Network+ 2005 Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network+

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Copyright© 2004 by Specialized Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 338 East Tarpon Street, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. Publisher: Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Contributing Writers: Bill Ferguson Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Editor: Bill Ferguson

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Suggestions/Comments Please forward all comments or suggestions to: Specialized Solutions, Inc. 338 East Tarpon St. Tarpon Springs, FL 34689

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... I

ABOUT SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS ...........................................................IX
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+ .............................................................2005 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ..................................................................................................9 YOUR VIDEO INSTRUCTOR .................................................................................................9 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST ..................................................................................................10 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................10 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................10 ABOUT THIS COURSE .......................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS ..................................................17 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING ....................................................................................17 Benefits of Networking Computers .............................................................................17 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) .................................18 The Client/Server Relationship ...................................................................................19 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................19 Peer-to-Peer Networking ............................................................................................20 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).....................................................................21 Bus Topology ..............................................................................................................21 Star Topology..............................................................................................................22 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................22 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES ......................................................................................................23 Hybrid Topologies ......................................................................................................23 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................23 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................24 NETWORK ACCESS ...........................................................................................................26 Token Passing .............................................................................................................26 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................26 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................27 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS ...........................................................................................28 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................28 Active Hubs .................................................................................................................29 Hub-Based Networks ..................................................................................................29 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................30 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................31 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1 ....................................................................................33 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS) ....................................35 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? ..................................................................................35 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking .............................................................36 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)? ........................................................37 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................37 Server/Client Software ................................................................................................39 NOS PACKAGES...............................................................................................................42 Specialized Solutions, Inc. i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Novell NetWare .......................................................................................................... 42 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System................................................... 45 Windows NT Minimum Requirements ...........................Error! Bookmark not defined. UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................ 47 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service)................................................ 48 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 50 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................. 51 REVIEW QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................ 52 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS.......... 55 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION ..................................................... 55 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL ................................................................................ 56 Application Layer ....................................................................................................... 56 Presentation Layer ..................................................................................................... 57 Session Layer.............................................................................................................. 57 Transport Layer.......................................................................................................... 57 Network Layer ............................................................................................................ 58 Data Link Layer.......................................................................................................... 58 Logical Link Control (LLC) ....................................................................................... 59 Media Access Control (MAC) .................................................................................... 59 Physical Layer............................................................................................................ 60 PROTOCOL STACKS ......................................................................................................... 62 Communication Between Peer Layers ....................................................................... 62 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD ............................................................................................ 64 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL ....................................................................................... 66 Repeaters .................................................................................................................... 66 Bridges........................................................................................................................ 66 Routers........................................................................................................................ 66 Brouters ...................................................................................................................... 67 Gateways .................................................................................................................... 67 IEEE 802 STANDARDS .................................................................................................... 68 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL ...................................................................... 70 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)......................................................... 70 ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ................................................................................ 70 PROTOCOLS AND OSI ...................................................................................................... 70 Protocol Binding ........................................................................................................ 71 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless ................................................................... 71 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols ........................................................................ 71 Networking Protocols and Stacks............................................................................... 72 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................... 73 DECnet ....................................................................................................................... 73 IPX/ SPX..................................................................................................................... 73 SMB (Server Message Block) ..................................................................................... 74 SNA (Systems Network Architecture) ......................................................................... 74 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ....................................................................... 74 IP (Internet Protocol)................................................................................................. 74 UDP (User Datagram Protocol)................................................................................ 74 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) ..................................................................................... 74 ii Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Table of Contents Telnet...........................................................................................................................75 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................75 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................75 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................75 NTP (Network Time Protocol) ....................................................................................75 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) ...............................................................................75 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................75 X.25 .............................................................................................................................76 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................76 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................76 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................76 LAT (Local Area Transport) .......................................................................................76 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................77 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................78 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................78 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) ...................................................................................78 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) ................................................................78 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) ........................................................78 ISO/OSI Standard .......................................................................................................78 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ...............................................................78 DNS (Domain Name System) ......................................................................................78 XDR (External Data Representation) .........................................................................78 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................78 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................80 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................81 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................82 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................85 NETWORK CABLING .........................................................................................................85 Coaxial Cable .............................................................................................................85 Coaxial Connectors ....................................................................................................86 Twisted-Pair Cable .....................................................................................................88 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................91 Summary of Cabling ...................................................................................................93 CABLING TERMS ..............................................................................................................94 AWG (American Wire Gauge) ....................................................................................94 Bandwidth ...................................................................................................................94 Plenum Grade Cabling ...............................................................................................94 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................95 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)..............................................................................97 Preparing the Data .....................................................................................................97 Signals and Clocking ..................................................................................................97 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel) .................................................................................98 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................98 Configurable Options..................................................................................................98 Wireless NICs............................................................................................................100 Specialized Solutions, Inc. iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Fiber-Optic NICs...................................................................................................... 100 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................ 101 Standard Bus Types .................................................................................................. 101 Laptops ..................................................................................................................... 101 NETWORK PERFORMANCE ............................................................................................. 102 WIRELESS NETWORKS ................................................................................................... 103 Why Wireless? .......................................................................................................... 103 Wireless Transmission Methods............................................................................... 104 Radio Transmission.................................................................................................. 105 Satellite Station Networking..................................................................................... 106 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 108 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 109 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.................................................................................... 112 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS .................................. 115 ACCESS METHODS......................................................................................................... 116 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) .................... 116 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) ................... 117 Token Passing........................................................................................................... 117 Demand Priority....................................................................................................... 117 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS) ............................................... 119 Packet Structure ....................................................................................................... 119 Packet Components .................................................................................................. 120 NETWORK STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 122 Logical Link Control (802.2).................................................................................... 122 Ethernet (802.3)........................................................................................................ 122 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................. 129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)................................................... 131 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 133 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 134 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.................................................................................... 136 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.......................................................................... 139 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT ................................................................................... 139 The Customer ........................................................................................................... 139 The Network Goals................................................................................................... 140 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE ......................................................................................... 142 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer.................................................................................. 142 When to Choose Client/Server ................................................................................. 143 Making the Choice.................................................................................................... 144 Public and Private networks .................................................................................... 144 DESIGN THE NETWORK.................................................................................................. 150 Media Selection ........................................................................................................ 151 Environmental Concerns.......................................................................................... 152 NOS Selection........................................................................................................... 152 Protocol Selection .................................................................................................... 152 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER ............................................................................................ 154 Cable to Computer ................................................................................................... 154 iv Specialized Solutions, Inc.

..............183 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ..............................................................................186 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS ....................173 Advanced WAN Environments ................192 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols ...................................160 Hard Work .........................................................................159 Computer Compatibility..........184 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 .....................................................................162 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 ........................................................................................157 Adapter Card Compatibility .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................159 PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ............................................................................................................................................189 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS ...............168 WAN Overview....................................................................................................................................................................................197 Specialized Solutions............................172 Packet Switching Networks....................................................................178 Connecting Two Computers............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................166 Repeaters................................161 HCL and Windows 2000 ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................179 Installing and Configuring RAS................................................................165 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................197 DNS ...............................................................................................157 Media Compatibility .................................. v ......169 Digital Connectivity .............................................................................................................................165 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................164 CHAPTER 7 ................................................................................. Inc...................................................................................189 RFC (Request For Comments)..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................170 Circuit-switched Networks........................................................................................174 MODEMS ..............167 CONNECTION SERVICES ......................................160 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS .......161 Minimum Requirements ..................................................................................155 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY ..182 Troubleshooting a RAS setup...........................................................154 Network Adapter Cards ....................................................................................................................172 VLAN...........166 Bridges ......Table of Contents Cable to Hub ...............................................................................................................................................189 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP............................................169 Analog Connectivity...182 Limitations of RAS ..................................................................................................194 NAMING SYSTEMS ................................................................................................166 Routers .................................178 RAS Protocols ..........................................................................................................................167 Gateway ..........................................................176 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS) .....................................................168 Carriers.......................................................192 Other TCP/IP Protocols ..........EXPANDING A NETWORK ................160 Standards .........................................

.................................................. 223 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .......................................................................................................................................................... 225 ARP .... 222 Communities.......................... 223 TRACERT................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 219 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES.................... 203 Class D and Class E Addresses.......................... .................................... 221 NETWORK MANAGERS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 198 HOSTS file........................ 225 RARP.................................................................................................................................... 198 NETBIOS ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 199 BOOTP .................. 223 NBTSTAT ............................................... 225 PING....................................................................................................................... 225 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ......................................... 200 NAT........................................................................................................... 203 Class A Addresses ........................................................ 222 VALIDATION TOOLS ......................................................................................... 228 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY .... 221 Agent Software ............................................................................................................................................................................... 229 USER AND SHARE LEVEL .............................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS................................................................... 223 NETSTAT .................................................................................................. 200 ICS .................................................................. 203 Class C Addresses .........SNMP .......................... 199 LMHOSTS file .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 229 vi Specialized Solutions.................................................................................................................. 221 Management Software............................... 227 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9........................................................................................................................................................................ 209 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS .............................................................. 225 IFCONFIG............................................................................................................................................. Inc..................................... 225 NSLOOKUP....................................................................................................................................................... 199 IP Gateway ..................................................................................... 222 EVENT VIEWER ...................................................................... 200 TCP/IP ADDRESSING............................................................................................................................... 225 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG .. 199 DHCP .................................................................... 202 IPv4 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 199 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES .............. 217 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8............................................................................................................................................................................... 223 ROUTE.................................................................................................................................................. 203 Class B Addresses ..... 215 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 203 IPv6 (IP Next Generation) .......................................................................... 205 SUBNETTING .................................................................................. 200 IP Proxy Servers.................................... 207 How to Subdivide a Network ................................................................................... 202 IP Addresses ...........................................................................

......................242 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10 ....................259 NIC Indicator Lights ............................255 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................264 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY .......................................................................................................267 5-4-3 RULE ...............................................257 Cable Problems...........................234 Fault Tolerance and RAID.................................................................................................................275 Specialized Solutions..................................................................................233 Backup Software ..........................250 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools......................... Differential.............................260 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ......................................267 ETHERNET CABLING .................................................................................................260 Name Resolution .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................273 SUBNET MASKING .....................245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ......................................................................................274 TCP/IP PORTS ........................................257 Misbehaving Protocols ..........................................................................232 Backing up Data ............................................... vii ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................239 Viruses..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................268 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES .........................................................................................................................................230 SECURITY TECHNIQUES ......................269 IEEE 802...............264 CONCLUSION ..........229 Share-level Security ...........................................................................................................................238 Disaster Recovery ..................................232 Blocking Port Numbers..................................234 Fault Tolerance and Power ........269 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING) ............................................................................................................................275 TCP/IP UTILITIES .............................................................................234 Full.........................................243 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK ...........................................................................................237 Encryption........234 Volumes........................................263 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11 ........................................................................................................................ Inc..................................236 PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................245 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING.250 Hardware Networking Tools..............232 Backup Options..........................................................................................................................................267 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES ..............................................................................................................................239 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .. and Incremental Backups ....................................................................................................251 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS ..............................Table of Contents User-level Security...........................................................................................................................................................................270 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS ..................................................232 Firewalls ........................................................................................................................................................................X STANDARDS...................................260 Performance....................................................................271 OSI MODEL .......

............................................................................................................................................................. 320 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6.....................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TOPOLOGY REVIEW ............................................................................................................................... 304 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3........... 287 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ....................................................... 281 NOVELL ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10......................................................................... 306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.............. 315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7.................................................. 283 IEEE ............................................................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED............................................................................................................................................. 283 CCITT ............................................ ................................................................. 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2........................................................................................................................... 285 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS .................................................................................................................................................................................. OTHER HELPFUL SITES .......................... 318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9......................... 281 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS ............................. 284 SAG ....................................................... 281 COMPUSERVE ......................................... 281 MICROSOFT: ......................................................................................................................................... 278 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES ........................................................................................... 323 viii Specialized Solutions.................................................. 321 INDEX .................................... 309 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5........ 316 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8.............................................. 283 EIA .................. Inc...................................................................................... 278 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ........................ 283 ANSI................................................................. 276 TRANSMISSION MEDIA ........................................................................................... 284 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM............................. 284 ISO.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 285 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY..................................................................................................................................................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1..................................................................

Our highly skilled staff of computer and educational professionals are dedicated to delivering high quality. We will always provide a quality product to customers at a price that is within reach of most computer professionals. To see other Specialized Solutions. Inc.specializedsolutions. Inc. Inc.About Specialized Solutions About Specialized Solutions Welcome to Specialized Solutions. is dedicated to providing the computer professional the highest level of self-study training and certification materials the industry has to offer.’s Network+ training and certification course. We thank you for choosing our company as your resource for Information Technology SelfStudy Training. course offerings. We strive to provide training programs that far exceed the expectations of our customers. Specialized Solutions. One hundred percent customer satisfaction and unmatched customer service is always our commitment to the computer professional. ix . cost-effective programs that are customized to suit your needs. We are committed to always be on the leading edge of new computer environment training products. Inc. please visit us at: www.com Specialized Solutions.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide x Specialized Solutions.

Technical Writers. and Digital Video Studio Professionals. We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program. We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical. our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. Remember. as a stand-alone textbook. easy to follow format. Network+ video training series. We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! Specialized Solutions. or as a textbook in a classroom environment. Inc. Technical Editors. Inc. 1 .Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives. at Specialized Solutions. Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals. Computer Graphics Experts. It can be used in conjunction with the Specialized Solutions.

The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content. Inc.0 Network Implementation 4.0 Network Support Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 25% 35% 100% 2 Specialized Solutions. test objectives and example content. Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey.0 Protocols & Standards 3.” The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1.0 Media & Topologies 2.” “This examination includes blueprint weighting. .

Media and Topologies – 20% 1. 3 .5 (token ring). 5e. and 6 • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) • STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) • Coaxial cable • SMF (Single Mode Fiber) optic cable • MMF (Multimode Fiber) optic cable 1. 802. 802.0 . and cable type) of the following cable standards: • 10BASE-T and 10BASE-FL • 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX • 1000BASE-T. 5. 802.Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: Domain 1.6 Identify the purposes. 10 GBASE-LR and 10 GBASE-ER 1. Inc. features and functions of the following network components: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • Gateways • CSU / DSU (Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit) Specialized Solutions. length. topology. 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX • 10 GBASE-SR.2 Specify the main features of 802. and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) networking technologies. schematic or description: • Star • Bus • Mesh • Ring 1.5 Recognize the following media types and describe their uses: • Category 3.2 (Logical Link Control). 1000BASE-CX.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a diagram.3 Specify the characteristics (For example: speed.11 (wireless). including: • Speed • Access method (CSMA / CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) and CSMA / CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection)) • Topology • Media 1.3 (Ethernet).4 Recognize the following media connectors and describe their uses: • RJ-11 (Registered Jack) • RJ-45 (Registered Jack) • F-Type • ST (Straight Tip) • SC (Subscriber Connector or Standard Connector) • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) • Fiber LC (Local Connector) • MT-RJ (Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack) • USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1.

frequency.7 Specify the general characteristics (For example: carrier speed.8 Identify the differences between private and public network addressing schemes.3 Identify the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) layers at which the following network components operate: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • NICs (Network Interface Card) • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) 2. Domain 2. interoperability and naming conventions: • IPX / SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange / Sequence Packet Exchange) • NetBEUI (Network Basic Input / Output System Extended User Interface) • AppleTalk / AppleTalk over IP (Internet Protocol) • TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) 2.4 Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing. 2.1 Identify a MAC (Media Access Control) address and its parts.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model and their functions. transmission type and topology) of the following wireless technologies: • 802. 2.9 Identify and differentiate between the following IP (Internet Protocol) addressing methods: • Static • Dynamic • Self-assigned (APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing)) 2. IPv6) and the required setting for connections across the Internet. 2. B and C). Inc.10 Define the purpose.11 (Frequency hopping spread spectrum) • 802.5 Identify the components and structure of IP (Internet Protocol) addresses (IPv4. . 2. addressing schemes. function and use of the following protocols used in the TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) suite: • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) 4 Specialized Solutions.6 Identify classful IP (Internet Protocol) ranges and their subnet masks (For example: Class A. antenna type and environmental factors).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • NICs (Network Interface Card) • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) adapters • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) • Modems • Transceivers (media converters) • Firewalls 1.7 Identify the purpose of subnetting.8 Identify factors which affect the range and speed of wireless service (For example: interference. 2. 2.11x (Direct sequence spread spectrum) • Infrared • Bluetooth 1.0 – Protocols and Standards – 20% 2.

Zeroconf (Zero configuration). capacity and media) of the following WAN (Wide Area Networks) technologies: • Packet switching • Circuit switching • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) • T1 (T Carrier level 1) / E1 / J1 • T3 (T Carrier level 3) / E3 / J3 • OCx (Optical Carrier) • X. LPD (Line Printer Daemon) and Samba). WINS (Windows Internet Name Service). Inc. NFS (Network File System). 2.15 Identify the basic characteristics of the following internet access technologies: • xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) • Broadband Cable (Cable modem) • POTS / PSTN (Plain Old Telephone Service / Public Switched Telephone Network) • Satellite • Wireless Specialized Solutions.14 Identify the basic characteristics (For example: speed. ICS (Internet Connection Sharing). SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). 5 . AFP (Apple File Protocol).13 Identify the purpose of network services and protocols (For example: DNS (Domain Name Service). 2. SMB (Server Message Block).11 Define the function of TCP / UDP (Transmission Control Protocol / User Datagram Protocol) ports.25 2.12 Identify the well-known ports associated with the following commonly used services and protocols: • 20 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 21 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 22 SSH (Secure Shell) • 23 Telnet • 25 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • 53 DNS (Domain Name Service) • 69 TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • 80 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • 110 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) • 119 NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • 123 NTP (Network Time Protocol) • 143 IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • 443 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) 2. NAT (Network Address Translation).Introduction • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) • POP3 / IMAP4 (Post Office Protocol version 3 / Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • Telnet • SSH (Secure Shell) • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) • ARP / RARP (Address Resolution Protocol / Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) • NTP (Network Time Protocol) • NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) • IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) • LPR (Line Printer Remote) 2.

authentication and encryption).6 Identify the purpose.0 Network Implementation – 25% 3. 6 Specialized Solutions.1x 2. 3. application support and security) of the following server operating systems to access network resources: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. 3. Includes connection to the following servers: • UNIX / Linux / MAC OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. file and print services. Domain 3.18 Identify authentication protocols (For example: CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. . benefits and characteristics of using a proxy service.2 Identify the basic capabilities needed for client workstations to connect to and use network resources (For example: media. 3.9 Identify the main characteristics and purpose of extranets and intranets. and physical connectivity. configure the connection. Kerberos and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)).17 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function: • IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Continued on the next page… Continued from the previous page… • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) • 802.7 Given a connectivity scenario.5 Identify the purpose. benefits and characteristics of using a firewall. 3.16 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services: • RAS (Remote Access Service) • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) • PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) • VPN (Virtual Private Network) • RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) 2. 3.1 Identify the basic capabilities (For example: client support. Inc. authentication.8 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks).4 Given a remote connectivity scenario comprised of a protocol. media tester / certifier. 3. network protocols and peer and server services). punch down tool or tone generator).3 Identify the appropriate tool for a given wiring task (For example: wire crimper. an authentication scheme. interoperability. RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service). MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). PAP (Password Authentication Protocol). determine the impact on network functionality of a particular security implementation (For example: port blocking / filtering.

4. adding or removing network services (For example: DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).4 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a client accessing remote network services. benefits and characteristics of using antivirus software. 4.0 Network Support – 35% 4. authentication failure. 7 . print services.2 Given output from a network diagnostic utility (For example: those utilities listed in objective 4.5 Given a troubleshooting scenario between a client and the following server environments.6 Given a scenario. 4. DNS (Domain Name Service) and WINS (Windows Internet Name Service)) for network resources and users. protocol configuration. identify the cause of the problem (For example: file services. warm and cold sites Domain 4. identify the utility and interpret the output. star.7 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology (For example: bus. select the appropriate network utility from the following: • Tracert / traceroute • ping • arp • netstat • nbtstat • ipconfig / ifconfig • winipcfg • nslookup / dig 4. 4. 4. identify the network area affected and the cause of the stated failure.10 Identify the purpose. network hardware or environment). interpret visual indicators (For example: link LEDs (Light Emitting Diode) and collision LEDs (Light Emitting Diode)) to determine the nature of a stated problem.11 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance: • Power • Link redundancy • Storage • Services 3. mesh or ring) and including a network diagram.Introduction 3. Inc. Specialized Solutions. interference.12 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery: • Backup / restore • Offsite storage • Hot and cold spares • Hot. identify the cause of a stated problem (For example: bad media. physical connectivity and SOHO (Small Office / Home Office) router).8 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving an infrastructure (For example: wired or wireless) problem.3 Given a network scenario. identify the cause of a stated problem: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 4. 3. determine the impact of modifying.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario.1).

9 Given a network problem scenario.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. Identify the symptoms and potential causes 2. Document the solution and process 8 Specialized Solutions. Identify the affected area 3. Establish what has changed 4. Implement an action plan and solution including potential effects 6. Test the result 7. Identify the results and effects of the solution 8. . Select the most probable cause 5. This strategy can include the following steps: 1. select an appropriate course of action based on a logical troubleshooting strategy. Inc.

Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. MCDST. use a study plan. Alabama. However. if this is your first exposure to networking. Bill has written the “MCDST Study Guide” for Sybex Inc. Bill made his transition to Certified Technical Trainer in 1997 with ExecuTrain. 9 . To get the best results from your training. and CCNA.” Specialized Solutions. In addition he holds the CompTIA certifications of A+. Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand. “My job is to understand the material so well that I can make it easier for my students to learn than it was for me to learn. as well as “Designing Security for Windows Server 2003 Network” for Exam Cram2. Bill says. Bill now runs his own company as an independent contractor in Birmingham. Originally in technical sales and sales management with Sprint. MCSA. Bill is an enthusiastic. not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation. MCP+I. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented. Use the “Help” button where available. He is certified as an MCT. CCSI. such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge. Your Video Instructor Your video instructor is Bill Ferguson. Inc. Bill has been in the computer industry for over 15 years. Network+. MCSE. results oriented computer specialist who has extensive knowledge of Microsoft networks. Practice the function on your computer. and Security+. teaching classes for most of the national training companies and some regional training companies. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary. Hands-on experience is best. it may seem so. Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding. Server+.Introduction Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not extremely complicated. In addition.

You can locate a testing center and schedule the test on the web.com). The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry. • • • How do you learn best (reading. but A+ certification is not required. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills. German. Inc. hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 10 Specialized Solutions. How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam. 1999. You can also call VUE at 877-551-7587 or Thomson Prometric at 888-8956116.com) or any Thomson Prometric testing center (2test. French and Japanese. This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive. You can take the test at any Virtual University Enterprises testing center (vue. there is no one method that will work for everyone. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find. Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam. CONGRATULATIONS.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book. Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs. You may be surprised at how near you are to a testing center! Evaluate your learning aptitudes. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. Since most of us learn in different ways. There are no specific requirements. except payment of the test fee. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English. watching. . A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge. The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Schedule the test for a few weeks from now so that you will have a guidepost that is constantly reminding you that you need to study the material. Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test.

Re-read the test and review the video presentation. If you need to. • Complete the course a second time. you want to begin to understand. At this time. Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises. Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read. just get a feel for it. Inc. It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point. Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time. What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through. set aside the time to learn. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. 11 . Make an appointment with yourself. Use the rewind button as often as necessary. This workbook will make this task much easier. If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course. Review the video presentation one more time if necessary. Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through. Based on your time to learn (and your schedule).Introduction Make a plan to learn. Specialized Solutions. go though the entire course again. You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time.

If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams. Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam. The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form. The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer. All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. Evaluate the questions you missed. which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test. it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature. Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam As you prepare for your certification exam it will be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them. You will be asked to sign the form. . • • • • 12 Specialized Solutions. (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam. It is a closed book exam. including one photo ID. You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test. You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in. Inc. You will be required to show two forms of identification. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted.

The course contains five instructor led CD-ROMs. (You don’t need to send them the score report. If you don’t know the answer. Keep track of the time and pace yourself. put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers. If you’re not quite sure. Inc. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you. Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! About This Course This Specialized Solutions Network+ course is a multi-media. Before retaking the exam. If you positively don’t know the answer. guess. you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam. You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. you can see which questions are not answered.Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials. You will have plenty of time as long as you use it wisely. At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered. Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system. self-study training system. a Network+ Training & Test Preparation Guide and a practice exam simulator. Usually. you are given the ability to skip a question. which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass. mark a question or answer a question. If you know the answer. ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam. Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions. marked or skipped. (such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test. skip it. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides. 13 . Specialized Solutions. answer the question. mark it and come back to it.) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. It lists your score by objective. If the administrator does not do this. or if you are unclear about what you should do. (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score. Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam.Introduction HINT . but be sure to read it in its entirety. Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. Do not read too much into the question.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Video Chapters Include: CD 1: Introduction and Overview Network Topologies Network Technologies Cable Standards Media Connectors CD 2: Media Types Network Components Wireless Technologies Protocols and Standards The OSI Model IP Addressing CD 3: Ports Services WAN Internet Access Remote Access Security Protocols CD 4: Server Operating Systems Client Connectivity Tools for Networking Firewalls Proxy Service Network Connectivity Virtual Local Area Networks Antivirus Software Fault Tolerance Disaster Recovery CD 5: Troubleshooting Network Utilities Troubleshooting Network Services Troubleshooting Topologies Troubleshooting Strategy Preparation for a Certification Test 14 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

Specialized Solutions. 15 . Inc. It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course.Introduction This study guide is divided into 11 chapters.

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you understand exactly what a network is. An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?). Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources.” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service. Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking. A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented. and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net. peripherals.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking.” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do. and applications (resources). Additionally. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents. files. You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN. Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need. a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data. This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment. But for our purposes. a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files. Through networking. users can access programs. Inc. as a networking professional. It is very important that.) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics. 17 . It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than to purchase a printer for every user. Specialized Solutions. After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment. Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage.

it is still considered a LAN. The Internet is the world’s largest WAN. A WAN can connect networks from building to building or across the world.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function. The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits. 18 Specialized Solutions. When LANs are connected they create a WAN. Also. Inc. A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network. . or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information. the speed of communication between the computers is typically much faster in a LAN.

The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. Also. if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access. there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). including hard disk space and RAM. also known as clients. and is a client. including applications. A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or county. log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation. Inc. A mainframe will handle all the functions. that access would cause the workstation to become a server. Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. network security. The advantages of this type of network are central administration. For example. A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network. when the user is getting information from the server. that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals There is actually a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). However. Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. efficiency in backing up the data. The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer. These terms are not interchangeable. The Internet has replaced most MANs today. since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client). and expandability. one for printing (print server). it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. configuration and management may be more challenging. 19 . one for applications (application server). A large network may have more than one server. or a mail server (E-mail). A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. but they are not common. Users. Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity. The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. It is important to know what a MAN is.

and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e. Also. A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install.g. Peer-to-Peer Network 20 Specialized Solutions. In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers. Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network. Inc. The computers are simply cabled together. a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand. network security is unreliable. All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user. This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved. A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security.

or diagram. The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used. if the cable breaks. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address). However. and even how the cabling is run through a building. In a Bus network. This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. NICs. are all determined by the topology used. A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. To stop signal bounce. An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. If not prevented. While the signal is bouncing back and forth. how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). Specialized Solutions. 21 . only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal. refers to its physical layout. Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. design. scheme. The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other. As a network professional. also called Network Adapter Cards). a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable. This cable is called a trunk. the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other. and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. connectors. Devices only listen for data being transmitted. Inc. future growth needs. There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce. they do not move the transmissions along. The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable. or segment. or topology. (Network Interface Cards.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. The Bus topology is a passive topology. Different topologies have different cabling requirements. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together. map. backbone. you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network. it prevents other devices from sending data.

the rest of the network will still continue to function. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable. If the hub fails. it can affect the entire network. 22 Specialized Solutions. . A disadvantage is that if one computer fails. Inc. It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology. all devices are connected to a central point called a hub. The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. however. The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Star Topology In a Star topology. Star Topology Ring Topology In a Ring topology. the entire network will go down. The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network. but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down. There are no ends to terminate.

is how the network actually works. Specialized Solutions. we have been discussing physical topologies. These are known as Hybrid topologies. but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals With IBM Token Ring networks. on the other hand. It consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. a computer can fail and not prevent the network from functioning. The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. some Ethernet networks today are wired using a using multiple hubs. 23 . This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations. In these networks. the ring is actually in a special type of hub called a Multistation Access Unit (MSAU). You will be able to see a physical topology. Also. they operate between the hubs like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus. Token Ring networks are physical stars and logical rings. However. So far. A logical topology. Before you can understand some of these special topologies. Inc. you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology. Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies. This gives us a physical star topology. These are the methods in which a network is actually wired. For example.

. The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter 4 of this book. Inc. 24 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points. . the topology of a wireless network is that of an “invisible star”. Since each computer has its own connection to the wireless access point (WAP).

25 . Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Specialized Solutions.

Since there is only one token. Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices. they are called Token Ring and Ethernet. It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token. . Inc. only one device at a time can communicate on the network. The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network. We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected. The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit. This is based on the media or wiring of the network. Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages. The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message. and the message is delivered. we create kind of a “party line”. Multiple Access means that more than one computer 26 Specialized Solutions. The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. With several devices connected to one media.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD).

Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original. Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals can be connected to the same cable. 27 . Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks. Specialized Solutions. Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted). Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps.

. they are called MSAUs (Multiple Station Access Units). The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator. With a Token Ring.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks. not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network. Just remember. Essentially. Passive Hub – Patch Panel 28 Specialized Solutions. Inc. hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function. Today. since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified. Hubs can be classified as either passive or active. they are all the same. Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only. Passive hubs do not require any electrical power to function.

29 . This type type of hub requires electrical power to function. 2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available. An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. 4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs. Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs. 3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated. Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity. Specialized Solutions. They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected.

We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network. Inc. It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Topology is a term we use to describe the logical shape of the connection of computers in a network. . The three main types of topology are bus. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN. and ring. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. 30 Specialized Solutions. The two types of networks are LANs and WANs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources. A WAN is not geographically limited and typically has greater speed of communication than a WAN. A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks. go back and review the chapter again. star.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc. 31 . Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition Specialized Solutions.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 32 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12. What is the main reason for networking computers? 3. 5. 9. Specialized Solutions. Name two media access methods. 7.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Review Questions . 8. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6. Inc. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. Name the three basic topologies. 10. 33 . 11. What are the key differences between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. What is a “sneaker net”? 4.Chapter 1 1. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network.

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Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking. processor time. what we are really talking about are network operating systems. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well. What is an Operating System? Not that long ago. and database programs). but without an operating system. hard disk space. 35 . Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment. it will just sit there. Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe. Today. spreadsheet. Inc. word-processing. network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system. The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e. it is just a pile of metal and plastic. The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other. we are referencing the built-in network operating system component. as well as the operating system. When we refer to the operating system in this chapter. and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). Specialized Solutions. When we are talking about operating systems. We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment. This chapter is all about the various operating systems with which a networking professional needs to be familiar.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 .g. Most of today’s client and server operating systems have a built-in network operating system. most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions. Hardware resources such as RAM. You can get it all set up and turn on the power. if you don’t have the software to run it. In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems.

Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. Inc. put simply. A true multitasking (multi-processing) operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs. the processor is never taken away from a task. It is used on all of the latest operating systems. Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed. 36 Specialized Solutions. Preemptive multitasking began with Windows 95 and the Intel Pentium processor. . In non-preemptive multitasking. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor. means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time.

Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration. Microsoft Client. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. such as BSD UNIX. Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices. 37 . It is well-suited for editing home movies. It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. They use an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network. or a similar program. moving photos to the Web. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card. all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network. Windows 95/98 Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems that include a network operating system.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. Specialized Solutions. Inc. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. and you have a working network. and archiving music. Instead. Novell NetWare. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). turning on the computer and answering questions. to communicate with other computers over a network. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. Their new graphical interface and networking capabilities make them a vast improvement over their predecessors. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network. Then. Windows 95/98 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems. All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood.

. driver certification. It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies. Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is the newest edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users. It allows for faster user switching. It features file protection. It. multilingual support. which allows for safety when installing additional software or making changes to the computer’s configuration. a simplified visual design. like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here. is equipped to be networked easily. like ME. Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across in real life but are unlikely to be on the test: 38 Specialized Solutions. IPsec and Kerberos support. It also uses System Restore. EFS (Encrypting File System). peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT. remote OS installation. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server.

the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability. Inc. it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment. Inc. Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network. In a Serverbased network. the computers act as both a client and a server. However. 39 . Specialized Solutions. This can also provide accessibility and security for all devices on a network.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (uses resources locally).

the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. The component that handles these requests is called the redirector. Server Software As their name implies. However. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. most of the data is stored on the server. Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access. Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server. At the very least. Some networks even cluster server so that more that one server can share a database of information. the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Unlike most client software. server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location. Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access). out onto the network. . The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus. Data Protection As we already discussed. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords. if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. and to the server. This 40 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Servers exist to serve.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task.

It does not need to know anything about networks. called drive designators. The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server. which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer. 41 . This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer. to resources. or if they need to be redirected to the server. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs. Specialized Solutions. etc.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) provides for load balancing of the server resources as well as fault tolerance if one server were to fail. it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests. Basically. Inc. It does this by assigning drive letters. If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server. If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus.

which is like the Internet but within a network or company.EXE. deleted. Directory and file attributes are used to set the types of access for a file or directory such as viewed. web-publishing. It is a reliable operating system that provides performance and security. 42 Specialized Solutions. Version 4. Organization of network resources such as users. servers.11 is called IntranetWare. Versions 3. First. we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. which is a Windows-based utility. In the past.11 operate on 386. routing. NetWare File Services The NetWare file server hard drive may be mapped to a client and the client machine will recognize the drive as a logical drive and be able to access it as it would any other drive in the computer. NetWare Directory Services (NDS) NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. non-shareable. Novell NetWare The NetWare operating system has been around for a long time. but there will always be data in any network to which access must be restricted. but it is losing market share to Microsoft servers every year. . or changed.5 is now on the market. The earliest version (2. login security provides authentication and verification of user name. or through NWADMIN. password. With NDS’ single point logon. management. 486. Inc.2) was designed to operate on 286 machines. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. Version 6.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use.12 and 4. copied. groups. It is Novell’s push to gain market share and is a way of creating an Intranet. • NetWare’s popularity is due largely to its ability to provide services across multioperating system environments. Trustee rights regulate which directories and files a user can access. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. NetWare provides more than adequate network security by using a combination of approaches. and account restrictions. a user may logon from anywhere on the network and gain access with all of their assigned rights and privileges intact. and volumes is also handled with NDS. It may be installed in either the client or server format. shared. which is a DOS-based utility. and file and print services. or Pentium machines. NetWare is based upon the industry standard X500 directory architecture. In this section. messaging. time. it was the most popular server operating system. as well as what kind of access they have. NetWare Security The purpose of a network may be to share resources. name service. NetWare is administered through NetADMIN.

It is compatible with E-mail programs such as Novell’s GroupWise and Microsoft Mail. or directly to the network. 43 . Print requests are first routed to the file server. You can send messages to individuals or to groups very easily. and finally to the printer. next to the print server. You can even send messages to everyone in a group. as well as others. NetWare Minimum Requirements The following are the minimum installation requirements as specified by Novell for installing their server software: Specialized Solutions. NetWare also provides a method of using simple commands to send messages to other users on the network. Printers may be attached to the server. Inc. except an individual workstation. The file server and the print server can be the same computer. a workstation. NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS) MHS may be installed on any server and configured to be a network wide E-mail system.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Print Services NetWare Print Services can support up to 256 printers.

5 MB 20 MB Client Software The client software may be installed on any computer running any of the following: • • • • • 44 DOS 3.11 or OS/2 Warp and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 Macintosh 6.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 3.1 or later (Standard or Extended Edition) and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 OS/2 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Version 2.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS OS/2 1.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 5: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Pentium Class or higher 64 MB 550 MB 386 or higher 16 MB 105 MB 386 or higher 6 MB 30 MB 286 or higher 2.1 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS MS Windows 3.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 4. . Inc.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for Macintosh OS Specialized Solutions.

Inc. its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows Servers. Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version. Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. but it does have several advantages. It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. Files in Windows may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network. The advanced security features of Windows are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT . The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of Windows security features. Unlike NetWare. As we’ve already discussed. actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2). offer even more advantages and stronger security than their predecessors. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows network. Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software). Windows combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. but Windows NT contains services such as NWLink and Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW) that allow them to work together effectively. The attributes such as Read. This type is performed by each workstation or server publicly sharing a directory on the network. Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of Microsoft’s server/workstation technology. The NT Kernel. and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier. another security method must be utilized. With this method. which as at the base of all Microsoft’s servers. you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data. The newest of these server operating systems.File Allocation Table) during installation. Change. the Windows servers may be configured to store each workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups. In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows . The NetWare client can be installed with almost any other operating system. Problems do occur when trying to operate within the Windows NT domain. Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management. Specialized Solutions. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories. Windows File Services Like NetWare. or No Access may be set on the directory. Full Control. 45 . This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments. NetWare is extremely efficient at operating with other systems. interoperability simply means the ability of an operating system to operate with other systems. Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems. Today.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Interoperability As the word implies.

This trend continued with the latest Windows server operating systems (Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer. Windows Network Services There are many services available in Windows to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user. Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in the domain. Remember. Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions). Even if you are installing a local printer.. and user rights. and resources with a shared security database. Workstation Service is the redirector service. Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene. Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service. you are given the option to share it to the network. At least one domain controller is assigned to each domain. . See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. Inc. A domain is simply a group of users. more than one printer can be installed to any machine. 46 Specialized Solutions. Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers. A domain controller is a server that maintains and manages all accounts.) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer. permissions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows Server Security Security was a major concern in the development of Windows Servers. Server Service provides access to network resources. (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource. The following is a list of services included with Windows Server software to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between Microsoft and NetWare. computers. Microsoft uses domains to control access and authenticate users and computers. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network.. especially with the latest Windows Server 2003 family. Windows Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in a Windows network.

Previous Microsoft server operating systems were built to serve and then had security features to protect them. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. This is necessary because all Microsoft client workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point. This software is not included with Netware but can be purchased separately. Windows Server 2003 offers a more secure Web Server (IIS 6.0). Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to Windows. It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network. Windows Server 2003 is the first Windows server that was built primarily with security in mind. Inc. It provides all of the advantages of Windows 2000 Server. Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to Microsoft’s domain controller. used as such. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators. It can be installed on the Microsoft client to allow it to connect the Netware server directly. which govern what users can see and do on the network.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an Microsoft domain and the NetWare server.0) than the previous version in Windows 2000 (IIS 5.. It allows Novell NDS computers to be managed just as Microsoft domain controllers. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases. and is. Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory. but it adds many features that are designed exclusively for security. Installing CSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. 47 . FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access Microsoft file and print services. It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional. when using Windows Server 2003 you typically must remove or configure security boundaries in order to get the server to. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the Microsoft service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. Installing GSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. In contrast.. Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 is the latest in the line of Microsoft server operating systems. it has more “locked down” security templates that make it less likely that users will try to go around the security. Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be.well serve. In addition. In fact. UNIX is a Specialized Solutions.

The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS. as well as others. These terminals are not stand-alone computers. . At its inception. security.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide bulky operating system. It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. OS/2. At one time. A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users. and messaging services. It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms. which means that it can be changed by a software programmer. and many other features associated with an OS. however. TCP/IP. 48 Specialized Solutions. Software is available. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources. UNIX. in fact the software is available for a free download. It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. Like Novell NetWare. as well as file and printer sharing. it was an extremely popular network operating system. VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments. VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top. multi-user. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system. Linux is open source. many variations of Linux have been created over the years such as Caldera and Red Hat. to convert the UNIX host into a file server. StreetTalk provides directory. Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX. UNIX is a multi-tasking. Inc. Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system. A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. Because of its open source nature. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows. but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. general-purpose operating system.

Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production. The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction with the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book). and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC. 49 . they developed what later became known as the mouse and the first GUI display. Inc. but users also use them personally. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984. In conjunction with Xerox. both at home and on the go.

Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems. . It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today.). centralization of administration. Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. etc. In a peer-to-peer network. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems. the client computers rely on the server for their resources. Inc. the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network). The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely). A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare). and data backups. and at least be familiar with others. 50 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer. such as Novell NetWare and Windows server operating systems. Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system. In a server-based network. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic. The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security. Study through the chapter again if you need to. an application is unaware that it is working from a network. Today. The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly. Banyan VINES. the most popular network operating systems also function as the network operating system. With the redirector. (UNIX.

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS)

KEYWORDS Exercise
Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition

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Review Questions
1. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system?

2.

What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking?

3.

What is the purpose of the redirector?

4.

NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments.

5.

What is NDS?

6.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5?

7.

Define interoperability.

8.

Unlike NetWare, Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one.

9.

What is NTFS?

10.

What is a domain?

11.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server?

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Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) 12. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.

13.

What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system?

14.

What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984?

15.

What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system?

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Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards

Chapter 3- The OSI Model and Communication Standards
In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, what it is and its primary function. You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles each function, and which devices function at each layer. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam.

The Seven Layers of Network Communication
The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. As a result, some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other, and how they will communicate if they are using different languages. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit; when not to transmit; and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected; how the data will flow (at what speed); and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications.

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The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you should notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers, depending upon their functions.

Seven Layers of the OSI Model
The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network. These services include file, print, and messaging services. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer. The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. This is not the actual application or program, simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail, transfer files across the network, or access a

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Each connection is called a session. These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. half-duplex. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh. The network redirector operates at this layer. This layer is responsible for establishing. they will be combined. The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit. The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards network database. The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them. For example. add any addressing information and error correction information. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer. and un-packaging the data for transport. etc. It provides a logical connection between the two devices. protocol conversion. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. bit ordering. interpreting graphics commands. This layer is also responsible for data compression. and ending connections. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. Inc. and data encryption. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. and error free. This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local. without duplication. Sessions may be established using simplex. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network. it presents data to the application layer. or full-duplex communication. 57 . It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network. and prepare it for its journey. The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence. In short. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure. and when. As its name implies. if the packets are too small. If Specialized Solutions. or receive. it will break the data into packets. Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data.) character set conversion. managing. The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging.

the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link. however. delivery of packets is not guaranteed. Inc. This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks.518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. When the data is received. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly. Should an error occur. Connectionless protocols are faster. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses.) It also includes control information such as frame type. they will be broken into smaller packets. segmentation information and routing information. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. it will retransmit after a specified amount of time. The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission. Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. Routers and NICs function on this layer. checked for errors. In an ideal world. 58 Specialized Solutions. UDP is a connectionless protocol. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. Once the data is reassembled. When you are using a connection-oriented protocol.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide they are too large. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. error free manner. it will be un-packed. This controls network congestion. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. stripped of its addressing information. This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side. When you are using a connectionless protocol. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. . the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets. For example. Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. It receives a packet from the Network layer and packages it into what is called a frame. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers.

When the sending computer does not receive and acknowledgement. If the calculation does not check out. The way that a network shares the channel is called its carrier access method. It identifies a line protocol. It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). If it is. it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer. The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers. the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions. the data is sent out on the wire to all computers. and Demand Priority.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards In addition. The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. Inc. the destination computer will not send an acknowledgement. it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer. Although quite rare. TCP/IP is somewhat “self healing”. In a broadcast network such as Ethernet. In this way. Token Passing. The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link. such as SDLC. The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements. It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame. The IEEE 802. (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host). Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers. it will automatically resend the packet. The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer. The following is an example of a MAC address: Specialized Solutions. The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards. 59 . MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized.2 standard defines how this takes place. Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel. it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame. The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer. If it is not. The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). then it discards the data. They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers.

Multipoint communication is the process of one device communicating with multiple devices on a network. For example.ch/. Point-topoint communication is the process of one device communicating with one other device . The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames. Switches. It identifies the NIC. an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable. Point to point communication is often used between switches and routers on a network. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. and what each one will do. it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals. hubs and transceivers. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses. The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets. Note: For more information on the OSI Model. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer.iso. Inc. 60 Specialized Solutions. The last 3 bytes (35FD-AB) are the Device ID that is unique to the associated Vendor ID.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 00-00-13-35-FD-AB The first 3 bytes (00-00-13) identify the manufacturer of the card. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer. visit www. Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model. It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer. and determines when and how data may be transmitted. It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. . Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer. synchronizes the data. all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model. Repeaters. data work at the Data Link layer of the OSI model.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. Inc. 61 .

These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task. The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack. the process of moving through the layers is reversed. As the packet travels up through the layers. each layer reads and performs the tasks specified in its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions. each layer is also responsible for adding or removing headers so that the data is ready to be interpreted by the next layer. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers. . This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. Headers contain instructions for tasks that need to be performed at that level. 62 Specialized Solutions. or suite. The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. The Physical layer does not add a header. For example: You send a request for services to the server. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers. You are communicating directly with the Application layer. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer. In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate. and provides services to the layer directly above it. over the network medium. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted by you and the request is considered processed. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer. Inc. protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. This is called a protocol stack. the Application layer is not the actual application.) The request is in the form of a packet. When the destination computer receives the data.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task. (Remember. In addition to reading the headers and performing the instructions.

Because of this. they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers. but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Signals or Bits or Data Stream into Frames Frames into Packets Frames or Datagrams into Segments Segments into data Data Data Data into Data Files or Messages Specialized Solutions. Inc. The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers. 63 .

Inc. we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. In fact. the OSI Model is not a protocol. you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed. By relating various protocols to the OSI model. as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol. The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 64 Specialized Solutions. . Also.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program. you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model. it would not match. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections. Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer. This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers.

it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work. Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task. Without them we would not have as many software or hardware packages available to us. These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers. The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer. This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate. because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system. etc. you do need to remember the different layers and the tasks for which each layer is responsible. 65 . The specifications describe how components are supposed to function. Specialized Solutions. Inc.

bridges. It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs. Repeaters. etc.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT 66 Specialized Solutions. A repeater amplifies these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs. are going to be used when they write a program. Data Link layer and the Network layer. Inc. The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices. . This weakening is known as attenuation. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X. Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination. and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network. Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model. These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change. Routers are responsible for using logical addresses to move packets from one network to another and deliver them to a host. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols. you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer. as well as where in the OSI model they operate. As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself. routers.

However. 67 . A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. A popular example is an SNA Gateway. the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing. If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). but usually in the Application layer). Inc. Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers. if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI. It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router. Router tables can be entered manually by a network administrator or they can be dynamically updated using routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF. Specialized Solutions. A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols or even different technologies. Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. which can be used to connect an IBM mainframe computer to a Microsoft network.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Each router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it. The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate.

1 802.7 802. but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible.12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN. The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802. (IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs. Inc.ieee. 100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards.4 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers.2 802.9 802. Inc. 68 Specialized Solutions. and if you would like more information on them.8 802.5 802.3 802.10 802. a little surfing might be in order.standards. This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started. visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www. .11 802.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards. These standards were prepared before the OSI standards.6 802. February 1980).

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. Inc. 69 .

the NIC also needs a device driver to function. This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. . It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks. Network 70 Specialized Solutions. Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver. However. Inc. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer. Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another). and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. the network. which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols. ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another. The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. and hence. which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver. The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC. This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments.

Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication. Connection-Oriented vs. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. In a connectionless scenario. This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department. It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function. but connection-oriented is more reliable. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. if TCP/IP is bound first. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable. Routable vs. In connection-oriented communication. it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected using a router. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable. For example. In a connectionless communication. it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol. Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party. Inc. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on his answering machine. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. There is no guarantee that the message was delivered.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network. Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions. You have no confirmation (unless he calls you back) that he received the message. Specialized Solutions. 71 . Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless. It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. Connectionless communication is faster. and in full. In today’s LANs however. Protocol Binding In order to function.) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. If that fails.

It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X. As a networking professional.25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet). Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks. 72 Specialized Solutions. . you should be familiar with these protocol stacks and you should know the OSI layer in which their components function.

) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol. NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol. In addition to hop count. 73 • • • • • • . Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment. NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model. This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – Provides Application layer services for Macintosh. It resides in the Network layer. This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. and handles file and print services. It has been modified over the years and now contains the following components: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. regardless of speed. (If data must cross a router SPX is used. AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – Manages file sharing at the Application layer AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – Provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. It uses the MAC address and is non-routable. this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer. DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces. It is a routable protocol. LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers. It resides in the Network layer. At the Presentation Specialized Solutions. IPX/ SPX This protocol is the proprietary protocol that was developed by Novell for Netware servers and clients. Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – Provides transmission of packets across a network.

IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network. • Many companies use Netware with the TCP/IP protocol stack. . APPC supports Transport and Session layer services.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide layer it handles data translation. It is also layered on IP like TCP. At the Session layer it establishes and controls sessions. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols. Inc. TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol. It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with. • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server. 74 Specialized Solutions. so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary. FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead. The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking). At the Transport layer it handles sequencing.1 and later installs TCP/IP by default. flow control. Novell Netware 5. It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network. and connection-oriented error control services. We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names. while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections. TCP and IP. SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector. No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX.

Inc. It resides in the Network layer. then TFTP would be advisable over FTP. It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources. ARP keeps a table of corresponding IP and MAC addresses that have been resolved in the previous 10 minutes. Specialized Solutions. but in reverse. ARP will add the information to its table for future use. NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system. Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. it will broadcast on the local subnet to determine the MAC address of the computer with the associated IP address. this is also a Network layer protocol. instead of only the number of hops. Telnet can also be used for remote configuration of servers and network devices such as routers and switches. It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP is responsible for resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. It is an Application layer protocol. It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP. The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely. RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP. without regard to speed. making it connectionless. ARP will first check its table and if a matching address is not found. If you do not need to use passwords. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond to the broadcast by sending its MAC address. It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond. 75 . but in addition. OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer.

Data is routed via the best connection at a given time.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced). only printing functions. packets are re-examined to determine whether they are damaged. X. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable. which is the main reason that it is non-routable. The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs. X.25 a very slow but very reliable protocol. it is out of the administrator’s control. Data goes in and comes out. This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits. It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers. This means that routes change as conditions change. DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer. which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines.25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide X. making X.25 X. This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. This protocol is not used for data communication. . It uses standard telephone lines and switches.25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization. 76 Specialized Solutions. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet. asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN.25 network. This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions. It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP. This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use. Instead. The second part of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment). XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs. Because of this. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end.25 is also an equipment specification. it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer. In addition. The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment). At each stop. This is the host on an X. LAT (Local Area Transport) LAT does not have a Network layer. but in between. It is a DEC protocol used for interactive. the X. Inc.

It may be used with bridges. 77 . which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems. It is fast. easy to configure and small. Specialized Solutions. but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks. Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model.

NetBEUI. It does not support IPX. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model. it detects congested areas and links that are down. and notifies upper layers to route around them. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. It also supports data encryption. Like a traffic report on your radio. and other protocols as well as TCP/IP. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes. PPP supports IPX. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer. It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Other Protocols The following are other protocols with which you should be familiar: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. RPC is used by the redirector to 78 Specialized Solutions. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely over the Internet. DHCP. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. NWLink and NetBEUI. This database is typically dynamic in today’s modern networks. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol. and connection release. or DHCP. It handles session establishment. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures. SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. but it can also be modified manually by the network administrator. It maintains a database and provides hostname to IP address resolution. file transfers. NetBEUI. ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it. It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. . DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands. SLIP is not used as much as PPP. administration. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations.

79 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards determine if a resource is local or on the network. Specialized Solutions. Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text. Inc. It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer.

but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network. The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional. . 80 Specialized Solutions. It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test. if you can get to the server through a router. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other. you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter. For example. we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. Inc.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 81 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc. Keyword 802.x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition Specialized Solutions.

7. What is the function of the Application Layer? 9. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. Inc. 5. Which OSI layer is responsible for the MAC address? 8. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. Who developed the OSI model? 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions – Chapter 3 1. managing. What is a MAC address? 13. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. 4. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. 3. 10. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? 00-01-A5-D3-B4-01 82 Specialized Solutions. . 6. and ending connections? 12.

What is the function of a Gateway? 18. 83 . Which is faster. Inc. without duplication and error free? 16.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 14. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. 21. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 22. What are NDIS and ODI? 20. Describe protocol binding. 23. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 19. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 15. Will this work? Why or Why not? Specialized Solutions. What are they? 17. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Name as many routable protocols as you can remember.

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a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover. How to properly configure and use network adapter cards.Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. and the hardware aspect of network operations. most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. but may still be used in some temporary installations such as a construction trailer (although wireless would be a much more likely alternative). It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC. It can transmit voice. Xerox). Inc. and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. or DIX (Digital. (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter). network adapter cards. and other hardware and peripherals. There are several cabling options. Because it is shielded.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 . Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist. Specialized Solutions. Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet). 85 . 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology. It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable. The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. which we will address here. Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install. Intel. The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential. Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid. and how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter. There are numerous kinds of cable. It is not often used in today’s networks. but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand. It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector. along with connectors. it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. video. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation.

They are specified based on their impedance. Inc. BNC Cable Connectors BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable. Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. it has been replaced by twisted-pair cable and fiber optic cable. In order for the network to operate at peak performance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. In today’s networks. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. In the past. 86 Specialized Solutions. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers. . It is expressed in ohms. Thicknet was used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks. as well as how they are attached to the cables. As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. it is not as easy to install. It is attached directly to the NIC but allows network signal to flow straight through it as well as to the NIC. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network.

This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable. BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on. 87 . It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver. One of the terminators must be grounded. A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium. Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together. N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet. and is used to connect the device to the network. The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors). Inc. and an AUI cable. Specialized Solutions. BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver. It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection.

The twist helps 88 Specialized Solutions. This cable type consists of insulated pair strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another. It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types. This types of connections have been largely replaced by newer cable methods such as twisted-pair and fiber optic cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver. Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today. There are four pair strands in most twisted-pair cables. most networking professionals used a clamp-on transceiver. Instead. Inc. These clamp-on transceivers were often referred to as vampire taps because they utilized sharp teeth that punctured the cable to make the connection. . this was time-consuming and it absorbed signal so it was not the common approach.

The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling. it is more sensitive to EMI. Twisted Pair Cabling Specialized Solutions. Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. 89 . there are six categories.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. the faster the signal can be sent through the wires without crosstalk. Since it is unshielded. The following is a summary of UTP cables. The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per meter in each pair of wires. It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters. Inc. Currently. The tighter the twist. Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 1000 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM and Gigabit Ethernet Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP). This results in less sensitivity to EMI. UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs. UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular.

The RJ-45 jack’s position can therefore be changed from patch panel to patch panel to use a different set of cables for the same connection. Wall plates are typically used to make the connection to the computers themselves. They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 10 Gbps . These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. The front of the patch panel contains RJ-45 ports (a port is a female counterpart for the RJ-45 jack). Wall Plates for RJ-45 90 Specialized Solutions. An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger. . Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors. Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations. The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a special tool punch down tool to make the proper connection by stripping the insulation from the wire without breaking the wire. This is an excellent way to organize network cables. An RJ-11 jack has four connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight. RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector. This gives the network administrator a greater degree of flexibility and provides fault tolerance for the network cabling system. The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location.

Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic). This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber. It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI. . It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). 91 . the data cannot be tapped or stolen. which reduces signal loss.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking. SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses. (The core can also be made up of plastic. fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances. as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types. However. but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks. which is easier to install. it is therefore not as common as UTP. IBM cabling is based on its Type.) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable. Because of this feature. The following is a summary of IBM Types: Specialized Solutions. One strand transmits and one receives. They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP.. it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength. Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. Inc.

5/125-micron multimode fibers. Six twisted pairs. An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Not Defined Two 62. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data. . The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors. Plenum grade. These are very rarely used in today’s modern networks. Inc. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Contains a shield for use under carpets. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. IBM Connector 92 Specialized Solutions.

93 .Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter. Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions. but cannot send a message. This space is used to circulate air through a building. Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum. As the AWG wire number decreases. For example. It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing). • Simplex vs. Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. PVC grade cable is less expensive than Plenum grade cable but it gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned. Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only. For example. 94 Specialized Solutions. . PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cabling Terms The following are terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps) or gigabits per second (Gbps).Baseband vs. The signal flow is uni-directional. An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time. Because this space does circulate air through a building. For example. the wire thickness increases. Both you and the party you are talking to can talk and listen at the same time. Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge. a pager can receive a message. • Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above. Inc. The signal flow is bidirectional. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions. Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. If this type of cable were used in the plenum. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire. these fumes would circulate throughout a building in the event of a fire. (send and receive) but only one at a time.

) Will the cable be installed in “noisy” areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting. how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners. local fire codes will need to be addressed.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals In contrast. shielded cable or fiber optic cable might be more appropriate. 95 . For example.) Specialized Solutions. the flexibility of the medium should be considered. Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives. Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes. It is therefore specifically designed to be used in these circulation areas. A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling. such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well. Inc.) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum.

) Transmission speeds and. On the other hand. last but not least. fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping. Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance. cost are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network. Inc. attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor. Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 96 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small. there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective. .) If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure.

(And of course to translate it back again. Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time. handles network addressing. We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later. The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side. most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit. Analog data has an infinite number of possible states. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. and controls the flow of data on the network. Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. Specialized Solutions. It makes the physical connection to the network. are also known as Network Adapter Cards. Network cabling moves data in a single data stream. Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves. NICs are used to connect the computer to the network.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs. Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses.) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port. which constantly vary in one or more values. Today. Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame. Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). 97 . or 0’s (off). The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium. data is moved along in groups. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking. This is known as serial communication. Inc. This is known as parallel communication. Because these paths are side-by-side.

Inc. Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the 98 Specialized Solutions. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. . Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer. When this occurs. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting. they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. The amount of time between confirmations. If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. the NIC may need to be configured. Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer. This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed. the two cards start sending and receiving data. This makes transferring data much faster. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU. How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique MAC address. DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium. Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent. The speed of the transmission. The time intervals between data chunks. The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC.

This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by a device. Specialized Solutions. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments. In practice. certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. in this case the NIC. The good news is that unlike an IRQ. such as: IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU. The device is constantly listening to this channel for commands from the processor.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. Inc. and some are set using software. Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. Only devices like NIC cards that need this type of memory access are assigned DMA channels. these devices can access the memory that they need without interrupting the processor. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address. These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor. Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. not all devices need one. DMA channels are used by devices that frequently need access to large amounts of memory. 99 . With a DMA channel. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that typically no two devices can use the same interrupt. Other cards will need to be configured manually. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. See Appendix A for common address assignments. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. DMA Channel Configuration of Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels is similar to IRQs. Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings. The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses.

Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter. or you may have to configure it manually.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards. Inc. or both). If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail. . Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC. they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required. The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. 100 Specialized Solutions. Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer. RJ-45. Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC. They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable.

Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus. including network connectivity. They are also called PC-Card Buses. Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much. With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs. The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus. Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus. Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers. Today most buses are either EISA or PCI. Inc. Specialized Solutions. 101 . The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus. They are generally 32-bit buses.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. but can be a 64-bit bus.

This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus. Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data. Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data. thereby bypassing the CPU. This type of card is expensive. but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. 102 Specialized Solutions. it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally. thereby improving network performance. Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU. Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer. Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Performance Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance. RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed. Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks. . Without this feature. Inc. the NIC would be a bottleneck.

Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems. They function just like other access points (i. a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings.e. – hubs). Specialized Solutions. Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems. Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations such as ocean dwelling oil platforms. A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks. but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN. the office. but through the use of an infrared or radio medium.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling. • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective. With wireless systems. Wireless networks use wireless access points (WAPs) to “connect” the network devices to each other. For example. Extended Local Area Networks . Inc. or on the road. 103 .Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs. making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home. With some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down.Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking. Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly. a user can access the network from anywhere in the building. This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. Mobile Computing . They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components. Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created.

and because the transmissions are tightly focused. they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared You use infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control. Infrared networks typically broadcast at about 10 Mbps. . The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet. Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference. Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources. Inc. such as windows. This involves using infrared (below Red) light to carry signals to a receiver. Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • 104 Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint Specialized Solutions.

The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls. It does. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station. Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems. which then routes the signal appropriately. etc. however. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. Inc. The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. the message is broken into parts (called chips). 105 . ceilings. Specialized Solutions. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint. In the hopping method. uses broadband technology. or direct sequence modulation. as the name implies. the signal is beamed towards a central unit. In the direct sequence modulation method. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. which are then transmitted over separate frequencies. Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps. but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. until it reaches the receiver. require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping.

These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information. 106 Specialized Solutions. Inc. mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network. It is used for line-of-sight communication. Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite. Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings. and only the destination device can receive and read the packet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances. The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication. . Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver. There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally.

107 . Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Specialized Solutions.

and Microwave. Inc. you should know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type. Twisted Pair. RJ-45. transmits. Wireless networking is the trend of the future. You should know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals. Finally. we took a look at the future. Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). 108 Specialized Solutions. After discussing at network cabling we then took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself. This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network. it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. receives. and controls data flow over the network. As a networking professional. it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks. Radio. Laser. etc. . There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial. As a network professional. Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. In addition. and Fiber-Optic. The four basic wireless types are: Infrared. It prepares. AUI.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc. 109 . Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions Definition Specialized Solutions.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair 110 Specialized Solutions. Definition . Inc.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword Vampire Tap Definition Specialized Solutions. 111 . Inc.

What is the most popular of the cable types? 10. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. . Inc. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7. What is the least expensive of the cable types? 112 Specialized Solutions. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. How is a vampire tap connected? 6. What is the most expensive cable type? 13. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12. What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable.

15. What does AWG stand for and what is it?

16. Describe baseband.

17. Describe broadband.

18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication?

19. What is the function of a network adapter card?

20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available?

21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card?

22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network?

23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types?

24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network?

25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally?

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards
In previous chapters, we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed, along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets, or frames. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. In this chapter, we will discover how Ethernet works, as well as how Token-ring networks function. AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter. After completing this chapter, you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture, while not as popular as Ethernet, are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers, in this case, over a network. In Chapter 3, you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite, IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture, SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk

The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols; thus, they do not map directly to the OSI Model. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. Specialized Solutions, Inc. 115

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information, handle addressing, and check for errors. Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments.

A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card, also known as the network interface card (NIC), in order for it to be used with a network computer. In some instances, as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX, two protocols may be bound to one card. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC.

Access Methods
In a network, multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. If two or more computers were to send data at the same time, the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing

• Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free, it will send data. While there is data traveling on the cable, no computer will transmit data. Occasionally, however, two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. Naturally, the more users who are connected to a network, the denser network traffic becomes. Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method.

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. It is, however, the access method that works best with wireless connections; since the wireless channel can be verified before the data is sent. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. A token (a special type of packet) is circulated around the ring from computer to computer. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network, it must wait until it possesses the token. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. Data is transmitted in frames. The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. The trailer includes error control information. When the computer is ready, the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted, the frame would be resent. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. Because only one computer at a time may transmit, this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions. (Some more recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer, router, switch, or bridge. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes, addresses, and links are functioning. Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer, hub, and destination computer, instead of broadcasts over the entire network. Because of the cabling method used with this access method, (four pairs Specialized Solutions, Inc. 117

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of wires are used, which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time, but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously, the one with the highest priority is serviced first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests.

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Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission. The destination address of the receiving computer. Data files tend to be quite large. data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium. Error checking information such as Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) information. if there is a transmission error. 119 . Specialized Solutions. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. information. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. Also. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files. All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. but we will use the term packets. and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. or messages. Computer control data such as service requests and commands. Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Network Communications (Frames and Packets) As we’ve discussed previously. Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data.) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. The data to be transmitted. Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection. (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably.

Usually. and clocking information. A Packet 120 Specialized Solutions. the calculation is run again. Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network. If the results are the same. The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted. CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet. Inc. . When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer. If there is a discrepancy. the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit. Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission. Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. the source and destination addresses.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet. usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes. the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact. the trailer contains the error checking information. Depending upon the network. packets can be various sizes.

121 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Specialized Solutions. Inc.

The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL 122 Specialized Solutions. it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data). as addressed previously. like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell). or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT). Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology). we are going to look at different standards for networks. in a railroad.94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable. some are wide gauge. The standards define the means of communications.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Standards Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network.3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. some are diesel. . is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication.2) The Logical Link Control layer. In this section. Inc. and typically transmits at 10 Mbps. For example. However. and some are narrow gauge). There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points. Logical Link Control (802. There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards. It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2). These provide the standards for the railroads. The original version was a 2. Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. data (in this case passengers and freight) is moved in various cars. Not all railroads are the same (some are electric. Thicknet coaxial (10Base5). The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements. It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method. Ethernet (802. but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data). but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol.3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs.

(There may be five segments but only three may be populated. repeaters can be used for longer distances. The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). to name a few. BNC connectors and a transceiver.5 meters. 10BaseT uses the star topology. Inc. The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters. indicating its maximum segment length. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system. The minimum distance between nodes is . 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications.) This is referred to as the “5-4-3 Rule”. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable. however. meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters. The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters. 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2. 123 . and computer aided design. And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling. If the segment must exceed this limitation. document and image storage. The minimum distance between nodes is 2. These applications include video. 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors. is 185 meters. While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling. As its name implies. 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. The actual maximum segment length. and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs. it is most commonly created with UTP cable. The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet Specialized Solutions. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters. it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. The maximum number of nodes per network 100. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology.5 meters.5 meters. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30. The maximum number of nodes per network 90.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps.

Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks. and the longest cable length is 250 meters. It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology. using the CSMA/CD access method. . 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon. and AnyLAN. the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable. This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard. Inc. When you see any of these terms. It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets. It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs). the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology. VG. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable. and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet) 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade. The IEEE specification 802. Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable. with Gigabit Ethernet. but that will be referred to later in this book. to some degree. although copper can be used with much shorter distances. ATM competes. 124 Specialized Solutions. and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. they are referring to the same thing. It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN. Because of its intense speed.12 is the standard that defines this technology. There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know. (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment. 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards. 100BaseVG.

125 . It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP. Specialized Solutions. Inc. by joining with either a router or a bridge. Ethernet also works in the UNIX environment.

While the token is in use by a computer to send data. Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer. Actually. Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished). The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token. Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. The Token Ring access method. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. but is still used today. and 3). it is known as a data frame. This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data. Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame. This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub.5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems. 2. is what sets Token Ring apart. more than the cable design. How it Works Basically. and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. 126 Specialized Solutions. The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame. . The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable. Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it. A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token. The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes. it uses the baseband technology. Like Ethernet.5 standard. The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring. The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1. IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984. Inc. It is not as popular as Ethernet.

It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected. the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted. As each new computer comes online. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring. Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful. To accomplish this task.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. if there were errors. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network. the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address. Or. 127 Specialized Solutions. while IBM says counter-clockwise.5 standards say it travels clockwise. The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. as well as its own address. . The IEEE 802. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. Beaconing In a Token Ring environment. Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon. called the active monitor. The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention. The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. After encoding the data frame. Inc. This computer. the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity. This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor. the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected. the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time. Message This is the data or file to be transmitted.

but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters. Inc. This hub is known by a few names. The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network. These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network. The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2. When a computer is connected. the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters. Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network. the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. as there are no male and female ends. but types 1 and 2 may also be used. just as in other networks that use a hub. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. it is only about 45 meters.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. . Each node is connected to the hub via a cable. Using STP. Using UTP. MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. In a pure token passing environment. Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. Using STP. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs. Using UTP. each ring can connect up to 260 computers. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another. Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters. The Type 128 Specialized Solutions. Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. IBM states that it is only 46 meters.5 meters.

A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers. Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable. therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers. The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software. Inc. Therefore. care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible. Patch panels are used to organize patch cables. Using a pair of repeaters. hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable. All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub. AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment. Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments. Specialized Solutions. Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper. 129 . Type 6 may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub.

UTP. AppleShare also provides a print server. mainframe computers. Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare. A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it. This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses. It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers. . Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings. EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system. and even some UNIX computers. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer. This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. LocalTalk performance is rather limited. it is very inexpensive to initiate. When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. Inc. LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP. 130 Specialized Solutions. EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. the device assigns itself an address. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address. If it is not being used by another computer. by using zones. Apple has always been open to third-party development. TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology.5 Standard) environment.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. As such. it will store it to use each time it goes online.

ARCNet transmits data in packets. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters. These hubs may be passive. Inc. It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors. the token is passed in numerical order.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology. the token still passes in numerical order. This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology. this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order.5 Mbps. If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other. but it can be adequately charted to the 802. These packets contain the destination address. It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2. a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data. A later version. active. If using an active hub in a Star topology. Obviously. called ARCNet Plus. ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling. 131 . the maximum cable distance is 244 meters. has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps. ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. Just like other token-passing access method architectures. Instead of the token traveling around a ring. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data. Specialized Solutions. or smart. If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors. but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable. the source address and up to 508 bytes of data. ARCNet utilizes hubs.4 standards (Token Bus LAN).

generally). Inc. Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range. The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well. Speeds up to 54 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific).11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology.11) IEEE 802. 132 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802. Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four. .

it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. and 10BaseT. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances. It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures. Therefore. 10Base5. the Data. Be sure that you understand how this architecture works. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD. but as a networking professional you will encounter them. etc. which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting. which is where the error checking calculation is located. As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year. and the Trailer. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. Managing network data is all about traffic control. Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet. Packets will include information to identify the source address. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future. Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames).Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring. and clocking information. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method. CSMA/CA. go back and review the chapter again. destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted. Specialized Solutions.3 standards. Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network. Inc. If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. Packets consist of three components: the Header. the source and destination addresses. 133 . The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802.

Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Definition 134 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. . Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

135 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Token Ring TokenTalk Trailer Zones Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc.

3. What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10. What are the three primary access methods? 2. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods. 5. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4. Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. . How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7. CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 136 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

19. 137 . Inc. What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? Specialized Solutions. What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17. What is a SMAU? 21. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20. 22. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15. Describe a MIC connector.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18. 14.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 138 Specialized Solutions.

The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have. The size of the company and the portion of the network affected. for example. This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have. 139 . are there any printers or scanners. We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks. whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever indebted to you. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation. You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. pay attention to details.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. (demographics). you are not designing for yourself. etc? If. This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. As a network professional. this is a Macintosh-based company. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. your design will not work for them. (If not. Specialized Solutions. Most importantly. you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows. The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. we will consider hardware compatibility. address. dislikes. Inc. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office. The customer’s likes. you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. However. how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them. Finally. in many cases. The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. rather than a client’s. who has them. Even if this network is your own. and goals. There are two things that you will need to know. etc.

A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. or as large as 8 GB. 140 Specialized Solutions. you must get a clear definition of goals of the network. . or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale). With this information in hand. or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files. The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later. files services. Once you collect this information. you are not documenting your network. Inc. if the file is compressed. prepare a design document. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. So. For example.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint. Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps. This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components. only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network. print services. Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD. at this time. Remember. There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available. you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. etc. the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB.

Inc. 141 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. you will have no problem. The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. You may need to install the software. This can range from none to very high. . Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. all computers are equal. if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t. You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. You may have to add network cards and cabling. Inc. Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement. Likewise. they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. This means that every 142 Specialized Solutions. as generally it is not installed during a standard installation. First. They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. not all nodes may need the same level of security. Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. The level of security required. but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it. if you have a printer connected to your computer. Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future). For example. In a peer-to-peer network. As long as you have the original software disk (CD). The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future.” That is. Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. The commitment of management and users. This sharing is on a directory level. The first is the type of network you will be designing. The most prominent are simplicity and cost. they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing. Also. Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server. If you do not have this information go back and get it. you will need to start making some decisions. Skill level of the network users. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network. may cause problems in the future. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network). The wrong choice now.

all network resources are usually centralized. This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. must less the workings of a network. This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations. the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. etc. if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. In a strict peer-topeer network. When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). Since these computers are larger. 24-hours per day. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added.Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. and lots of memory. While there are many advantages. is another advantage of a server-based network. In a server-based network. a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution. the network must operate transparent to them. Last but not least. The more sophisticated the network. server-based networks are scaleable. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. administration can be a Specialized Solutions. you will also need to consider the disadvantages. only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. Remember. Before you can use any resource. In a peer-to-peer situation. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. Also. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation. In large networks. As for size. and expand as your needs expand. Also. have high-power processor. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer). instead of backing up individual workstations. This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server. if employees need remote access. a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network. Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security. Inc. In small networks. 143 . Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. they will also be using your processor to do their printing. Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off. information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts. For these people. You can connect more workstations. such as your printer. the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older. The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network.

0 -10. let us define the difference between the terms public and private network.0 -172. you can use any address that you want to use inside of your own network and behind your firewalls.0. The only problem is that if your firewall were to come down.255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified network professional. 10. the answer will be very obvious. in others it could go either way.0 144 Specialized Solutions. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design. For this reason. For this reason.16. . A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet.255.255. Once you have made this decision.0 192.0.0. there are specific addresses that are filtered by the routers at the backbone of the Internet.255.255. which would limit its access to those outside of the company. then you might have an address conflict with another entity on the Internet. since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN.0.255 172.32.0. with open access to the global community. stick with it and move forward.0 255. Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each. Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult.0 255.168.255 255. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information. The use of these addresses will completely prevent the address conflict issue. Inc. When you are sitting on the fence. Actually.168.255.0 .192. get more. If you are not sure you have enough information. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer). A public network would be the Internet. In some cases. If all else fails.0.0. Public and Private networks In addition. it is highly recommended that you use these addresses for your private addressing.0. present each case to the client and let them make the final decision.

145 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form. On the other hand. you must add new hardware. Also. The following is an example of an inventory sheet. The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment. Inc. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have. Use it as a starting place to build your own. if all or part of a network already exists. whether hardware or software. This form should identify the equipment and its specifications. Remember. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software. . this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks. That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you. When taking this inventory. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has. ask him or her to show you. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation. 146 Specialized Solutions. if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like. you can skip this section.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: Computer Printer Telecommunication Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA. etc.) # of Free Slots Network Card Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Specialized Solutions. 147 . PCI. Inc.

Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function. . describe each program. Software: If this device uses software. Inc. 148 Specialized Solutions.

Inc. 149 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network. Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network. it will make future documentation easier. By assigning them a number now. and collect all of the documentation you have been working on. . Inc. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment. It is time to get out that pencil and paper. This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. make a drawing of the facility and each network node. or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility. A Network Layout 150 Specialized Solutions.

Realistically. it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5e or CAT 6 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years. 151 . (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics. It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace. If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small temporary LAN. or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). However. repeaters and nodes. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network. However. but if this is a large facility. such as in an imaging environment. may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation. hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. Specialized Solutions. In most environments this will be no problem. you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub. 5-4-3 – If your installation is coaxial Ethernet. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. Cable lengths must be considered. It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). The 100 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. For example. where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. consider Thinnet coaxial cable. you might consider CAT 3. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 5 UTP cables. CAT 6 is the UTP of choice. Inc. In addition.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly. you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments. you will need to install CAT 5e or CAT 6 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 1000 Mbps speed. The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the performance criteria of the network. the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3. if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end). Therefore. or just good common sense. Cable Grade – Local fire codes. On the high end. if you are not sure if expansion is in your future.

It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment in which the computers will be operating. On the other hand. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. Fiber optics are also a good alternative when the manufacturing environment cannot allow for any possibility of even a small spark. or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source. but are not limited. The non-routable protocols. which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment. NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference. you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. Variable temperatures. However. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment. but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. The equipment should be shielded from ESD. Inc. it will work. . Therefore. with a relative humidity of 30 percent. Fortunately. high-humidity. These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers. it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows 2000/2003. which can generate damaging ESD. low-humidity. they are sensitive to temperature changes. which requires the use of routers. Like us. such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. it doesn’t really matter.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise). If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. which can cause corrosion. Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. and RFI. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. since they don’t use electricity to transmit a signal. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network. 152 Specialized Solutions. EMI. are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. on the surface.

153 . Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it. One advantage of using CAT 5 or CAT 6 cable in a star topology from a hub. These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network. This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors. . There are a few more components that need to be installed. the cables are connected to a patch panel. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room. The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable. Inc. To keep these organized.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable. 154 Specialized Solutions. you will most likely need to install a wall outlet. The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet. if using CAT 5 or CAT 6. it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet. is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. In most cases. This way. One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable. All the cables will be brought to one location. This way you can identify each location. Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends. So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables.

Therefore you must know the requirements of each. we must select a card that is compatible with both. Inc. Actually. there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network. Once that is done. Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. That part is the network adapter card. This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media. there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC Specialized Solutions. 155 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 156 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

If you are installing a Token Ring network. and PCI). Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple. 157 . EISA. Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting. Not all cards are the same. Therefore. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. will change. you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots. Resolving these issues is actually quite simple. Inc. Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network. These are little LEDs (one. the card must be compatible with the computer. Before purchasing a network card. There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA. but only at 10 Mbps. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look. Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network. or three) that indicate the status of the card. and therefore the speed at which data can be moved. Micro Channel. a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). In addition to being compatible with the network. two. and expansion projects. The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. For example. the speed of the card is important. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards. administration. Depending on the vintage of the computer. a Specialized Solutions. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection. you must have Token Ring cards. which can be a useful tool. there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture. also called PC Cards. but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. but only at 10 Mbps. An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network. the number of connectors. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus. In general.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. Also. This section will look at compatibility issues. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance.

In most cases with a new card. Install the appropriate drivers for the card. Note: If you must remove the case. Drivers are usually supplied with the network card. Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. Now the network adapter card is installed. If your system is not Plug-n-Play. In addition. if you upgrade your operating system. Physically install the card. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer). The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards. 158 Specialized Solutions. Finally. If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light indicates that data is being transferred. Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer. . Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course. Configure the IRQ and I/O address. If you must do this manually. Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use. You need to configure the card to work with your network software. Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot. be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. If there are any conflicts. you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. the computer may not boot or the conflicting devices might not be able to work simultaneously. this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. Connect the network cabling. you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. Inc. the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card. Each card must be configured for a different network. it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. but you are not finished yet. you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using.

For example. Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. Specialized Solutions. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines. AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector. To increase marketability of their cards. Inc. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector. it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. For Thinnet or Thicknet. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario. as well as possible solutions. some manufacturers will provide two. If you encounter this type of situation. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on. 159 . and possibly three. the engineering department may be PC-based. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day. as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy. Some STP cards require special connectors. These types of problems can be more personal in nature. the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based. the card should have an RJ-45 connector. However. In the case of UTP. For example.

This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly. As the network designer or administrator. With this done. Inc. and knowledge of the network operating system. Standards Earlier in this training course. With this information in hand. you will need to establish the standards for your network. You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots. 160 Specialized Solutions. and detail both its hardware and software. . Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system. you are going to have your work cut out for you. By defining the standards to which the network must comply.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. if installed. Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network. we learned about network protocols and standards. each component will work with the others. Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. hard work and standards. As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them. that were identically configured. boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software. Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network. with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier.

you probably do not have the necessary drivers. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase. Specialized Solutions. Also. Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. but your proficiency will be very low. More than likely. In this case. You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device. you will need to upgrade. network card and/or printer no longer work. when upgrading from Windows 98 to Windows XP. you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. A good example is Windows 95. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers. you find that your modem. the system will not run. 161 . have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system. If drivers exist.Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are. the Internet is the answer. all you need to do is install the Windows XP drivers for the offending hardware. This is a true statement. The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system. These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system. Inc. The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements. however. you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site. The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems. For example. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems.

You can also look for the corresponding logos on the boxes of hardware and software that you are considering purchasing for your network. This list will ship with the 2000 package (on the CD-ROM) and 2000 will make a check during installation. is the Microsoft Windows Catalog at www.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists an example of the minimum requirements for three operating systems: HCL and Windows 2000 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs. Here you will find the latest information about hardware and software that is Designed for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 or at least tested to be compatible with these operating systems. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision. or hardware compatibility lists. This is part of the Windows Logo program. If you want the latest list.com/windows/catalog. If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary. 162 Specialized Solutions. especially with the newest operating systems such as Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with Windows 2000. you will need to check the HCL for that product. . Microsoft Windows Catalog Still another web site to check for compatibility of hardware and software. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000 is hardware dependent. It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware. Inc.microsoft. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. it most likely will not work with Windows 2000.

Inc. 163 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2. 7. However. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? 164 Specialized Solutions. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3. Was this a good purchase? 9. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6. he intends to expand the network in the future.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 6 1. . What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4. but they are not all the same. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. Inc. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards.

from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices. A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network. An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals). it may be too small. Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series. This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network. Inc. Specialized Solutions. In addition to being called “hubs. sooner or later.” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network. to larger hubs that can connect many more computers. There are several different types of hubs. you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network. For example. Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location. 165 . Expanding a LAN with Hubs A common method for expanding networks is to use a hub.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Chapter 7 .

such as databases. Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model. Fortunately. but has one additional feature. you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. have increased response times. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. the simple hub just won’t do the job. Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. amplify the signal. They do however. You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. . Depending on the objectives of the LAN. Inc. Traffic-generating applications. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater. They do not translate or filter any information. Long waits to access a printer or file. 166 Specialized Solutions. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network. thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths.

Routers work at the Network layer of the OSI model. For example. Specialized Solutions. It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge. 167 . Not all network protocols will work with a router. the NetBEUI protocol is not routable. Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Inc. Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment. but it can switch packets across multiple networks.

These are our standard telephone connections. Just because the cost looks good. They are providing the cabling. or dedicated. microwave. When considering which connection service to use. Inc. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates. Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway Connection Services When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries. the distance the data must travel. Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps. With dial-up networking. these connections are slow and not very reliable. When thinking of telephone lines. An example of such a system is the telephone company. there are two levels of service to consider. it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system. Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps. but connecting at this rate is rare. When thinking of a carrier. The first is public dial-up network lines. we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. . does not mean that it is the best value. Be careful when choosing a carrier. each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. 168 Specialized Solutions. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection. Typically. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances. and the cost of the service. and satellite connections. The second choice is leased. be sure to take into account your throughput. lines.

WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs. routers and communications services are used to create a WAN. The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN. 169 .Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded. Inc. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with. It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). It can regenerate the signal. A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN. Specialized Solutions. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity. as well as those transmitted to it. if necessary. It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back. The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. Most WANs are a collection of LANs. These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. items such as bridges. There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines. and deals with timing issues.

but if you have sufficient traffic. you need DDS (Digital Data Service). Voice/radio with tone conditioning. Dedicated lines are far more expensive. This is because you lease the line 100% of the time and therefore do not have to dial-in. they can be justified. Digital Connectivity When you need a faster. Inc. Voice and video. . Basic data. Data applications below 1200 bps. Voice with some quality control. The down-side of these lines is that you will have to pay for them 100% of the time instead of on an “as used” basis.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Basic voice. The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. Voice and data over trunks between computers. 170 Specialized Solutions. Voice and data over private lines. Application relays. Voice and data over trunk circuits. Dedicated analog lines provide an instant connection. more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection.

It can be used to transmit digital voice. whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard.736 Mbps 2. It is capable of 1. data. and video signals.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP. faster download than upload 51.520 or 622. The following table lists the most common connection types: Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A Voice Channels DATA RATE (MBPS) 24 672 32 512 N/A 1. Specialized Solutions.544 Mbps transmissions.8 Mbps 155. 171 .52 Mbps Either 155.048 Mbps 34.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line.544 Mbps 44.080 (can reach 10 Gbps) OC-1 OC-3 ATM 1 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A The T1 and the T3 standard are American. Inc.

25 based packet switched networks. Standard PSTN lines have a very limited bandwidth of less than 56 Kbps. X. however. For this reason. 172 Specialized Solutions. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network. . Obviously. Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast. this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs. so it can be both reliable and fast. be used for somewhat secure remote access by employing the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) and tunneling protocols. Inc. This made for a very reliable and very slow connection. A packet switched network provides multiple paths that packets could travel from source to destination.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. Today’s networks use a different technology referred to as Frame Relay. In older. With Frame Relay. all of which are considered reliable. convenient. a packet may be sent over multiple permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). Frame Relay does not check the packet at each step in its route. since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet. and reliable network messaging. These lines can. each packet was examined at each step in the path to determine whether it was damaged.

adding computers or adjusting resources. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN.” Specialized Solutions.) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment. or any other logical means. 173 . without having to change the physical picture of the network. printers. etc. Inc. which lays out hosts (computers. or by the specific use of the computers. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN. An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within his company. This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN. and imaging. audio. it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds. twisted pair. ATM can be used with FAX. has two 64 Kbps 174 Specialized Solutions. and focuses on the home and business market. you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies.Asynchronous transfer mode uses fixed length (53 byte) cells instead of packets. . it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference. in actuality. FDDI . Because it is fiber optic-based. or fiber optic. ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface). This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network. These cells can speed communication because the network always know exactly what to expect in regard the size of the next cell. ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial.2 Gbps. It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. Inc. As well as the common voice and data. It is. while using copper telephone wires. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services. ATM . It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles). which is intended for use in the home or small business. ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential.Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication. One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need. While not a good choice for WANs. These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1. video. media limited. they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps. However. however.

which is intended for use by large businesses. it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network. much like E1 is to T1. To be more precise. SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media. SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices. 175 .84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768). it is the European equivalent of SONET. Inc. It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx). SMDS SMDS . It is capable of transmitting voice.6). This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802.Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM). ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface).Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps). Internationally. The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps). data and video at rates ranging from 51. Specialized Solutions. within one transmission frame. like OCx with SONET.544 Mbps). It carries all the bits from say. and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control. a call. has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1. and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control.

Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56. or over long distances. Modems are classified by a “V” rating. With this change. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines. Modems transmit data at various speeds. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines. Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable. These speeds are measured as bits per second. the term Baud has disappeared and been replaced with bps. network cards. The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication. Therefore. 4. However. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56.600 bps. and media. designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle. connecting a few computers to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards. Today. As we have already learned. The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V.32bis bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard. etc. Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data. the Baud rate was equal to the bps.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections. To increase our network beyond a few computers. 176 Specialized Solutions.400 High-speed version of the V. there is a limit of 2400 Baud. 8.32 V.22bis V. a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2. due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of transmitting signals over long distances. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion. . With early modems. times as fast as the Baud rate.32 standard. Inc. 14.400 bps. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14.600 bps.

56.90 19. modems – error correction standard. Will only communicate with another V. 177 .200 Not officially a standard yet.800 Improved V. Inc. 28. Backwards compatible with earlier V.FastClass.32terbo.34 V.600 Backwards compatible with earlier V. 57.32terbo V. Specialized Solutions.42 V.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network V.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards. modems.

RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. A system running Windows XP or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection. or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. both of these terms mean the same thing. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building). With RAS. On the other hand. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client. Inc. either via modems and telephone lines. The difference is how each computer is being utilized. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication. all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer. Any two computers can be connected. The difference between a simple computer (Windows XP or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows Server 2003) is the number of inbound connections. Actually. By running Network Connections Wizard and following the simple 178 Specialized Solutions. so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection. there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number. when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. Windows XP has an feature called a direct cable connection. or directly via COM ports and a cable. Also. Let’s first look at connecting two computers. while a true server like Windows Server 2003 will allow 256 inbound connections. In addition. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. You must use a Null-Modem cable. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem. For example. Since the two computers are directly connected.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. .

your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server. Inc. RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work. the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software. but is still in use with some systems. This is a relatively old standard (1984). the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user. the RAS software must be installed and running. The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network. both computers must be using the same protocol. you will use a modem to establish the connection. you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number. 179 . Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking. RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security. On the client side. With this in place. On the server side. Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but. Normally. While this was the protocol of choice for a Specialized Solutions. These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). From this accessory. in this case.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network instructions provided. you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection.

such that only the sender and the receiver can accurately interpret the data that is being sent. Encrypted Connections. • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the Network layer of the OSI model. . It can be used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private 180 Specialized Solutions. It enables highly private network links over the public Internet. Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks. It cannot encrypt logon information. It supports encrypted passwords.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide long time. in today’s networks it has several disadvantages. PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today. It transmits in text only. created by PPTP and other tunneling protocols. the limits of SLIP caused many problems. RAS and Security. NetBEUI. With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications. Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. as a less explensive alternative to costly leased lines. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. This is accomplished by encapsulating one protocol with another protocol. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. Many organizations are using tunnels. IPX. and DECnet. It supports only TCP/IP. VPN (Virtual Private Networks). It’s only supported by RAS clients. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) provides for a secure encrypted tunnel for communication through the Internet. AppleTalk. Inc. It provides security. Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP. It provides data compression and error control.

It does not provide authorization. Inc. SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server. Kerberos V5. and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. it does not require IP connectivity. discussed here in the next chapter. Unlike PPTP. limited RAM. It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP. It is transparent to the user. L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the latest version of the tunneling protocol. a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE). both sending and receiving. 181 . . L2TP offers many advantages over PPTP. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket. TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL. Linux. Thin clients are computers with no hard drive. It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). as does Novell Directory Services (NDS). It uses a key to encrypt the data.509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 Active Directory use this type of security by default. it only establishes the user’s identity. AH only authenticates the user. meaning that the computers. UNIX. Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. usually a user’s credit card number. It is based on an end-to-end security model. and Macintosh computers. It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS. which is the highest security method. It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs. authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network. Specialized Solutions. certificates (like X. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header). or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server. ICA can be used with Windows. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission.. ESP. most relating to higher security.

This provides for additional authentication. This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on. This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to providing remote sharing of information. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server. installing RAS can be frustrating. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary. . Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. the modem configuration. and any other software that might use the modem. In addition. The type of communication port you intend to configure. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server. As with all security measures. you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one. By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection. Before installation. RAS provides several layers of security. If another software package has “control” of the modem. If it does not work the first time. At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller. Security Host (Bastion Host) A security host or bastion host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. 182 Specialized Solutions. you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration. and thus more security. Inc.

Specialized Solutions. it is not always the solution for every network. As a networking professional.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses. The latest Microsoft server operating systems such as Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 have wizards that make installing an RAS server much simpler. you want to keep the costs down. Inc. You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps. 183 . and you don’t need a fulltime connection.

Definition . Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH 184 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc.

Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X. Inc. 185 .25 Definition Specialized Solutions.

186 Specialized Solutions. 9. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. 10. Inc. a bridge. Name three RAS protocols. Define a repeater. 7. Name four forms of RAS security. What is analog communication? 5. What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 7 1. . Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. and a gateway. Name three advanced WAN environments. a router.544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. 4.

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TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX. Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. SNMP. and FTP. Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor. and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. as well as Internet standards. This is the most common protocol suite with which a networking professional works. which will be discussed later in the chapter. TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol). TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project. intranets. it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. and the Internet. Specialized Solutions. The four layers are: Application. TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. the recognized standard for internetworking altogether. Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard. RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP. and is in fact. 189 . such as SMTP. Also. known as BSD UNIX. Internet and Network Interface. TCP/IP. From this beginning. these protocols were available on UNIX early on. These standards. are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board).Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is an internet (between network) protocol. Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress). TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. Inc. some are considered to be Internet standards. It is also used with Ethernet networks. It is important for the networking professional to know that TCP/IP is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. Transport. and is usually seen in the combination. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers.

These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP.Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 190 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model. . There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections. Inc.

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and reassembles the data. . Let’s take a look at them. On a TCP/IP network. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 192 Specialized Solutions. Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others. The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier. This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. they can be retransmitted in a timely manner. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP. However. or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams. A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. Should lost or corrupted packets be detected. Inc. the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports. Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine. It then routes the information to its destination.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. Let’s take a look at how this works. and for the Network+ exam. called packets. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model. It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission. TCP breaks data into tiny chunks.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number. a port is different from a socket. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent. UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably. IP merely routes the data. TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination. or port numbers. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. FTP. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number. This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer. etc. TCP will retransmit the data. The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535. and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number. nor does it check for errors. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. and specify a certain protocol. i. and a Specialized Solutions. but does not acknowledge delivery. For each packet sent. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. 193 . If the transmission has not been successful. HTTP. Inc.. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. Although the terms. consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned. Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted. the protocol number. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. The port number identifies the application associated with the data. meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information. When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet. IP is connectionless. UDP transports data. This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received. The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses.e. The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023. Telnet. The addresses. IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type.535.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide checksum. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer. To be more specific, the checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. When the data arrives at the destination computer, the receiving computer performs the calculation. If the checksum is the same, the data is assumed to have arrived intact. The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network, it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. Time to Live – provides TTL data. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. This cache contains a list of all the devices with which it is communicating. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five, TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server, run searches, or access multiple mail servers. 194 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet, which is what you use when you send out mail. SMTP is server to server, whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers, usually over the Internet. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People.” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files, by typing in a user name, or the word “anonymous.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents, such as web pages. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts, using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP, allowing access to a secure Web server. It uses port 443, the secure SSL port instead of port 80, the HTTP port. HTTPS, as well as SSL, allow for the use of X.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user.

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Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials

Naming Systems
Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. Remember, we are working in two worlds, the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names. Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking. DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates hostnames to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. DNS functions like a telephone directory. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers. For example, the domain bigcompany.com may have an IP address of 192.49.238.33. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose, such as government, education, commerce, or interest. Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC, also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. These domains require suffixes such as .com for businesses or .edu for educational institutions. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains:

.com .net .edu .org .gov .mil .biz .pro .info .xx

Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance, Big Company Inc. in Italy might be http://www.Bigcompany.com.it or in Australia www.Bigcompany.com.au. Also, .tv is gaining in popularity. Tuvalu is a small country, which receives financial benefit from the registration fees.

WINS In a Windows-based network, the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network. NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode, leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application. A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast), P-node (peer-peer), M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). 198 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. It predates DNS. It must be manually created and changed. LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. It must be manually created and changed. IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. For example, it could connect a LAN to the Internet. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet, it must be assigned a static IP address. This means that it is permanently assigned. It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers, sooner or later we will run out of numbers. In smaller isolated networks, IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. However, as the number of addresses required increases, you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. To resolve this, IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. That is, assigned on an “as needed” basis. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. When not needed, the address can be leased to another host. To accomplish this, you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address, subnet mask, and a default gateway if needed. Notice that the IP addresses are leased. This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. A lease can be renewed. When the term of the lease is at 50%, the client will send a request for renewal. If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available), the lease will be renewed without interruption. If not renewed, the client will attempt to contact the DHCP server that issued it the IP address directly about every 5 minutes until it reaches 87.5% of the lease, at which time the client will broadcast a request to obtain an address from any available DHCP server. If all addresses are being used or a DHCP server does not respond, the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user. In this case, the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

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The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties. The proxy server is actually making a connection to another network or to the Internet on behalf of the client. depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time. but it is most often used between a private network and the networks public address or addresses. it serves many clients through only one connection. a NAT is just a device or program that translates one set of IP addresses to another set of IP addresses. and DNS. like a LAN. Actually. The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. It contains DHCP. IP Proxy Servers Earlier. In the case of a proxy server. 200 Specialized Solutions. since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers. . to share a single connection to the Internet. ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time.e. i. NAT. NAT also acts as a type of firewall. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other. Inc. who think they are communicating directly with one another. Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network. the proxy server. It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (public IP address). It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses.

201 .Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions. Inc.

however. 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194.00100111. Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address.11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------16 8 2 1 128 64 32 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet. Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256. A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001. So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33. the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique). let’s now take a look at IP address numbers. they are broken down into four octets.194. 202 Specialized Solutions. Although that is easy for a computer. it is not easy for us. are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes. Internet IP addresses. To simplify these addresses. Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them. The result is called a dotted decimal number. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39. . This IP address is a 32-bit binary number.00001000.2 billion) different numbers. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet.967. Inc.294. A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4.39.8. An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets.296 (4. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names.

The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID). The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID).194. the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID.) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126.39 would be the Network ID and 8. The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000). An example of a Class B IP address would be 129.194. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000). There are five common classes: A through E. only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID). Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks.194 would be the Host ID. Inc. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID. For the Network+ exam. The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33. (A host may be any device on the network.8 and the Host ID would be 194. The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000). you should pay special attention the Classes A. In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID.8. Within classes.194 where the Network ID would be 193. In this case 129. The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223. B and C.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components.39. 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) Specialized Solutions. Depending on the assignment. An example of a Class C IP address would be 193.8. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use. The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39.39. Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks.8.194 would be an example of a Class A address. The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID. the network is divided into classes.39. Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large.8.39. The class can be determined by the value of the first octet. 203 .

Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available. Class B uses two octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID. You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts. you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID. Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID. B or C address. This organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center). Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time. 204 Specialized Solutions.0. Likewise. so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. Class C .used by very large networks.0. All in use and no longer available.777. if a network is going to be connected to the Internet. and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses. Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 . Class C IP addresses are still available. Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs. Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A.223 In addition. there are 16. (For example. specifically 127.534 possible Host ID numbers. This is the loopback address.214 possible Host ID numbers.1) Class A . there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and for multicasting and are not available for normal host addresses. As we mentioned earlier. there are only 65. .191 192 . Inc.used for medium-sized networks. Class B . Also.126 128 . the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic. with the least number of Network IDs.

You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example. A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. 205 . IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology. It uses 128-bit addressing. VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic. Anycast. Rather than having “classes” like IPv4. The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. demand high bandwidth. which only uses 32-bit addressing. It does. and Multicast. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field. This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. For example. An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. Unicast is an address for a single host. however.net. however. to define the address type. as well as ease of configuration and security built right in. Inc. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers (0 to 9. The address types are Unicast. as compared to IPv4. then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme. It would make it unclear as to what was represented. which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits. use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address. Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Specialized Solutions.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot. It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4. IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP).

is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix.0.1 with IPv4. A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address.0. All in all. which replaces broadcast. An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking. The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1. Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link. just like 127. since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one. Inc. 206 Specialized Solutions. Multicast.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address. Finally. . Site-local address.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of creating more than one private network from one public network address by customizing your subnet mask. a large university may have a network spread over several buildings and perhaps remote campuses.0.534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s. This is done with binary addition (anding).255. By using subnets. In this example. For example: 11111111. The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address.255. you can reduce the overall network traffic. Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask.0.0.255.0. 207 .0 In regard to classful addressing .255.777.0 (Class B). separating it from the host portion of the address. Before looking at anding. Default Subnet Masks 255. a router can determine which addresses are local and which addresses are for other subnets within the network. only the traffic that is not local will pass through.0.0. Inc.0.0 (Class A).255. A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) in which all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address. You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet.255. Since a router connects each subnet.11111111.0 255. The number of 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network. lets look at subnet masks. For example. If you “and” the IP address to the subnet mask.216 hosts) Class B (65. 255. the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class).0 (Class C).00000000. have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right. all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet. You must however. or 225.0 255. which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address. Anding is the binary addition that the router uses to make this determination. a subnet mask can be 255.255. By using a concept called anding. Specialized Solutions.00000000 or 255.0 Class A (16.

194) 11111111. Any local addresses will not pass through. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet. using our previous example of 33.00000000 (255.224.8.0) equals 00100001. while the Host ID 0. Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33.00000000 (33. Inc.0.8. it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address.00000000.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones.8. let’s and it to the subnet mask of 255.194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask.32.32.39.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remember.0.194. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 208 Specialized Solutions.0. .11100000.00100111.194.00100000.7.224.32 and the Host ID is 7.0. By using this method.0. and through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID.00000000.8.32. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet. 00100001. thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network.194.11000010 (33.39. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7.00001000.0.8.

0.255.b. A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network.a. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring).0 255. Inc. 209 .255.0.c to 223.0.b.0.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking.152 Number of Hosts 16. Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet.a.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001. A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card.0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner.c to 126.777.0.255.255.216 65.c 192.b.0 255. • • • • Connect physically remote local networks. Specialized Solutions.b.a.0 Number of Networks 126 16.0.255.c Default Subnet Mask 255.0 255.384 2.0 255.a.b.c 128. Be sure to include some room for growth of the network.b. it will require an address for each subnet.c to 191. There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required. If a router is connected to two subnets.a.097.a. Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet.255. Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment.

We will use an InterNIC ID of 191.0.382 Hosts N/A 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 210 Specialized Solutions.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16.255.224 255. Inc. .192 255.255.240 255.248 255.255.248. As we begin to subnet.000 hosts.255.0 255. To begin this process.255.255.255. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255.36.255.0 255.0 255.192.0 255.255.255.255. With this number.0.255. You should remember the formula 2n-2 where n is the number of bits borrowed. First.255. we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet.255.252.255.255.224.128 255.240. We use this formula to determine the number of subnets that will be created by borrowing bits from the hosts.0 255.255.255. we have one network with approximately 65.255.0 255.0 255. Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255. you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC. The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network.255.254.255. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign.

224 255.192 255. lets keep our network ID of 191.255. you can use the scientific calculator supplied with any Windows operating system. giving us a total requirement of 18.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 Hosts N/A 30 14 6 2 To make this easy. let’s add 4 more for future expansions.36 as assigned to us by InterNIC. 211 . the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements.255.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255.255. We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID.240 255. 1. Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected. we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs. 2. For this example. Now we get out our Windows calculator. Enter the value of 18.255.255.248 255.255. Specialized Solutions. Change the mode to binary (Bin). 3. Inc.255.255.255.255. Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator). The number 18 will now be in binary (10010). Just to be on the safe side.

0. Count the number of binary digits (5).255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 212 Specialized Solutions. To keep things simple. For this example. let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255.0 and the network address of 192. Inc. our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets. Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask. . This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2.36. This will be the number of bits required for the third octet.255.000 hosts each.224. Had we needed to add a new subnet. instead of selecting the next subnet on our list.248. you can determine the available Network IDs. Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth). we would have had to reconfigure the entire network. the subnet mask would be 255.

36 (overall network address) 192.0. or one that is located on a remote network.255. 213 . The only restrictions are that you cannot use . this means that the number starts with . The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID.128 192.96 192. and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet. (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask.0.000 or .0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255.0.36. on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255.32 192. The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network.0.36. This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address.36.36.64 192.255.160 192. Inc.255. For example. Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network. In dotted-decimal format.0. these are reserved for broadcast addresses.36.255.192 Determine the Host IDs The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001). the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery. up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID. A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255.001 in the last octet. indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively.) Specialized Solutions. If it is different. they are on the same network.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192.36.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255.255.255.0 255.0 255.0.0. Inc.255.0 CLASS ID 1 .191 192 .223 214 Specialized Solutions.0.126 128 .

Inc.” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server. and click Properties. On some screens. click the Protocols tab. IP Address Here. Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. in addition to other hardware and software configurations. 215 . and enter the information in the appropriate fields. However. Specialized Solutions. DNS You can enable or disable DNS. Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. Next. Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor. Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways. or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically. The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using. you will need to type in the specified default gateway. Click the radio button to enable DNS. right-click on TCP/IP Protocol.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. you may specify a particular IP address. This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information. other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window.

It also includes the DNS configuration. 216 Specialized Solutions. Inc. This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration. and subnet mask configuration.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients. default gateway. . WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 217 . Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword POP3 Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 218 Specialized Solutions.

Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups. What is a domain? 7. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3. Inc. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. 10. What is the purpose of DNS? 5. 219 . Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Review Questions Chapter 8 1. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Specialized Solutions. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. What is an FQDN and give an example? 6. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2. 12. 4.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 220 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network. you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device. 221 . It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data. you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network. Specialized Solutions. Using one of these products. Inc. In addition.SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks. The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base). Network Managers . From the database and the software interface. The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator. the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network.

Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device. The three commands are: Get: request data from the device. Get-next: request the next value in a sequence. Set: sends a configuration value to a device. Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network. Inc. . An additional SNMP command is the trap. It will respond to commands issued by the management software. The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents. This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager. therefore providing a level of security. 222 Specialized Solutions. These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt. A community can also restrict access.

Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis. Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table. TRACERT. shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination. Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. and normal (i). serious (!). Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table. Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred). This includes critical system errors. ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it. Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names. NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. but did not cause a stop. and TCP/IP events and errors. Specialized Solutions. NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. 223 . TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. Inc. Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics. Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar. and typing in either cmd or command. Inc. clicking Run. 224 Specialized Solutions.

Specialized Solutions. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address. NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same. and will display the current configuration of a computer. NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified. and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot.12. 225 . NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain. Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain. IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration. Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client. Inc.1. IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools. Ping works at the IP level.168. RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. For example. NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address. PING The lowest level test to find out if you have connectivity to a remote host. the IP of a host might be 192. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 226 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. 227 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 9 1. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2. List as many as you can. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. 228 Specialized Solutions. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network. 3. Inc. each device will need to be _________ compliant. .

Password practices and procedures. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems.Chapter 10 – Network Security Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. or even millions. Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company. is right up front. or anyone who has access to your network for that matter. Whether the sabotage is malicious. Most users will also be able to access shared files. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created). Therefore. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. depending on the roles they play in your company. There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. The best time to set up your network security. Inc. or at least have your plan intact. the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network. from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files. Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change. anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. before you set up the network. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. data encryption. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access. or an irresponsible prank. can deliberately damage your network. As you might have already deduced. Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user. 229 . she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of her particular network. motivated by curiosity. creating chaos and costing thousands. A disgruntled employee. Very few users will have access to administrative features. you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent. A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords. unless safeguards are built in. Specialized Solutions. of dollars. the results can be devastating. Users should be held accountable for the security of their individual workstations.

authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source. while the original file remains intact. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model. The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system. Inc. such as a template or another type of file. In a manner similar to the signature on a document.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file. should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required. among other things. where the administrator can easily retrieve it. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. . the user will be inclined to be less attentive to personal security. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. 230 Specialized Solutions. Password protection is. It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality. passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users. Users can access a shared resource. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process. However. and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security. The user can edit the file as necessary. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place. a gesture of respect for the user and the system.

Inc. 231 .Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Security Specialized Solutions.

Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. Files need to be backed up daily. Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. As the system administrator. This needs to be handled in such a way that production will not be interrupted. or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. For example. Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs. you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs. at the very least. you would block port 80. . Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. they can be host-based. and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. and even more often on larger networks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. Inc. you will most likely be using E-mail. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network. and work at the application level. If you are accessing the Internet from your network. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network. if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet. by forwarding application traffic through the firewall. or auditing. 232 Specialized Solutions. It is an important part of a network security plan. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information.

Remember. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk. Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. those who fail to plan. the other can take over without compromising network operations. Inc. called the backup medium. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). There are several options available. the second server should serve as a backup to the first. In addition. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available. Floppy disk capacities today. and how often backups will be performed. and the procedure to follow for recovery. rather than one larger server.Chapter 10 – Network Security It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs. the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk. Although slower than RAID. As you might guess. you must answer important questions about what to backup.44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today. offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other. so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations. Ideally. for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity. range from 1. Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. While planning your backup strategy. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups. As a computer professional. Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. These multiple disks are called disk arrays. plan to fail. you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data. If anything happens to one. and are more commonly known as RAID. so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security. This backup medium is suitable for small companies. how the backup information will be tested. 233 . It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. it is still a viable option. Specialized Solutions.

and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. despite the presence of hardware or software failures. This usually involves some degree of redundancy. . A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk. This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space. as its name implies. The Full backup. as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk. Differential and Incremental. but will be the easiest to restore. the last full backup and all of the incremental backup tapes will be needed. will backup all selected data on the network. is called fault tolerance.. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups. Differential. Full. Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations. both the last differential backup tape copy and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used. This type of backup is usually performed weekly. When recovering from a failure.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient. To restore. 234 Specialized Solutions. but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. This method will take the largest amount of storage media. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server. Inc. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup. and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level.

The same data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure. administrators are alerted when one disk fails so that they can “regenerate” the RAID set before another disk has a chance to fail. this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent. which provides for even more fault tolerance.Chapter 10 – Network Security The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 . support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing. If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up. With this method. However. such as a single file. this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful. RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme. Typically. however. so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping. This technique may be applied in either software or hardware. a copy of the data is spread across all of the disks based on a mathematical formula such that any one disk in the set can be lost and the other disks will have a copy of all of the information that it contained. Inc. and is a standard feature of RAID systems. Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies. if anything happens to one of the drives.) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk. Several operating systems. then the data in the entire array is also lost. If more than one disk is lost.Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 .Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 .” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data. This.Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 . 235 . the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved.Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 .Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 . (Provides no fault tolerance. including Novell NetWare. is not being used commercially at the moment to an Specialized Solutions.Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks.

also called surge suppressors. is like RAID-10. A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. . SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached. Cost. surges. since it is not dependent on another computer. which allows for better performance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide large degree. but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. It functions faster. are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes. allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. is an issue. it offers better performance. Like RAID-10. It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN. There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. and sags in the power supply. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power. RAID-53. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests. The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. These types of RAID are not as commonly used and are not as likely to be on the test. as you might guess. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. but at a greater cost. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. such as battery time remaining. Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. Inc. There are different types of UPS devices. In this case. RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array). Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI). A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. 236 Specialized Solutions. RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. and each type provides power for a different length of time. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity.

no matter who they are. 237 . and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas. but are easy enough that users can remember them. Specialized Solutions. include characters. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. etc. In order for this policy to be effective. This holds users accountable for their actions on the network. away. an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days. There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files. The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters and use a combination of letters. This is known as a security audit. Passwords should be changed more frequently in high-security networks. symbols.” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents. Inc. So. numbers and symbols. he or she will know how to accomplish the task. and numbers. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them. Some “classified” networks require password changes every day. Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others. Users working with sensitive information such as budgets.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy. should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there. personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. No one. If the network administrator needs to use the workstation. and troubleshoot before the trouble starts. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being applied. Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed.

Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon. The name comes from their first initials.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used. and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. other than the person for whom the message was intended. It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest. Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient. Adi Shamir. and Leonard Adleman. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. Even with encryption. DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message. This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem. 238 Specialized Solutions. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). This method uses a 56-bit private key. The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. . the Internet is not the most secure of environments. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. can understand the message. and is used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking. Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data. These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. Inc.

The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off. Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters. They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip. It is similar to DES. Many viruses are simple annoyances.000 known viruses. With this method of encryption both parties have the same key.Chapter 10 – Network Security Extra data appended to a message. which is used to encrypt data and to decrypt it. Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed. the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities. Viruses can be spread by various sources including: shareware. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. software from unknown origins. There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run. Specialized Solutions. but they are less secure. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages. is called a digital signature. If the receiver wishes to respond. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method. files downloaded from the Internet. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex. both on location and at backup sites. will ensure a much quicker recovery. There are over 60. much less a day. 239 . and bulletin boards. The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. As the name implies. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption. Symmetric Keys can also be used. Prevention should also be addressed in the plan. Inc. it is not a completely secure encryption method. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability.

If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes. With this in mind. . Hundreds of viruses are written each month. It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document. Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines. Inc. (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail). The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files). These days. 240 Specialized Solutions. but when loaded. (prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk). Use extreme caution when you download files. Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. they will go to work on the system. enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing a new operating system. there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market. Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks. Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine. Make sure it is compatible with all of the operating systems that you use. Keep your anti-virus program updated. Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world. Macro Virus: These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened. they mean that when you open a document you are running a program. just from running a program. many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site.

Inc.Chapter 10 – Network Security Specialized Solutions. 241 .

Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 242 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

In a share level model. What are the three common levels of RAID? 6.Chapter 10 – Network Security Review Questions Chapter 10 1. 243 . What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2. 5. Inc. 3. passwords are assigned to __________. What is the function of a firewall? 4. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Specialized Solutions. The acronym RAID stands for __________.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 Specialized Solutions.

you must be organized. computers never fail at a convenient time. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software. Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned. This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. and good listening skills. 245 . or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now. They always fail in the middle of a job. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. As a troubleshooter. Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). The eight parts are as follows: establish the symptoms. Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. a pen (or pencil). The user of the computer or network is your best source of information. It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier. If fact. implement a solution. To make matters worse. Remember. Specialized Solutions. not when all is well. not the symptom. you are looking for the cause. Remember. After all. so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. “as reported. a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you. What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. In most cases. identify the affected area. you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution.Conclusion Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. it seems well defined by the person who calls and complains! But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem. Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause. Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. and progress with some specific tools that you can employ to simplify the process.” is really just the symptom and not the true cause. if you are the expert. The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper. Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. while for others it is a struggle. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. In order to do this. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. Inc. establish what has changed. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. select the most probable cause. Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. you will most likely be called when there is a problem. test the result. This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems. The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. For those who must endure the struggle. but they often hold the keys to the problem.

) Show me how to create the error. have someone demonstrate the failure to you. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience. do not intimidate the user. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever. If it is an operatorinduced problem. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation. Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem. the failure occurs. and so forth). Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure. Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of the failure. These never seem to occur when you are present. The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. For example. it is important to observe how it is created. If possible. and most importantly. and when. Be sure to observe the failure yourself. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before. however. recent software upgrade. This will take time and patience. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. You may. The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work toward the more complex. You will need to create your own list based on the situation. With a little experience. Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know. Inc. Sometimes. One thing that might 246 Specialized Solutions. You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory. network or computer moved. screen changes. as well as the results. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works. or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred. . the process of elimination is all that you can do. lights. Do not make the questions too technical. Describe any changes in the computer (noise. The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that caused the failure. but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure.

If for example. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up. Document every action and its results. Once a plan is created. create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. Do not make any assumptions. Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made. is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly. The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. 247 . If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be). Inc. Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems. For example. It requires two simple steps. Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user Specialized Solutions. Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. write them down. then you know for sure that the network is physically working. That way the “evidence” is not disturbed. but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration. then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. but you cannot receive any E-mail.Conclusion help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. You may have to refer back to them later. you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood. In the case of a network problem. and move forward. but to call you. make a plan and follow it. Starting from the top. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. it is important to follow it through. If you must make any assumptions.

. Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures. as well as the one that is causing problems. Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. In these cases. if an operator is afraid of computers in general. Implement the solution. To resolve these types of problems. repair or replacement is usually all that is needed. the problem may be caused by the operator. you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem). It is important to use another operator. For example. either repair or replace the defect. In these situations. Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems. you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. if the problem is software or configuration related. no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed. Inc. Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Once the search has been narrowed. 248 Specialized Solutions. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures. However. This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome. it may require some additional effort. start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not. Note: If the problem is software-oriented. and not the hardware or the system. be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes. With hardware. This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work).

Inc. In troubleshooting. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction. document the problem and the repair. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle. or a follow up call just to make sure all is well. You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience. 249 . This is one way to build. The basis for this policy is that once the system is running. and share experience. You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again. you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem. Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user. there is no substitute for experience. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. and the repair. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms. Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists. maintain. The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. the problem.Conclusion Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. Document the solution Finally. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. Specialized Solutions.

let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling. Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network. Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals. Inc. a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician. They secure the connection between the wires and the block. Punch Down Tool 250 Specialized Solutions. Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools. Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack. The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire. .

Since it is made up of wires. in principle. you can have only one of two problems. Inc. it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. If the test is negative (no light or noise). which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. resistance. A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete. whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. Some meters will let you test for current as well. the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. If the wire is broken. When working with network cabling. An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up.Conclusion Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. In a wire for example. Network cabling is. we will have to know how to test for continuity. Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red). If your meter does not have a continuity setting. When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing. We will start by looking at a multimeter. which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound. The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe. the circuit is broken. You can test for AC and DC voltage. With it you can test various electronic components. There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires. and continuity. These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted). A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps). it is still possible to test for continuity. Specialized Solutions. the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. very easy to troubleshoot. as well as the electrical power in the computer. Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. 251 . The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters. All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. For example.

thus locating the wires. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. it will emit a tone. The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel). However. The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator. The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky. and test at the other end. If both ends are in the same location. When used together. However. testing for continuity will require an additional wire. The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). there are more often than not. This applies a signal on the wires. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician should have one. Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. called tone generators and tone locators. to find pairs of wires in a bundle. You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end. these tools are often called a fox and a hound. 252 Specialized Solutions. Inc. if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building. this is not a problem.

They will monitor network traffic. because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable. Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters. Software analyzers. By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable. It has the transmit and receive wires connected. also called packet sniffers. A loopback cable is just what the name implies. 253 . It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. If you are able to send a signal and have it return. and therefore back to the network card. but is double-ended. These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling.Conclusion Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. capture packets and generate reports. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions. Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic. Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire. the location of any break or short can be determined. there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment. Inc. Be careful when using a crossover cable. you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa). Specialized Solutions. A crossover cable is similar to a loopback. are usually a PC with a special network card.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR. OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back. but used for fiber optic cabling. . 254 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Conclusion Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network. due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact. but can be caused by a disconnected cable. and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors. Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords. Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security. This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. For some reason. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail. Inc. Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. Some passwords are case-sensitive. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors. If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate. You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so. The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network. It could be the processor. A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. Therefore. Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam. the network. or a disk resource. the traffic is not moving. 255 .

These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours. For example. If slow loading persists even after defragmenting. so does the traffic. the network slows down. Inc. As networks grow. tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night. check for memory bottlenecks. . You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives. You must defragment the drive. deletes. Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 256 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves. and moves information. When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it.

These commands work from a command prompt. Remember this address. TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on your intranet or on the Internet your packet is going. This will test the protocol stack in the computer. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG. It also lets you know the time that it takes. because as a network professional. The first step is to PING the loopback address. PING.Conclusion Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network.1. but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card. Specialized Solutions. The loopback address is 127. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities.0. On a Macintosh system. If you are using TCP/IP. you will use it often. PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation. On a Windows 95/98 computer. 257 . and TRACERT commands to test the network. This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS. you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu.0. Inc.

6. WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195. Inc. XP. 2000. This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT. . 258 Specialized Solutions. or 2003 system. WINIPCFG. your dialog box will look like the following.48.55. If you are using Windows.

It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network. you receive a message like the following. Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems. For the IPX/SPX networks. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday. and so on. PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer. Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t. you will be testing a larger portion of the network. 259 .Conclusion PING 195. you have encountered a problem. With each step.48.6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation.55. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol. the server. Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: Specialized Solutions. Usually this means you have the wrong IP address. If at any stage. then there is a problem with the protocol. Inc. use the ipxping command. they must be okay.

” With nslookup. Beyond that. If there is a sudden change in performance. One is the IP address number. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer. How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution. That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server). we need to look at four limiting factors on performance. Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name. If these files are being used. 260 Specialized Solutions. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address. In general. . These are text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses. the first thing to do is find out what has changed. you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory. you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector. Inc. respectively. they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network. The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details. Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa. you can be sure that the network is not being detected. Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. If present. To resolve this problem. Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. Earlier. or hosts. we learned that workstations. while green lights indicate that all is well. If no lights are on. they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. suspect a loose or disconnected cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS. have two names.

Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays. The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps). but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks. You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information. it will affect the entire network. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request. you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. Then. it can send data at a faster than rated speed. The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system. adding to the network load. if you are experiencing slow printing. you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. at a later date. you will know the high. The speed limit. everything slows down. Inc. Latency Small delays in packet movement that are caused by devices is called latency. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. are negligible. For example. if the traffic gets too congested. if any one component is performing poorly. Just like our highway. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation. but are interrelated. Specialized Solutions. you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed. is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). the more packets that can be moved). An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. To create a baseline. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. or maximum speed that traffic can move. Therefore. From this information. Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory. This can slow down data transfer. after you identify the problem. Resolving performance problems can be easy. slow. This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. The answer lies in creating a performance baseline.Conclusion Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing. Latency delays. The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now. Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. This means that for a small amount of time. For example. and average time to print the document. A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache. Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. for the most part. 261 .

Windows Performance Monitor 262 Specialized Solutions. percent of network utilization. Inc. With this tool. . available memory. Windows has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events. etc. With this activated. etc. To collect these statistics. you will be able to monitor such events as processor time. Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network. you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc.Conclusion KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 263 .

are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. Inc. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2. . You are troubleshooting a cable problem. You have located the cable in question #3. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6. What tool would you need to find the short? 5. What is the loopback IP address? 7. and think it might be shorted. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Conclusion 264 Specialized Solutions. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8. After repairing a problem. You have just connected a workstation to the network. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slowly. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9.

Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. Specialized Solutions. or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. 265 . When you are ready to schedule your exam. After taking a practice exam. the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. at Specialized Solutions. be sure to review any areas that need improvement. as you like. start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course. and don’t forget to use the Glossary. we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. and as often. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material. you are ready to sit for your certification exam. To measure your retention of these materials. our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site. Inc. When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range. We love to hear from our students. Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. so if you have any questions. Remember.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 266 Specialized Solutions.

267 . Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. They are specified based on their impedance. Inc. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Specialized Solutions. Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same. you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule. • • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. It is expressed in ohms. Only 3 segments can contain nodes. In order for the network to operate at peak performance.Appendix A – Tech Summary Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing coaxial Ethernet cabling. Maximum of 4 repeaters. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages.

Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 10Base5 Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Bus 500 10 100 5 4 10Base2 Bus 185 10 30 5 4 3 268 Specialized Solutions. Description Stranded wire core. but also used for broadband transmissions. Length (meters) Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment Max Segments Max.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core. ArcNet networks. RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max. Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59. . Military specification of RG-58 A/U. such as cable television. Broadband transmission. Inc.

Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch. Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG. Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Plenum grade. Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps. 269 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Two STP –26 AWG wire. Specialized Solutions. Six twisted pairs. Contains a shield for use under carpets. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Same as type 1.5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Not Defined Two 62. Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets.Appendix A – Tech Summary UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps. Two STP – 26 AWG wire. Inc. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch. IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks. Voice-grade cable. Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). but adds voice capability along with data. Data grade up to 100 Mbps.

6 802.8 802.9 802.2 802. They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls.1 802.7 802.4 802.12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 270 Specialized Solutions. Inc.x Standard 802. 802.5 802.3 802.11 802.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model.10 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802. .

Appendix A – Tech Summary IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer. 271 . COM4 COM1. there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed. No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually Specialized Solutions. Inc. however. The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2. COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs.

The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F . Inc.LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 272 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address.LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F . .

Inc. 273 .Appendix A – Tech Summary 3A0 to 3AF 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model Specialized Solutions.

255. .x to 126.0.x.0 255.255.x 192.x.097.x.x.0. Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001. x.x. Repeaters Computers Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address.x to 191.x.0 Number of Networks 126 16.x 128.x.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Gateways Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Brouter Bridges Switches NICs. Inc.152 Number of Host 16. x. Hubs.534 254 274 Specialized Solutions.x Default Subnet Mask 255.777.255.x.x.0.x to 223.384 2.214 65.x.0 255.

and default gateway. If all is well. Use the loopback address (127. the subnet address. Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the Linux user’s network interface configuration. the subnet mask.0. PING ARP RARP Specialized Solutions.Appendix A – Tech Summary TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. it will return. Inc. Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. Sends a test packet to a specified address. 275 . Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address.0.1) to test the IP architecture and configuration. Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks. Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses).

. ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries. all computers are connected to a hub. NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology. 276 Specialized Solutions. all computers are connected in a series. Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents. Used to check the status of current IP connections. In a star topology. Used to verify the route to a remote host. (Pronounced Trace Route.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it. Inc. Used to check the resolution of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses.) Used to verify entries on a DNS server.

all computers are connected to each other. In a mesh topology. all computers are logically connected in a circle.Appendix A – Tech Summary In a ring topology. Inc. Specialized Solutions. 277 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages. Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. Inc. Can also be used for precise voltage measurements. and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry. . Protocol Analyzer 278 Specialized Solutions. An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals. TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks. resistance. Also called a network analyzer.

279 . Event Viewer SNMP Specialized Solutions. hubs. interface cards.Appendix A – Tech Summary Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations. Inc. Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers. routers. and networks. Used to provide information for network baselines. and bridges). Displays or prints a list of events. servers.

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microsoft.com Other Helpful Sites http://www.Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www.novell.com Specialized Solutions.cnet. 281 . Inc.com Novell http://www.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 282 Specialized Solutions. .

In the computing industry. EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. it is responsible for establishing standards for communication. Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector. For additional information. let alone the networking industry. It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. Inc.Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. This is a common code for basic characters and numbers. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry. ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below). CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. As its name implies. 283 . search for these organizations on the Internet. This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry. it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards. Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes. Specialized Solutions.

Inc. As long as both are SQL compliant. ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment.x sub-committees. Since they cover a wide variety of equipment. 284 Specialized Solutions. the IEEE is subdivided into committees. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards. See Appendix A for a summary of the 802. its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language.x committee. the data can be smoothly transferred. Inc. The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802. This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another. These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model. Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused. As you may guess from its name.

or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer. please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number. either by credit card. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers.vue.Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE.com for Prometric or www. Inc. Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time. To register via the Internet. go to www.com for VUE. When you call. 285 .2test. Specialized Solutions. Payment is made at the time of registration. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like. and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE. Prices subject to change without notice. credit card or voucher. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test. Method of payment. Date you wish to take the test. Payment must be made each time you take the test.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 286 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Appendix E – Glossary Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. or computers on the network (nodes). it supplies functions to applications. Inc. Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). The Apple networking protocol. 287 . The file server on an AppleTalk network. The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies. Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. program. Software. A dedicated server for applications. or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. opposite of digital. or bits per second (bps). Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. The highest layer of the OSI Model. Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. A continuously variable signal. American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. these three terms are often used interchangeably. so they can communicate with other applications or nodes.

such as IBM. A form of mobile computing. An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals). such as Microsoft. The signal flow is uni-directional.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. Hardware that connects one network with another. IP Address used by very large networks. . or DEC. IP Address used by medium-sized networks. Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. these are all in use at the present time. A bus driver. GM. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems. A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances. Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address 288 Specialized Solutions. British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. Inc. The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC.

Data that is encoded for security reasons. using a specific protocol. at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor. or Cyclic redundancy Code. Cyclic Redundancy Check. which is. is a number derived from. to allow other tasks to run. Same as a hub. A form of multitasking. from computer or network to another. itself. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. 289 . or language. called a server.Appendix E – Glossary Client Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable User computer “being served” by another computer. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation. or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. Software used by the client. Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption Specialized Solutions. Inc. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media. The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable. stored.

DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. . so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives. so that one can take over for the other if it fails. this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data. If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks. A limited form of bus mastering. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway.A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients. for sending on the Physical layer. Inc. such as an individual file.) Being able to recover data from a disaster. (Simple “on” or “off” signal. It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly. Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 290 Specialized Solutions. This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . The Data Link layer splits data into frames. the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk. Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency. in a round-robin fashion.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. Also called data striping. It also receives acknowledgement frames.

A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits. A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received. error detection. A group of bits containing address information. with a very large amount of storage space for shared files. File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once. A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard. 291 DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex . Specialized Solutions. and other control information. A network’s central computer. Inc. A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC.Appendix E – Glossary DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. An improved version of X.25 packet switching technology. sent over a communications channel. Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway A computer that acts as a translator. test packets. Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). or ring topologies. but only one at a time. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol. Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5. It precedes the actual data. and other information. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. . RFC 791. star. Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture. A network topology that combines bus. even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. and informational messages related to IP. HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses. GSNW Half-Duplex Header HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address 292 Specialized Solutions. that enables two networks. using different protocols. RFC 792. is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages. to communicate with each other. defined in STD 5. is usually represented in dotted decimal notation. Inc.

A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network. A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data. it’s “hardware address. a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology. Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator. internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring. across a network connection. Inc. and video data sources. Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver. 293 ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU . Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer.Appendix E – Glossary IPCONFIG IPsec IRQ DOS command that tells you the IP address for your computer. Specialized Solutions. data.” Server used for E-mail.

protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources. . introduced by IBM for its PS/2 computer line. Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card 294 Specialized Solutions.400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS). and is used by CompuServe. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. A type of hub. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission. Also known as a network interface card. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. Performing multiple tasks simultaneously.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide MCA Bus Micro Channel Architecture. One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems. Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS. Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X. among others. Much like your local radio station. The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. A method of data transmission. totally incompatible with the original PC bus. a 32-bit bus. Inc. Provides the physical connection to the network cable. Single Frequency Radio.

Acts as a connection point only. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network. A generic term used to describe a unit of data. Specialized Solutions. depending on the protocol. An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network. A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources. Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet. A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards. 295 Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card .Appendix E – Glossary Network Administrator Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network. including network connectivity. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model. The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network. Inc.

many third-party applications are available. used to circulate air through a building. Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network. this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking. other processes will still run. Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 296 Specialized Solutions. . converting character sets and encrypting data. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer.5 of Windows 3. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Peer-to-Peer Performance Monitor All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server. depending upon the needs of the user. The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time. Defines a channel between a device and the processor. A hardware device. Dedicated server for printing. and even if a process takes full control. A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server. such as a printer or scanner. Although included as part of Windows NT. which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack. The space between the ceiling and the floor above. and running on TCP/IP. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer. The Presentation layer formats data exchange.1. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model.

In a Ring topology. the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps.e. For example. to be accessed via a modem. Used to increase cable distances in network environments. Connector used with standard telephone wire. Connector used with UTP and STP network cables.Appendix E – Glossary Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN Specialized Solutions. Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. Inc. The services or peripherals that are shared over the network. Redirects a call from one port to another. the proxy server. For example. i. including support for dialup and logon. which then routes the signal appropriately. In Token-Ring networks. the devices are connected in a continuous loop. A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network. Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network. The signal is beamed towards a central unit. 297 . A device that forwards packets between networks.

Inc. connection establishment and release. Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another. A uni-directional data channel. as opposed to duplex. SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP 298 Specialized Solutions. to be used over a serial link. normally used on Ethernet. is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP). was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. Simple Network Management Protocol. as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. . etc. RFC 1157. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use. until it reaches the receiver. usually over Ethernet. The Session layer handles such things as security authentication. A computer on a network that provides services to other computers. the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. defined in RFC 1055. Software that resides on a server. data transfer. Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. Transmission rates are slower with this type. acknowledgments (ACK).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. ceilings. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet.

The maximum speed that “traffic” can move. Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol. A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5.Appendix E – Glossary SONET Spread-Spectrum Radio Synchronous Optical Network Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. The process of subdividing a network into logical units. rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms. the entire network goes down. Maximum segment length is 500 meters. Inc. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings. Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. that uses a large diameter. An access method used in a Token Ring topology. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub. Using binary addition. so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. If the hub fails. measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802.5 Standard) environment. or across large flat open areas. 299 SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk . Specialized Solutions. such as bodies of water or deserts. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters. the official protocol of the Internet.

like TCP.” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface. Used on transceivers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). Tool for stripping and cutting wire Tone Locator TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 300 Specialized Solutions. The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport. is layered on top of IP. this applies a signal on the wires. Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer. The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information. it will emit a tone. RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. A device that transmits and receives data. Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments. The “hound. A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. which. Inc. thus locating the wires. The “fox. . defined in STD 6. Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding. User Datagram Protocol.” A receiver set to the frequency of the generator.

Appendix E – Glossary WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves. such as Token Ring. A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks. Inc. 301 . using zones Zones Specialized Solutions. resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 302 Specialized Solutions. .

Files are easily accessed by all users. Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security). 3. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server). What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Review Questions Chapter 1 1. 2. loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations. What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use. Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area. A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. and peripheral devices. such as data.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers. LANs typically also have much faster communication speed than WANs. 7. 6. and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less). data backups can be more easily and routinely performed. like one office). What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet. Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net. applications. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. 5. 4. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources. Simple to install. A WAN is not geographically limited. No security. Inc. Specialized Solutions. configure. It is confined to a limited area. 303 .

Review Questions Chapter 2 1. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see. Increased performance on large networks. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU. Star. Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). 11. and Demand Priority. Inc. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. . What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. They represent what the topology looks like. 2. More difficult to install and configure. File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access. 304 Specialized Solutions. and Ring. Centralized location of resources (server). Some NOSs function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. Centralized administration. Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. The three basic topologies are: Bus. Ease of data backups. Token Passing. Name some advantages of a Server-based network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 8. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment. 9. 12. more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). Name the three basic topologies. Can be expanded as network grows. 10.

and file and print services. messaging. name service. Define interoperability. 4. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. Inc. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. groups. 305 . NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. 6. Unlike NetWare. It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments. 5. 8. and volumes is also handled with NDS. 9. What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. web-publishing. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. redirecting them to the server. servers. 64 MB RAM. 550 MB of free hard drive space. routing. management. 7. Specialized Solutions. Organization of network resources such as users. What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system.

Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 15. Presentation. 11. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. 12. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare.1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network. and Physical 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 10. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. . What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems. Network. Data Link. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU.What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 306 Specialized Solutions. Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT. FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. Review Questions Chapter 3 1. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 14. 2. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. Inc. Application. 16 MB RAM. 13. 125 MB free hard drive space. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. Transport. Session.

Physical 10. 13. 9. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. Data Link layer 5.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 4. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Which OSI layer is responsible the MAC address? The Data Link layer 8. Network Layer 6. It is a computer’s physical address. This is not the actual application or program. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. 11. Presentation layer 7. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? D3-B4-01 14. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. and ending connections? The Session layer 12. 307 . Inc. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer Specialized Solutions. managing.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 15. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence, without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 16. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 17. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. 18. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802.2 19. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. They are incompatible with each other. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com, while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. 20. Describe protocol binding. In order to function, a protocol must be bound to the NIC. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 21. Which is faster, connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster, but connection-oriented communication is more reliable. 22. . Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. AppleTalk, DECnet, IPX/SPX, PPP, PPTP, SLIP, SMB, SNA, TCP/IP, UDP, X.25, XNS 23.. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Will this work? Why or Why not? 308

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol.

Review Questions Chapter 4

1. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. 5. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. 6. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above, which is used to circulate air in a building). Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned, which would end up being circulated throughout the building. 7. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 10. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs, which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. 11. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. However, it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. 13. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths, segment lengths of up to several miles, and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. 15. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. 16. Describe baseband. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. 17. Describe broadband. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable, making the signal flow unidirectional. 18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way, can receive but not send. For example, a pager. Half-duplex communication can send or receive, but not at the same time. For example, a CB radio. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. For example, the telephone. 310 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 19. What is the function of a network adapter card? Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network. (They make the physical connection to the network.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. 20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers, including network connectivity. 22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network, to backup a cable-based network, to provide a mobile network environment, for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly, outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform. 23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared, Laser, Radio, and Microwave 24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. 25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally; Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances.

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority Specialized Solutions, Inc. 311

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). Specialized Solutions, Inc. 313

3 standard 15. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17.5 standard 16. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? The IEEE 802.5 says it travels clockwise. however. 18. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. 21.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist. It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions. Inc. 314 Specialized Solutions. Describe a MIC connector. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer. 20. data collisions are avoided. It can be either depending upon how it is set up. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token. Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network. while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise. . They are also called hermaphrodite connectors. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data. It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds. IEEE 802. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends. 19.

How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. Inc. If no other computer is using the address. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. Review Questions Chapter 6 1. 25. 2. 5. 23. 315 . What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. It also provides a print server. NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 22. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it. 24. it stores it to use each time it connects to the network. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2. etc. 3. Specialized Solutions. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2. 4.

What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks.microsoft. Inc. It will be less costly to install CAT 6 now than to replace the CAT 5 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps to handle the higher traffic. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? Check the Windows Catalog on the web at www. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. However. he intends to expand the network in the future. 7.com/windows/catalog. Also. An active hub requires some input power. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. 9. . Review Questions Chapter 7 1. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS. 316 Specialized Solutions. Why should you refuse this offer? First. but not enough to run it efficiently. 8. you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 6. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths. having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network. but they are not all the same. Passive hubs are used only to make connections.

Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. PPP. and PPTP filtering. Name four forms of RAS security. 10.Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Not all network protocols will work with a router. BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. Frame Relay. Gateway . Bridge . Inc.A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment. BAUD and bps were the same thing. 8.A router has all the features of a bridge. amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables. In older modems. Auditing. What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking). Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Repeater . What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network. Callback Security. Name three RAS protocols. 317 . Name three advanced WAN environments. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. For example. and SONET 7. They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment. a router. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model. A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem.A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature. They do not translate or filter any information. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. 5. Security host. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN.544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. Specialized Solutions. NetBEUI is not routable. 4. BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem. Router . Define a repeater. ISDN. They do however.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. PPTP and L2TP 9. a bridge. SLIP. and a gateway.

What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses. FTP. Inc. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. ICMP. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP. 32 10. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. 2. Transport.microsoft. An example is http://www. 8. 7. SNMP. 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names. UDP. 4. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9. HTU UTH 6. IP. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 318 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11) Specialized Solutions. and ARP. What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. . SMTP.com. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application. and HTTP. 5. Internet and Network Interface.

List as many as you can. 2. Specialized Solutions. Event Viewer. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups. 319 . NETSTAT and TRACERT. NBTSTAT. each device will need to be _________ compliant. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. Inc. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment Review Questions Chapter 9 1. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. U U U U 12. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network. ROUTE.

Inc. It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. Resources 3. 2. In a share level model. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. 4. The acronym RAID stands for____________? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet. 5. What are the three most common levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 5 Striped array with parity 6. 320 Specialized Solutions. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1. What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password. passwords are assigned to __________.

0. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. 4. 8. 3.1 7. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. You have just connected a workstation to the network.0. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. After repairing a problem. Isolate the Problem. What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP. What is the loopback IP address? 127. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator. 6. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. 5. Inc. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 11 1. and Repair the Problem. and think it might be shorted. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables. You have located the cable in question #3. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. 321 . WINIPCFG from the RUN command. you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network. The fox and hound. Specialized Solutions. 2. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time. Inc. . You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slow. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 322 Specialized Solutions. Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted. 10.

70 coaxial cable. 67 demand priority. 86 Broadband Optical Telepoint. 111 D Data Link Layer. 61 C Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD. 78. 189 domain controller. 226 Bandwidth. 114 10Base5. 38 Client Software. 90 DLC. 109 DES (Data Encryption Standard). 98 Change.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Index 1 100BaseX. 78. 42 active hubs. 323 . 226 Digital. Inc. 39 Circuit-switched. 81 Category 5. 42 base memory address. 41 CSU/DSU. 40 Specialized Solutions. 119 binding. 77 Computer compatibility. 114 10BaseT. 81 Cellular Networking. 167 bridge. 108 Active Directory. 186 Analog. 91 Baseband. 91 domain. 86 Beaconing. 13 Clocking. 109 CSNW. 96 brouter. 191 BRI. 79 AWG. 79 backup utility. 89 cloud. 21 Carriers. 13 ARCNet. 69. 78 Boot Prom’s. 151 connection-oriented. 40. 34 DECnet. 65 continuity. 122 AppleTalk. 160 Category 3. 116 100VG-AnyLAN. 196 Class B. 39 AUI connector. 86 B backbone. 89 Direct Memory Access (DMA). 121 Application Layer. 92 Boot Sector. 34 clients. 243 CSMA/CD. 52 Data Protection. 108. 253 Banyan VINES. 230 Differential backup. 123 ARP. 231 BOOTP. 164 Class A. 89 AppleShare. 70 DMA. 65 BNC. 116 10Base2. 67. 50 application server. 217 ATM. 24 Address Resolution Protocol. 60 attributes. 161 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC). 166 attenuation. 114 A access method. 196 client software. 60 Broadband. 196 Class C. 16. 114 10BaseFL.

215 F Fast Ethernet. 197 IPX. 60 E EES. K Kerberos. 67 IRQ. 61 Gateways. 174 LAN. 159 Gigabit Ethernet. 56 324 Specialized Solutions. 226 FDDI . 116 ground probe. 245 DSMN. 112 HOSTS file. 192 IFCONFIG. 114 EtherTalk. 68. 86 headers. 62 Internet Control Message Protocol. (IEEE). 68. 41 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). 174 IPv6. 189 Domain Reflectometer (TDR). 41 H Half-Duplex. 249 IPsec. 86 G gateway. 231 EISA. 161 . 21. 231 fire codes. 91 IBM cabling. 191 dynamic routers. 186 Internet Protocol (IP).Fiber Distributed Data. 83 File Infectors. 191 gateways. 96 Linux. 41 Frame Relay. 194 IPCONFIG. 217. 93 ISDN. 86 firewall. 144 Ethernet. Inc. Inc. 187 hubs. 96 LAT. 187 Full backup. 42 Headers. 12 Laser. 91 ISA. 191 HTTP. 22 FAT. 157 hybrid topologies. 71 ICS. 18 I I/O port number. 186 Incremental backup. 42 GSNW. 120 ICA. 93 EMI. 96 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 174 L L2TP. 187 HTTPS. 217 IMAP4. 167 FTP. 122 Event Viewer. 174 ICMP. 39 Full-Duplex. 226 Full Control. 39 IP. 185 IP address. 185 interoperability. 224 FPNW. 166 fiber-optic. 167 ISDN adapters. 174 Line-of-Sight Infrared. 243 Group policies.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Domain Name Service (DNS). 83 IBM Type 3 UTP. 39 fault tolerance. 81 environment.. 226 Infrared. 70 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol.

217 NTFS. 172 Preemptive multitasking. 151 Media Tester. 23 media access methods. 37 Network Adapter Cards. 120. 192 Punch Down Tool. 120 Multimeter. 114 Network Time Protocol (NTP).Multiple Access Units. 89 Network Layer. 67 modem. 167 protocol. 242 325 Specialized Solutions. 18 Ping. 191 NBTSTAT. 64 proxy server. 69 NLSP. 111 parallel communication. 31 Network standards. 30 PRI. 171 NWLink.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers LLC. 43 Macro Virus. 29 OS/2. 21 Media Compatibility. 36 NetWare Client32 for OS/2. 243 mesh topology. 36 NetWare Client32 for DOS. 168 MSAU. 64 Open Systems Interface (OSI). 67 M Macintosh. 68 O ODI. 232 Managing User Accounts. 114 LMHOSTS. 70 NETBIOS. 157 PCI. 69 Network-attached storage (NAS). 36 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh. 32 P Packet switching. Inc. 217 PING. 229 Patch Panel. 13 peer-to-peer. 190 NETSTAT. 107 protocols. 34 MAU. 18 MHS. 29 NSLOOKUP. . 39 Null-Modem. 36 NetBEUI. 30 N NAT. 14 Peer-to-peer LANs. 157 MAUs . 18 LSL. 122 logical topology. 191 LocalTalk. 213 MIC (Media Interface Connectors). 41. 39 NOS – Network Operating System. 71. 23 Passwords. 67 NDIS. 37 NetWare security. 86 PPP. 172 PPTP. 52 Network Neighborhood. 89 passive hub. 215 NCP. 249 plenum. 49 operating system. 228 NFS. 49. 120 Microwave. 93 PDC . 164 Packet-Radio Networking. 71. 243 multitasking. 31 PGP. 36 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95. 93 PCMCIA. 96 MLID. 37 MIB (Management Information Base). 231 physical topologies. 64 NDS (NetWare Directory Services). 36 NetWare file server. 37 NetWare Print Services. 215 NetWare.Primary Domain Controller. 67 No Access. 98 packets.

217 Read. 96 RAID. 230 S SAP. 80 U UDP. 144 Remote Access Server or RAS. 199 T tape backup. 185 UTP. 237 trunk. 79 Transport Layer. 35 ring topology. 71. 60. 39 redirector. 16 TRACERT. 16 serial communication. 167 SPX. 34. 225 TCP. 80 V vampire taps. 118 topology. 109 token ring. 175 Security. 112 transceiver. 17 RIP. 215 router. 71. 225 repeater. sneaker net. 33 servers. 17 static routers. 65 RPC. 11 SNMP. 16. 120 SMB. 215. 11 signal bounce. 213 Simplex. 68 326 Specialized Solutions. 86 SLIP. 68. 96 SDH. 158 requester. 221 segment. 69 ROUTE. 80 virtual connections. 68 Satellite Station Networking. 16 twisted-pair. 35 Reflective Infrared. 67 SSL. 182 UNIX. 225 removable optical disk. 249 Trailer. 187 SNA. 245 SONET. 42 User Datagram Protocol (UDP). 60. 16. 13 sharing applications.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide R Radio. 68 SMDS. 69 terminator. 58 . 77 throughput. 167 security. 34 server-based network. Inc. 69. 172 SMAU. 152 star topology. 21. 68. 79 thicknet. 77 Thinnet. 253 TLS. 81 Subnetting. 174 token passing. 228 STP. 187 Software analyzers. 159 routers. 144 Server Software. 96 relative humidity. 51 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 98 Scatter Infrared. 79 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 174 Standards. 71 RSA. 60 Storage Area Network (SAN). 171 removable disks. 13 Server-based network. 232 troubleshooting. 67. 89 Server room. 227 RARP. 68 Trojan Horses. 167 SMTP. 184 Telnet.

124 wireless network. 92 workstation. 190 Wire Crimper.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Viruses. 166 XDR. 165 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks). 12 Warp Connect. 327 . Inc. 32 Windows 2000. 231 VLAN. 13 X X. 31 Windows for Workgroups. 40 U U WINS.25. 95 Wireless NICs. 230 W WAN. 70 Specialized Solutions. 19. 69. 242 Wireless. 154 Windows 95/98. 71 XNS. 31 Windows NT Print Servers.

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