Network+ 2005 Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network+

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Copyright© 2004 by Specialized Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 338 East Tarpon Street, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. Publisher: Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Contributing Writers: Bill Ferguson Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Editor: Bill Ferguson

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Suggestions/Comments Please forward all comments or suggestions to: Specialized Solutions, Inc. 338 East Tarpon St. Tarpon Springs, FL 34689

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... I

ABOUT SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS ...........................................................IX
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+ .............................................................2005 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ..................................................................................................9 YOUR VIDEO INSTRUCTOR .................................................................................................9 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST ..................................................................................................10 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................10 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................10 ABOUT THIS COURSE .......................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS ..................................................17 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING ....................................................................................17 Benefits of Networking Computers .............................................................................17 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) .................................18 The Client/Server Relationship ...................................................................................19 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................19 Peer-to-Peer Networking ............................................................................................20 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).....................................................................21 Bus Topology ..............................................................................................................21 Star Topology..............................................................................................................22 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................22 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES ......................................................................................................23 Hybrid Topologies ......................................................................................................23 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................23 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................24 NETWORK ACCESS ...........................................................................................................26 Token Passing .............................................................................................................26 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................26 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................27 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS ...........................................................................................28 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................28 Active Hubs .................................................................................................................29 Hub-Based Networks ..................................................................................................29 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................30 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................31 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1 ....................................................................................33 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS) ....................................35 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? ..................................................................................35 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking .............................................................36 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)? ........................................................37 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................37 Server/Client Software ................................................................................................39 NOS PACKAGES...............................................................................................................42 Specialized Solutions, Inc. i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Novell NetWare .......................................................................................................... 42 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System................................................... 45 Windows NT Minimum Requirements ...........................Error! Bookmark not defined. UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................ 47 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service)................................................ 48 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 50 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................. 51 REVIEW QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................ 52 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS.......... 55 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION ..................................................... 55 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL ................................................................................ 56 Application Layer ....................................................................................................... 56 Presentation Layer ..................................................................................................... 57 Session Layer.............................................................................................................. 57 Transport Layer.......................................................................................................... 57 Network Layer ............................................................................................................ 58 Data Link Layer.......................................................................................................... 58 Logical Link Control (LLC) ....................................................................................... 59 Media Access Control (MAC) .................................................................................... 59 Physical Layer............................................................................................................ 60 PROTOCOL STACKS ......................................................................................................... 62 Communication Between Peer Layers ....................................................................... 62 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD ............................................................................................ 64 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL ....................................................................................... 66 Repeaters .................................................................................................................... 66 Bridges........................................................................................................................ 66 Routers........................................................................................................................ 66 Brouters ...................................................................................................................... 67 Gateways .................................................................................................................... 67 IEEE 802 STANDARDS .................................................................................................... 68 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL ...................................................................... 70 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)......................................................... 70 ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ................................................................................ 70 PROTOCOLS AND OSI ...................................................................................................... 70 Protocol Binding ........................................................................................................ 71 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless ................................................................... 71 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols ........................................................................ 71 Networking Protocols and Stacks............................................................................... 72 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................... 73 DECnet ....................................................................................................................... 73 IPX/ SPX..................................................................................................................... 73 SMB (Server Message Block) ..................................................................................... 74 SNA (Systems Network Architecture) ......................................................................... 74 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ....................................................................... 74 IP (Internet Protocol)................................................................................................. 74 UDP (User Datagram Protocol)................................................................................ 74 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) ..................................................................................... 74 ii Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Table of Contents Telnet...........................................................................................................................75 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................75 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................75 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................75 NTP (Network Time Protocol) ....................................................................................75 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) ...............................................................................75 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................75 X.25 .............................................................................................................................76 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................76 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................76 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................76 LAT (Local Area Transport) .......................................................................................76 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................77 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................78 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................78 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) ...................................................................................78 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) ................................................................78 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) ........................................................78 ISO/OSI Standard .......................................................................................................78 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ...............................................................78 DNS (Domain Name System) ......................................................................................78 XDR (External Data Representation) .........................................................................78 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................78 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................80 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................81 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................82 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................85 NETWORK CABLING .........................................................................................................85 Coaxial Cable .............................................................................................................85 Coaxial Connectors ....................................................................................................86 Twisted-Pair Cable .....................................................................................................88 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................91 Summary of Cabling ...................................................................................................93 CABLING TERMS ..............................................................................................................94 AWG (American Wire Gauge) ....................................................................................94 Bandwidth ...................................................................................................................94 Plenum Grade Cabling ...............................................................................................94 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................95 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)..............................................................................97 Preparing the Data .....................................................................................................97 Signals and Clocking ..................................................................................................97 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel) .................................................................................98 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................98 Configurable Options..................................................................................................98 Wireless NICs............................................................................................................100 Specialized Solutions, Inc. iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Fiber-Optic NICs...................................................................................................... 100 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................ 101 Standard Bus Types .................................................................................................. 101 Laptops ..................................................................................................................... 101 NETWORK PERFORMANCE ............................................................................................. 102 WIRELESS NETWORKS ................................................................................................... 103 Why Wireless? .......................................................................................................... 103 Wireless Transmission Methods............................................................................... 104 Radio Transmission.................................................................................................. 105 Satellite Station Networking..................................................................................... 106 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 108 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 109 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.................................................................................... 112 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS .................................. 115 ACCESS METHODS......................................................................................................... 116 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) .................... 116 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) ................... 117 Token Passing........................................................................................................... 117 Demand Priority....................................................................................................... 117 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS) ............................................... 119 Packet Structure ....................................................................................................... 119 Packet Components .................................................................................................. 120 NETWORK STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 122 Logical Link Control (802.2).................................................................................... 122 Ethernet (802.3)........................................................................................................ 122 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................. 129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)................................................... 131 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 133 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 134 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.................................................................................... 136 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.......................................................................... 139 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT ................................................................................... 139 The Customer ........................................................................................................... 139 The Network Goals................................................................................................... 140 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE ......................................................................................... 142 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer.................................................................................. 142 When to Choose Client/Server ................................................................................. 143 Making the Choice.................................................................................................... 144 Public and Private networks .................................................................................... 144 DESIGN THE NETWORK.................................................................................................. 150 Media Selection ........................................................................................................ 151 Environmental Concerns.......................................................................................... 152 NOS Selection........................................................................................................... 152 Protocol Selection .................................................................................................... 152 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER ............................................................................................ 154 Cable to Computer ................................................................................................... 154 iv Specialized Solutions, Inc.

....................................................................................................................174 MODEMS .167 CONNECTION SERVICES ..............................167 Gateway .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................166 Repeaters...........................................160 Standards ..168 WAN Overview.........................................................................................................176 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS) .......................................................197 Specialized Solutions.......................157 Media Compatibility .........................................................189 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS ....154 Network Adapter Cards ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................178 RAS Protocols ................................................................................160 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS .........................................169 Digital Connectivity ................................................................................................................................................................................162 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 ..........173 Advanced WAN Environments ..................................182 Limitations of RAS ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................182 Troubleshooting a RAS setup.........................189 RFC (Request For Comments)..............................192 Other TCP/IP Protocols ...............................................................165 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL ................................................178 Connecting Two Computers.....................................................................172 Packet Switching Networks.................................................................................................................159 Computer Compatibility............................................................................................................................................................192 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols .....................................................................................................................................................................................197 DNS .................................................................................166 Bridges .......Table of Contents Cable to Hub .172 VLAN.....................................................................................................................................168 Carriers.........................................................159 PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ...................................................................................................................179 Installing and Configuring RAS..........................165 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS..........................................................................................................................................................................................................160 Hard Work ...............................194 NAMING SYSTEMS ..................................................169 Analog Connectivity.................................................................................................................................183 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ...161 HCL and Windows 2000 ..........................189 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP............................................................................................................................................................................................157 Adapter Card Compatibility ..........................................................184 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 ............................................................................................................................................164 CHAPTER 7 ............................................................................................................................ Inc.......186 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS .................. v .................................................................................................................................................................................................170 Circuit-switched Networks....................................155 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY .......................................................................................................................................................................................EXPANDING A NETWORK ..166 Routers .................161 Minimum Requirements ................................

.............................. 203 Class C Addresses .................... 225 RARP....................................... 200 TCP/IP ADDRESSING...... 199 LMHOSTS file ................................................................................................................... 225 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG ................................................ 221 Agent Software ............................................................................................................................................................ 199 BOOTP ................................ 209 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS .. 225 IFCONFIG................................ 221 NETWORK MANAGERS .. 222 VALIDATION TOOLS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 223 NETSTAT ..... 198 NETBIOS ................................................................................................................ 227 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9.............................................................................................................................. 203 Class B Addresses .......................... 222 Communities...................................................................................................... 200 IP Proxy Servers............................................................................................................................................. 198 HOSTS file..............................................................................................................................................SNMP ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 225 PING...... 229 vi Specialized Solutions....................................................... 221 Management Software....................... 223 NBTSTAT ..................... 223 ROUTE............................................. 199 IP Gateway .............................................................................................. 223 TRACERT....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 222 EVENT VIEWER .......................................................... 207 How to Subdivide a Network .... Inc............................. 199 DHCP ..... 199 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES ................ 225 ARP ......................................................................................................... 205 SUBNETTING ... 202 IP Addresses ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 215 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ...................................................................................................................................................................... 217 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8......................... 229 USER AND SHARE LEVEL ..................................................................................................... 202 IPv4 ................................................................ 228 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY ..................................................... 219 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES................................................................................ 225 NSLOOKUP............................................................................................................................................................................. .......................... 203 Class A Addresses ...................................................... 225 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 223 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .......................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 203 IPv6 (IP Next Generation) ............................................................................................................. 203 Class D and Class E Addresses.............................................................. 200 ICS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 200 NAT................................................

...237 Encryption.......................................................................260 Performance........................................................... Inc.......................................................................................................................................................................................251 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS ...................................................Table of Contents User-level Security..........................274 TCP/IP PORTS ................................................................................................................268 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES ..............................................................................269 IEEE 802..........................................232 Firewalls ......................236 PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES ...............................................................................................................................234 Fault Tolerance and Power ..............................................................................260 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................275 Specialized Solutions.........................250 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools.............................................................................................270 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS ...............................................................................................................................267 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES ..............................................................................................................................................271 OSI MODEL ..............................................................................................................................................................257 Cable Problems..................234 Fault Tolerance and RAID....................................................................................................................................................................250 Hardware Networking Tools........................ vii .........................................................................................................................273 SUBNET MASKING ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................243 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................232 Blocking Port Numbers.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................238 Disaster Recovery ................................................................................X STANDARDS............................................................................................257 Misbehaving Protocols ........................................................233 Backup Software ......................................................229 Share-level Security ............................................230 SECURITY TECHNIQUES ..................................................245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ......................................................................................255 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS .......................263 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11 .....234 Full......................................................................................................................242 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10 .............................................................................................234 Volumes..........................................................................................................................................................................................................267 5-4-3 RULE ..............................................................239 Viruses.................................................267 ETHERNET CABLING .............................................................................................................................275 TCP/IP UTILITIES ..................................................................260 Name Resolution .....................245 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING...................................................................................................239 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ..................... Differential.......264 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY ........ and Incremental Backups ......................232 Backing up Data ..............259 NIC Indicator Lights ..........232 Backup Options...........................264 CONCLUSION ............................................269 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING) .................................

.......................................... 283 CCITT .................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2............................... 309 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5........................................ 306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.................................................................................. 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1....................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 281 NOVELL .............................................................................. 284 SAG .................... 278 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES ........................ 276 TRANSMISSION MEDIA .......................................................................... 281 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS ................................ 318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9......................................................................... 320 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11................................................................................................. 283 IEEE ....................................................................................... 284 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM...... 281 COMPUSERVE ............................................................................................................. 285 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY.......................................................................................................... 278 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 285 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS .......................................................................................................................................................................... 315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7. OTHER HELPFUL SITES .................................................................................................................... 281 MICROSOFT: ....................................................... Inc........................................................ 319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10........... 283 ANSI............................................ 287 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ......................................................... 311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6.......................................................... 283 EIA ................................................................................................................... 323 viii Specialized Solutions................................................................................................................................................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED........................................... 284 ISO..................................................................... 304 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3..................................................................... 316 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8................ 321 INDEX ..........................................................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TOPOLOGY REVIEW ..........................................................................

ix .com Specialized Solutions. Inc. Inc. please visit us at: www.About Specialized Solutions About Specialized Solutions Welcome to Specialized Solutions. Inc.specializedsolutions. cost-effective programs that are customized to suit your needs. We will always provide a quality product to customers at a price that is within reach of most computer professionals. We thank you for choosing our company as your resource for Information Technology SelfStudy Training. To see other Specialized Solutions. Our highly skilled staff of computer and educational professionals are dedicated to delivering high quality.’s Network+ training and certification course. We are committed to always be on the leading edge of new computer environment training products. One hundred percent customer satisfaction and unmatched customer service is always our commitment to the computer professional. Specialized Solutions. Inc. is dedicated to providing the computer professional the highest level of self-study training and certification materials the industry has to offer. We strive to provide training programs that far exceed the expectations of our customers. course offerings.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide x Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. Technical Writers.Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives. Computer Graphics Experts. Technical Editors. Remember. We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program. Inc. It can be used in conjunction with the Specialized Solutions. Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals. We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! Specialized Solutions. at Specialized Solutions. Inc. Network+ video training series. and Digital Video Studio Professionals. as a stand-alone textbook. We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical. 1 . or as a textbook in a classroom environment. easy to follow format.

0 Protocols & Standards 3. . Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination.” The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1.” “This examination includes blueprint weighting.0 Network Support Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 25% 35% 100% 2 Specialized Solutions.0 Network Implementation 4. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey.0 Media & Topologies 2. test objectives and example content. The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content.

802. Inc. 5e. schematic or description: • Star • Bus • Mesh • Ring 1.11 (wireless). length.5 (token ring).Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: Domain 1.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a diagram. including: • Speed • Access method (CSMA / CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) and CSMA / CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection)) • Topology • Media 1. 10 GBASE-LR and 10 GBASE-ER 1. and 6 • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) • STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) • Coaxial cable • SMF (Single Mode Fiber) optic cable • MMF (Multimode Fiber) optic cable 1. and cable type) of the following cable standards: • 10BASE-T and 10BASE-FL • 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX • 1000BASE-T.2 (Logical Link Control).4 Recognize the following media connectors and describe their uses: • RJ-11 (Registered Jack) • RJ-45 (Registered Jack) • F-Type • ST (Straight Tip) • SC (Subscriber Connector or Standard Connector) • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) • Fiber LC (Local Connector) • MT-RJ (Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack) • USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1.3 Specify the characteristics (For example: speed. 3 .3 (Ethernet). topology. 1000BASE-CX. 5.0 . features and functions of the following network components: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • Gateways • CSU / DSU (Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit) Specialized Solutions.Media and Topologies – 20% 1.6 Identify the purposes.2 Specify the main features of 802. 802. 802. and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) networking technologies.5 Recognize the following media types and describe their uses: • Category 3. 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX • 10 GBASE-SR.

10 Define the purpose.9 Identify and differentiate between the following IP (Internet Protocol) addressing methods: • Static • Dynamic • Self-assigned (APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing)) 2. IPv6) and the required setting for connections across the Internet.1 Identify a MAC (Media Access Control) address and its parts. . 2. interoperability and naming conventions: • IPX / SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange / Sequence Packet Exchange) • NetBEUI (Network Basic Input / Output System Extended User Interface) • AppleTalk / AppleTalk over IP (Internet Protocol) • TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) 2.8 Identify the differences between private and public network addressing schemes. B and C). Inc.0 – Protocols and Standards – 20% 2. 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • NICs (Network Interface Card) • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) adapters • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) • Modems • Transceivers (media converters) • Firewalls 1.11 (Frequency hopping spread spectrum) • 802. transmission type and topology) of the following wireless technologies: • 802.7 Specify the general characteristics (For example: carrier speed. antenna type and environmental factors). frequency.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model and their functions.4 Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing. 2. 2. Domain 2.3 Identify the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) layers at which the following network components operate: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • NICs (Network Interface Card) • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) 2.8 Identify factors which affect the range and speed of wireless service (For example: interference.11x (Direct sequence spread spectrum) • Infrared • Bluetooth 1.7 Identify the purpose of subnetting.5 Identify the components and structure of IP (Internet Protocol) addresses (IPv4. addressing schemes. 2.6 Identify classful IP (Internet Protocol) ranges and their subnet masks (For example: Class A. function and use of the following protocols used in the TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) suite: • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) 4 Specialized Solutions. 2.

2. NAT (Network Address Translation). Zeroconf (Zero configuration). capacity and media) of the following WAN (Wide Area Networks) technologies: • Packet switching • Circuit switching • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) • T1 (T Carrier level 1) / E1 / J1 • T3 (T Carrier level 3) / E3 / J3 • OCx (Optical Carrier) • X. WINS (Windows Internet Name Service).11 Define the function of TCP / UDP (Transmission Control Protocol / User Datagram Protocol) ports.12 Identify the well-known ports associated with the following commonly used services and protocols: • 20 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 21 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 22 SSH (Secure Shell) • 23 Telnet • 25 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • 53 DNS (Domain Name Service) • 69 TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • 80 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • 110 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) • 119 NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • 123 NTP (Network Time Protocol) • 143 IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • 443 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) 2. SMB (Server Message Block).13 Identify the purpose of network services and protocols (For example: DNS (Domain Name Service). AFP (Apple File Protocol). Inc.25 2. 5 . SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). LPD (Line Printer Daemon) and Samba).Introduction • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) • POP3 / IMAP4 (Post Office Protocol version 3 / Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • Telnet • SSH (Secure Shell) • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) • ARP / RARP (Address Resolution Protocol / Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) • NTP (Network Time Protocol) • NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) • IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) • LPR (Line Printer Remote) 2.14 Identify the basic characteristics (For example: speed. NFS (Network File System). ICS (Internet Connection Sharing).15 Identify the basic characteristics of the following internet access technologies: • xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) • Broadband Cable (Cable modem) • POTS / PSTN (Plain Old Telephone Service / Public Switched Telephone Network) • Satellite • Wireless Specialized Solutions. 2.

2 Identify the basic capabilities needed for client workstations to connect to and use network resources (For example: media. RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service). interoperability. .4 Given a remote connectivity scenario comprised of a protocol. Kerberos and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)). benefits and characteristics of using a firewall. 3. 3. MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). Domain 3. configure the connection.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. Includes connection to the following servers: • UNIX / Linux / MAC OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3.7 Given a connectivity scenario. application support and security) of the following server operating systems to access network resources: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. an authentication scheme. determine the impact on network functionality of a particular security implementation (For example: port blocking / filtering. 6 Specialized Solutions. punch down tool or tone generator). media tester / certifier. 3.8 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks). authentication and encryption).5 Identify the purpose. network protocols and peer and server services). 3.16 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services: • RAS (Remote Access Service) • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) • PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) • VPN (Virtual Private Network) • RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) 2.6 Identify the purpose. Inc.17 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function: • IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Continued on the next page… Continued from the previous page… • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) • 802. 3.0 Network Implementation – 25% 3. 3.1x 2. authentication.3 Identify the appropriate tool for a given wiring task (For example: wire crimper. benefits and characteristics of using a proxy service. and physical connectivity. file and print services.18 Identify authentication protocols (For example: CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol).1 Identify the basic capabilities (For example: client support.9 Identify the main characteristics and purpose of extranets and intranets. PAP (Password Authentication Protocol).

determine the impact of modifying. 4. identify the utility and interpret the output. 4. DNS (Domain Name Service) and WINS (Windows Internet Name Service)) for network resources and users. network hardware or environment). mesh or ring) and including a network diagram. identify the cause of a stated problem (For example: bad media. adding or removing network services (For example: DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). authentication failure.11 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance: • Power • Link redundancy • Storage • Services 3. Specialized Solutions. 4. physical connectivity and SOHO (Small Office / Home Office) router).6 Given a scenario.8 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving an infrastructure (For example: wired or wireless) problem.12 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery: • Backup / restore • Offsite storage • Hot and cold spares • Hot. protocol configuration. benefits and characteristics of using antivirus software.0 Network Support – 35% 4. interference. star. identify the cause of a stated problem: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 4.7 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology (For example: bus. Inc. select the appropriate network utility from the following: • Tracert / traceroute • ping • arp • netstat • nbtstat • ipconfig / ifconfig • winipcfg • nslookup / dig 4. identify the cause of the problem (For example: file services.Introduction 3. 3.5 Given a troubleshooting scenario between a client and the following server environments.4 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a client accessing remote network services.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario. 7 .3 Given a network scenario. interpret visual indicators (For example: link LEDs (Light Emitting Diode) and collision LEDs (Light Emitting Diode)) to determine the nature of a stated problem.10 Identify the purpose. 4.1). warm and cold sites Domain 4. identify the network area affected and the cause of the stated failure. 4. print services.2 Given output from a network diagnostic utility (For example: those utilities listed in objective 4.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. Identify the results and effects of the solution 8. Establish what has changed 4. Document the solution and process 8 Specialized Solutions. This strategy can include the following steps: 1. select an appropriate course of action based on a logical troubleshooting strategy. Inc. . Test the result 7. Identify the symptoms and potential causes 2. Identify the affected area 3. Select the most probable cause 5.9 Given a network problem scenario. Implement an action plan and solution including potential effects 6.

Hands-on experience is best. Bill has been in the computer industry for over 15 years. 9 . Use the “Help” button where available. Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding. To get the best results from your training. such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. In addition he holds the CompTIA certifications of A+. MCSE. as well as “Designing Security for Windows Server 2003 Network” for Exam Cram2.” Specialized Solutions. use a study plan. Network+. MCDST. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary. CCSI. it may seem so. Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. Bill says. teaching classes for most of the national training companies and some regional training companies. Bill now runs his own company as an independent contractor in Birmingham. In addition. Bill is an enthusiastic. and Security+. Bill made his transition to Certified Technical Trainer in 1997 with ExecuTrain. Originally in technical sales and sales management with Sprint. Server+. Inc. Bill has written the “MCDST Study Guide” for Sybex Inc. not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation. “My job is to understand the material so well that I can make it easier for my students to learn than it was for me to learn. if this is your first exposure to networking. and CCNA.Introduction Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not extremely complicated. Practice the function on your computer. Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge. Alabama. Your Video Instructor Your video instructor is Bill Ferguson. MCP+I. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented. Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand. He is certified as an MCT. However. results oriented computer specialist who has extensive knowledge of Microsoft networks. MCSA.

How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam. German.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book. The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 10 Specialized Solutions. You can locate a testing center and schedule the test on the web. This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. . there is no one method that will work for everyone. Since most of us learn in different ways. There are no specific requirements. A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge. The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills. • • • How do you learn best (reading. CONGRATULATIONS. Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam. Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test.com) or any Thomson Prometric testing center (2test. 1999. YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Schedule the test for a few weeks from now so that you will have a guidepost that is constantly reminding you that you need to study the material. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English. Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs. You may be surprised at how near you are to a testing center! Evaluate your learning aptitudes.com). Inc. You can take the test at any Virtual University Enterprises testing center (vue. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. You can also call VUE at 877-551-7587 or Thomson Prometric at 888-8956116. watching. French and Japanese. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive. but A+ certification is not required. except payment of the test fee.

go though the entire course again. Specialized Solutions. You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time. just get a feel for it. Use the rewind button as often as necessary. Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read. Re-read the test and review the video presentation. Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time. At this time. Inc. What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through. You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through. Review the video presentation one more time if necessary. 11 . If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course.Introduction Make a plan to learn. set aside the time to learn. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. you want to begin to understand. Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). • Complete the course a second time. This workbook will make this task much easier. Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. Based on your time to learn (and your schedule). If you need to. Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises. Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). Make an appointment with yourself. It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point.

All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam. The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer. . The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test. You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams. (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam. You will be required to show two forms of identification. • • • • 12 Specialized Solutions. which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test. Inc. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. Evaluate the questions you missed. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them. It is a closed book exam. Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam As you prepare for your certification exam it will be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure. Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam. including one photo ID. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in. You will be asked to sign the form. You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam. it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature.

Do not read too much into the question. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides. (such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test. 13 . mark it and come back to it. At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered. or if you are unclear about what you should do. Specialized Solutions. you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam. you are given the ability to skip a question. you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score. answer the question. but be sure to read it in its entirety. The course contains five instructor led CD-ROMs. (You don’t need to send them the score report. If the administrator does not do this. marked or skipped. Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam. Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions. Keep track of the time and pace yourself. skip it. put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. Inc.Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials. Usually. Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! About This Course This Specialized Solutions Network+ course is a multi-media. If you’re not quite sure. You will have plenty of time as long as you use it wisely. a Network+ Training & Test Preparation Guide and a practice exam simulator. guess.) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you. you can see which questions are not answered. Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers. If you know the answer. Before retaking the exam. It lists your score by objective. mark a question or answer a question. You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. If you don’t know the answer. (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. If you positively don’t know the answer. self-study training system. Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system.Introduction HINT . which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Video Chapters Include: CD 1: Introduction and Overview Network Topologies Network Technologies Cable Standards Media Connectors CD 2: Media Types Network Components Wireless Technologies Protocols and Standards The OSI Model IP Addressing CD 3: Ports Services WAN Internet Access Remote Access Security Protocols CD 4: Server Operating Systems Client Connectivity Tools for Networking Firewalls Proxy Service Network Connectivity Virtual Local Area Networks Antivirus Software Fault Tolerance Disaster Recovery CD 5: Troubleshooting Network Utilities Troubleshooting Network Services Troubleshooting Topologies Troubleshooting Strategy Preparation for a Certification Test 14 Specialized Solutions. .

Inc. 15 . It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course. Specialized Solutions.Introduction This study guide is divided into 11 chapters.

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files. you understand exactly what a network is. a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data. Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources. Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking. It is very important that. A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented. peripherals.” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service.” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do. Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need. It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than to purchase a printer for every user. 17 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents. Additionally. and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net. After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment. a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files. An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?). and applications (resources). Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage. as a networking professional. users can access programs. Through networking.) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics. Inc. But for our purposes. You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN. Specialized Solutions. This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment.

Inc. When LANs are connected they create a WAN. the speed of communication between the computers is typically much faster in a LAN. A WAN can connect networks from building to building or across the world. 18 Specialized Solutions. it is still considered a LAN. Also. A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function. The Internet is the world’s largest WAN. or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information. The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits. .

if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access. The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. However. Specialized Solutions. it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files. A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. network security. that access would cause the workstation to become a server. Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity. when the user is getting information from the server. A large network may have more than one server. A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network. Users. The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. also known as clients. The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation. one for applications (application server). It is important to know what a MAN is. 19 . log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals There is actually a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). Inc. A mainframe will handle all the functions. one for printing (print server). there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). including hard disk space and RAM. efficiency in backing up the data. A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or county. The advantages of this type of network are central administration. These terms are not interchangeable. it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client). or a mail server (E-mail). and is a client. including applications. configuration and management may be more challenging. but they are not common. A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. For example. Also. and expandability. Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. The Internet has replaced most MANs today.

.g. A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security. This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved. Also. a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand. Peer-to-Peer Network 20 Specialized Solutions. All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user. and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e. The computers are simply cabled together. A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers. Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network. network security is unreliable. Inc. In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal.

Inc. There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). Different topologies have different cabling requirements. The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other. and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. NICs. you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network. As a network professional.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable. The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable. (Network Interface Cards. While the signal is bouncing back and forth. This cable is called a trunk. connectors. refers to its physical layout. The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used. only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal. or segment. they do not move the transmissions along. If not prevented. or topology. future growth needs. The Bus topology is a passive topology. also called Network Adapter Cards). map. Devices only listen for data being transmitted. it prevents other devices from sending data. Specialized Solutions. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address). A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. 21 . However. In a Bus network. the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other. are all determined by the topology used. Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. design. if the cable breaks. An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. and even how the cabling is run through a building. how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). or diagram. This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. To stop signal bounce. scheme. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together. the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce. backbone.

The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable. If the hub fails. Inc. it can affect the entire network. It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology. The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network. but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down. There are no ends to terminate. The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Star Topology In a Star topology. Star Topology Ring Topology In a Ring topology. the entire network will go down. 22 Specialized Solutions. the rest of the network will still continue to function. . however. A disadvantage is that if one computer fails. all devices are connected to a central point called a hub.

Also. we have been discussing physical topologies. So far. you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals With IBM Token Ring networks. The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies. Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. on the other hand. but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. A logical topology. It consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. Inc. they operate between the hubs like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus. For example. a computer can fail and not prevent the network from functioning. Token Ring networks are physical stars and logical rings. the ring is actually in a special type of hub called a Multistation Access Unit (MSAU). This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. some Ethernet networks today are wired using a using multiple hubs. You will be able to see a physical topology. Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies. Specialized Solutions. This gives us a physical star topology. is how the network actually works. 23 . These are known as Hybrid topologies. These are the methods in which a network is actually wired. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations. Before you can understand some of these special topologies. In these networks. However.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points. the topology of a wireless network is that of an “invisible star”. . . 24 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Since each computer has its own connection to the wireless access point (WAP). The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter 4 of this book.

25 . Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Specialized Solutions.

The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network. . The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). and the message is delivered. The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message. We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards. they are called Token Ring and Ethernet. Inc. Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. Multiple Access means that more than one computer 26 Specialized Solutions. Since there is only one token. only one device at a time can communicate on the network. With several devices connected to one media.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected. It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token. Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices. A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit. This is based on the media or wiring of the network. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods. The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. we create kind of a “party line”.

Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps. Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks. Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals can be connected to the same cable. Specialized Solutions. 27 . Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted). Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original.

. Passive hubs do not require any electrical power to function. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified. Today. they are called MSAUs (Multiple Station Access Units). hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function. since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network. Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only. Passive Hub – Patch Panel 28 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks. Just remember. The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator. Essentially. Hubs can be classified as either passive or active. Inc. not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network. With a Token Ring. they are all the same.

Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs. This type type of hub requires electrical power to function. 29 . Specialized Solutions. 2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available. Inc. 3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated. Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity. An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected. 4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs.

It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network. The three main types of topology are bus. and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. Topology is a term we use to describe the logical shape of the connection of computers in a network. . A WAN is not geographically limited and typically has greater speed of communication than a WAN.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources. The two types of networks are LANs and WANs. Inc. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. and ring. star. go back and review the chapter again. 30 Specialized Solutions. A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc. 31 . Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition Specialized Solutions.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 32 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

9. 7. Inc. What are the key differences between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2. 8. What is a “sneaker net”? 4. What is the main reason for networking computers? 3. 10. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Review Questions . Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Name some advantages of a Server-based network.Chapter 1 1. 5. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12. Name the three basic topologies. 33 . 11. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. Specialized Solutions. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. Name two media access methods.

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spreadsheet. When we refer to the operating system in this chapter. The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e. In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems.Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking. if you don’t have the software to run it. but without an operating system. and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). as well as the operating system. Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe. and database programs). Today. Most of today’s client and server operating systems have a built-in network operating system. We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities. it is just a pile of metal and plastic. This chapter is all about the various operating systems with which a networking professional needs to be familiar. Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 . hard disk space. Hardware resources such as RAM. network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system. we are referencing the built-in network operating system component. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well. it will just sit there. most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment. what we are really talking about are network operating systems. word-processing. processor time. The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other. You can get it all set up and turn on the power. Inc. Specialized Solutions. 35 . When we are talking about operating systems. What is an Operating System? Not that long ago.g.

. A true multitasking (multi-processing) operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs. It is used on all of the latest operating systems. Preemptive multitasking began with Windows 95 and the Intel Pentium processor. In non-preemptive multitasking. Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. Inc. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor. means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. 36 Specialized Solutions. put simply. Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. the processor is never taken away from a task.

turning on the computer and answering questions. Then. Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card. moving photos to the Web. It is well-suited for editing home movies. Windows 95/98 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. to communicate with other computers over a network. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. Instead. Their new graphical interface and networking capabilities make them a vast improvement over their predecessors. all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network. Specialized Solutions. or a similar program. Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. 37 . All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood. and you have a working network. Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration. such as BSD UNIX. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. Microsoft Client. Novell NetWare. It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network. and archiving music. They use an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). Windows 95/98 Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems that include a network operating system. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices. Inc.

. It. is equipped to be networked easily. remote OS installation. peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT. Inc. like ME. Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is the newest edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users. which allows for safety when installing additional software or making changes to the computer’s configuration.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server. It allows for faster user switching. IPsec and Kerberos support. EFS (Encrypting File System). It features file protection. It also uses System Restore. multilingual support. driver certification. like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here. Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across in real life but are unlikely to be on the test: 38 Specialized Solutions. It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies. a simplified visual design.

In a Serverbased network. However.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability. Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (uses resources locally). Specialized Solutions. Inc. Inc. Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network. the computers act as both a client and a server. This can also provide accessibility and security for all devices on a network. it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment. 39 .

Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access). the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). At the very least. . Some networks even cluster server so that more that one server can share a database of information. However. Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords. Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access. the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location. Data Protection As we already discussed. if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. Server Software As their name implies. Unlike most client software. Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server. The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed. most of the data is stored on the server. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. out onto the network. Servers exist to serve. and to the server. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. This 40 Specialized Solutions. The component that handles these requests is called the redirector.

The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server. or if they need to be redirected to the server.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) provides for load balancing of the server resources as well as fault tolerance if one server were to fail. Inc. It does this by assigning drive letters. It does not need to know anything about networks. This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer. which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer. 41 . called drive designators. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs. to resources. Basically. etc. If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server. Specialized Solutions. If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus. it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests.

First.EXE. management. NetWare Directory Services (NDS) NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. messaging. groups.5 is now on the market. Directory and file attributes are used to set the types of access for a file or directory such as viewed. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. Version 6. shared. NetWare File Services The NetWare file server hard drive may be mapped to a client and the client machine will recognize the drive as a logical drive and be able to access it as it would any other drive in the computer. 486.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use. Organization of network resources such as users. login security provides authentication and verification of user name. . The earliest version (2. name service. password. Trustee rights regulate which directories and files a user can access. it was the most popular server operating system. NetWare is administered through NetADMIN. With NDS’ single point logon. which is a Windows-based utility. In the past. and volumes is also handled with NDS.12 and 4. which is a DOS-based utility. NetWare Security The purpose of a network may be to share resources. web-publishing. time. Novell NetWare The NetWare operating system has been around for a long time. but it is losing market share to Microsoft servers every year. NetWare provides more than adequate network security by using a combination of approaches. routing.11 operate on 386. or through NWADMIN.11 is called IntranetWare. It is Novell’s push to gain market share and is a way of creating an Intranet. 42 Specialized Solutions. Inc. or Pentium machines. It may be installed in either the client or server format. Version 4. deleted. Versions 3. we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. It is a reliable operating system that provides performance and security. In this section. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security.2) was designed to operate on 286 machines. which is like the Internet but within a network or company. as well as what kind of access they have. a user may logon from anywhere on the network and gain access with all of their assigned rights and privileges intact. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. or changed. non-shareable. servers. copied. and file and print services. but there will always be data in any network to which access must be restricted. NetWare is based upon the industry standard X500 directory architecture. • NetWare’s popularity is due largely to its ability to provide services across multioperating system environments. and account restrictions.

or directly to the network. NetWare also provides a method of using simple commands to send messages to other users on the network. Inc. It is compatible with E-mail programs such as Novell’s GroupWise and Microsoft Mail.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Print Services NetWare Print Services can support up to 256 printers. as well as others. Printers may be attached to the server. The file server and the print server can be the same computer. and finally to the printer. You can send messages to individuals or to groups very easily. NetWare Minimum Requirements The following are the minimum installation requirements as specified by Novell for installing their server software: Specialized Solutions. You can even send messages to everyone in a group. NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS) MHS may be installed on any server and configured to be a network wide E-mail system. a workstation. Print requests are first routed to the file server. except an individual workstation. next to the print server. 43 .

1 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS MS Windows 3.11 or OS/2 Warp and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 Macintosh 6.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 5: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Pentium Class or higher 64 MB 550 MB 386 or higher 16 MB 105 MB 386 or higher 6 MB 30 MB 286 or higher 2.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 4.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 3.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS OS/2 1.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for Macintosh OS Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Version 2.5 MB 20 MB Client Software The client software may be installed on any computer running any of the following: • • • • • 44 DOS 3. . Inc.1 or later (Standard or Extended Edition) and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 OS/2 2.

It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier. This type is performed by each workstation or server publicly sharing a directory on the network. The advanced security features of Windows are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT . With this method. Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version. but Windows NT contains services such as NWLink and Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW) that allow them to work together effectively. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. The NetWare client can be installed with almost any other operating system. Today. The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of Windows security features. The attributes such as Read. Windows combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. the Windows servers may be configured to store each workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups. Full Control. As we’ve already discussed. The NT Kernel. Windows File Services Like NetWare. NetWare is extremely efficient at operating with other systems. Files in Windows may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network. Inc. but it does have several advantages. or No Access may be set on the directory. This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments. Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Interoperability As the word implies. 45 . Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management. In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows . another security method must be utilized. you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data. its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows Servers. Unlike NetWare. The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of Microsoft’s server/workstation technology. Specialized Solutions. Change. Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. which as at the base of all Microsoft’s servers. Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software). The newest of these server operating systems. actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2). interoperability simply means the ability of an operating system to operate with other systems. You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows network. offer even more advantages and stronger security than their predecessors. Problems do occur when trying to operate within the Windows NT domain.File Allocation Table) during installation.

. you are given the option to share it to the network. especially with the latest Windows Server 2003 family.. computers. A domain controller is a server that maintains and manages all accounts. permissions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows Server Security Security was a major concern in the development of Windows Servers. Server Service provides access to network resources. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer. Remember. Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible. and user rights. Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene.. Windows Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in a Windows network. (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource. Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers. This trend continued with the latest Windows server operating systems (Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. Microsoft uses domains to control access and authenticate users and computers. 46 Specialized Solutions. Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in the domain. At least one domain controller is assigned to each domain. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. more than one printer can be installed to any machine. Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service. The following is a list of services included with Windows Server software to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between Microsoft and NetWare. and resources with a shared security database. Even if you are installing a local printer. Inc.) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer. Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions). A domain is simply a group of users. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network. Windows Network Services There are many services available in Windows to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user. Workstation Service is the redirector service.

Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to Windows. Installing CSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. It can be installed on the Microsoft client to allow it to connect the Netware server directly. It provides all of the advantages of Windows 2000 Server.. In contrast. it has more “locked down” security templates that make it less likely that users will try to go around the security. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional. Installing GSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network. when using Windows Server 2003 you typically must remove or configure security boundaries in order to get the server to.. Windows Server 2003 is the first Windows server that was built primarily with security in mind. Previous Microsoft server operating systems were built to serve and then had security features to protect them. Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be. Windows Server 2003 offers a more secure Web Server (IIS 6. 47 . Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory. and is.0) than the previous version in Windows 2000 (IIS 5. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases.0). Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives. used as such. Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 is the latest in the line of Microsoft server operating systems. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. This is necessary because all Microsoft client workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point. but it adds many features that are designed exclusively for security. UNIX is a Specialized Solutions. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the Microsoft service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to Microsoft’s domain controller. Inc. In fact.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an Microsoft domain and the NetWare server. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System.well serve. FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access Microsoft file and print services. It allows Novell NDS computers to be managed just as Microsoft domain controllers. which govern what users can see and do on the network. In addition. This software is not included with Netware but can be purchased separately. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators.

Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system. Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX. general-purpose operating system. as well as file and printer sharing. Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows. many variations of Linux have been created over the years such as Caldera and Red Hat. Like Novell NetWare. however. The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS. TCP/IP. These terminals are not stand-alone computers. and messaging services. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms. The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. StreetTalk provides directory. which means that it can be changed by a software programmer. VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments. 48 Specialized Solutions. . At its inception. in fact the software is available for a free download. VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top. UNIX is a multi-tasking. At one time. Linux is open source. Software is available. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources. security.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide bulky operating system. It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. to convert the UNIX host into a file server. A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. Inc. it was an extremely popular network operating system. OS/2. multi-user. but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users. as well as others. UNIX. and many other features associated with an OS. Because of its open source nature.

49 . Specialized Solutions. Inc. but users also use them personally. In conjunction with Xerox. and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984. Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production. both at home and on the go. they developed what later became known as the mouse and the first GUI display. The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction with the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book).

Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic. the client computers rely on the server for their resources. Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. an application is unaware that it is working from a network. A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare). . the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network). such as Novell NetWare and Windows server operating systems. With the redirector. etc. In a peer-to-peer network. There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system. Today. Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. and data backups. The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security. (UNIX. and at least be familiar with others. Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer. centralization of administration. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. Inc. It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today. In a server-based network. The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely).). The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly. 50 Specialized Solutions. Study through the chapter again if you need to. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems. Banyan VINES. the most popular network operating systems also function as the network operating system.

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS)

KEYWORDS Exercise
Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition

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Review Questions
1. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system?

2.

What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking?

3.

What is the purpose of the redirector?

4.

NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments.

5.

What is NDS?

6.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5?

7.

Define interoperability.

8.

Unlike NetWare, Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one.

9.

What is NTFS?

10.

What is a domain?

11.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server?

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Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) 12. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.

13.

What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system?

14.

What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984?

15.

What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system?

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Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards

Chapter 3- The OSI Model and Communication Standards
In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, what it is and its primary function. You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles each function, and which devices function at each layer. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam.

The Seven Layers of Network Communication
The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. As a result, some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other, and how they will communicate if they are using different languages. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit; when not to transmit; and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected; how the data will flow (at what speed); and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications.

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The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you should notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers, depending upon their functions.

Seven Layers of the OSI Model
The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network. These services include file, print, and messaging services. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer. The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. This is not the actual application or program, simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail, transfer files across the network, or access a

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The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. add any addressing information and error correction information. they will be combined. The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging. or full-duplex communication. and prepare it for its journey. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. As its name implies. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence. or receive. interpreting graphics commands. bit ordering. and data encryption. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer. The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer. This layer is also responsible for data compression. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh. Inc. The network redirector operates at this layer. Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure. These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. it will break the data into packets. 57 . The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them.) character set conversion. This layer is responsible for establishing. The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit. Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. it presents data to the application layer. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network. if the packets are too small. protocol conversion. managing. This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local. Sessions may be established using simplex. half-duplex. etc. and un-packaging the data for transport. and error free. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. and ending connections. If Specialized Solutions. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards network database. without duplication. and when. Each connection is called a session. It provides a logical connection between the two devices. For example. In short.

the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. Routers and NICs function on this layer. all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another.) It also includes control information such as frame type. UDP is a connectionless protocol. The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission. It receives a packet from the Network layer and packages it into what is called a frame. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide they are too large. delivery of packets is not guaranteed. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers. This controls network congestion. In an ideal world. especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards. This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer. the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks. Once the data is reassembled. they will be broken into smaller packets. When you are using a connectionless protocol.518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols. Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. however. When the data is received. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. Connectionless protocols are faster. 58 Specialized Solutions. . This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link. Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. segmentation information and routing information. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. error free manner. it will be un-packed. stripped of its addressing information. For example. When you are using a connection-oriented protocol. checked for errors. Should an error occur. it will retransmit after a specified amount of time. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses.

it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer. When the sending computer does not receive and acknowledgement. it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. The way that a network shares the channel is called its carrier access method. If the calculation does not check out. Token Passing.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards In addition. MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized. 59 . the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions. The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame. Inc. If it is not.2 standard defines how this takes place. The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer. It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link. the destination computer will not send an acknowledgement. This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame. TCP/IP is somewhat “self healing”. If it is. It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). and Demand Priority. In this way. The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer. The following is an example of a MAC address: Specialized Solutions. They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers. (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host). The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). such as SDLC. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers. The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address. it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer. It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium. Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel. The IEEE 802. the data is sent out on the wire to all computers. Although quite rare. In a broadcast network such as Ethernet. It identifies a line protocol. The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards. Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers. it will automatically resend the packet. then it discards the data.

Point-topoint communication is the process of one device communicating with one other device . It identifies the NIC. and what each one will do. data work at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses. all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model. an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable. Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer.iso. hubs and transceivers. It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. . Note: For more information on the OSI Model. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium. visit www. Repeaters. Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model. The last 3 bytes (35FD-AB) are the Device ID that is unique to the associated Vendor ID. For example. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer. Inc. The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. synchronizes the data. It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer. Point to point communication is often used between switches and routers on a network. The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames. 60 Specialized Solutions. it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 00-00-13-35-FD-AB The first 3 bytes (00-00-13) identify the manufacturer of the card. Multipoint communication is the process of one device communicating with multiple devices on a network. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer. Switches. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets.ch/. and determines when and how data may be transmitted.

Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. 61 .

In addition to reading the headers and performing the instructions. or suite. For example: You send a request for services to the server. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack. The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. and provides services to the layer directly above it. Headers contain instructions for tasks that need to be performed at that level. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. over the network medium. . each layer reads and performs the tasks specified in its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. The Physical layer does not add a header. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task. As the packet travels up through the layers. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message. Inc. These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task. You are communicating directly with the Application layer. (Remember. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer. the Application layer is not the actual application. it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate. the process of moving through the layers is reversed. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted by you and the request is considered processed. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer. The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. When the destination computer receives the data. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions.) The request is in the form of a packet. 62 Specialized Solutions. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers. in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers. protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. This is called a protocol stack. In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture. each layer is also responsible for adding or removing headers so that the data is ready to be interpreted by the next layer.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers. but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Signals or Bits or Data Stream into Frames Frames into Packets Frames or Datagrams into Segments Segments into data Data Data Data into Data Files or Messages Specialized Solutions. The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers. 63 . Because of this. Inc. they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers.

Also. Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer. In fact. This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 64 Specialized Solutions. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. Inc. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections. Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers. the OSI Model is not a protocol. This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model. By relating various protocols to the OSI model. you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model. . as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol. it would not match. we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model.

Specialized Solutions. The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer. This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate. because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system. Inc. you do need to remember the different layers and the tasks for which each layer is responsible. The specifications describe how components are supposed to function. it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work. Without them we would not have as many software or hardware packages available to us. 65 . etc. Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers. These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments.

Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model. Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols. They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination. This weakening is known as attenuation. bridges. as well as where in the OSI model they operate. you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer. etc. . It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself. Inc. Data Link layer and the Network layer. A repeater amplifies these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT 66 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. Routers are responsible for using logical addresses to move packets from one network to another and deliver them to a host. Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change. and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network. routers. Repeaters. The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices. are going to be used when they write a program.

If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols or even different technologies. The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate. However. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. 67 . Specialized Solutions. Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. Router tables can be entered manually by a network administrator or they can be dynamically updated using routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF. which can be used to connect an IBM mainframe computer to a Microsoft network. It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router. but usually in the Application layer). Inc. if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI. A popular example is an SNA Gateway. the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Each router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it. Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers.

(IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs.12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN.5 802. February 1980). Inc. and if you would like more information on them.1 802. .11 802. 100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards. a little surfing might be in order.standards.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started.10 802.8 802. The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802. but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible.7 802.6 802.2 802.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards.9 802.ieee. visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www. 68 Specialized Solutions.3 802. Inc. These standards were prepared before the OSI standards.4 802.

69 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. Inc.

and hence. ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. the NIC also needs a device driver to function. It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver. Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers. This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another). . NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp. the network. Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer. The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Inc. which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver. This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC. This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another. However. and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. Network 70 Specialized Solutions. which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments. The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks.

This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network. Inc. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication. Specialized Solutions. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. Connection-Oriented vs. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. Connectionless communication is faster. Protocol Binding In order to function. In connection-oriented communication. For example. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department. Routable vs. but connection-oriented is more reliable. Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model. Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. if TCP/IP is bound first. In a connectionless communication. In a connectionless scenario. the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. 71 . and in full. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless.) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received. It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol. Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on his answering machine. If that fails. There is no guarantee that the message was delivered. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected using a router. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent. It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function. They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. You have no confirmation (unless he calls you back) that he received the message. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. In today’s LANs however. Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party.

It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable. . 72 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X. you should be familiar with these protocol stacks and you should know the OSI layer in which their components function. As a networking professional.25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet). Inc. Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks.

It uses the MAC address and is non-routable. This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite. AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – Manages file sharing at the Application layer AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – Provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer. and handles file and print services. It resides in the Network layer. 73 • • • • • • . Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – Provides transmission of packets across a network. It is a routable protocol. NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model.) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol. It resides in the Network layer. LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers. At the Presentation Specialized Solutions. regardless of speed. NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. It has been modified over the years and now contains the following components: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. Inc. This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – Provides Application layer services for Macintosh. DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP. (If data must cross a router SPX is used. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces. IPX/ SPX This protocol is the proprietary protocol that was developed by Novell for Netware servers and clients.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment. In addition to hop count. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer.

• Many companies use Netware with the TCP/IP protocol stack. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems. At the Transport layer it handles sequencing. It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network. while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections. SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols. No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed. 74 Specialized Solutions. and connection-oriented error control services.1 and later installs TCP/IP by default. TCP and IP. Inc. so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary. Novell Netware 5. FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system. TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide layer it handles data translation. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network. . UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP. It is also layered on IP like TCP. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers. At the Session layer it establishes and controls sessions. • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking). We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with. APPC supports Transport and Session layer services. flow control.

this is also a Network layer protocol. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability. Telnet can also be used for remote configuration of servers and network devices such as routers and switches. then TFTP would be advisable over FTP.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer. but in addition. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP. RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function. ARP will add the information to its table for future use. Specialized Solutions. it will broadcast on the local subnet to determine the MAC address of the computer with the associated IP address. It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server. Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely. If you do not need to use passwords. instead of only the number of hops. 75 . but in reverse. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond to the broadcast by sending its MAC address. ARP keeps a table of corresponding IP and MAC addresses that have been resolved in the previous 10 minutes. It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. making it connectionless. without regard to speed. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP. It is an Application layer protocol. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP is responsible for resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses. Inc. ARP will first check its table and if a matching address is not found. NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system. It resides in the Network layer.

The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs. In addition. asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN. This is the host on an X. 76 Specialized Solutions. packets are re-examined to determine whether they are damaged.25 X. At each stop. . Data is routed via the best connection at a given time. Data goes in and comes out. The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment).25 is also an equipment specification. This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use. XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs. It uses standard telephone lines and switches. only printing functions. the X. which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines.25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization. It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers. This means that routes change as conditions change. it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer. X.25 network. The second part of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment). It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer. This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. but in between. X.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced). It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP. DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Instead. This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions. This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits. it is out of the administrator’s control. Because of this.25 a very slow but very reliable protocol. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet. It is a DEC protocol used for interactive. making X. Inc. LAT (Local Area Transport) LAT does not have a Network layer.25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud. which is the main reason that it is non-routable. This protocol is not used for data communication. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide X.

easy to configure and small. but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model. 77 . It is fast. Inc. which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems. It may be used with bridges.

SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes. It also supports data encryption. and other protocols as well as TCP/IP. This database is typically dynamic in today’s modern networks. It maintains a database and provides hostname to IP address resolution. it detects congested areas and links that are down. Inc. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model. RPC is used by the redirector to 78 Specialized Solutions. It handles session establishment. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. NetBEUI. file transfers. SLIP is not used as much as PPP. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely over the Internet. NetBEUI. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. . but it can also be modified manually by the network administrator. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. or DHCP. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures. DHCP. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications. ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it. and notifies upper layers to route around them. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations. NWLink and NetBEUI. It does not support IPX. and connection release. PPP supports IPX.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Other Protocols The following are other protocols with which you should be familiar: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. administration. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. Like a traffic report on your radio. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer.

Specialized Solutions. 79 . It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards determine if a resource is local or on the network. Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text. Inc.

. but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network. 80 Specialized Solutions. For example. you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three. if you can get to the server through a router. It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter. we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional. Inc. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other.

x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword 802. 81 .

3. 10. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. What is a MAC address? 13. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. and ending connections? 12. . Inc. Which OSI layer is responsible for the MAC address? 8. Who developed the OSI model? 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions – Chapter 3 1. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? 00-01-A5-D3-B4-01 82 Specialized Solutions. 7. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model. 5. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11. managing. What is the function of the Application Layer? 9. 6. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. 4.

Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 22. 83 . Will this work? Why or Why not? Specialized Solutions. without duplication and error free? 16. Inc. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 15. Describe protocol binding. What is the function of a Gateway? 18. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 14. What are they? 17. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 19. 21. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. What are NDIS and ODI? 20. Which is faster. 23.

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but may still be used in some temporary installations such as a construction trailer (although wireless would be a much more likely alternative). It can transmit voice. Inc. a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover. It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps.Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. Intel. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation. Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential. Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist. It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable. Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. There are several cabling options.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 . and the hardware aspect of network operations. Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid. and how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter. or DIX (Digital. Xerox). Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet). which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector. It is not often used in today’s networks. It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC. video. The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. which we will address here. Specialized Solutions. along with connectors. it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. and other hardware and peripherals. most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology. and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install. but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand. (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter). 85 . How to properly configure and use network adapter cards. Because it is shielded. There are numerous kinds of cable. The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. network adapter cards.

They are specified based on their impedance. as well as how they are attached to the cables. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. it is not as easy to install. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. Thicknet was used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. It is expressed in ohms. Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. . Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. It is attached directly to the NIC but allows network signal to flow straight through it as well as to the NIC. 86 Specialized Solutions. In today’s networks. it has been replaced by twisted-pair cable and fiber optic cable. BNC Cable Connectors BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses. In the past.

and is used to connect the device to the network. and an AUI cable. The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors). One of the terminators must be grounded. Specialized Solutions. Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver. Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet. The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function. A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium. BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on. This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable. Inc. 87 . It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection. It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together. BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce.

This types of connections have been largely replaced by newer cable methods such as twisted-pair and fiber optic cable. Inc. Instead. This cable type consists of insulated pair strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another. most networking professionals used a clamp-on transceiver. this was time-consuming and it absorbed signal so it was not the common approach. Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today. These clamp-on transceivers were often referred to as vampire taps because they utilized sharp teeth that punctured the cable to make the connection. There are four pair strands in most twisted-pair cables.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver. It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types. . The twist helps 88 Specialized Solutions.

This results in less sensitivity to EMI. Since it is unshielded. the faster the signal can be sent through the wires without crosstalk. The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per meter in each pair of wires. It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters. Inc. UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular. Twisted Pair Cabling Specialized Solutions. The following is a summary of UTP cables.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. 89 . Currently. There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP). The tighter the twist. The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling. Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 1000 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM and Gigabit Ethernet Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. it is more sensitive to EMI. Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs. there are six categories.

Wall plates are typically used to make the connection to the computers themselves. The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a special tool punch down tool to make the proper connection by stripping the insulation from the wire without breaking the wire. This is an excellent way to organize network cables. RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector. The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location. An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger. They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 10 Gbps . These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. This gives the network administrator a greater degree of flexibility and provides fault tolerance for the network cabling system. Wall Plates for RJ-45 90 Specialized Solutions. Inc. The front of the patch panel contains RJ-45 ports (a port is a female counterpart for the RJ-45 jack).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors. . The RJ-45 jack’s position can therefore be changed from patch panel to patch panel to use a different set of cables for the same connection. Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium. An RJ-11 jack has four connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations.

It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI. They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP. It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types. the data cannot be tapped or stolen. but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. which reduces signal loss. it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength. it is therefore not as common as UTP. Because of this feature. 91 . This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber.. (The core can also be made up of plastic. The following is a summary of IBM Types: Specialized Solutions. IBM cabling is based on its Type.) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable. . Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. which is easier to install. Inc. However. fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances. Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic). IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking. SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses. One strand transmits and one receives.

An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Not Defined Two 62. IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Inc. These are very rarely used in today’s modern networks. IBM Connector 92 Specialized Solutions. Six twisted pairs. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors.5/125-micron multimode fibers. . Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Plenum grade. Contains a shield for use under carpets. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter. Specialized Solutions. Inc. 93 .

. Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only. Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions. the wire thickness increases. Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps) or gigabits per second (Gbps). If this type of cable were used in the plenum. As the AWG wire number decreases. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). For example. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire. Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum. • Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above. 94 Specialized Solutions. The signal flow is uni-directional. these fumes would circulate throughout a building in the event of a fire. For example. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cabling Terms The following are terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. Both you and the party you are talking to can talk and listen at the same time. Because this space does circulate air through a building. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions. fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge. This space is used to circulate air through a building. PVC grade cable is less expensive than Plenum grade cable but it gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned. (send and receive) but only one at a time. The signal flow is bidirectional. PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time. a pager can receive a message. but cannot send a message.Baseband vs. • Simplex vs. For example. Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways. It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing).

95 . local fire codes will need to be addressed. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives. Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals In contrast. A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling. Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes. how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners. such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well. shielded cable or fiber optic cable might be more appropriate.) Will the cable be installed in “noisy” areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting.) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum. It is therefore specifically designed to be used in these circulation areas.) Specialized Solutions. For example. the flexibility of the medium should be considered. Inc.

) If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure.) Transmission speeds and. attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor. last but not least. cost are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network. Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 96 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small. Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance. On the other hand. fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping. . Inc. there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective.

Specialized Solutions. Inc. It makes the physical connection to the network. Because these paths are side-by-side. Analog data has an infinite number of possible states. Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame. NICs are used to connect the computer to the network. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. and controls the flow of data on the network. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time. which constantly vary in one or more values. Today. Network cabling moves data in a single data stream. This is known as serial communication.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs. or 0’s (off). most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit. Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side. Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. data is moved along in groups. Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves. The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses. This is known as parallel communication.) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port. are also known as Network Adapter Cards. 97 . handles network addressing. (And of course to translate it back again. The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium. We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later.

Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent. If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium. the NIC may need to be configured. they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. This makes transferring data much faster. This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters. The time intervals between data chunks. the two cards start sending and receiving data. The amount of time between confirmations. . Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique MAC address. The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed. Inc. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting. Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC. Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it. DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU. The speed of the transmission. Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. When this occurs. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the 98 Specialized Solutions. Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer. How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs.

certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address. these devices can access the memory that they need without interrupting the processor. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. in this case the NIC. Other cards will need to be configured manually. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line. See Appendix A for common address assignments. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that typically no two devices can use the same interrupt. and some are set using software. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned. Specialized Solutions. Only devices like NIC cards that need this type of memory access are assigned DMA channels. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. DMA channels are used by devices that frequently need access to large amounts of memory. In practice. not all devices need one. DMA Channel Configuration of Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels is similar to IRQs. such as: IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU. The good news is that unlike an IRQ. The device is constantly listening to this channel for commands from the processor. Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems. With a DMA channel.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by a device. Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU. The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available. These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor. Inc. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses. 99 . This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments.

Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer. they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. . or you may have to configure it manually. Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC. If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail. They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable. Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards. or both). 100 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC. The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter. RJ-45.

Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus. Inc. including network connectivity. They are also called PC-Card Buses. Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers. The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus. Today most buses are either EISA or PCI. With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs. Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. Specialized Solutions. They are generally 32-bit buses. The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus. 101 . Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much. but can be a 64-bit bus.

102 Specialized Solutions. This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus. Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU. The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks. This type of card is expensive. Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer. the NIC would be a bottleneck. RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed. thereby improving network performance. it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally. Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data. thereby bypassing the CPU.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Performance Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance. Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. Inc. Without this feature. but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data. Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data. .

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling. Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems. This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components. People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home. Specialized Solutions. This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems. They function just like other access points (i.Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking. Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created.Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs. Inc. Extended Local Area Networks . but through the use of an infrared or radio medium. Mobile Computing . Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly. a user can access the network from anywhere in the building. Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems. With some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. Wireless networks use wireless access points (WAPs) to “connect” the network devices to each other. They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. – hubs). For example. • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective. or on the road. 103 .e. A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks. the office. but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN. With wireless systems. Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations such as ocean dwelling oil platforms. a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings.

and because the transmissions are tightly focused. Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. . The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared You use infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control. Infrared networks typically broadcast at about 10 Mbps. Inc. they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping. These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources. This involves using infrared (below Red) light to carry signals to a receiver. Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • 104 Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint Specialized Solutions. Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference. such as windows.

Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. etc. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps. The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls. the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time. Specialized Solutions. require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. or direct sequence modulation. Inc. uses broadband technology. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint. Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. however. In the hopping method. ceilings. which are then transmitted over separate frequencies. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. the message is broken into parts (called chips). until it reaches the receiver. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. which then routes the signal appropriately. 105 . the signal is beamed towards a central unit. In the direct sequence modulation method.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. It does. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. as the name implies. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station.

Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances. Inc. It is used for line-of-sight communication. The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication. Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts. . and only the destination device can receive and read the packet. There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities. Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally. These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information. Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver. mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. 106 Specialized Solutions.

107 . Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Specialized Solutions.

Laser. After discussing at network cabling we then took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself. AUI. As a networking professional. Finally. It prepares. you should know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type. and Fiber-Optic. and Microwave. Twisted Pair. and controls data flow over the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. Inc. transmits. etc. 108 Specialized Solutions. Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals. Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial. . Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet. we took a look at the future. it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks. receives. Wireless networking is the trend of the future. The four basic wireless types are: Infrared. it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. In addition. As a network professional. This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network. RJ-45. You should know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. Radio.

Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 109 . Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions Definition Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Definition . Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair 110 Specialized Solutions.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword Vampire Tap Definition Specialized Solutions. 111 . Inc.

What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3. What is the most popular of the cable types? 10. What is the least expensive of the cable types? 112 Specialized Solutions. What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. What is the most expensive cable type? 13. . How is a vampire tap connected? 6.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable.

15. What does AWG stand for and what is it?

16. Describe baseband.

17. Describe broadband.

18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication?

19. What is the function of a network adapter card?

20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available?

21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card?

22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network?

23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types?

24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network?

25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally?

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards
In previous chapters, we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed, along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets, or frames. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. In this chapter, we will discover how Ethernet works, as well as how Token-ring networks function. AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter. After completing this chapter, you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture, while not as popular as Ethernet, are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers, in this case, over a network. In Chapter 3, you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite, IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture, SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk

The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols; thus, they do not map directly to the OSI Model. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. Specialized Solutions, Inc. 115

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information, handle addressing, and check for errors. Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments.

A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card, also known as the network interface card (NIC), in order for it to be used with a network computer. In some instances, as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX, two protocols may be bound to one card. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC.

Access Methods
In a network, multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. If two or more computers were to send data at the same time, the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing

• Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free, it will send data. While there is data traveling on the cable, no computer will transmit data. Occasionally, however, two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. Naturally, the more users who are connected to a network, the denser network traffic becomes. Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method.

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. It is, however, the access method that works best with wireless connections; since the wireless channel can be verified before the data is sent. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. A token (a special type of packet) is circulated around the ring from computer to computer. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network, it must wait until it possesses the token. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. Data is transmitted in frames. The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. The trailer includes error control information. When the computer is ready, the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted, the frame would be resent. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. Because only one computer at a time may transmit, this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions. (Some more recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer, router, switch, or bridge. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes, addresses, and links are functioning. Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer, hub, and destination computer, instead of broadcasts over the entire network. Because of the cabling method used with this access method, (four pairs Specialized Solutions, Inc. 117

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of wires are used, which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time, but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously, the one with the highest priority is serviced first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests.

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data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium. This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. 119 . Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. but we will use the term packets.) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. if there is a transmission error. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files. Also. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. or messages. Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Network Communications (Frames and Packets) As we’ve discussed previously. Specialized Solutions. Error checking information such as Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) information. (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably. and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. Computer control data such as service requests and commands. All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection. information. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). Data files tend to be quite large. The data to be transmitted. The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. The destination address of the receiving computer. Inc. Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission.

If the results are the same. Inc. When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer. the trailer contains the error checking information. and clocking information. usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes. Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network. the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact. A Packet 120 Specialized Solutions. the calculation is run again. the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit. Usually. the source and destination addresses. Depending upon the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet. The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted. . Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet. Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission. If there is a discrepancy. packets can be various sizes.

Inc. 121 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Specialized Solutions.

Not all railroads are the same (some are electric. or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT). It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2).2) The Logical Link Control layer. For example. Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. data (in this case passengers and freight) is moved in various cars. like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell). Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology). as addressed previously.3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. some are diesel. and typically transmits at 10 Mbps. Logical Link Control (802. we are going to look at different standards for networks. The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL 122 Specialized Solutions. Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802. The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements. Ethernet (802. However. Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication. it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Standards Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network. but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data). In this section. Thicknet coaxial (10Base5). Inc. some are wide gauge. The original version was a 2. . It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method. The standards define the means of communications. but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol. and some are narrow gauge). There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points. These provide the standards for the railroads. is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium.94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable. There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards.3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs. in a railroad.

The minimum distance between nodes is . indicating its maximum segment length. 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications. 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable.5 meters. repeaters can be used for longer distances. The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters. The actual maximum segment length. And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling. BNC connectors and a transceiver. it is most commonly created with UTP cable. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system. The maximum number of nodes per network 90. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs. however. document and image storage. and computer aided design. As its name implies. Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps. The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet Specialized Solutions. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30.5 meters. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology. If the segment must exceed this limitation. These applications include video.) This is referred to as the “5-4-3 Rule”. is 185 meters. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. (There may be five segments but only three may be populated. The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters. 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2. to name a few. it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling. 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. 10BaseT uses the star topology. 123 . The maximum number of nodes per network 100.5 meters. meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters. 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable. and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated. The minimum distance between nodes is 2. The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet) 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade. Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable. although copper can be used with much shorter distances. This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable. Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks. 124 Specialized Solutions. 100BaseVG. It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN. There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know. The IEEE specification 802. with Gigabit Ethernet. When you see any of these terms. and the longest cable length is 250 meters.12 is the standard that defines this technology. and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs). using the CSMA/CD access method. . they are referring to the same thing. VG. and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. Inc. Because of its intense speed. and AnyLAN. (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment. 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards. but that will be referred to later in this book. the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable. ATM competes. the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology. It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets. It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon. to some degree.

Specialized Solutions. Ethernet also works in the UNIX environment. It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance. by joining with either a router or a bridge. 125 . Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP.

Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802. The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1. The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token. This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token. Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. 2. While the token is in use by a computer to send data. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. Like Ethernet. It is not as popular as Ethernet. Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame. Inc. A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems. it is known as a data frame. The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame. it uses the baseband technology. The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes. more than the cable design. How it Works Basically. Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished). The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring. 126 Specialized Solutions.5 standard. and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub. is what sets Token Ring apart.5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. The Token Ring access method. and 3). but is still used today. This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data. The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable. Actually. IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984. Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it. .

Beaconing In a Token Ring environment. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network. the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring. as well as its own address. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal. while IBM says counter-clockwise. The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor. Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address. To accomplish this task. Inc. As each new computer comes online. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted. the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing. The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time. The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. Or. After encoding the data frame. . Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. Message This is the data or file to be transmitted. called the active monitor.5 standards say it travels clockwise. The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring. the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. This computer. Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention. It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected. 127 Specialized Solutions. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. if there were errors. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon. the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity. The IEEE 802.

The Type 128 Specialized Solutions. The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters. each ring can connect up to 260 computers. Inc.5 meters. The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network. Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters. the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. as there are no male and female ends. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. it is only about 45 meters. MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails. This hub is known by a few names. In a pure token passing environment. Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network. The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs. the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters. Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. Using UTP. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network. Using STP. Using STP. Using UTP. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. When a computer is connected. These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. Each node is connected to the hub via a cable. IBM states that it is only 46 meters. Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. . but types 1 and 2 may also be used. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another. just as in other networks that use a hub. but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub.

Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 129 . Patch panels are used to organize patch cables. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible. Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper. Inc. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software. Type 6 may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub. Therefore. A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers. Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters. Specialized Solutions. therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers. Using a pair of repeaters. All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed. hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment. The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments.

or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology. TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices. it will store it to use each time it goes online. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system. EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. by using zones. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer. LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP. A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it. LocalTalk performance is rather limited. Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring. the device assigns itself an address. When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. mainframe computers. AppleShare also provides a print server. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address. As such. Inc. UTP. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare. EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings. Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones. and even some UNIX computers. . it is very inexpensive to initiate. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers.5 Standard) environment. If it is not being used by another computer. 130 Specialized Solutions. This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses. Apple has always been open to third-party development. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk.

It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters.5 Mbps.4 standards (Token Bus LAN). These hubs may be passive. or smart. ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. ARCNet transmits data in packets. Just like other token-passing access method architectures. ARCNet utilizes hubs. the token still passes in numerical order. If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors. These packets contain the destination address. but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable. has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps. Obviously. Specialized Solutions. this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order. the token is passed in numerical order. If using an active hub in a Star topology. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data. 131 . A later version. the source address and up to 508 bytes of data. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors. If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other. the maximum cable distance is 244 meters. This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology. a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data. ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology. Inc. active. but it can be adequately charted to the 802. Instead of the token traveling around a ring. It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2. called ARCNet Plus.

. Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four. Inc. Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range. Speeds up to 54 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific).11) IEEE 802.11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802. 132 Specialized Solutions. The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well. generally).

which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting. Managing network data is all about traffic control. the source and destination addresses. 10Base5. Packets consist of three components: the Header. Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. and the Trailer. destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted. Therefore. Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances. it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year. Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames). The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. Specialized Solutions. As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network. If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data. AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method. which is where the error checking calculation is located. go back and review the chapter again. the Data. It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. Be sure that you understand how this architecture works. It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. but as a networking professional you will encounter them. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future. etc. Packets will include information to identify the source address. and 10BaseT. and clocking information. it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. 133 . CSMA/CA. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts.3 standards.

Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Definition 134 Specialized Solutions. . Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

135 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Token Ring TokenTalk Trailer Zones Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1. 3. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6. Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods. How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7. Inc. 5. . What are the three primary access methods? 2. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11. CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 136 Specialized Solutions.

How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17. Describe a MIC connector. 19. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? Specialized Solutions. 14. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15. 137 . Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16. Inc. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20. What is a SMAU? 21. What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. 22. What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 138 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

(demographics). are there any printers or scanners. you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows. this is a Macintosh-based company. The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. Inc. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have. in many cases.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. rather than a client’s. dislikes. For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have. This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. Specialized Solutions. You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. for example. Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks. pay attention to details. The size of the company and the portion of the network affected. As a network professional. etc. The customer’s likes. (If not. The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever indebted to you. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office. This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. 139 . We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. Most importantly. we will consider hardware compatibility. address. However. you are not designing for yourself. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation. etc? If. who has them. Even if this network is your own. how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them. There are two things that you will need to know. and goals. The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network. your design will not work for them. Finally.

This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components. . The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later. With this information in hand. files services. you must get a clear definition of goals of the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. Remember. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. if the file is compressed. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint. A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. at this time. you are not documenting your network. Once you collect this information. 140 Specialized Solutions. Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources. Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. For example. You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility. etc. or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD. prepare a design document. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps. print services. or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files. or as large as 8 GB. the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB. you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network. Inc. So. or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale). There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available.

141 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. You may have to add network cards and cabling. but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t. The first is the type of network you will be designing. you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it. The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. Also. Inc. Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. you will have no problem. The wrong choice now. You may need to install the software. Skill level of the network users. As long as you have the original software disk (CD). If you do not have this information go back and get it. they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. First. The most prominent are simplicity and cost. all computers are equal. You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing. as generally it is not installed during a standard installation. if you have a printer connected to your computer. This sharing is on a directory level. you will need to start making some decisions. Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. may cause problems in the future. In a peer-to-peer network. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network. This can range from none to very high. The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future. Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement. Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future). Likewise. not all nodes may need the same level of security.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. .” That is. The commitment of management and users. The level of security required. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. For example. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network). Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server. This means that every 142 Specialized Solutions.

In large networks. Inc. information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation. any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. is another advantage of a server-based network. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. server-based networks are scaleable. administration can be a Specialized Solutions. This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older. In a strict peer-topeer network. Remember. 143 . the network must operate transparent to them. For these people. this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts. the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. In small networks. a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network. slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). Last but not least. This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. 24-hours per day. Before you can use any resource. etc. the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. As for size. you will also need to consider the disadvantages. Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer). This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations. Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. Also. In a server-based network. if employees need remote access. the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. While there are many advantages. and lots of memory. such as your printer. instead of backing up individual workstations. a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution.Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added. The more sophisticated the network. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. Also. You can connect more workstations. Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. In a peer-to-peer situation. they will also be using your processor to do their printing. and expand as your needs expand. must less the workings of a network. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. have high-power processor. Since these computers are larger. all network resources are usually centralized. This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network. only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off.

Once you have made this decision.0 192. Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each. in others it could go either way. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer). Inc. let us define the difference between the terms public and private network. since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN.255. The use of these addresses will completely prevent the address conflict issue.255 255.0.192.0.0 -172. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design.0 144 Specialized Solutions.0.0. When you are sitting on the fence. then you might have an address conflict with another entity on the Internet.0.0 255. stick with it and move forward. Public and Private networks In addition. In some cases. the answer will be very obvious.16. A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet.255. For this reason.0.255.168. with open access to the global community. it is highly recommended that you use these addresses for your private addressing.0. Actually. get more. you can use any address that you want to use inside of your own network and behind your firewalls.32.255. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information. there are specific addresses that are filtered by the routers at the backbone of the Internet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified network professional. A public network would be the Internet. If you are not sure you have enough information.0. For this reason. If all else fails.255 172. Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult. which would limit its access to those outside of the company.0 255. The only problem is that if your firewall were to come down.255.0 . present each case to the client and let them make the final decision.168. . 10.0 -10.255.

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Remember. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation. Also. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have. The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like. Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form. On the other hand. you must add new hardware. The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. if all or part of a network already exists. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. . Inc. The following is an example of an inventory sheet. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. you can skip this section. That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment. if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. whether hardware or software. Use it as a starting place to build your own. ask him or her to show you. This form should identify the equipment and its specifications. When taking this inventory. 146 Specialized Solutions. this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks.

PCI.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: Computer Printer Telecommunication Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA. Inc.) # of Free Slots Network Card Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Specialized Solutions. 147 . etc.

describe each program.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function. Inc. 148 Specialized Solutions. Software: If this device uses software. Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary. .

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This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. Inc. make a drawing of the facility and each network node. By assigning them a number now. Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network. or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility. A Network Layout 150 Specialized Solutions. It is time to get out that pencil and paper. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment. . and collect all of the documentation you have been working on. it will make future documentation easier.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network.

On the high end. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. or just good common sense. In addition. It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace. For example. it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5e or CAT 6 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years. you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. However. However. consider Thinnet coaxial cable. you might consider CAT 3. the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3. such as in an imaging environment. where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. Cable lengths must be considered. a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 5 UTP cables. CAT 6 is the UTP of choice. and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. Cable Grade – Local fire codes. if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files. The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the performance criteria of the network. The 100 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. if you are not sure if expansion is in your future. you will need to install CAT 5e or CAT 6 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 1000 Mbps speed. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end). Realistically. In most environments this will be no problem. (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics. 151 . or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. Therefore. repeaters and nodes. you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments. but if this is a large facility. 5-4-3 – If your installation is coaxial Ethernet. Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly. These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub. If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small temporary LAN. Specialized Solutions. Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network.

As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment in which the computers will be operating. It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically. Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment. Fortunately. Like us. and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. but are not limited. NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference. since they don’t use electricity to transmit a signal. it will work. they are sensitive to temperature changes. which requires the use of routers. However. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. low-humidity. you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. it doesn’t really matter.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise). such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source. If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. On the other hand. Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. Variable temperatures. and RFI. Therefore. or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows 2000/2003. which can cause corrosion. The non-routable protocols. Inc. with a relative humidity of 30 percent. 152 Specialized Solutions. . Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment. which can generate damaging ESD. the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers. on the surface. high-humidity. Fiber optics are also a good alternative when the manufacturing environment cannot allow for any possibility of even a small spark. and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network. EMI. These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. The equipment should be shielded from ESD.

Inc. 153 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

To keep these organized. One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding. is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. In most cases. . This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors. Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room. you will most likely need to install a wall outlet. if using CAT 5 or CAT 6.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. This way. 154 Specialized Solutions. So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub. Inc. The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable. There are a few more components that need to be installed. One advantage of using CAT 5 or CAT 6 cable in a star topology from a hub. The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet. it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet. The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it. All the cables will be brought to one location. the cables are connected to a patch panel. Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends. Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network. This way you can identify each location.

That part is the network adapter card. Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. Once that is done. there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC Specialized Solutions. Inc. This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media. Actually. Therefore you must know the requirements of each. there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed. we must select a card that is compatible with both.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network. 155 .

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 156 Specialized Solutions.

a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). will change. The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. Depending on the vintage of the computer. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection. and PCI). but only at 10 Mbps. 157 . Resolving these issues is actually quite simple. Also. there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. In general. EISA. you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots. and therefore the speed at which data can be moved. This section will look at compatibility issues. the speed of the card is important. Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards. Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network. An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple. the card must be compatible with the computer. Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting. Not all cards are the same. The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA. Before purchasing a network card. the number of connectors. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. but only at 10 Mbps. The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. a Specialized Solutions. two. administration. These are little LEDs (one. Therefore. or three) that indicate the status of the card. In addition to being compatible with the network. Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture. you must have Token Ring cards. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. and expansion projects. If you are installing a Token Ring network. also called PC Cards. Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus. Micro Channel. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. which can be a useful tool. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look. Inc. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance. but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. For example. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus.

Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course. it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. You need to configure the card to work with your network software. 158 Specialized Solutions. If you must do this manually. In most cases with a new card. Physically install the card. the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card. Drivers are usually supplied with the network card. be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer). In addition. Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. but you are not finished yet. Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards. the computer may not boot or the conflicting devices might not be able to work simultaneously. be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver. . Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer. you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use. Configure the IRQ and I/O address.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light indicates that data is being transferred. you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches. Finally. Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot. Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. Connect the network cabling. Each card must be configured for a different network. The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. if you upgrade your operating system. If your system is not Plug-n-Play. Now the network adapter card is installed. Install the appropriate drivers for the card. Note: If you must remove the case. If there are any conflicts. Inc.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on. some manufacturers will provide two. Specialized Solutions. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it. To increase marketability of their cards. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector. different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. For Thinnet or Thicknet. For example. These types of problems can be more personal in nature. 159 . and possibly three. If you encounter this type of situation. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day. Inc. the engineering department may be PC-based. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario. The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy. it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. the card should have an RJ-45 connector. In the case of UTP. as well as possible solutions. as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector. However. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. Some STP cards require special connectors. For example. the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based.

if installed. you will need to establish the standards for your network. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly. . Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network. As the network designer or administrator. Inc. With this done. As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards. You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots. Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network. and detail both its hardware and software. Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. we learned about network protocols and standards. that were identically configured. and knowledge of the network operating system. 160 Specialized Solutions. you are going to have your work cut out for you. Standards Earlier in this training course.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. each component will work with the others. This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them. Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system. hard work and standards. By defining the standards to which the network must comply. boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software. With this information in hand. with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier.

These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system. there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system. More than likely. when upgrading from Windows 98 to Windows XP. The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system. Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems. If drivers exist. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase. Specialized Solutions. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. For example. you will need to upgrade. all you need to do is install the Windows XP drivers for the offending hardware. In this case. however.Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are. Inc. network card and/or printer no longer work. the system will not run. but your proficiency will be very low. This is a true statement. Also. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site. You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. you probably do not have the necessary drivers. 161 . the Internet is the answer. A good example is Windows 95. you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. you find that your modem. The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements.

This is part of the Windows Logo program. or hardware compatibility lists. If you want the latest list. It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with Windows 2000.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists an example of the minimum requirements for three operating systems: HCL and Windows 2000 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs. you will need to check the HCL for that product.com/windows/catalog. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision. . it most likely will not work with Windows 2000. If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary.microsoft. is the Microsoft Windows Catalog at www. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. Inc. Microsoft Windows Catalog Still another web site to check for compatibility of hardware and software. 162 Specialized Solutions. Here you will find the latest information about hardware and software that is Designed for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 or at least tested to be compatible with these operating systems. This list will ship with the 2000 package (on the CD-ROM) and 2000 will make a check during installation. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000 is hardware dependent. You can also look for the corresponding logos on the boxes of hardware and software that you are considering purchasing for your network. especially with the newest operating systems such as Windows XP and Windows Server 2003.

Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 163 .

Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. but they are not all the same. Was this a good purchase? 9.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 6 1. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2. . Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. Inc. However. 7. he intends to expand the network in the future. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? 164 Specialized Solutions.

to larger hubs that can connect many more computers.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network. This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network. For example. Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location. Inc. Specialized Solutions. A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network. Expanding a LAN with Hubs A common method for expanding networks is to use a hub. it may be too small.” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive. 165 . There are several different types of hubs.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Chapter 7 . In addition to being called “hubs. you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network. Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series. An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals). sooner or later. from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices.

the simple hub just won’t do the job. but has one additional feature. Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model. amplify the signal. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. They do not translate or filter any information. They do however. Traffic-generating applications. Depending on the objectives of the LAN. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. such as databases. Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. have increased response times. Inc. you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. Long waits to access a printer or file. Fortunately. When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater. 166 Specialized Solutions. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. . You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths.

Inc. For example. Routers work at the Network layer of the OSI model. Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment. the NetBEUI protocol is not routable. Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge. It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. 167 . Specialized Solutions. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. Not all network protocols will work with a router. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language.

. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection. When thinking of a carrier. The second choice is leased. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway Connection Services When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries. When considering which connection service to use. Just because the cost looks good. the distance the data must travel. and the cost of the service. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates. 168 Specialized Solutions. these connections are slow and not very reliable. When thinking of telephone lines. be sure to take into account your throughput. An example of such a system is the telephone company. They are providing the cabling. we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. or dedicated. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances. Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs. each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system. does not mean that it is the best value. microwave. but connecting at this rate is rare. and satellite connections. there are two levels of service to consider. The first is public dial-up network lines. Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps. With dial-up networking. lines. Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps. These are our standard telephone connections. Be careful when choosing a carrier. Typically.

It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with. items such as bridges. routers and communications services are used to create a WAN. Most WANs are a collection of LANs. Inc.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded. A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN. There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines. 169 . It can regenerate the signal. and deals with timing issues. The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN. Specialized Solutions. as well as those transmitted to it. WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs. It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). if necessary. These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity.

Data applications below 1200 bps. The down-side of these lines is that you will have to pay for them 100% of the time instead of on an “as used” basis. This is because you lease the line 100% of the time and therefore do not have to dial-in. Application relays. . they can be justified. Inc. but if you have sufficient traffic. you need DDS (Digital Data Service). Voice with some quality control. 170 Specialized Solutions. Voice and data over private lines.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Basic voice. Basic data. Digital Connectivity When you need a faster. Voice and video. Voice and data over trunks between computers. more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection. Voice/radio with tone conditioning. The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. Dedicated analog lines provide an instant connection. Dedicated lines are far more expensive. Voice and data over trunk circuits.

171 .736 Mbps 2.080 (can reach 10 Gbps) OC-1 OC-3 ATM 1 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A The T1 and the T3 standard are American.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line. The following table lists the most common connection types: Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A Voice Channels DATA RATE (MBPS) 24 672 32 512 N/A 1. and video signals. Inc. data. faster download than upload 51. Specialized Solutions.520 or 622. whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard.8 Mbps 155.544 Mbps 44.52 Mbps Either 155.544 Mbps transmissions.048 Mbps 34.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP. It can be used to transmit digital voice. It is capable of 1.

so it can be both reliable and fast. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network. . each packet was examined at each step in the path to determine whether it was damaged. be used for somewhat secure remote access by employing the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) and tunneling protocols. 172 Specialized Solutions. this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs. In older. however.25 based packet switched networks. Today’s networks use a different technology referred to as Frame Relay. This made for a very reliable and very slow connection. and reliable network messaging. Standard PSTN lines have a very limited bandwidth of less than 56 Kbps. a packet may be sent over multiple permanent virtual circuits (PVCs).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. Inc. convenient. since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet. Obviously. all of which are considered reliable. With Frame Relay. For this reason. A packet switched network provides multiple paths that packets could travel from source to destination. X. Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast. These lines can. Frame Relay does not check the packet at each step in its route.

printers. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN. 173 . or any other logical means. adding computers or adjusting resources. or by the specific use of the computers.) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically. An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within his company. This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN. which lays out hosts (computers. etc. without having to change the physical picture of the network.” Specialized Solutions. Inc.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment.

Because it is fiber optic-based. These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1. One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need. and focuses on the home and business market. FDDI . . has two 64 Kbps 174 Specialized Solutions. media limited. Inc. you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies. and imaging. they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps. This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network.Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN. twisted pair. it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference. It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. While not a good choice for WANs. however. which is intended for use in the home or small business. it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds. ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface). It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles). ATM . or fiber optic. video.2 Gbps. As well as the common voice and data. ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial. in actuality. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services.Asynchronous transfer mode uses fixed length (53 byte) cells instead of packets. audio. It is. ATM can be used with FAX. while using copper telephone wires. ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential. These cells can speed communication because the network always know exactly what to expect in regard the size of the next cell. However.

6). SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices. To be more precise. It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM). 175 . SMDS SMDS . a call. SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media. Internationally. which is intended for use by large businesses. It is capable of transmitting voice. Inc. Specialized Solutions. it is the European equivalent of SONET. The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps). It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx). has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1. like OCx with SONET.544 Mbps). it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network. It carries all the bits from say. and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control. within one transmission frame.Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. much like E1 is to T1.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps).84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768). data and video at rates ranging from 51. This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802. ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface). and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control.

Therefore.600 bps. However. Inc.32 standard. Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions. The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication. 8.400 bps. FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines. there is a limit of 2400 Baud. Modems transmit data at various speeds. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion. the Baud rate was equal to the bps. 14. A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable. Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections. due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of transmitting signals over long distances. With this change. times as fast as the Baud rate. 176 Specialized Solutions. Today. 4.32bis bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard. and media. The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V. These speeds are measured as bits per second. the term Baud has disappeared and been replaced with bps. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer.22bis V. etc. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines.400 High-speed version of the V. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer.600 bps. a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2. or over long distances. Modems are classified by a “V” rating. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate. With early modems. connecting a few computers to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards. designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle. As we have already learned. network cards.32 V. . Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data. To increase our network beyond a few computers. Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems.

177 .200 Not officially a standard yet.90 19.34 V. modems. 57.800 Improved V. modems – error correction standard. 28.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network V.600 Backwards compatible with earlier V. Specialized Solutions. Inc.32terbo V.32terbo. Backwards compatible with earlier V.42 V.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards.FastClass. Will only communicate with another V. 56.

or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. Also. The difference is how each computer is being utilized. Actually.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. both of these terms mean the same thing. when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. With RAS. there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number. In addition. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). For example. Let’s first look at connecting two computers. On the other hand. the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. Any two computers can be connected. or directly via COM ports and a cable. while a true server like Windows Server 2003 will allow 256 inbound connections. Since the two computers are directly connected. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building). all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer. so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection. The difference between a simple computer (Windows XP or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows Server 2003) is the number of inbound connections. Windows XP has an feature called a direct cable connection. the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem. . You must use a Null-Modem cable. By running Network Connections Wizard and following the simple 178 Specialized Solutions. either via modems and telephone lines. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client. Inc. A system running Windows XP or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection. RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors.

Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking. the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user. Normally. This is a relatively old standard (1984). but is still in use with some systems. While this was the protocol of choice for a Specialized Solutions. Inc. The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network. With this in place. you will use a modem to establish the connection. the RAS software must be installed and running. From this accessory. your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server. you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection. both computers must be using the same protocol. in this case.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network instructions provided. RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work. Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but. On the client side. RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security. the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software. On the server side. you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number. 179 . These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol).

in today’s networks it has several disadvantages.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide long time. . PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. Many organizations are using tunnels. Inc. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) provides for a secure encrypted tunnel for communication through the Internet. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. It supports only TCP/IP. VPN (Virtual Private Networks). With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications. AppleTalk. Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. It supports encrypted passwords. It cannot encrypt logon information. It can be used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private 180 Specialized Solutions. It provides data compression and error control. and DECnet. Encrypted Connections. Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks. It transmits in text only. This is accomplished by encapsulating one protocol with another protocol. RAS and Security. IPX. such that only the sender and the receiver can accurately interpret the data that is being sent. created by PPTP and other tunneling protocols. It enables highly private network links over the public Internet. as a less explensive alternative to costly leased lines. NetBEUI. • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the Network layer of the OSI model. the limits of SLIP caused many problems. It’s only supported by RAS clients. Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP. It provides security.

and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. discussed here in the next chapter. L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the latest version of the tunneling protocol. UNIX. certificates (like X. AH only authenticates the user. L2TP offers many advantages over PPTP. SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server. and Macintosh computers. which is the highest security method. meaning that the computers. TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL. Kerberos V5. authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well. Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network. IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header). most relating to higher security. Inc. usually a user’s credit card number. both sending and receiving. Unlike PPTP. It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 Active Directory use this type of security by default. It does not provide authorization. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission. It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS. limited RAM. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. Linux. Specialized Solutions. It uses a key to encrypt the data. ESP. It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs. as does Novell Directory Services (NDS). It is based on an end-to-end security model. it does not require IP connectivity. ICA can be used with Windows. 181 .509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec.. . it only establishes the user’s identity. a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE). It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). Thin clients are computers with no hard drive. or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server. It is transparent to the user.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to providing remote sharing of information. By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection. and any other software that might use the modem. Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one. The type of communication port you intend to configure. and thus more security. you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server. 182 Specialized Solutions. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on. . RAS provides several layers of security. All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly. you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller. Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. As with all security measures. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration. the modem configuration. If another software package has “control” of the modem. Before installation. This provides for additional authentication. This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. In addition. Inc. Security Host (Bastion Host) A security host or bastion host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system. installing RAS can be frustrating. you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. If it does not work the first time. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary.

it is not always the solution for every network. As a networking professional. and you don’t need a fulltime connection. you want to keep the costs down. 183 . The latest Microsoft server operating systems such as Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 have wizards that make installing an RAS server much simpler.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps. Specialized Solutions. you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses. Inc.

Inc. Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH 184 Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Definition .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X. Inc.25 Definition Specialized Solutions. 185 .

Name three RAS protocols. 10. What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. Inc. 9. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. Name three advanced WAN environments. 4. 7. .544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. a router.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 7 1. 186 Specialized Solutions. Define a repeater. Name four forms of RAS security. and a gateway. What is analog communication? 5. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2. a bridge.

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TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers. Transport. SNMP. Specialized Solutions. RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP. It is also used with Ethernet networks. the recognized standard for internetworking altogether. This is the most common protocol suite with which a networking professional works.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is an internet (between network) protocol. TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). Inc. TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard. known as BSD UNIX. some are considered to be Internet standards. as well as Internet standards. TCP/IP. Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress). and is in fact. Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. From this beginning. and FTP. Also. which will be discussed later in the chapter. such as SMTP. 189 . Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. these protocols were available on UNIX early on. and is usually seen in the combination. It is important for the networking professional to know that TCP/IP is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor. TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol). TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. These standards. and the Internet. TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project. and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. The four layers are: Application. are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board). Internet and Network Interface. intranets.

There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections. . These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP. Inc.Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 190 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model.

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the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets. Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others. there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. However. Should lost or corrupted packets be detected. It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission. . called packets. or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams. they can be retransmitted in a timely manner. Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine. It then routes the information to its destination. Let’s take a look at them. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model. On a TCP/IP network. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 192 Specialized Solutions. This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. and reassembles the data. Inc. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP. Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier. TCP breaks data into tiny chunks. and for the Network+ exam. A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. Let’s take a look at how this works.

or port numbers. consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65. UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session. Telnet. If the transmission has not been successful.535. Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. TCP will retransmit the data. etc. IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP.e. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted. 193 . The addresses. The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received. When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. i. This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines. IP is connectionless. The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. HTTP. The port number identifies the application associated with the data. a port is different from a socket. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model. and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number. UDP transports data.. IP merely routes the data. and specify a certain protocol. Inc. but does not acknowledge delivery. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned. For each packet sent. The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535. Although the terms. TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination. and a Specialized Solutions. the protocol number. FTP. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type. nor does it check for errors. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide checksum. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer. To be more specific, the checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. When the data arrives at the destination computer, the receiving computer performs the calculation. If the checksum is the same, the data is assumed to have arrived intact. The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network, it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. Time to Live – provides TTL data. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. This cache contains a list of all the devices with which it is communicating. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five, TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server, run searches, or access multiple mail servers. 194 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet, which is what you use when you send out mail. SMTP is server to server, whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers, usually over the Internet. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People.” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files, by typing in a user name, or the word “anonymous.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents, such as web pages. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts, using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP, allowing access to a secure Web server. It uses port 443, the secure SSL port instead of port 80, the HTTP port. HTTPS, as well as SSL, allow for the use of X.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user.

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Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials

Naming Systems
Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. Remember, we are working in two worlds, the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names. Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking. DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates hostnames to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. DNS functions like a telephone directory. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers. For example, the domain bigcompany.com may have an IP address of 192.49.238.33. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose, such as government, education, commerce, or interest. Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC, also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. These domains require suffixes such as .com for businesses or .edu for educational institutions. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains:

.com .net .edu .org .gov .mil .biz .pro .info .xx

Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance, Big Company Inc. in Italy might be http://www.Bigcompany.com.it or in Australia www.Bigcompany.com.au. Also, .tv is gaining in popularity. Tuvalu is a small country, which receives financial benefit from the registration fees.

WINS In a Windows-based network, the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network. NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode, leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application. A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast), P-node (peer-peer), M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). 198 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. It predates DNS. It must be manually created and changed. LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. It must be manually created and changed. IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. For example, it could connect a LAN to the Internet. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet, it must be assigned a static IP address. This means that it is permanently assigned. It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers, sooner or later we will run out of numbers. In smaller isolated networks, IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. However, as the number of addresses required increases, you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. To resolve this, IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. That is, assigned on an “as needed” basis. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. When not needed, the address can be leased to another host. To accomplish this, you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address, subnet mask, and a default gateway if needed. Notice that the IP addresses are leased. This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. A lease can be renewed. When the term of the lease is at 50%, the client will send a request for renewal. If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available), the lease will be renewed without interruption. If not renewed, the client will attempt to contact the DHCP server that issued it the IP address directly about every 5 minutes until it reaches 87.5% of the lease, at which time the client will broadcast a request to obtain an address from any available DHCP server. If all addresses are being used or a DHCP server does not respond, the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user. In this case, the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

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and DNS. The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client. but it is most often used between a private network and the networks public address or addresses. like a LAN. IP Proxy Servers Earlier.e. The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties. In the case of a proxy server.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (public IP address). depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time. Actually. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other. NAT. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers. who think they are communicating directly with one another. ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time. Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network. since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. i. The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. NAT also acts as a type of firewall. It contains DHCP. The proxy server is actually making a connection to another network or to the Internet on behalf of the client. to share a single connection to the Internet. a NAT is just a device or program that translates one set of IP addresses to another set of IP addresses. . it serves many clients through only one connection. the proxy server. It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses. Inc. 200 Specialized Solutions.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions. 201 . Inc.

the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique). Internet IP addresses.39. Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address. 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194.967.2 billion) different numbers. An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names.194. Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256. it is not easy for us.296 (4. .11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------16 8 2 1 128 64 32 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39. Inc. they are broken down into four octets. To simplify these addresses. 202 Specialized Solutions.294.8. So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33. The result is called a dotted decimal number. A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4. let’s now take a look at IP address numbers. are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes. Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them. A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001. This IP address is a 32-bit binary number. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8.00001000. Although that is easy for a computer. however. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes.00100111.

The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33.8. The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191. you should pay special attention the Classes A. (A host may be any device on the network.8 and the Host ID would be 194.8.194. Within classes. An example of a Class B IP address would be 129.194. The class can be determined by the value of the first octet. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000). Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use. There are five common classes: A through E. the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID.39.8.) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126.39 would be the Network ID and 8. Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks. The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID).194 would be the Host ID. For the Network+ exam. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000). In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID.194 where the Network ID would be 193. The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID. 203 . 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) Specialized Solutions. B and C. only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID). The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223. Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks. In this case 129.39.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components.39. The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID.39. Depending on the assignment.194 would be an example of a Class A address. The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000). Inc.8. The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID). An example of a Class C IP address would be 193. the network is divided into classes.

Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs. Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 . so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts.126 128 . Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID. there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and for multicasting and are not available for normal host addresses. Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID. you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address. This organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center). Class B .214 possible Host ID numbers. Class C IP addresses are still available. there are 16.191 192 .used by very large networks. Likewise.0.777. Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A. specifically 127.223 In addition. Inc. B or C address. Class B uses two octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID. the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic. This is the loopback address. . 204 Specialized Solutions.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. there are only 65.0. As we mentioned earlier. Also. Class C . if a network is going to be connected to the Internet. with the least number of Network IDs.used for medium-sized networks. All in use and no longer available.534 possible Host ID numbers. Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available. and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses.1) Class A . (For example. You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts.

however. 205 . For example. as compared to IPv4. The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Specialized Solutions. The address types are Unicast. demand high bandwidth.net. which only uses 32-bit addressing. An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers (0 to 9. Rather than having “classes” like IPv4.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. however. IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP). to define the address type. You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example. which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits. It would make it unclear as to what was represented. A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic. as well as ease of configuration and security built right in. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field. use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address. This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology. It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4. Inc. It uses 128-bit addressing. and Multicast. Anycast. then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot. Unicast is an address for a single host. It does.

Multicast. just like 127. A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses. Finally.0. The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address. . 206 Specialized Solutions.1 with IPv4.0. An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. Site-local address. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one. Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address. Inc. is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix. since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain. which replaces broadcast. IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking. All in all.

the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class). which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address. Specialized Solutions. a subnet mask can be 255.255.777.0.255. You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet. For example: 11111111. 255.0. all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet.255. This is done with binary addition (anding). a router can determine which addresses are local and which addresses are for other subnets within the network. In this example. separating it from the host portion of the address. Before looking at anding.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of creating more than one private network from one public network address by customizing your subnet mask. 207 .0 (Class B). Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask.0 (Class C).255. Inc. If you “and” the IP address to the subnet mask. Default Subnet Masks 255.0 255. Since a router connects each subnet.0 255.255. a large university may have a network spread over several buildings and perhaps remote campuses.00000000. Anding is the binary addition that the router uses to make this determination. The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address. or 225. By using subnets. have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right.255. For example.534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s.00000000 or 255. A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) in which all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address.255.0. You must however. lets look at subnet masks.0. only the traffic that is not local will pass through.11111111.0.0.0 In regard to classful addressing .0 Class A (16.0 (Class A). you can reduce the overall network traffic. By using a concept called anding. The number of 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network.216 hosts) Class B (65.0.

it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address.194.32.00000000 (255. .39.0. Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33.00100000. and through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33.00000000.00001000.0. Any local addresses will not pass through.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones.0. Inc.32 and the Host ID is 7.11100000.0.194) 11111111. 00100001. using our previous example of 33. thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network. let’s and it to the subnet mask of 255.8. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 208 Specialized Solutions.11000010 (33.224. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33.194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask.0) equals 00100001. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet.8.194.194.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remember. while the Host ID 0.224.7. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7.0. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment.32.32.00000000.39.8.00100111.8. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet. By using this method.8.0. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID.00000000 (33.

c to 191. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring).b.777.b. Be sure to include some room for growth of the network. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet.255.0.c 128.255.c to 126.a.0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255. Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate.0. Inc.152 Number of Hosts 16.0.0 Number of Networks 126 16.c 192.0.b. • • • • Connect physically remote local networks.b. 209 .097.c to 223.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking.a.a.255.216 65.0 255.0 255.a. it will require an address for each subnet.0. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner. There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required.0. Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment.0 255.255. Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet.b.384 2.c Default Subnet Mask 255.255.255.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001.a. A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network. A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card.b.a. If a router is connected to two subnets.0 255. Specialized Solutions.

192.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16. we have one network with approximately 65. We will use an InterNIC ID of 191. you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC.255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet.382 Hosts N/A 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 210 Specialized Solutions. we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host.0 255.0 255. To begin this process.248.240 255.0 255.240.255. First.0 255.255.255.255.255.255. Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255.192 255.128 255.0.255.255. .0 255. As we begin to subnet.255.255.255.255. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign.0.255.224 255. The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network.255.248 255.255.255.000 hosts.255. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255.255.36. Inc.255. With this number.0 255. You should remember the formula 2n-2 where n is the number of bits borrowed. We use this formula to determine the number of subnets that will be created by borrowing bits from the hosts.252.254.224.255.0 255.

255. Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator). Now we get out our Windows calculator.255. The number 18 will now be in binary (10010). Inc.255. giving us a total requirement of 18.192 255.224 255. Change the mode to binary (Bin). Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected.255. let’s add 4 more for future expansions. lets keep our network ID of 191.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255. 3.255.255. For this example.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 Hosts N/A 30 14 6 2 To make this easy. the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements. Specialized Solutions. 2.255.255. Just to be on the safe side. 1. 211 . you can use the scientific calculator supplied with any Windows operating system.255. We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID.255. we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs.248 255.240 255.36 as assigned to us by InterNIC. Enter the value of 18.

0. we would have had to reconfigure the entire network. . Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask.000 hosts each.0 and the network address of 192. Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth). instead of selecting the next subnet on our list.248. This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2. Had we needed to add a new subnet.255.224. This will be the number of bits required for the third octet. the subnet mask would be 255. let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255. you can determine the available Network IDs. For this example. Count the number of binary digits (5). The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 212 Specialized Solutions. To keep things simple. our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4.36.255. Inc.

0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255. on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255. (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask.160 192.192 Determine the Host IDs The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001). If it is different.96 192. The only restrictions are that you cannot use . A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255. this means that the number starts with . and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet.36.0.36. This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192.36.0.255. The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network. The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID. Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network.255.0. they are on the same network.36 (overall network address) 192.36. Inc.255.) Specialized Solutions. indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively.255.000 or .0.001 in the last octet.36. For example. these are reserved for broadcast addresses.32 192.64 192.0. In dotted-decimal format. or one that is located on a remote network. the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery. up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID. 213 .36.128 192.

126 128 .0 CLASS ID 1 .255. . Inc.223 214 Specialized Solutions.0.0 255.255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255.0.191 192 .255.0.0 255.

However. and enter the information in the appropriate fields. right-click on TCP/IP Protocol. in addition to other hardware and software configurations. DNS You can enable or disable DNS. you will need to type in the specified default gateway. Specialized Solutions. Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. Next. IP Address Here. Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor. On some screens. Click the radio button to enable DNS. Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways. This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information. click the Protocols tab. 215 . and click Properties. Inc.” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server. other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window. you may specify a particular IP address.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically. The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using.

This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients. and subnet mask configuration. Inc. WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses. It also includes the DNS configuration. default gateway.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology. 216 Specialized Solutions. .

217 . Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet Definition Specialized Solutions.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword POP3 Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 218 Specialized Solutions.

Inc. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. 12. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3. 219 . Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9. 10. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups. 4. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Review Questions Chapter 8 1. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Specialized Solutions. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. What is an FQDN and give an example? 6. What is the purpose of DNS? 5. What is a domain? 7. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 220 Specialized Solutions.

Network Managers . The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator. 221 . the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network. It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data.SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks. From the database and the software interface. Using one of these products. you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device. you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network. The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base). Inc. In addition.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device. Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager). 222 Specialized Solutions. These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt. A community can also restrict access. An additional SNMP command is the trap. Set: sends a configuration value to a device. Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network. The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents. The three commands are: Get: request data from the device. This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager. . therefore providing a level of security. Get-next: request the next value in a sequence. It will respond to commands issued by the management software.

Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses. and normal (i). but did not cause a stop. Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table. NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. 223 . TRACERT. serious (!). Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. and TCP/IP events and errors. TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics. Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis. Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred). shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination. Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports. Specialized Solutions. This includes critical system errors. Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. Inc. ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it. Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table.

. and typing in either cmd or command. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar. 224 Specialized Solutions. clicking Run.

IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer. RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address. Inc. and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot.168. Ping works at the IP level. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain. PING The lowest level test to find out if you have connectivity to a remote host. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter. Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client. the IP of a host might be 192. IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. and will display the current configuration of a computer.1.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools. For example. NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address. 225 . Specialized Solutions.12. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain. NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain. NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address. NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same. Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 226 Specialized Solutions. .

Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 227 .

TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network. 3. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. 228 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 9 1. List as many as you can. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2. . Inc. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. each device will need to be _________ compliant.

the results can be devastating. before you set up the network. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 10 – Network Security Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access. Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user. or even millions. unless safeguards are built in. There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. Password practices and procedures. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created). A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords. Whether the sabotage is malicious. Users should be held accountable for the security of their individual workstations. you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent. from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files. the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. motivated by curiosity. Inc. Most users will also be able to access shared files. or an irresponsible prank. creating chaos and costing thousands. 229 . or anyone who has access to your network for that matter. depending on the roles they play in your company. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. of dollars. can deliberately damage your network. she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of her particular network. is right up front. Therefore. Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change. The best time to set up your network security. Very few users will have access to administrative features. data encryption. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company. A disgruntled employee. As you might have already deduced. or at least have your plan intact. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems.

a gesture of respect for the user and the system. passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users. Users can access a shared resource. The user can edit the file as necessary. while the original file remains intact. should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required. However. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place. . the user will be inclined to be less attentive to personal security. where the administrator can easily retrieve it. Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file. 230 Specialized Solutions. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. such as a template or another type of file. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model. In a manner similar to the signature on a document. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality. The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. Password protection is. authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source. among other things. Inc. and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security. A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process.

Inc. 231 .Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Security Specialized Solutions.

For example. and even more often on larger networks. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. 232 Specialized Solutions. or auditing. . at the very least. but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information. or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system. It is an important part of a network security plan. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network. Inc. Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. you would block port 80. if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet. Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs. Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. you will most likely be using E-mail. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. If you are accessing the Internet from your network. Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network. by forwarding application traffic through the firewall. Files need to be backed up daily.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. This needs to be handled in such a way that production will not be interrupted. you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs. As the system administrator. and work at the application level. and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. they can be host-based.

44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. Floppy disk capacities today. the other can take over without compromising network operations. how the backup information will be tested. Inc. you must answer important questions about what to backup. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). the second server should serve as a backup to the first. 233 . for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity. This backup medium is suitable for small companies. Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups. so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security. There are several options available. it is still a viable option. If anything happens to one. Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other. Remember. so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations. and the procedure to follow for recovery. plan to fail. In addition. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk. the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk. range from 1. Specialized Solutions. and how often backups will be performed. called the backup medium. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. Although slower than RAID. Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs. These multiple disks are called disk arrays. As you might guess. those who fail to plan. As a computer professional. While planning your backup strategy.Chapter 10 – Network Security It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers. you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data. rather than one larger server. Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today. and are more commonly known as RAID. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. Ideally. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available.

as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup. will backup all selected data on the network.. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups. Differential. Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk. is called fault tolerance. When recovering from a failure. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space. This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed. To restore. This method will take the largest amount of storage media. but will be the easiest to restore. and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level. This usually involves some degree of redundancy. 234 Specialized Solutions. Full. The Full backup. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations. . both the last differential backup tape copy and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used. A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full. despite the presence of hardware or software failures. as its name implies.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient. the last full backup and all of the incremental backup tapes will be needed. This type of backup is usually performed weekly. Differential and Incremental. Inc. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server.

The same data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure. this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful.Chapter 10 – Network Security The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 .Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 . the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved. so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping. such as a single file. is not being used commercially at the moment to an Specialized Solutions. If more than one disk is lost. Typically.Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks.Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 . and is a standard feature of RAID systems.” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data.) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk. This. 235 . This technique may be applied in either software or hardware. support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing. With this method. RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme. this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent. however. if anything happens to one of the drives. (Provides no fault tolerance.Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 . However. Several operating systems. If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up. Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies. including Novell NetWare. a copy of the data is spread across all of the disks based on a mathematical formula such that any one disk in the set can be lost and the other disks will have a copy of all of the information that it contained. administrators are alerted when one disk fails so that they can “regenerate” the RAID set before another disk has a chance to fail. Inc. then the data in the entire array is also lost. which provides for even more fault tolerance.Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 .Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 .

An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. Inc. These types of RAID are not as commonly used and are not as likely to be on the test. such as battery time remaining. In this case. It functions faster. RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. surges. SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. RAID-53. It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power. also called surge suppressors. There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. as you might guess. There are different types of UPS devices. A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. 236 Specialized Solutions. Cost. Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. but at a greater cost. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. is like RAID-10. and each type provides power for a different length of time. since it is not dependent on another computer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide large degree. Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI). it offers better performance. are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity. Like RAID-10. . which allows for better performance. RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array). SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached. The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. and sags in the power supply. is an issue.

he or she will know how to accomplish the task. 237 . Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days. away. include characters. Passwords should be changed more frequently in high-security networks. In order for this policy to be effective. This is known as a security audit. no matter who they are. The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters and use a combination of letters. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them. Some “classified” networks require password changes every day.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network. Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed. an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis. symbols. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. and numbers. personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being applied. but are easy enough that users can remember them. So. Inc. Users working with sensitive information such as budgets. Specialized Solutions. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy. numbers and symbols. and troubleshoot before the trouble starts. No one. should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there. and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas. If the network administrator needs to use the workstation.” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents. etc. This holds users accountable for their actions on the network.

Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. the Internet is not the most secure of environments. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data. can understand the message. 238 Specialized Solutions. . other than the person for whom the message was intended. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message. Inc. DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used. and Leonard Adleman. The name comes from their first initials. and is used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking. This method uses a 56-bit private key.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. Adi Shamir. This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem. RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest. These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. Even with encryption. Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon.

The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex. both on location and at backup sites. and bulletin boards. As the name implies. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities.Chapter 10 – Network Security Extra data appended to a message. it is not a completely secure encryption method. It is similar to DES. They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. software from unknown origins. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed. Prevention should also be addressed in the plan. There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key. Viruses can be spread by various sources including: shareware. With this method of encryption both parties have the same key. 239 . Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages. Inc. There are over 60. Symmetric Keys can also be used. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. will ensure a much quicker recovery.000 known viruses. If the receiver wishes to respond. The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. which is used to encrypt data and to decrypt it. Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters. It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. files downloaded from the Internet. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off. but they are less secure. which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption. Specialized Solutions. much less a day. the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. is called a digital signature. Many viruses are simple annoyances.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs. they mean that when you open a document you are running a program. Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files). just from running a program. 240 Specialized Solutions. many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet. Macro Virus: These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened. Make sure it is compatible with all of the operating systems that you use. With this in mind. Keep your anti-virus program updated. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site. Use extreme caution when you download files. Inc. Hundreds of viruses are written each month. there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market. (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail). . Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines. (prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk). These days. they will go to work on the system. but when loaded. Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world. It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document. Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine. Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks. enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing a new operating system. If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes.

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Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. . Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 242 Specialized Solutions.

What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Specialized Solutions. What are the three common levels of RAID? 6. The acronym RAID stands for __________. 243 . In a share level model. Inc. 5. What is the function of a firewall? 4. What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2.Chapter 10 – Network Security Review Questions Chapter 10 1. 3. passwords are assigned to __________.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 Specialized Solutions. .

while for others it is a struggle. you will most likely be called when there is a problem. As a troubleshooter. if you are the expert. “as reported. not when all is well. 245 . implement a solution.Conclusion Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution. In order to do this. select the most probable cause. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. but they often hold the keys to the problem. This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. If fact. Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned. Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. it seems well defined by the person who calls and complains! But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. To make matters worse. establish what has changed. Specialized Solutions. Inc. computers never fail at a convenient time. you are looking for the cause. you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). After all. Remember. The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper. For those who must endure the struggle. Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause. and good listening skills. not the symptom. troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. a pen (or pencil). identify the affected area.” is really just the symptom and not the true cause. This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems. and progress with some specific tools that you can employ to simplify the process. or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now. Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. The eight parts are as follows: establish the symptoms. the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem. you must be organized. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software. Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. Remember. They always fail in the middle of a job. The user of the computer or network is your best source of information. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you. test the result. In most cases. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier.

Do not make the questions too technical. Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know. You may. You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. Inc. and when. If possible. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation. You will need to create your own list based on the situation. and most importantly. as well as the results. One thing that might 246 Specialized Solutions. or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred. screen changes. The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. and so forth). have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory. but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure. Sometimes. The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work toward the more complex. recent software upgrade.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of the failure. the process of elimination is all that you can do. Be sure to observe the failure yourself. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works. network or computer moved. If it is an operatorinduced problem. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience. however. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. . The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that caused the failure. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever. This will take time and patience. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before. For example. These never seem to occur when you are present. have someone demonstrate the failure to you. lights. it is important to observe how it is created. do not intimidate the user. the failure occurs.) Show me how to create the error. Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem. Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure. Describe any changes in the computer (noise. Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones. With a little experience.

Do not make any assumptions. The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally. 247 . Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems.Conclusion help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. If for example. but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration. Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood. Inc. It requires two simple steps. then you know for sure that the network is physically working. That way the “evidence” is not disturbed. then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. For example. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up. Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made. If you must make any assumptions. but to call you. make a plan and follow it. Once a plan is created. create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. In the case of a network problem. it is important to follow it through. Starting from the top. and move forward. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. You may have to refer back to them later. If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be). Document every action and its results. is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. but you cannot receive any E-mail. isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user Specialized Solutions. write them down.

repair or replacement is usually all that is needed. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures. This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how. Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures. This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome. if an operator is afraid of computers in general. it may require some additional effort. you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem). you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not. In these cases. the problem may be caused by the operator. be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes. 248 Specialized Solutions. . Note: If the problem is software-oriented. It is important to use another operator. as well as the one that is causing problems. Inc. With hardware. For example. either repair or replace the defect. However. Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed. In these situations. Implement the solution. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work). Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities. To resolve these types of problems.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Once the search has been narrowed. you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. and not the hardware or the system. Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems. if the problem is software or configuration related.

In troubleshooting. document the problem and the repair. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle. 249 .Conclusion Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user. Specialized Solutions. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction. Document the solution Finally. This is one way to build. Inc. Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again. the problem. You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience. you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem. and the repair. You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. or a follow up call just to make sure all is well. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems. maintain. there is no substitute for experience. and share experience. The basis for this policy is that once the system is running.

Punch Down Tool 250 Specialized Solutions. Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network. They secure the connection between the wires and the block. let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling. Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools. Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals. Inc. a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician. Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack. . The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire.

Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. as well as the electrical power in the computer. Specialized Solutions. it is still possible to test for continuity. a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters. the circuit is broken. You can test for AC and DC voltage. we will have to know how to test for continuity. very easy to troubleshoot. There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires. With it you can test various electronic components. 251 . Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted). which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound. In a wire for example. For example. The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. resistance. The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe. Since it is made up of wires. All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device. When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing. whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps). the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. We will start by looking at a multimeter. a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red). If the wire is broken. Network cabling is. you can have only one of two problems. A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other. the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. in principle. These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up.Conclusion Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. Inc. and continuity. Some meters will let you test for current as well. If the test is negative (no light or noise). it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. When working with network cabling. An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other. If your meter does not have a continuity setting. Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured.

This applies a signal on the wires. However. When used together. The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). However. called tone generators and tone locators. thus locating the wires. there are more often than not. this is not a problem.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician should have one. if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator. The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky. testing for continuity will require an additional wire. it will emit a tone. Inc. . several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel). You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end. these tools are often called a fox and a hound. and test at the other end. Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. If both ends are in the same location. 252 Specialized Solutions. to find pairs of wires in a bundle.

If you are able to send a signal and have it return. They will monitor network traffic. The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling.Conclusion Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa). there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment. capture packets and generate reports. Specialized Solutions. Be careful when using a crossover cable. Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters. 253 . A crossover cable is similar to a loopback. you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions. Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable. By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. A loopback cable is just what the name implies. Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire. It has the transmit and receive wires connected. Inc. are usually a PC with a special network card. because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable. Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic. but is double-ended. It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. and therefore back to the network card. also called packet sniffers. the location of any break or short can be determined. These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. Software analyzers.

but used for fiber optic cabling. Inc. . 254 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR. OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back.

and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors. 255 . The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network. For some reason. the traffic is not moving. You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so. Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact. due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck. It could be the processor. This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. Therefore. the network. A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. Inc. or a disk resource. Some passwords are case-sensitive. Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords.Conclusion Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. but can be caused by a disconnected cable. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail. If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate.

For example. These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours. deletes. You must defragment the drive.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves. When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it. and moves information. so does the traffic. the network slows down. If slow loading persists even after defragmenting. Inc. Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 256 Specialized Solutions. tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night. You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives. . check for memory bottlenecks. As networks grow.

On a Windows 95/98 computer. TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination. Specialized Solutions. because as a network professional. but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card. Remember this address. These commands work from a command prompt. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities. The first step is to PING the loopback address. The loopback address is 127. you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu. If you are using TCP/IP. 257 . It also lets you know the time that it takes. This will test the protocol stack in the computer. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on your intranet or on the Internet your packet is going. Inc. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG. PING. PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation.0.1.0. This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS. On a Macintosh system. and TRACERT commands to test the network. you will use it often.Conclusion Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network.

WINIPCFG.6. 258 Specialized Solutions. 2000. This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT. If you are using Windows. or 2003 system. WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly. XP. Inc. . your dialog box will look like the following.48.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195.55.

you will be testing a larger portion of the network. they must be okay. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol. then there is a problem with the protocol. PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer. Inc. If at any stage.55. the server. Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: Specialized Solutions. Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems. It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network.Conclusion PING 195. you have encountered a problem. Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday. you receive a message like the following. For the IPX/SPX networks. Usually this means you have the wrong IP address.48. 259 .6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation. With each step. use the ipxping command. and so on.

Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem. Inc. How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution. Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector. you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory. we need to look at four limiting factors on performance. we learned that workstations. while green lights indicate that all is well. they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. you can be sure that the network is not being detected. One is the IP address number. . (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup. If these files are being used. These are text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses. If there is a sudden change in performance. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name. 260 Specialized Solutions. The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS. Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details. the first thing to do is find out what has changed. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. or hosts. they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network.” With nslookup. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. Beyond that. respectively. To resolve this problem. suspect a loose or disconnected cable. but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow. If present. Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. If no lights are on. In general. That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server). You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address. Earlier.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause. have two names.

From this information. Therefore. is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). Then. Specialized Solutions. the more packets that can be moved). at a later date.Conclusion Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation. The speed limit. The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now. Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. Latency Small delays in packet movement that are caused by devices is called latency. or maximum speed that traffic can move. This means that for a small amount of time. slow. if the traffic gets too congested. Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache. but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks. are negligible. An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. but are interrelated. Latency delays. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request. This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. For example. for the most part. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. To create a baseline. Resolving performance problems can be easy. it can send data at a faster than rated speed. 261 . everything slows down. You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information. after you identify the problem. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. This can slow down data transfer. The answer lies in creating a performance baseline. The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system. Just like our highway. and average time to print the document. it will affect the entire network. Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory. if any one component is performing poorly. if you are experiencing slow printing. you will know the high. adding to the network load. The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps). Inc. Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays. For example. you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed.

Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. Windows has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools. With this activated. Windows Performance Monitor 262 Specialized Solutions. Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network. . you will be able to monitor such events as processor time. With this tool. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events. available memory. Inc. To collect these statistics.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. percent of network utilization. you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself. etc. etc.

Conclusion KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 263 .

What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slowly. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6. What is the loopback IP address? 7. You have located the cable in question #3. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3. and think it might be shorted. Inc. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8. What tool would you need to find the short? 5. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9. . What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Conclusion 264 Specialized Solutions. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. You have just connected a workstation to the network. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. After repairing a problem.

Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs. To measure your retention of these materials. the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. be sure to review any areas that need improvement. and don’t forget to use the Glossary. Inc. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material. and as often. as you like. at Specialized Solutions. start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course. our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. Specialized Solutions. be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site. When you are ready to schedule your exam. or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range. 265 . so if you have any questions. We love to hear from our students. Remember.Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. you are ready to sit for your certification exam. After taking a practice exam.

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Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Specialized Solutions. Only 3 segments can contain nodes. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network.Appendix A – Tech Summary Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing coaxial Ethernet cabling. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. It is expressed in ohms. They are specified based on their impedance. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. 267 . Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same. you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule. • • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series. Maximum of 4 repeaters. Inc.

. Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59. such as cable television. Military specification of RG-58 A/U. Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 10Base5 Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Bus 500 10 100 5 4 10Base2 Bus 185 10 30 5 4 3 268 Specialized Solutions. Inc. ArcNet networks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core. but also used for broadband transmissions. RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max. Broadband transmission. Length (meters) Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment Max Segments Max. Description Stranded wire core.

but adds voice capability along with data. Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch. Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Same as type 1. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch. Two STP –26 AWG wire. Specialized Solutions.5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps. Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Inc. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Not Defined Two 62. Contains a shield for use under carpets. 269 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Voice-grade cable. Six twisted pairs. Two STP – 26 AWG wire. Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch. Plenum grade. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Data grade up to 100 Mbps. IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks.Appendix A – Tech Summary UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps.

6 802. They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls.9 802.11 802. .x Standard 802.3 802. 802.1 802.7 802.4 802.2 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802. Inc.5 802.8 802.12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 270 Specialized Solutions.10 802.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model.

The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2. there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed. COM4 COM1. 271 .Appendix A – Tech Summary IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer. No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually Specialized Solutions. COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs. Inc. however.

LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 272 Specialized Solutions.LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F . Inc. The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address. .

Appendix A – Tech Summary 3A0 to 3AF 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model Specialized Solutions. Inc. 273 .

x.x Default Subnet Mask 255.214 65.0. .x. Repeaters Computers Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address.x.x.0.255.x.x to 191.x.255.0.777.x.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Gateways Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Brouter Bridges Switches NICs.0 Number of Networks 126 16.x.x to 223.x 128. Hubs.152 Number of Host 16.384 2.x.0 255. Inc. Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001.534 254 274 Specialized Solutions.255.x to 126.097.x.0 255.x. x.x 192.

Appendix A – Tech Summary TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. the subnet address.0. Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the Linux user’s network interface configuration. it will return. Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses). Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address. If all is well.0. Sends a test packet to a specified address. and default gateway. Use the loopback address (127. the subnet mask.1) to test the IP architecture and configuration. 275 . PING ARP RARP Specialized Solutions. Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks. Inc. Uses a MAC address to find an IP address.

Used to check the status of current IP connections. . ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries.) Used to verify entries on a DNS server. In a star topology. 276 Specialized Solutions. Used to verify the route to a remote host. Used to check the resolution of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses. Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents. all computers are connected in a series.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it. all computers are connected to a hub. (Pronounced Trace Route. Inc. NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology.

all computers are logically connected in a circle. 277 . Inc. all computers are connected to each other. Specialized Solutions. In a mesh topology.Appendix A – Tech Summary In a ring topology.

. TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks. Can also be used for precise voltage measurements. Inc. Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. Also called a network analyzer. resistance. An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals. Protocol Analyzer 278 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages. and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry.

servers. hubs. interface cards.Appendix A – Tech Summary Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations. Used to provide information for network baselines. and networks. routers. Inc. Event Viewer SNMP Specialized Solutions. 279 . and bridges). Displays or prints a list of events. Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers.

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com Specialized Solutions.novell. 281 .microsoft.cnet.com Novell http://www.com Other Helpful Sites http://www.Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www. Inc.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 282 Specialized Solutions. .

This is a common code for basic characters and numbers. Inc. ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below). The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards. This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry.Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. search for these organizations on the Internet. CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector. Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes. In the computing industry. It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. As its name implies. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry. it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set. For additional information. it is responsible for establishing standards for communication. Specialized Solutions. let alone the networking industry. 283 .

284 Specialized Solutions. See Appendix A for a summary of the 802. ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product. These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.x committee. As long as both are SQL compliant. This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model. Inc.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment. As you may guess from its name. Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused. . Since they cover a wide variety of equipment. the data can be smoothly transferred. the IEEE is subdivided into committees. The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802. Inc.x sub-committees. its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards.

Method of payment. Specialized Solutions. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like.vue. Payment must be made each time you take the test. When you call.Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE. Date you wish to take the test. Prices subject to change without notice.com for VUE. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers. and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE. either by credit card. credit card or voucher. please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number. go to www. Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time. Inc.2test. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test. or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer. Payment is made at the time of registration.com for Prometric or www. 285 . To register via the Internet.

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these three terms are often used interchangeably. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. Inc. 287 . Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies. opposite of digital. so they can communicate with other applications or nodes. or bits per second (bps). or computers on the network (nodes). Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. A dedicated server for applications. A continuously variable signal. The highest layer of the OSI Model. Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. Software. it supplies functions to applications. Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). The file server on an AppleTalk network. program.Appendix E – Glossary Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. The Apple networking protocol.

Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals). Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. or DEC. The signal flow is uni-directional. Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances. Hardware that connects one network with another. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. such as IBM. . these are all in use at the present time. A bus driver. Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address 288 Specialized Solutions. The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC. British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. GM. Inc. A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems. A form of mobile computing. An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. IP Address used by medium-sized networks. IP Address used by very large networks. A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. such as Microsoft. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium.

Appendix E – Glossary Client Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable User computer “being served” by another computer. or Cyclic redundancy Code. Software used by the client. or language. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media. itself. Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption Specialized Solutions. called a server. The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable. or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. to allow other tasks to run. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. A form of multitasking. Cyclic Redundancy Check. is a number derived from. Data that is encoded for security reasons. stored. Inc. The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. which is. using a specific protocol. at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level. Same as a hub. from computer or network to another. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation. 289 .

in a round-robin fashion. The Data Link layer splits data into frames. for sending on the Physical layer. It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly. If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks. so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives. Inc. such as an individual file. this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data. A limited form of bus mastering. DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. so that one can take over for the other if it fails. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. Also called data striping.A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients.) Being able to recover data from a disaster. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. It also receives acknowledgement frames. (Simple “on” or “off” signal. When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk. Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one. This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 290 Specialized Solutions.

A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. A group of bits containing address information. error detection. and other control information. Specialized Solutions. File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network. sent over a communications channel. A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard.Appendix E – Glossary DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received. File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once. Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits. A network’s central computer. 291 DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex . Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. Inc.25 packet switching technology. A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. with a very large amount of storage space for shared files. An improved version of X.

HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol. GSNW Half-Duplex Header HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address 292 Specialized Solutions. The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses. A network topology that combines bus. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5. even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages. Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). that enables two networks. and informational messages related to IP. using different protocols. . but only one at a time. RFC 792. RFC 791. Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway A computer that acts as a translator. defined in STD 5. Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. test packets. and other information. to communicate with each other. star. or ring topologies. Inc. It precedes the actual data. is usually represented in dotted decimal notation.

A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology. across a network connection. data. Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk.” Server used for E-mail. it’s “hardware address. A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data. 293 ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU . Inc. internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring. Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator. Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer. Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer.Appendix E – Glossary IPCONFIG IPsec IRQ DOS command that tells you the IP address for your computer. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network. Specialized Solutions. and video data sources. Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver.

a 32-bit bus. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. among others. A method of data transmission. . protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources. introduced by IBM for its PS/2 computer line. Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X. One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. Performing multiple tasks simultaneously. Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths.400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS). Also known as a network interface card. Single Frequency Radio. A type of hub. Provides the physical connection to the network cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide MCA Bus Micro Channel Architecture. MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems. The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. Inc. and is used by CompuServe. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission. Much like your local radio station. Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card 294 Specialized Solutions. totally incompatible with the original PC bus.

A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards. An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network. A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. A generic term used to describe a unit of data. depending on the protocol. Acts as a connection point only. Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network. Specialized Solutions. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network.Appendix E – Glossary Network Administrator Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network. Inc. A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources. 295 Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card . Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet. Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model. including network connectivity. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer.

. A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server.1. which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. Defines a channel between a device and the processor. The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time.5 of Windows 3. and even if a process takes full control. Inc. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer. Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3. converting character sets and encrypting data. Dedicated server for printing. The space between the ceiling and the floor above. The Presentation layer formats data exchange. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Peer-to-Peer Performance Monitor All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server. Although included as part of Windows NT. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model. The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack. Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 296 Specialized Solutions. this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking. other processes will still run. depending upon the needs of the user. A hardware device. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network. used to circulate air through a building. such as a printer or scanner. many third-party applications are available. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning. and running on TCP/IP.

the devices are connected in a continuous loop. which then routes the signal appropriately. Used to increase cable distances in network environments. For example. Connector used with standard telephone wire. 297 . Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors.e. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN Specialized Solutions. the proxy server. The services or peripherals that are shared over the network. the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps.Appendix E – Glossary Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection. A device that forwards packets between networks. to be accessed via a modem. For example. Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. Connector used with UTP and STP network cables. In a Ring topology. i. A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network. In Token-Ring networks. Redirects a call from one port to another. Inc. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. The signal is beamed towards a central unit. including support for dialup and logon. A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network.

. to be used over a serial link.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. connection establishment and release. A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. acknowledgments (ACK). ceilings. Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. until it reaches the receiver. Transmission rates are slower with this type. Inc. A uni-directional data channel. SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP 298 Specialized Solutions. Simple Network Management Protocol. as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. data transfer. The Session layer handles such things as security authentication. normally used on Ethernet. defined in RFC 1055. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol. Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another. RFC 1157. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use. was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP). the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15. usually over Ethernet. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. as opposed to duplex. Software that resides on a server. etc. A computer on a network that provides services to other computers.

so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping.5 Standard) environment. Using binary addition. that uses a large diameter. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings. Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing. or across large flat open areas. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. the official protocol of the Internet. such as bodies of water or deserts. A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. Specialized Solutions. A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol. The process of subdividing a network into logical units.Appendix E – Glossary SONET Spread-Spectrum Radio Synchronous Optical Network Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters. measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). Inc. Maximum segment length is 500 meters. 299 SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk . the entire network goes down. The maximum speed that “traffic” can move. An access method used in a Token Ring topology. rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub. An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5. If the hub fails.

The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information. Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding. RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol. defined in STD 6. The “fox. . like TCP. User Datagram Protocol. Tool for stripping and cutting wire Tone Locator TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 300 Specialized Solutions.” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface.” A receiver set to the frequency of the generator. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. it will emit a tone. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer. this applies a signal on the wires. The “hound.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). is layered on top of IP. A device that transmits and receives data. Inc. and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. which. thus locating the wires. The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport. Used on transceivers. Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments.

A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. Inc. resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address. 301 . such as Token Ring. using zones Zones Specialized Solutions. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks.Appendix E – Glossary WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 302 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area. No security. It is confined to a limited area. LANs typically also have much faster communication speed than WANs. 7. 3. 6. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. like one office). configure. and peripheral devices. 4. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server). What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources. 5. data backups can be more easily and routinely performed. Review Questions Chapter 1 1. applications. What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. Inc. loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net. What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use. 2. and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less). Specialized Solutions. A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. Simple to install. Files are easily accessed by all users. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. A WAN is not geographically limited. such as data. Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security).Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers. 303 .

Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. 9. They represent what the topology looks like. Some NOSs function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. and Ring. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see. What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. 12. 304 Specialized Solutions. more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). Increased performance on large networks. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU. 10. 2. File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access. 11.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 8. Name the three basic topologies. Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. and Demand Priority. The three basic topologies are: Bus. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. Star. Ease of data backups. Review Questions Chapter 2 1. Inc. Centralized administration. More difficult to install and configure. Can be expanded as network grows. Centralized location of resources (server). Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). Name some advantages of a Server-based network. . Token Passing. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment.

What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. name service. 4. 305 . It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments. and file and print services. Define interoperability. messaging. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. redirecting them to the server. Organization of network resources such as users. web-publishing. 64 MB RAM. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security. 6. Inc. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. Specialized Solutions. servers. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. management. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. groups. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. and volumes is also handled with NDS. 5. What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. 7. 8. routing. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. 9. Unlike NetWare. 550 MB of free hard drive space.

Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT. and Physical 3. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare. Network. Presentation. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. Session. 11. What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals. What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 15. .1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 10. FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. 16 MB RAM. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 306 Specialized Solutions. Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Inc. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU. Application.What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. 12. Transport. 125 MB free hard drive space. 13. Data Link. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. 2. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. Review Questions Chapter 3 1. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 14.

simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? D3-B4-01 14. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. Data Link layer 5. Presentation layer 7. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 4. Inc. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. 9. 307 . Network Layer 6. 13. Physical 10. managing. Which OSI layer is responsible the MAC address? The Data Link layer 8. What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer Specialized Solutions. 11. and ending connections? The Session layer 12. It is a computer’s physical address. This is not the actual application or program.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 15. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence, without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 16. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 17. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. 18. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802.2 19. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. They are incompatible with each other. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com, while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. 20. Describe protocol binding. In order to function, a protocol must be bound to the NIC. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 21. Which is faster, connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster, but connection-oriented communication is more reliable. 22. . Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. AppleTalk, DECnet, IPX/SPX, PPP, PPTP, SLIP, SMB, SNA, TCP/IP, UDP, X.25, XNS 23.. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Will this work? Why or Why not? 308

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol.

Review Questions Chapter 4

1. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. 5. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. 6. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above, which is used to circulate air in a building). Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned, which would end up being circulated throughout the building. 7. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 10. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs, which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. 11. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. However, it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. 13. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths, segment lengths of up to several miles, and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. 15. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. 16. Describe baseband. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. 17. Describe broadband. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable, making the signal flow unidirectional. 18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way, can receive but not send. For example, a pager. Half-duplex communication can send or receive, but not at the same time. For example, a CB radio. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. For example, the telephone. 310 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 19. What is the function of a network adapter card? Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network. (They make the physical connection to the network.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. 20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers, including network connectivity. 22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network, to backup a cable-based network, to provide a mobile network environment, for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly, outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform. 23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared, Laser, Radio, and Microwave 24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. 25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally; Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances.

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority Specialized Solutions, Inc. 311

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). Specialized Solutions, Inc. 313

This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer. data collisions are avoided. Describe a MIC connector. It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds.3 standard 15. however. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends. 18. Inc. while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802. It can be either depending upon how it is set up. Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. IEEE 802. 19. The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. . It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise.5 says it travels clockwise. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token.5 standard 16. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. 314 Specialized Solutions. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14. They are also called hermaphrodite connectors. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? The IEEE 802. 20. 21. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit.

Specialized Solutions. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. 4. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers. 23. Review Questions Chapter 6 1. 24.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 22. 2. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. it stores it to use each time it connects to the network. 5. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it. If no other computer is using the address. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. 25. It also provides a print server. 3. etc. 315 . What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. Inc.

Review Questions Chapter 7 1. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. Passive hubs are used only to make connections. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths. he intends to expand the network in the future. Also. you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks. However. having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network. It will be less costly to install CAT 6 now than to replace the CAT 5 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps to handle the higher traffic.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 6. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. An active hub requires some input power. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time.microsoft. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS. 8. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? Check the Windows Catalog on the web at www. 7. but not enough to run it efficiently. Why should you refuse this offer? First. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. 9. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards.com/windows/catalog. but they are not all the same. . 316 Specialized Solutions. Inc. 2.

a router. Name four forms of RAS security. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking). 5. 8. PPTP and L2TP 9. For example.544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. and a gateway. and SONET 7. SLIP. Callback Security. BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem. Name three advanced WAN environments. PPP. a bridge. BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. Bridge . Router . ISDN. Not all network protocols will work with a router. amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables. Frame Relay.A router has all the features of a bridge. Define a repeater. 4. 317 . BAUD and bps were the same thing. Auditing. What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network. Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model. A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem. Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model. Inc. Name three RAS protocols. NetBEUI is not routable.A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature. Gateway . Security host.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. 10. Repeater . Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment. and PPTP filtering.A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment. They do however. Specialized Solutions.Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. In older modems. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. They do not translate or filter any information.

Internet and Network Interface. . Inc. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. and ARP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1. 7. 2. 8. ICMP. HTU UTH 6. FTP. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 318 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11) Specialized Solutions. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9. An example is http://www. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application. 5. and HTTP. 32 10. What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses. IP. What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3. SNMP. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. Transport.microsoft. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names. 4.com. 3. SMTP. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP. UDP.

319 . NETSTAT and TRACERT. Inc. Event Viewer. List as many as you can. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment Review Questions Chapter 9 1.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. each device will need to be _________ compliant. 2. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network. ROUTE. NBTSTAT. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. Specialized Solutions. U U U U 12. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status.

What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password. Resources 3. Inc. . passwords are assigned to __________. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. The acronym RAID stands for____________? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. In a share level model. 320 Specialized Solutions. What are the three most common levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 5 Striped array with parity 6. It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. 4. What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet. 2. 5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1.

you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. You have just connected a workstation to the network. 3. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables. The fox and hound. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. Specialized Solutions. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution. 321 . What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator. After repairing a problem. WINIPCFG from the RUN command. What is the loopback IP address? 127. 5. and Repair the Problem. Inc. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. 8. You are troubleshooting a cable problem.0.0. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. You have located the cable in question #3.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 11 1. What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP.1 7. 2. and think it might be shorted. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. Isolate the Problem. 6. 4.

You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slow.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. 10. Inc. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time. Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 322 Specialized Solutions. .

243 CSMA/CD. 196 Class C. 123 ARP. 323 . 91 Baseband. 191 BRI. 86 Broadband Optical Telepoint. 231 BOOTP. 253 Banyan VINES. 39 AUI connector. 109 CSNW. 109 DES (Data Encryption Standard). 196 client software. 67. 217 ATM. 161 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC). 114 10Base5. 160 Category 3. 108. 166 attenuation. 78 Boot Prom’s. 81 Category 5. 196 Class B. 114 A access method. 79 AWG. 21 Carriers. 40 Specialized Solutions. 42 active hubs. 86 Beaconing. 61 C Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD. 111 D Data Link Layer. 60 attributes. 114 10BaseFL. 226 Bandwidth. 34 DECnet. 60 Broadband. 13 ARCNet. 65 BNC. 92 Boot Sector. 230 Differential backup. 16. 114 10BaseT. 77 Computer compatibility. 50 application server. 151 connection-oriented. 34 clients. 42 base memory address. 98 Change. 69. 90 DLC. 91 domain. 164 Class A. 24 Address Resolution Protocol. 122 AppleTalk. 78.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Index 1 100BaseX. 79 backup utility. 70 DMA. 41 CSU/DSU. 116 10Base2. 121 Application Layer. 52 Data Protection. 39 Circuit-switched. Inc. 89 Direct Memory Access (DMA). 70 coaxial cable. 13 Clocking. 108 Active Directory. 38 Client Software. 89 AppleShare. 81 Cellular Networking. 119 binding. 116 100VG-AnyLAN. 86 B backbone. 167 bridge. 186 Analog. 189 domain controller. 67 demand priority. 40. 78. 89 cloud. 96 brouter. 65 continuity. 226 Digital.

K Kerberos. 187 HTTPS. 191 HTTP.Fiber Distributed Data. 189 Domain Reflectometer (TDR). Inc. 70 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol. 192 IFCONFIG. 93 ISDN. 61 Gateways. 41 Frame Relay. 215 F Fast Ethernet. 67 IRQ.. 96 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 93 EMI. 71 ICS. 39 IP. 174 Line-of-Sight Infrared. 144 Ethernet. 197 IPX. 159 Gigabit Ethernet. 91 ISA. 226 Full Control. 174 IPv6. 226 Infrared. 122 Event Viewer. 174 ICMP. 83 File Infectors. Inc. 41 H Half-Duplex. 226 FDDI . 174 LAN. 167 FTP. 186 Internet Protocol (IP). 217 IMAP4. 68. 245 DSMN. 231 EISA. 174 L L2TP. 86 headers. 96 LAT. 166 fiber-optic. 217. 114 EtherTalk. 39 Full-Duplex. 116 ground probe. 191 gateways. 91 IBM cabling. 185 IP address. (IEEE). 21. 60 E EES. 187 Full backup. 68. 249 IPsec. 194 IPCONFIG. 186 Incremental backup. 41 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). 86 G gateway. 39 fault tolerance. 42 Headers. 224 FPNW. 112 HOSTS file. 187 hubs. 157 hybrid topologies. 22 FAT. 185 interoperability. 81 environment. 191 dynamic routers. 243 Group policies. 231 fire codes. 167 ISDN adapters. 83 IBM Type 3 UTP. 86 firewall. 96 Linux. 56 324 Specialized Solutions. 62 Internet Control Message Protocol. 18 I I/O port number. 120 ICA. 12 Laser. 42 GSNW.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Domain Name Service (DNS). 161 .

36 NetWare file server. 213 MIC (Media Interface Connectors). 37 NetWare security. 31 PGP. 23 media access methods. 36 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh. 172 PPTP. 71. 14 Peer-to-peer LANs. 190 NETSTAT. 67 M Macintosh. 29 OS/2. 114 LMHOSTS. 18 Ping.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers LLC. 243 multitasking. 164 Packet-Radio Networking. 215 NetWare. 120 Multimeter. 167 protocol. 67 NDIS. 89 passive hub. 37 MIB (Management Information Base). 32 P Packet switching. 30 N NAT. 31 Network standards. 217 NTFS. 157 PCI. 120 Microwave. 242 325 Specialized Solutions. 13 peer-to-peer. 30 PRI. 107 protocols. 49 operating system. 243 mesh topology. 64 Open Systems Interface (OSI). 120. 217 PING. 36 NetWare Client32 for DOS. 36 NetWare Client32 for OS/2. 215 NCP. 64 proxy server. 93 PDC . 41. 52 Network Neighborhood.Multiple Access Units. 36 NetBEUI. . 37 Network Adapter Cards. 96 MLID. 93 PCMCIA. 229 Patch Panel. 192 Punch Down Tool. 231 physical topologies. 232 Managing User Accounts. 29 NSLOOKUP. 151 Media Tester. 114 Network Time Protocol (NTP). 68 O ODI. 39 Null-Modem. 70 NETBIOS. 69 NLSP. 191 LocalTalk. 172 Preemptive multitasking. 37 NetWare Print Services. 191 NBTSTAT. 98 packets. 249 plenum. 18 LSL. 69 Network-attached storage (NAS). Inc. 23 Passwords. 157 MAUs . 67 modem. 18 MHS. 171 NWLink. 228 NFS. 21 Media Compatibility. 86 PPP. 39 NOS – Network Operating System. 49. 168 MSAU. 64 NDS (NetWare Directory Services). 122 logical topology. 67 No Access. 36 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95.Primary Domain Controller. 89 Network Layer. 34 MAU. 43 Macro Virus. 71. 111 parallel communication.

245 SONET. 96 SDH. 68. 71 RSA. 230 S SAP. 217 Read. 16 serial communication. 167 SPX. 81 Subnetting. 232 troubleshooting. 65 RPC. 144 Server Software.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide R Radio. 118 topology. 227 RARP. Inc. 228 STP. 86 SLIP. 17 RIP. 225 removable optical disk. 68 326 Specialized Solutions. 98 Scatter Infrared. 167 security. 79 Transport Layer. 175 Security. 225 repeater. 109 token ring. 35 ring topology. 13 sharing applications. 71. 67 SSL. 172 SMAU. 39 redirector. sneaker net. 17 static routers. 152 star topology. 51 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 16 twisted-pair. 68 SMDS. 80 V vampire taps. 225 TCP. 77 Thinnet. 69 ROUTE. 68 Trojan Horses. 60 Storage Area Network (SAN). 71. 80 U UDP. 21. 42 User Datagram Protocol (UDP). 158 requester. 96 RAID. 77 throughput. 69. 89 Server room. 80 virtual connections. 171 removable disks. 187 Software analyzers. 215 router. 221 segment. 34. 174 token passing. 215. 68. 34 server-based network. 58 . 182 UNIX. 237 trunk. 33 servers. 199 T tape backup. 35 Reflective Infrared. 11 SNMP. 185 UTP. 79 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 68 Satellite Station Networking. 16 TRACERT. 79 thicknet. 60. 60. 253 TLS. 11 signal bounce. 184 Telnet. 13 Server-based network. 213 Simplex. 96 relative humidity. 112 transceiver. 167 SMTP. 144 Remote Access Server or RAS. 16. 16. 187 SNA. 67. 120 SMB. 69 terminator. 174 Standards. 159 routers. 249 Trailer.

327 . 230 W WAN. 166 XDR. 231 VLAN. Inc. 19. 31 Windows NT Print Servers. 71 XNS.25. 95 Wireless NICs. 92 workstation. 165 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks). 13 X X. 69. 190 Wire Crimper. 31 Windows for Workgroups. 40 U U WINS. 124 wireless network. 242 Wireless. 32 Windows 2000. 12 Warp Connect. 154 Windows 95/98.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Viruses. 70 Specialized Solutions.