps. you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses. The latest Microsoft server operating systems such as Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 have wizards that make installing an RAS server much simpler. As a networking professional. you want to keep the costs down. Inc. and you don’t need a fulltime connection.

Inc. Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH 184 Specialized Solutions. Definition .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X. 185 . Inc.25 Definition Specialized Solutions.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 7 1. . A form of digital line that is capable of 1. Name four forms of RAS security. Name three RAS protocols. 9. 10.544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6. What is analog communication? 5. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. Inc. and a gateway. a router. a bridge. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2. Define a repeater. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. 186 Specialized Solutions. 7. Name three advanced WAN environments. 4.

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This is the most common protocol suite with which a networking professional works. TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress). Also. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). and FTP. known as BSD UNIX. Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor. Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP. TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project. It is important for the networking professional to know that TCP/IP is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. Specialized Solutions. Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol). TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX. the recognized standard for internetworking altogether. and the Internet. TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. These standards. Internet and Network Interface. and is in fact. Transport. these protocols were available on UNIX early on. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers. TCP/IP. are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board). and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. SNMP. intranets. From this beginning. and is usually seen in the combination. as well as Internet standards. It is also used with Ethernet networks. it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. some are considered to be Internet standards. TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is an internet (between network) protocol. Inc. The four layers are: Application. such as SMTP. which will be discussed later in the chapter. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. 189 .

Inc. There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections. These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model.Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 190 Specialized Solutions. .

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Let’s take a look at them. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model. TCP breaks data into tiny chunks. A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. On a TCP/IP network. . and for the Network+ exam. The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier. and reassembles the data. Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine. Should lost or corrupted packets be detected. Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. However. It then routes the information to its destination. or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. Inc. called packets. The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 192 Specialized Solutions. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP. Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets. This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. Let’s take a look at how this works. the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports. they can be retransmitted in a timely manner.

meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses.e. but does not acknowledge delivery. IP merely routes the data. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. IP is connectionless. a port is different from a socket. HTTP.. Although the terms. Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer. and a Specialized Solutions. TCP will retransmit the data.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably. the protocol number. Inc. When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point. The addresses. and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number. If the transmission has not been successful. The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023. Telnet. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model. IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP. and specify a certain protocol. The port number identifies the application associated with the data. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent. or port numbers. FTP. UDP transports data. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted. For each packet sent. i. This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type. TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination.535. UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session. nor does it check for errors. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. etc. 193 . The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535. consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65. This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide checksum. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer. To be more specific, the checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. When the data arrives at the destination computer, the receiving computer performs the calculation. If the checksum is the same, the data is assumed to have arrived intact. The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network, it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. Time to Live – provides TTL data. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. This cache contains a list of all the devices with which it is communicating. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five, TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server, run searches, or access multiple mail servers. 194 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet, which is what you use when you send out mail. SMTP is server to server, whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers, usually over the Internet. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People.” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files, by typing in a user name, or the word “anonymous.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents, such as web pages. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts, using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP, allowing access to a secure Web server. It uses port 443, the secure SSL port instead of port 80, the HTTP port. HTTPS, as well as SSL, allow for the use of X.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user.

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Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials

Naming Systems
Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. Remember, we are working in two worlds, the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names. Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking. DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates hostnames to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. DNS functions like a telephone directory. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers. For example, the domain bigcompany.com may have an IP address of 192.49.238.33. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose, such as government, education, commerce, or interest. Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC, also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. These domains require suffixes such as .com for businesses or .edu for educational institutions. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains:

.com .net .edu .org .gov .mil .biz .pro .info .xx

Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance, Big Company Inc. in Italy might be http://www.Bigcompany.com.it or in Australia www.Bigcompany.com.au. Also, .tv is gaining in popularity. Tuvalu is a small country, which receives financial benefit from the registration fees.

WINS In a Windows-based network, the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network. NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode, leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application. A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast), P-node (peer-peer), M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). 198 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. It predates DNS. It must be manually created and changed. LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. It must be manually created and changed. IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. For example, it could connect a LAN to the Internet. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet, it must be assigned a static IP address. This means that it is permanently assigned. It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers, sooner or later we will run out of numbers. In smaller isolated networks, IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. However, as the number of addresses required increases, you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. To resolve this, IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. That is, assigned on an “as needed” basis. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. When not needed, the address can be leased to another host. To accomplish this, you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address, subnet mask, and a default gateway if needed. Notice that the IP addresses are leased. This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. A lease can be renewed. When the term of the lease is at 50%, the client will send a request for renewal. If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available), the lease will be renewed without interruption. If not renewed, the client will attempt to contact the DHCP server that issued it the IP address directly about every 5 minutes until it reaches 87.5% of the lease, at which time the client will broadcast a request to obtain an address from any available DHCP server. If all addresses are being used or a DHCP server does not respond, the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user. In this case, the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

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The proxy server is actually making a connection to another network or to the Internet on behalf of the client. to share a single connection to the Internet. It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses. depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time. a NAT is just a device or program that translates one set of IP addresses to another set of IP addresses. who think they are communicating directly with one another. Actually. It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. like a LAN. NAT also acts as a type of firewall. IP Proxy Servers Earlier. and DNS. . 200 Specialized Solutions. It contains DHCP. ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time.e.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (public IP address). since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other. Inc. i. In the case of a proxy server. it serves many clients through only one connection. the proxy server. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers. The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties. NAT. but it is most often used between a private network and the networks public address or addresses. Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network.

Inc.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions. 201 .

202 Specialized Solutions.294. 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194. .194. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8. This IP address is a 32-bit binary number. A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001. Internet IP addresses. The result is called a dotted decimal number. Although that is easy for a computer. the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique). let’s now take a look at IP address numbers.11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------16 8 2 1 128 64 32 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet. A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4. So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33. To simplify these addresses. are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes. however. Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address.00100111.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet.00001000.8. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes. they are broken down into four octets. Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256.967. Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39. it is not easy for us.2 billion) different numbers.39. Inc. An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets.296 (4.

194 where the Network ID would be 193. An example of a Class C IP address would be 193. the network is divided into classes. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use. The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID). The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33. Depending on the assignment.194.194. An example of a Class B IP address would be 129. The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191. Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large.) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126.39.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components.8 and the Host ID would be 194. only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID).8. 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) Specialized Solutions. The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39. Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks.194 would be the Host ID. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID. Inc. The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID). The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223. Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks. 203 . you should pay special attention the Classes A. The class can be determined by the value of the first octet. In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID.194 would be an example of a Class A address.39. Within classes. (A host may be any device on the network.39.8. In this case 129.8.39 would be the Network ID and 8. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000).8.39. The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000). For the Network+ exam. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000). the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID. There are five common classes: A through E. B and C. The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID.

223 In addition. B or C address. Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID. so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts. (For example. Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs. with the least number of Network IDs. Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A. You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts. Class B uses two octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID.0. 204 Specialized Solutions.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. All in use and no longer available. there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and for multicasting and are not available for normal host addresses. there are only 65. the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic.0. .1) Class A . Class C . you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address. Likewise.777. specifically 127.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID. Class B . Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available. This organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center). Class C IP addresses are still available.534 possible Host ID numbers. and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses.used by very large networks.used for medium-sized networks. Inc.191 192 . Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 . As we mentioned earlier. Also. there are 16.214 possible Host ID numbers. if a network is going to be connected to the Internet.126 128 . This is the loopback address. Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time.

which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits. It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4. demand high bandwidth. which only uses 32-bit addressing. then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme. and Multicast. An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. to define the address type. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers (0 to 9.net. VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic. It would make it unclear as to what was represented. A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. It uses 128-bit addressing. It does. This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot. IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology. The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Specialized Solutions. Anycast. as compared to IPv4. Rather than having “classes” like IPv4. however. Inc. The address types are Unicast. For example. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field. as well as ease of configuration and security built right in. 205 . use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. however. You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example. Unicast is an address for a single host. IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP).

Site-local address. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one. is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix. which replaces broadcast.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address.0. All in all. Finally. An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses. since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain.1 with IPv4. . 206 Specialized Solutions. IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking. Multicast. The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address. Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link.0. Inc. just like 127.

or 225. you can reduce the overall network traffic.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of creating more than one private network from one public network address by customizing your subnet mask.777.0 Class A (16.0. Since a router connects each subnet.0.0.0 (Class A).0. You must however. By using subnets.255.534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s. You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet.0.0. which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address. If you “and” the IP address to the subnet mask.00000000 or 255.255. a router can determine which addresses are local and which addresses are for other subnets within the network. A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) in which all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address. By using a concept called anding. Before looking at anding. only the traffic that is not local will pass through. The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address. 255. 207 .11111111.0 (Class C). Specialized Solutions. a subnet mask can be 255.255. Inc. For example. all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet. have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right. a large university may have a network spread over several buildings and perhaps remote campuses.00000000.255. Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask. For example: 11111111.0.0 In regard to classful addressing .216 hosts) Class B (65. In this example. Default Subnet Masks 255.0 255. The number of 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network. the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class).0 255.255.255. separating it from the host portion of the address. This is done with binary addition (anding).0 (Class B).255. lets look at subnet masks. Anding is the binary addition that the router uses to make this determination.

thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network.32. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now. .7. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7.00000000 (33.224.00100111.32. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet.0. while the Host ID 0.0.32. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 208 Specialized Solutions.8.194.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones.00001000.224.8. and through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33.194. let’s and it to the subnet mask of 255. 00100001.0.194) 11111111.00000000. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33. it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address.0.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remember.8. Any local addresses will not pass through.39.8.8. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID.00000000 (255.0. By using this method. Inc.0.39.0) equals 00100001.00000000.11100000.11000010 (33.32 and the Host ID is 7. using our previous example of 33.00100000. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet.194. Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33.194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask.

b.b. Be sure to include some room for growth of the network.0 255.0 255. If a router is connected to two subnets.b. A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card.c 192.c to 223. Inc.255. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring).0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255.255.255. Specialized Solutions. Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate.384 2.b. • • • • Connect physically remote local networks. A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network.c Default Subnet Mask 255.0 255.0.777.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001.b.152 Number of Hosts 16.0. it will require an address for each subnet. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet.b. Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment. There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required.0.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking.a.097.a.0.0.c to 126.255.a.216 65. Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet.0 255. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner.a.0 Number of Networks 126 16.a.255.c 128.0.c to 191.255.a. 209 .

0 255. .255.0 255. First.255.248 255.255.0.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16.0 255.255.255.192 255.192. Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255. We will use an InterNIC ID of 191.255. you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC. We use this formula to determine the number of subnets that will be created by borrowing bits from the hosts.0.255.255.255.0 255.240.255.252.382 Hosts N/A 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 210 Specialized Solutions.128 255.36.000 hosts.224 255.0 255. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign.255.255.255.255. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255.0 255. To begin this process. we have one network with approximately 65. The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network.255. As we begin to subnet.255. You should remember the formula 2n-2 where n is the number of bits borrowed.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet. we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host.224.248.254. Inc.255.255.240 255.255.255.0 255.255. With this number.

Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected. lets keep our network ID of 191. Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator).255.192 255.240 255. 1. Now we get out our Windows calculator. For this example.255. The number 18 will now be in binary (10010). Inc.255. Just to be on the safe side. Specialized Solutions.224 255. 211 . 2.36 as assigned to us by InterNIC. let’s add 4 more for future expansions.255.255. we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs.255. the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements.255.255. 3.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255. Enter the value of 18. We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 Hosts N/A 30 14 6 2 To make this easy. Change the mode to binary (Bin). you can use the scientific calculator supplied with any Windows operating system. giving us a total requirement of 18.248 255.255.255.

our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets.248. This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4.0 and the network address of 192. To keep things simple. Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth). instead of selecting the next subnet on our list.000 hosts each. the subnet mask would be 255. The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 212 Specialized Solutions. let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255. you can determine the available Network IDs.36.0. For this example. This will be the number of bits required for the third octet.224. we would have had to reconfigure the entire network. Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask.255.255. . Inc. Had we needed to add a new subnet. Count the number of binary digits (5).

0. Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network.001 in the last octet.36.36.36 (overall network address) 192. this means that the number starts with . Inc.192 Determine the Host IDs The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001).255.160 192. This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address.000 or .96 192.36.0. they are on the same network. In dotted-decimal format. The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network.0.32 192.64 192. indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively. 213 .0. the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery.36. up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID.36.255. (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask.36.255. these are reserved for broadcast addresses. on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255. A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255. For example. and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet. If it is different. The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID. or one that is located on a remote network. The only restrictions are that you cannot use .255.0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255.128 192.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192.0.) Specialized Solutions.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255. .0 CLASS ID 1 .255.126 128 .0.223 214 Specialized Solutions.255.255.0 255.0.191 192 .0 255.0. Inc.

215 . click the Protocols tab. Next. you will need to type in the specified default gateway. Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways. right-click on TCP/IP Protocol. However. Specialized Solutions. IP Address Here. or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically. DNS You can enable or disable DNS. and click Properties.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. in addition to other hardware and software configurations. On some screens. This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information.” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server. Inc. Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor. other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window. Click the radio button to enable DNS. Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. and enter the information in the appropriate fields. Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using. you may specify a particular IP address.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology. WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses. . Inc. This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration. It also includes the DNS configuration. and subnet mask configuration. default gateway. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients. 216 Specialized Solutions.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc. 217 . Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet Definition Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword POP3 Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 218 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

What is a domain? 7. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Specialized Solutions. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. 219 . 10. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP. Inc. 4. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Review Questions Chapter 8 1. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8. What is the purpose of DNS? 5. 12. What is an FQDN and give an example? 6.

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The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base).Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network. Network Managers . the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network. It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data. Using one of these products. you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device. In addition.SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks. The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator. Specialized Solutions. you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network. 221 . Inc. From the database and the software interface.

This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager. It will respond to commands issued by the management software. Inc. Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network. therefore providing a level of security. Set: sends a configuration value to a device. A community can also restrict access. Get-next: request the next value in a sequence. These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt. 222 Specialized Solutions. The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents. An additional SNMP command is the trap.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device. Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager). . The three commands are: Get: request data from the device.

ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it. TRACERT. Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics. serious (!). and TCP/IP events and errors. and normal (i). NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses. but did not cause a stop. Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table. Inc. 223 . shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. Specialized Solutions. Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis. Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred). Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names. Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table. Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports. This includes critical system errors.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar. 224 Specialized Solutions. clicking Run. and typing in either cmd or command. Inc.

Inc. PING The lowest level test to find out if you have connectivity to a remote host. Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same.1. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address. Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once. IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration. 225 . NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain. NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified. and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot. Ping works at the IP level. IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device. the IP of a host might be 192. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain. NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host.168. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address. For example. and will display the current configuration of a computer. NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address.12.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 226 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 227 . Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc.

You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. List as many as you can. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 9 1. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. Inc. each device will need to be _________ compliant. . 3. 228 Specialized Solutions.

Password practices and procedures. 229 . User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access. the results can be devastating. There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. A disgruntled employee. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. of dollars. depending on the roles they play in your company. is right up front. Therefore. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created). Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company. from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files. can deliberately damage your network. Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change. before you set up the network. the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network. or even millions. A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords. data encryption. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of her particular network. Specialized Solutions. unless safeguards are built in. Most users will also be able to access shared files. creating chaos and costing thousands. The best time to set up your network security. anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. As you might have already deduced. motivated by curiosity. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems. Very few users will have access to administrative features.Chapter 10 – Network Security Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. Inc. or at least have your plan intact. Whether the sabotage is malicious. Users should be held accountable for the security of their individual workstations. or anyone who has access to your network for that matter. Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user. or an irresponsible prank.

A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process. 230 Specialized Solutions. a gesture of respect for the user and the system. the user will be inclined to be less attentive to personal security.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. such as a template or another type of file. The user can edit the file as necessary. The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system. However. In a manner similar to the signature on a document. It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality. authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source. Inc. passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users. among other things. should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required. while the original file remains intact. where the administrator can easily retrieve it. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. Users can access a shared resource. Password protection is. . Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file. and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security.

Inc. 231 .Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Security Specialized Solutions.

Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs. if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet. and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. at the very least. you would block port 80. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. Files need to be backed up daily. As the system administrator. but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs. It is an important part of a network security plan. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network. or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. and even more often on larger networks. If you are accessing the Internet from your network. This needs to be handled in such a way that production will not be interrupted. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system. Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. Inc. For example. Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. . they can be host-based. 232 Specialized Solutions. and work at the application level. or auditing. you will most likely be using E-mail. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network. Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter. Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. by forwarding application traffic through the firewall.

This backup medium is suitable for small companies. which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs. you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data. Although slower than RAID. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk.Chapter 10 – Network Security It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers. and are more commonly known as RAID. called the backup medium. it is still a viable option. the other can take over without compromising network operations. plan to fail. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. In addition. those who fail to plan. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups. Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk. and the procedure to follow for recovery. range from 1. If anything happens to one. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). These multiple disks are called disk arrays. Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. Floppy disk capacities today. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available. so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations.44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today. offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other. so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security. Specialized Solutions. for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity. While planning your backup strategy. you must answer important questions about what to backup. the second server should serve as a backup to the first. As a computer professional. 233 . Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. Ideally. Inc. As you might guess. There are several options available. and how often backups will be performed. Remember. how the backup information will be tested. rather than one larger server.

To restore. A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk. This method will take the largest amount of storage media. despite the presence of hardware or software failures. Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient. Differential and Incremental. Inc. as its name implies. 234 Specialized Solutions. is called fault tolerance. as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server. Full. This type of backup is usually performed weekly. This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed. will backup all selected data on the network. . This usually involves some degree of redundancy. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space. the last full backup and all of the incremental backup tapes will be needed. When recovering from a failure. Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk. The Full backup. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level. and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full. but will be the easiest to restore. Differential. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup.. both the last differential backup tape copy and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used.

a copy of the data is spread across all of the disks based on a mathematical formula such that any one disk in the set can be lost and the other disks will have a copy of all of the information that it contained. (Provides no fault tolerance.Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 . then the data in the entire array is also lost. However. however.Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 . Several operating systems. Inc. so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping.) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk.” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data. This technique may be applied in either software or hardware. If more than one disk is lost. such as a single file.Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 .Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. is not being used commercially at the moment to an Specialized Solutions. this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent. and is a standard feature of RAID systems. the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved. Typically. With this method. If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up. RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme. support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing. if anything happens to one of the drives. which provides for even more fault tolerance. administrators are alerted when one disk fails so that they can “regenerate” the RAID set before another disk has a chance to fail. this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful.Chapter 10 – Network Security The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 . including Novell NetWare. This. 235 .Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 . Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies.Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 . The same data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure.

RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array). allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide large degree. A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power. . There are different types of UPS devices. but at a greater cost. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests. The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. These types of RAID are not as commonly used and are not as likely to be on the test. It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN. Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. Inc. is an issue. and sags in the power supply. Like RAID-10. it offers better performance. In this case. Cost. SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. as you might guess. which allows for better performance. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. also called surge suppressors. RAID-53. such as battery time remaining. but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. It functions faster. Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI). surges. and each type provides power for a different length of time. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. is like RAID-10. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity. RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. since it is not dependent on another computer. 236 Specialized Solutions. are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes.

Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others. personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis. but are easy enough that users can remember them.” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents. he or she will know how to accomplish the task. There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files. In order for this policy to be effective. and numbers. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. Some “classified” networks require password changes every day. and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas. no matter who they are. Passwords should be changed more frequently in high-security networks. include characters. Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed. This holds users accountable for their actions on the network. etc. No one. Specialized Solutions. Inc. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them. away. The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters and use a combination of letters. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days. 237 . Users working with sensitive information such as budgets. symbols. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy. numbers and symbols. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being applied. If the network administrator needs to use the workstation. and troubleshoot before the trouble starts. So. This is known as a security audit.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network. should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there.

The name comes from their first initials. Inc. RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest. Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient. can understand the message.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). the Internet is not the most secure of environments. DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message. 238 Specialized Solutions. and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon. and Leonard Adleman. This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. Adi Shamir. other than the person for whom the message was intended. DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used. and is used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking. These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. . Even with encryption. This method uses a 56-bit private key.

There are over 60. Inc. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. 239 . They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. it is not a completely secure encryption method. If the receiver wishes to respond. the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. As the name implies.000 known viruses. Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). will ensure a much quicker recovery. Many viruses are simple annoyances. Specialized Solutions. software from unknown origins. which is used to encrypt data and to decrypt it. It is similar to DES. but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off. both on location and at backup sites. which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption. Symmetric Keys can also be used. The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key. Prevention should also be addressed in the plan. and bulletin boards. Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages. but they are less secure. It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method. is called a digital signature. it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed. With this method of encryption both parties have the same key. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities. much less a day. Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability. Viruses can be spread by various sources including: shareware.Chapter 10 – Network Security Extra data appended to a message. files downloaded from the Internet. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run.

(prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk). they will go to work on the system. enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing a new operating system. just from running a program. Inc. Hundreds of viruses are written each month. Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world. there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site. Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine. If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes. . 240 Specialized Solutions. Macro Virus: These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened. The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files). (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail). Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks. Keep your anti-virus program updated. These days. Make sure it is compatible with all of the operating systems that you use. It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document. Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet. they mean that when you open a document you are running a program. With this in mind. Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines. Use extreme caution when you download files. but when loaded.

Chapter 10 – Network Security Specialized Solutions. 241 . Inc.

Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 242 Specialized Solutions. Inc. . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

243 . What are the three common levels of RAID? 6. In a share level model. Inc. 5. 3. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Specialized Solutions. What is the function of a firewall? 4. passwords are assigned to __________. The acronym RAID stands for __________.Chapter 10 – Network Security Review Questions Chapter 10 1. What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 Specialized Solutions. .

In most cases. It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier. if you are the expert. Remember. computers never fail at a convenient time. you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. you will most likely be called when there is a problem. so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution. while for others it is a struggle. Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). 245 . As a troubleshooter. or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now. For those who must endure the struggle. you must be organized. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. The user of the computer or network is your best source of information. To make matters worse. and progress with some specific tools that you can employ to simplify the process. troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. implement a solution. Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause. The eight parts are as follows: establish the symptoms. establish what has changed. The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks. you are looking for the cause. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper. identify the affected area. “as reported. Remember. select the most probable cause. but they often hold the keys to the problem. Specialized Solutions. Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned. This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems. Inc.” is really just the symptom and not the true cause.Conclusion Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. and good listening skills. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. a pen (or pencil). not the symptom. Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. it seems well defined by the person who calls and complains! But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. not when all is well. test the result. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. In order to do this. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you. After all. Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. If fact. They always fail in the middle of a job. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software. Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem.

and so forth). the failure occurs. Describe any changes in the computer (noise. Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem. and most importantly. Be sure to observe the failure yourself. One thing that might 246 Specialized Solutions. You may. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before. network or computer moved. The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work toward the more complex. The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that caused the failure. These never seem to occur when you are present. it is important to observe how it is created. or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred. Sometimes. however. the process of elimination is all that you can do. lights. have someone demonstrate the failure to you. recent software upgrade. . For example. and when. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation. If possible. screen changes. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works. Inc. This will take time and patience. Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of the failure. The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones. but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure. If it is an operatorinduced problem.) Show me how to create the error. have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory. as well as the results. You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. Do not make the questions too technical. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever. You will need to create your own list based on the situation. With a little experience. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure. do not intimidate the user.

but to call you. Do not make any assumptions. create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. If you must make any assumptions. but you cannot receive any E-mail. is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly. write them down. 247 . make a plan and follow it. Document every action and its results. you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood.Conclusion help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. For example. It requires two simple steps. isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user Specialized Solutions. Inc. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up. Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. Starting from the top. Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. then you know for sure that the network is physically working. Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems. If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be). and move forward. it is important to follow it through. Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. If for example. The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally. but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration. In the case of a network problem. That way the “evidence” is not disturbed. Once a plan is created. You may have to refer back to them later.

In these cases. either repair or replace the defect. start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not. Note: If the problem is software-oriented. This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how. as well as the one that is causing problems. For example. Inc. However. Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures. no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed. you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems. To resolve these types of problems. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Once the search has been narrowed. . Implement the solution. With hardware. Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures. In these situations. and not the hardware or the system. repair or replacement is usually all that is needed. if an operator is afraid of computers in general. the problem may be caused by the operator. This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome. it may require some additional effort. 248 Specialized Solutions. you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem). be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes. you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. It is important to use another operator. if the problem is software or configuration related.

there is no substitute for experience. In troubleshooting. You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. document the problem and the repair. or a follow up call just to make sure all is well.Conclusion Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. This is one way to build. maintain. and share experience. Document the solution Finally. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem. Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again. the problem. Specialized Solutions. Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. 249 . Inc. The basis for this policy is that once the system is running. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems. You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience. Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle. and the repair.

. let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling. Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network. a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier. Punch Down Tool 250 Specialized Solutions. Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals. Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack. Inc. They secure the connection between the wires and the block. The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician. Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools.

If the test is negative (no light or noise). the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device. We will start by looking at a multimeter. A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other. An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other. These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. Some meters will let you test for current as well. it is still possible to test for continuity. as well as the electrical power in the computer. When working with network cabling. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. Inc. Since it is made up of wires. which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound. Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. resistance. and continuity. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured.Conclusion Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. Network cabling is. a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red). A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. 251 . which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. we will have to know how to test for continuity. When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing. Specialized Solutions. The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters. In a wire for example. in principle. If the wire is broken. the circuit is broken. very easy to troubleshoot. Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires. the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted). it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. With it you can test various electronic components. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps). Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. you can have only one of two problems. For example. You can test for AC and DC voltage. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up. a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete. If your meter does not have a continuity setting. The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe.

The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator. this is not a problem. to find pairs of wires in a bundle. However. The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky. Inc. When used together. The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). 252 Specialized Solutions. Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. there are more often than not. thus locating the wires. If both ends are in the same location. several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel). When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. However. if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building. and test at the other end. . it will emit a tone. This applies a signal on the wires. these tools are often called a fox and a hound. called tone generators and tone locators. testing for continuity will require an additional wire.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician should have one. The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end.

Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic.Conclusion Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. It has the transmit and receive wires connected. By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. A loopback cable is just what the name implies. These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling. Be careful when using a crossover cable. 253 . are usually a PC with a special network card. the location of any break or short can be determined. Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions. Inc. also called packet sniffers. and therefore back to the network card. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa). It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable. Software analyzers. you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning. They will monitor network traffic. A crossover cable is similar to a loopback. capture packets and generate reports. there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment. but is double-ended. If you are able to send a signal and have it return. Specialized Solutions. because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable. Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire.

but used for fiber optic cabling. . Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR. OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back. 254 Specialized Solutions.

If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate. and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors.Conclusion Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. Inc. due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck. It could be the processor. The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network. You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so. Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords. A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. the traffic is not moving. For some reason. but can be caused by a disconnected cable. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors. Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam. Some passwords are case-sensitive. 255 . or a disk resource. the network. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network. This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. Therefore. you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail. Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth Specialized Solutions.

check for memory bottlenecks. If slow loading persists even after defragmenting.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves. so does the traffic. and moves information. As networks grow. These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours. tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night. . the network slows down. You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives. deletes. Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 256 Specialized Solutions. When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it. Inc. For example. You must defragment the drive.

PING. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on your intranet or on the Internet your packet is going. you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu. The loopback address is 127. This will test the protocol stack in the computer. These commands work from a command prompt. Specialized Solutions.0. This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS. On a Windows 95/98 computer. On a Macintosh system. TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination.1. you will use it often. The first step is to PING the loopback address. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities. PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation.Conclusion Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network. and TRACERT commands to test the network.0. It also lets you know the time that it takes. Remember this address. If you are using TCP/IP. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG. Inc. because as a network professional. 257 . but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card.

This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT. 258 Specialized Solutions.48. or 2003 system. Inc.55.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195. 2000. If you are using Windows.6. WINIPCFG. XP. your dialog box will look like the following. . WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly.

they must be okay.48. use the ipxping command. Inc. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol. then there is a problem with the protocol.Conclusion PING 195. PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer. Usually this means you have the wrong IP address. With each step. If at any stage. you will be testing a larger portion of the network. Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems.6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation. Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t. It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network. you have encountered a problem. you receive a message like the following. the server. 259 . Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: Specialized Solutions.55. For the IPX/SPX networks. and so on.

In general. The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details. Inc. we learned that workstations. These are text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses. you can be sure that the network is not being detected. (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. or hosts.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. If present. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer. You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address. If no lights are on. they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network. Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem. . Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files. have two names. Earlier. The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS. 260 Specialized Solutions. the first thing to do is find out what has changed.” With nslookup. That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server). respectively. How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution. Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. If there is a sudden change in performance. To resolve this problem. but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause. while green lights indicate that all is well. you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup. If these files are being used. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. Beyond that. Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa. you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector. One is the IP address number. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. we need to look at four limiting factors on performance. suspect a loose or disconnected cable. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name.

Conclusion Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing. it can send data at a faster than rated speed. at a later date. for the most part. after you identify the problem. Resolving performance problems can be easy. it will affect the entire network. Latency Small delays in packet movement that are caused by devices is called latency. Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays. but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks. This means that for a small amount of time. are negligible. you will know the high. everything slows down. Then. Specialized Solutions. Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory. adding to the network load. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request. To create a baseline. Latency delays. Therefore. The speed limit. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. This can slow down data transfer. Inc. This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. if the traffic gets too congested. A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation. you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed. if you are experiencing slow printing. An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. From this information. For example. The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system. but are interrelated. The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now. slow. is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). if any one component is performing poorly. the more packets that can be moved). Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. 261 . Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. Just like our highway. or maximum speed that traffic can move. You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information. and average time to print the document. For example. The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps). you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. The answer lies in creating a performance baseline.

you will be able to monitor such events as processor time. Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. . With this tool. Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network. Inc. you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events. available memory.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. etc. To collect these statistics. Windows Performance Monitor 262 Specialized Solutions. etc. Windows has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools. With this activated. percent of network utilization.

Conclusion KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc. Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 263 .

You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slowly. After repairing a problem. What is the loopback IP address? 7. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Conclusion 264 Specialized Solutions. You have located the cable in question #3. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. What tool would you need to find the short? 5. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. and think it might be shorted. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6. Inc. . but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. You have just connected a workstation to the network.

our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. Remember. Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs. We love to hear from our students. Specialized Solutions. When you are ready to schedule your exam. Inc. you are ready to sit for your certification exam. and don’t forget to use the Glossary. start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course. 265 . as you like. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material. or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. After taking a practice exam.Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. and as often. When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range. be sure to review any areas that need improvement. at Specialized Solutions. To measure your retention of these materials. so if you have any questions. we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 266 Specialized Solutions. .

Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same.Appendix A – Tech Summary Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing coaxial Ethernet cabling. Only 3 segments can contain nodes. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Specialized Solutions. They are specified based on their impedance. Maximum of 4 repeaters. you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule. It is expressed in ohms. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. 267 . Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. • • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. Inc.

Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 10Base5 Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Bus 500 10 100 5 4 10Base2 Bus 185 10 30 5 4 3 268 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Military specification of RG-58 A/U. Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59. RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max. Description Stranded wire core. Broadband transmission. such as cable television. but also used for broadband transmissions. Length (meters) Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment Max Segments Max. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core. ArcNet networks.

Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Plenum grade. 269 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Two STP – 26 AWG wire. Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch. Same as type 1. Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG. but adds voice capability along with data. Voice-grade cable. Six twisted pairs. Contains a shield for use under carpets.5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. Inc. Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch. Two STP –26 AWG wire. Specialized Solutions. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring.Appendix A – Tech Summary UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps. IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks. Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Data grade up to 100 Mbps. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Not Defined Two 62. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch.

3 802. .1 802.12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 270 Specialized Solutions.4 802.10 802. They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls.6 802.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802.x Standard 802.7 802. Inc.2 802.8 802.11 802.9 802. 802.5 802.

The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2. 271 . No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually Specialized Solutions. however. COM4 COM1. there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed. COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs. Inc.Appendix A – Tech Summary IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer.

LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 272 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address.LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F . The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F .

Appendix A – Tech Summary 3A0 to 3AF 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model Specialized Solutions. 273 . Inc.

. x.777.x to 223.x.x 192.x. Repeaters Computers Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address.0 255.534 254 274 Specialized Solutions.x.x.x. Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001.x Default Subnet Mask 255.x.x.255.152 Number of Host 16.x.255.0.097.384 2.0 Number of Networks 126 16. x.x to 126.x 128.x. Inc.x.x to 191.0.0.214 65.255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Gateways Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Brouter Bridges Switches NICs.0 255. Hubs.

0. and default gateway. Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address. the subnet mask. Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses).Appendix A – Tech Summary TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. Inc. Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the Linux user’s network interface configuration. If all is well. it will return. 275 . Uses a MAC address to find an IP address.1) to test the IP architecture and configuration. Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks. Sends a test packet to a specified address. the subnet address. Use the loopback address (127. PING ARP RARP Specialized Solutions.0.

(Pronounced Trace Route. Used to check the resolution of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it.) Used to verify entries on a DNS server. all computers are connected in a series. ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries. Used to verify the route to a remote host. NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology. Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents. Used to check the status of current IP connections. 276 Specialized Solutions. all computers are connected to a hub. In a star topology. Inc. .

Inc. In a mesh topology. Specialized Solutions. 277 . all computers are connected to each other.Appendix A – Tech Summary In a ring topology. all computers are logically connected in a circle.

Can also be used for precise voltage measurements. . TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. Protocol Analyzer 278 Specialized Solutions. Also called a network analyzer. resistance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages. Inc. and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks. Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals.

Used to provide information for network baselines. interface cards. Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers. Displays or prints a list of events. routers.Appendix A – Tech Summary Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations. servers. Inc. hubs. Event Viewer SNMP Specialized Solutions. and bridges). 279 . and networks.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 280 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

com Other Helpful Sites http://www. Inc. 281 .cnet.novell.com Specialized Solutions.com Novell http://www.microsoft.Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 282 Specialized Solutions.

CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. For additional information. Inc. This is a common code for basic characters and numbers. As its name implies. 283 . Specialized Solutions. it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set. In the computing industry. ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below). it is responsible for establishing standards for communication. Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes. This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry. search for these organizations on the Internet. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards. let alone the networking industry. Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector.Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry.

Since they cover a wide variety of equipment. The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802. . its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language. See Appendix A for a summary of the 802. 284 Specialized Solutions. ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model. This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. the IEEE is subdivided into committees.x committee. These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model. As long as both are SQL compliant. Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused.x sub-committees. the data can be smoothly transferred. Inc. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards. As you may guess from its name.

Specialized Solutions. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test.Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE. or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer. either by credit card. Date you wish to take the test. 285 .com for Prometric or www. Inc.vue. Payment must be made each time you take the test. credit card or voucher. Payment is made at the time of registration. When you call. To register via the Internet. Method of payment. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers.com for VUE. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like.2test. Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time. and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE. go to www. Prices subject to change without notice. please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 286 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. or computers on the network (nodes). program. Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. Software. The Apple networking protocol. opposite of digital. these three terms are often used interchangeably. The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies.Appendix E – Glossary Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. The file server on an AppleTalk network. The highest layer of the OSI Model. 287 . Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. A dedicated server for applications. usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). so they can communicate with other applications or nodes. Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. A continuously variable signal. or bits per second (bps). it supplies functions to applications. Inc.

Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems. Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. such as IBM. Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address 288 Specialized Solutions. these are all in use at the present time. Hardware that connects one network with another. A bus driver. IP Address used by medium-sized networks. Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances. A form of mobile computing. such as Microsoft. or DEC. The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC. The signal flow is uni-directional. . An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. GM. Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals). IP Address used by very large networks. Inc. A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations.

stored. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation. The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. 289 . Software used by the client. called a server. which is. Same as a hub. A form of multitasking. using a specific protocol. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor. at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level. Data that is encoded for security reasons. or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. or language. or Cyclic redundancy Code. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. from computer or network to another. Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption Specialized Solutions. is a number derived from. itself. Inc. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media.Appendix E – Glossary Client Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable User computer “being served” by another computer. to allow other tasks to run. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable. Cyclic Redundancy Check.

the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk.A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one. . DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. A limited form of bus mastering. so that one can take over for the other if it fails.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. Inc. which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks. This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives. It also receives acknowledgement frames. Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency. Also called data striping. Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 290 Specialized Solutions. in a round-robin fashion. this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data. The Data Link layer splits data into frames. (Simple “on” or “off” signal. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. for sending on the Physical layer. It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly. If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. such as an individual file.) Being able to recover data from a disaster.

A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. A network’s central computer. 291 DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex . A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. Inc. and other control information. A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard. A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received.Appendix E – Glossary DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. sent over a communications channel. Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits. A group of bits containing address information. File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once.25 packet switching technology. with a very large amount of storage space for shared files. Specialized Solutions. An improved version of X. File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network. error detection.

or ring topologies. It precedes the actual data. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol. HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway A computer that acts as a translator. GSNW Half-Duplex Header HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address 292 Specialized Solutions. star. defined in STD 5. A network topology that combines bus. Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. test packets. and other information. Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. that enables two networks. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5. RFC 791. to communicate with each other. RFC 792. and informational messages related to IP. using different protocols. but only one at a time. Inc. is usually represented in dotted decimal notation. The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses. is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages. .

Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator. Specialized Solutions. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network. A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine.” Server used for E-mail. Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer. Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC. Inc. data. 293 ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU . a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology. across a network connection. Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer. Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice. internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring. A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver. it’s “hardware address.Appendix E – Glossary IPCONFIG IPsec IRQ DOS command that tells you the IP address for your computer. and video data sources.

A type of hub. Single Frequency Radio. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide MCA Bus Micro Channel Architecture. Provides the physical connection to the network cable. Inc. Also known as a network interface card. A method of data transmission. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission. MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources. One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. totally incompatible with the original PC bus. introduced by IBM for its PS/2 computer line. Much like your local radio station. Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card 294 Specialized Solutions. among others. Performing multiple tasks simultaneously. and is used by CompuServe. . Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS. a 32-bit bus.400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS).

Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network. Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet. depending on the protocol. They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. 295 Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card . Specialized Solutions. Inc. The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards. A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources. A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network.Appendix E – Glossary Network Administrator Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network. Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model. A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. Acts as a connection point only. A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. A generic term used to describe a unit of data. including network connectivity. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another.

The Presentation layer formats data exchange. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model.5 of Windows 3. and even if a process takes full control. converting character sets and encrypting data. Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 296 Specialized Solutions. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Peer-to-Peer Performance Monitor All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server. The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack.1. Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network. depending upon the needs of the user. A hardware device. Defines a channel between a device and the processor. Although included as part of Windows NT. The space between the ceiling and the floor above. . this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking. which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. Dedicated server for printing. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer. and running on TCP/IP. The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time. such as a printer or scanner. used to circulate air through a building. A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server. other processes will still run. many third-party applications are available. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer.

Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. 297 . the proxy server. to be accessed via a modem. A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network. A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network. A device that forwards packets between networks. the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. For example. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. Inc. Used to increase cable distances in network environments.e.Appendix E – Glossary Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection. For example. which then routes the signal appropriately. Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. Connector used with UTP and STP network cables. the devices are connected in a continuous loop. The signal is beamed towards a central unit. The services or peripherals that are shared over the network. including support for dialup and logon. In a Ring topology. Redirects a call from one port to another. In Token-Ring networks. i. Connector used with standard telephone wire. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN Specialized Solutions.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. normally used on Ethernet. the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15. A uni-directional data channel. connection establishment and release. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. Transmission rates are slower with this type. was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. until it reaches the receiver. ceilings. The Session layer handles such things as security authentication. A computer on a network that provides services to other computers. Inc. data transfer. Simple Network Management Protocol. Software that resides on a server. as opposed to duplex. is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP). Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. usually over Ethernet. . RFC 1157. SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP 298 Specialized Solutions. as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. to be used over a serial link. acknowledgments (ACK). Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another. defined in RFC 1055. etc.

Inc. Maximum segment length is 500 meters.5 Standard) environment. measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). The process of subdividing a network into logical units. or across large flat open areas. Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings. that uses a large diameter. A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. Specialized Solutions. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters. If the hub fails. rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. Using binary addition. The maximum speed that “traffic” can move. 299 SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk . Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol. such as bodies of water or deserts. A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub. An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. An access method used in a Token Ring topology. the official protocol of the Internet.Appendix E – Glossary SONET Spread-Spectrum Radio Synchronous Optical Network Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. the entire network goes down.

The “hound. A device that transmits and receives data. like TCP. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). defined in STD 6. Used on transceivers. User Datagram Protocol. and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data.” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface. which. it will emit a tone. this applies a signal on the wires. Tool for stripping and cutting wire Tone Locator TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 300 Specialized Solutions. The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information. Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments. is layered on top of IP. Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding. The “fox. thus locating the wires. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. Inc. A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer. The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport.” A receiver set to the frequency of the generator. . RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol.

AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks.Appendix E – Glossary WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves. 301 . Inc. using zones Zones Specialized Solutions. such as Token Ring. A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 302 Specialized Solutions.

data backups can be more easily and routinely performed. 3. Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security). A WAN is not geographically limited. LANs typically also have much faster communication speed than WANs. What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources. 6. and peripheral devices. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server). 4. Files are easily accessed by all users. It is confined to a limited area. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet. 7. What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use. Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net. Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area. A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less). Review Questions Chapter 1 1. 5. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers. Specialized Solutions. like one office). No security. such as data. 303 . 2. configure. Simple to install. applications. Inc.

Centralized location of resources (server). Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). 9. Can be expanded as network grows. Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. Increased performance on large networks. File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access. Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). and Ring. More difficult to install and configure. Star. 10. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. Inc. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. . The three basic topologies are: Bus. 11. Token Passing. What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU. Centralized administration. Ease of data backups.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 8. 2. Some NOSs function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. Name the three basic topologies. 304 Specialized Solutions. 12. They represent what the topology looks like. and Demand Priority. Review Questions Chapter 2 1. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see.

7. 4. It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments. 5. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. Organization of network resources such as users. Unlike NetWare. groups. 8. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. 305 . NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security. management. 6. 64 MB RAM. What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. and volumes is also handled with NDS. name service. 550 MB of free hard drive space. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. messaging. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. Inc. routing. 9. and file and print services. servers. redirecting them to the server. web-publishing. Specialized Solutions. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. Define interoperability.

Presentation. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 14. What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals.1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare. Review Questions Chapter 3 1. Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT. Transport. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. . Data Link. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. 11. and Physical 3. 16 MB RAM. 2. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. 125 MB free hard drive space. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU. Session. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 306 Specialized Solutions. Inc.What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. 12.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 10. Network. Application. 13. Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 15.

This is not the actual application or program. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. 11. 13. 307 . What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. managing. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? D3-B4-01 14. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. Presentation layer 7. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. 9. Which OSI layer is responsible the MAC address? The Data Link layer 8. Physical 10. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer Specialized Solutions. and ending connections? The Session layer 12. Inc. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. Network Layer 6. It is a computer’s physical address.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 4. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Data Link layer 5. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 15. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence, without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 16. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 17. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. 18. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802.2 19. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. They are incompatible with each other. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com, while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. 20. Describe protocol binding. In order to function, a protocol must be bound to the NIC. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 21. Which is faster, connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster, but connection-oriented communication is more reliable. 22. . Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. AppleTalk, DECnet, IPX/SPX, PPP, PPTP, SLIP, SMB, SNA, TCP/IP, UDP, X.25, XNS 23.. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Will this work? Why or Why not? 308

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol.

Review Questions Chapter 4

1. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. 5. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. 6. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above, which is used to circulate air in a building). Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned, which would end up being circulated throughout the building. 7. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 10. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs, which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. 11. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. However, it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. 13. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths, segment lengths of up to several miles, and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. 15. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. 16. Describe baseband. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. 17. Describe broadband. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable, making the signal flow unidirectional. 18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way, can receive but not send. For example, a pager. Half-duplex communication can send or receive, but not at the same time. For example, a CB radio. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. For example, the telephone. 310 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 19. What is the function of a network adapter card? Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network. (They make the physical connection to the network.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. 20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers, including network connectivity. 22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network, to backup a cable-based network, to provide a mobile network environment, for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly, outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform. 23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared, Laser, Radio, and Microwave 24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. 25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally; Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances.

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority Specialized Solutions, Inc. 311

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). Specialized Solutions, Inc. 313

The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network. IEEE 802. It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802. 21. however. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist. . Inc. 20. while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise. It can be either depending upon how it is set up. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data. This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer.3 standard 15.5 says it travels clockwise. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately.5 standard 16. It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise. 18. They are also called hermaphrodite connectors. data collisions are avoided. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. 314 Specialized Solutions. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? The IEEE 802. Describe a MIC connector. 19. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture.

If no other computer is using the address. Specialized Solutions. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. it stores it to use each time it connects to the network. Review Questions Chapter 6 1. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. 25. 3. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. 315 . Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. 23. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it. NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 22. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. 2. 5. Inc. It also provides a print server. 4. etc. 24. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network.

9. having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. Passive hubs are used only to make connections. but they are not all the same.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 6. However. 8.com/windows/catalog. but not enough to run it efficiently. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. he intends to expand the network in the future. you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network. An active hub requires some input power. 2. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? Check the Windows Catalog on the web at www. . Inc. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time.microsoft. It will be less costly to install CAT 6 now than to replace the CAT 5 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps to handle the higher traffic. Why should you refuse this offer? First. Also. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths. 316 Specialized Solutions. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks. Review Questions Chapter 7 1. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS. 7.

A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment. Define a repeater. They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment. They do not translate or filter any information. Frame Relay.A router has all the features of a bridge. 5. and a gateway. Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model. NetBEUI is not routable. 10. Gateway . Callback Security. In older modems. Bridge . Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. 317 . BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. Security host. ISDN. PPP. For example. Inc. 8.Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. SLIP. thus reducing the traffic for each segment.544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. a bridge. amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables. Not all network protocols will work with a router. PPTP and L2TP 9.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. and SONET 7. BAUD and bps were the same thing. What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking). Repeater . Name four forms of RAS security. What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network. Name three RAS protocols. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. Router . Name three advanced WAN environments. Auditing. and PPTP filtering. a router.A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature. 4. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model. They do however. A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem. Specialized Solutions. BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN.

and HTTP. Internet and Network Interface. HTU UTH 6. What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses. 5. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9. and ARP. An example is http://www. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application. Inc. SNMP. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. SMTP. ICMP. UDP. What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. 2. IP. 8.com. 3. . IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. 7. 32 10. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 318 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11) Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1. 4. Transport.microsoft. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP. FTP. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names.

NETSTAT and TRACERT. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups. Specialized Solutions. NBTSTAT. Inc. List as many as you can.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network. each device will need to be _________ compliant. Event Viewer. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment Review Questions Chapter 9 1. 2. ROUTE. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. 319 . U U U U 12. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status.

It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. In a share level model. 320 Specialized Solutions. 4. The acronym RAID stands for____________? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. passwords are assigned to __________. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. . What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet. 5. 2. What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password. Resources 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1. What are the three most common levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 5 Striped array with parity 6. Inc.

What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. After repairing a problem. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows. WINIPCFG from the RUN command. What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. The fox and hound. 321 .0. and Repair the Problem.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 11 1. 8. What is the loopback IP address? 127. You have located the cable in question #3. 2. 5. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables. 6. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. You have just connected a workstation to the network. and think it might be shorted. You are troubleshooting a cable problem.1 7. 3. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. 4. Specialized Solutions. Inc.0. Isolate the Problem. you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office.

10. Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 322 Specialized Solutions. Inc. . You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slow.

34 clients. 114 10Base5. 52 Data Protection. 166 attenuation. 34 DECnet. 79 backup utility. 21 Carriers. 60 attributes. 39 AUI connector. 111 D Data Link Layer. 90 DLC. 13 Clocking. 116 10Base2. 41 CSU/DSU. 189 domain controller. 186 Analog. 65 continuity. 86 Beaconing. 69. 60 Broadband. 91 Baseband. 39 Circuit-switched. 167 bridge. 89 AppleShare. 114 10BaseFL. 217 ATM. 121 Application Layer. 92 Boot Sector. 98 Change. 116 100VG-AnyLAN. 108.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Index 1 100BaseX. 67 demand priority. 231 BOOTP. 70 DMA. 114 10BaseT. 253 Banyan VINES. 65 BNC. 160 Category 3. 40 Specialized Solutions. 123 ARP. 114 A access method. 196 client software. 323 . 89 cloud. 226 Digital. 16. 78. 86 B backbone. 108 Active Directory. 119 binding. 230 Differential backup. 78. 38 Client Software. 50 application server. 70 coaxial cable. 13 ARCNet. 91 domain. 196 Class B. 67. 86 Broadband Optical Telepoint. 151 connection-oriented. 243 CSMA/CD. 226 Bandwidth. 40. 61 C Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD. 81 Cellular Networking. 196 Class C. 24 Address Resolution Protocol. 78 Boot Prom’s. 77 Computer compatibility. 42 base memory address. 161 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC). 42 active hubs. 81 Category 5. 79 AWG. 164 Class A. 89 Direct Memory Access (DMA). 109 CSNW. 96 brouter. 191 BRI. 109 DES (Data Encryption Standard). Inc. 122 AppleTalk.

157 hybrid topologies. 93 EMI. 174 Line-of-Sight Infrared. 86 G gateway. 41 H Half-Duplex.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Domain Name Service (DNS). 83 IBM Type 3 UTP. 185 interoperability. Inc. 191 gateways. 114 EtherTalk. 12 Laser.Fiber Distributed Data. 194 IPCONFIG. 187 HTTPS. 185 IP address. 174 IPv6. 189 Domain Reflectometer (TDR). 197 IPX. 217 IMAP4. 42 GSNW. 18 I I/O port number. 144 Ethernet. 81 environment. 174 ICMP. 86 headers. 192 IFCONFIG. 166 fiber-optic. 96 LAT. (IEEE). 21. 186 Internet Protocol (IP). 93 ISDN. 245 DSMN. 120 ICA. 167 FTP. 61 Gateways. 243 Group policies. 91 ISA. K Kerberos. 83 File Infectors. 167 ISDN adapters.. 249 IPsec. 226 FDDI . 39 IP. 231 fire codes. 122 Event Viewer. 96 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 215 F Fast Ethernet. 191 dynamic routers. 174 L L2TP. 224 FPNW. 39 fault tolerance. 161 . 62 Internet Control Message Protocol. Inc. 187 hubs. 41 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). 68. 60 E EES. 217. 91 IBM cabling. 116 ground probe. 191 HTTP. 174 LAN. 71 ICS. 42 Headers. 68. 86 firewall. 186 Incremental backup. 226 Full Control. 112 HOSTS file. 70 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol. 22 FAT. 226 Infrared. 159 Gigabit Ethernet. 56 324 Specialized Solutions. 41 Frame Relay. 39 Full-Duplex. 67 IRQ. 231 EISA. 96 Linux. 187 Full backup.

52 Network Neighborhood. 30 PRI. 191 NBTSTAT. 64 NDS (NetWare Directory Services). 93 PCMCIA. 70 NETBIOS. 172 PPTP. 98 packets.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers LLC. 21 Media Compatibility. 49 operating system. 231 physical topologies. 164 Packet-Radio Networking. 71. 111 parallel communication. 67 M Macintosh. 18 MHS. 39 Null-Modem. 14 Peer-to-peer LANs.Primary Domain Controller. 120 Microwave. 36 NetWare file server. 64 Open Systems Interface (OSI). 23 media access methods. 243 mesh topology. 114 LMHOSTS. 41. 49. 215 NCP. 29 OS/2. . 68 O ODI. 67 No Access. 67 modem. 249 plenum. 36 NetBEUI. 93 PDC . 36 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh. 213 MIC (Media Interface Connectors). 37 MIB (Management Information Base). 232 Managing User Accounts. 29 NSLOOKUP.Multiple Access Units. 86 PPP. 37 NetWare Print Services. 229 Patch Panel. 192 Punch Down Tool. 36 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95. 67 NDIS. 30 N NAT. 36 NetWare Client32 for OS/2. 23 Passwords. 71. 39 NOS – Network Operating System. Inc. 34 MAU. 171 NWLink. 215 NetWare. 37 NetWare security. 89 Network Layer. 32 P Packet switching. 31 Network standards. 167 protocol. 122 logical topology. 120 Multimeter. 157 MAUs . 243 multitasking. 172 Preemptive multitasking. 228 NFS. 96 MLID. 89 passive hub. 31 PGP. 107 protocols. 69 Network-attached storage (NAS). 168 MSAU. 120. 242 325 Specialized Solutions. 69 NLSP. 37 Network Adapter Cards. 114 Network Time Protocol (NTP). 36 NetWare Client32 for DOS. 18 LSL. 64 proxy server. 217 NTFS. 18 Ping. 190 NETSTAT. 13 peer-to-peer. 191 LocalTalk. 151 Media Tester. 157 PCI. 217 PING. 43 Macro Virus.

51 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 215. 227 RARP. 39 redirector. 69 terminator. 112 transceiver. 152 star topology. 167 SMTP. 225 TCP. 245 SONET.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide R Radio. 96 SDH. 79 Transport Layer. 81 Subnetting. 167 SPX. 174 Standards. 217 Read. 98 Scatter Infrared. 144 Server Software. 237 trunk. 182 UNIX. 11 signal bounce. 68. 34. 213 Simplex. 80 V vampire taps. 144 Remote Access Server or RAS. 68 Satellite Station Networking. 215 router. 21. 67 SSL. 159 routers. 167 security. 80 virtual connections. 68 326 Specialized Solutions. 184 Telnet. 67. 174 token passing. 68 SMDS. 16. 232 troubleshooting. 172 SMAU. 187 Software analyzers. 16. 175 Security. 79 thicknet. 34 server-based network. 225 removable optical disk. 185 UTP. 69. 89 Server room. 13 Server-based network. 253 TLS. 225 repeater. 35 Reflective Infrared. 17 static routers. 228 STP. 33 servers. 42 User Datagram Protocol (UDP). 230 S SAP. 69 ROUTE. 187 SNA. 71. 16 twisted-pair. 79 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 71 RSA. 199 T tape backup. 17 RIP. 58 . 77 throughput. 68. 71. 96 RAID. 158 requester. 109 token ring. 86 SLIP. 96 relative humidity. 60 Storage Area Network (SAN). 35 ring topology. 68 Trojan Horses. 16 serial communication. 11 SNMP. 77 Thinnet. 221 segment. 120 SMB. Inc. 13 sharing applications. 60. 249 Trailer. 80 U UDP. 16 TRACERT. 171 removable disks. sneaker net. 60. 65 RPC. 118 topology.

327 . 92 workstation.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Viruses. 40 U U WINS. 69. 166 XDR. 95 Wireless NICs. 19. 13 X X. 165 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks). 31 Windows for Workgroups. 124 wireless network. 231 VLAN. 242 Wireless. 71 XNS. 154 Windows 95/98. 31 Windows NT Print Servers. 230 W WAN. Inc. 12 Warp Connect. 70 Specialized Solutions. 190 Wire Crimper. 32 Windows 2000.25.