Network+ 2005 Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network+

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Copyright© 2004 by Specialized Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 338 East Tarpon Street, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. Publisher: Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Contributing Writers: Bill Ferguson Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Editor: Bill Ferguson

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Suggestions/Comments Please forward all comments or suggestions to: Specialized Solutions, Inc. 338 East Tarpon St. Tarpon Springs, FL 34689

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... I

ABOUT SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS ...........................................................IX
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+ .............................................................2005 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ..................................................................................................9 YOUR VIDEO INSTRUCTOR .................................................................................................9 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST ..................................................................................................10 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................10 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................10 ABOUT THIS COURSE .......................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS ..................................................17 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING ....................................................................................17 Benefits of Networking Computers .............................................................................17 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) .................................18 The Client/Server Relationship ...................................................................................19 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................19 Peer-to-Peer Networking ............................................................................................20 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).....................................................................21 Bus Topology ..............................................................................................................21 Star Topology..............................................................................................................22 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................22 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES ......................................................................................................23 Hybrid Topologies ......................................................................................................23 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................23 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................24 NETWORK ACCESS ...........................................................................................................26 Token Passing .............................................................................................................26 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................26 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................27 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS ...........................................................................................28 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................28 Active Hubs .................................................................................................................29 Hub-Based Networks ..................................................................................................29 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................30 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................31 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1 ....................................................................................33 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS) ....................................35 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? ..................................................................................35 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking .............................................................36 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)? ........................................................37 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................37 Server/Client Software ................................................................................................39 NOS PACKAGES...............................................................................................................42 Specialized Solutions, Inc. i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Novell NetWare .......................................................................................................... 42 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System................................................... 45 Windows NT Minimum Requirements ...........................Error! Bookmark not defined. UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................ 47 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service)................................................ 48 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 50 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................. 51 REVIEW QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................ 52 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS.......... 55 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION ..................................................... 55 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL ................................................................................ 56 Application Layer ....................................................................................................... 56 Presentation Layer ..................................................................................................... 57 Session Layer.............................................................................................................. 57 Transport Layer.......................................................................................................... 57 Network Layer ............................................................................................................ 58 Data Link Layer.......................................................................................................... 58 Logical Link Control (LLC) ....................................................................................... 59 Media Access Control (MAC) .................................................................................... 59 Physical Layer............................................................................................................ 60 PROTOCOL STACKS ......................................................................................................... 62 Communication Between Peer Layers ....................................................................... 62 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD ............................................................................................ 64 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL ....................................................................................... 66 Repeaters .................................................................................................................... 66 Bridges........................................................................................................................ 66 Routers........................................................................................................................ 66 Brouters ...................................................................................................................... 67 Gateways .................................................................................................................... 67 IEEE 802 STANDARDS .................................................................................................... 68 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL ...................................................................... 70 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)......................................................... 70 ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ................................................................................ 70 PROTOCOLS AND OSI ...................................................................................................... 70 Protocol Binding ........................................................................................................ 71 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless ................................................................... 71 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols ........................................................................ 71 Networking Protocols and Stacks............................................................................... 72 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................... 73 DECnet ....................................................................................................................... 73 IPX/ SPX..................................................................................................................... 73 SMB (Server Message Block) ..................................................................................... 74 SNA (Systems Network Architecture) ......................................................................... 74 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ....................................................................... 74 IP (Internet Protocol)................................................................................................. 74 UDP (User Datagram Protocol)................................................................................ 74 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) ..................................................................................... 74 ii Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Table of Contents Telnet...........................................................................................................................75 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................75 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................75 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................75 NTP (Network Time Protocol) ....................................................................................75 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) ...............................................................................75 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................75 X.25 .............................................................................................................................76 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................76 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................76 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................76 LAT (Local Area Transport) .......................................................................................76 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................77 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................78 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................78 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) ...................................................................................78 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) ................................................................78 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) ........................................................78 ISO/OSI Standard .......................................................................................................78 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ...............................................................78 DNS (Domain Name System) ......................................................................................78 XDR (External Data Representation) .........................................................................78 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................78 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................80 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................81 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................82 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................85 NETWORK CABLING .........................................................................................................85 Coaxial Cable .............................................................................................................85 Coaxial Connectors ....................................................................................................86 Twisted-Pair Cable .....................................................................................................88 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................91 Summary of Cabling ...................................................................................................93 CABLING TERMS ..............................................................................................................94 AWG (American Wire Gauge) ....................................................................................94 Bandwidth ...................................................................................................................94 Plenum Grade Cabling ...............................................................................................94 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................95 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)..............................................................................97 Preparing the Data .....................................................................................................97 Signals and Clocking ..................................................................................................97 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel) .................................................................................98 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................98 Configurable Options..................................................................................................98 Wireless NICs............................................................................................................100 Specialized Solutions, Inc. iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Fiber-Optic NICs...................................................................................................... 100 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................ 101 Standard Bus Types .................................................................................................. 101 Laptops ..................................................................................................................... 101 NETWORK PERFORMANCE ............................................................................................. 102 WIRELESS NETWORKS ................................................................................................... 103 Why Wireless? .......................................................................................................... 103 Wireless Transmission Methods............................................................................... 104 Radio Transmission.................................................................................................. 105 Satellite Station Networking..................................................................................... 106 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 108 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 109 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.................................................................................... 112 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS .................................. 115 ACCESS METHODS......................................................................................................... 116 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) .................... 116 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) ................... 117 Token Passing........................................................................................................... 117 Demand Priority....................................................................................................... 117 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS) ............................................... 119 Packet Structure ....................................................................................................... 119 Packet Components .................................................................................................. 120 NETWORK STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 122 Logical Link Control (802.2).................................................................................... 122 Ethernet (802.3)........................................................................................................ 122 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................. 129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)................................................... 131 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 133 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 134 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.................................................................................... 136 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.......................................................................... 139 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT ................................................................................... 139 The Customer ........................................................................................................... 139 The Network Goals................................................................................................... 140 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE ......................................................................................... 142 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer.................................................................................. 142 When to Choose Client/Server ................................................................................. 143 Making the Choice.................................................................................................... 144 Public and Private networks .................................................................................... 144 DESIGN THE NETWORK.................................................................................................. 150 Media Selection ........................................................................................................ 151 Environmental Concerns.......................................................................................... 152 NOS Selection........................................................................................................... 152 Protocol Selection .................................................................................................... 152 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER ............................................................................................ 154 Cable to Computer ................................................................................................... 154 iv Specialized Solutions, Inc.

.........................................176 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS) .........................................................................................................................................159 Computer Compatibility....................................................................................................................................................170 Circuit-switched Networks.........................................................................................................................169 Digital Connectivity ...................................................................................................................197 Specialized Solutions.....................................................189 RFC (Request For Comments)...................161 Minimum Requirements ............................................................................................................................................................189 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP...........................................................................................................165 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL ........................... Inc..................................................192 Other TCP/IP Protocols ................................................182 Troubleshooting a RAS setup..........................................................................................................................................................................................................167 CONNECTION SERVICES ......................................................................................................................184 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 .................................160 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ...........................................168 Carriers......................................................................Table of Contents Cable to Hub .......................................................................................................................................................................182 Limitations of RAS .................................................................................................................................................................178 RAS Protocols .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................178 Connecting Two Computers...................................................................................................................................................172 VLAN........................189 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS ........................................194 NAMING SYSTEMS .................166 Routers ............... v ...................................................................174 MODEMS ..........................183 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ...............................173 Advanced WAN Environments ...............................186 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS .........................164 CHAPTER 7 ..............................................................................................................................................192 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols ........................161 HCL and Windows 2000 .....................165 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS..................................................................................................................................................................................................162 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 ...................................166 Bridges .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................155 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY ......................................................EXPANDING A NETWORK ......................................172 Packet Switching Networks...154 Network Adapter Cards .....................................................................................................................167 Gateway ..............157 Media Compatibility ............................................197 DNS .....................................................................................................................157 Adapter Card Compatibility .............................................................................................................................160 Hard Work ......................................................................................166 Repeaters......................................................................................................................................168 WAN Overview..............................179 Installing and Configuring RAS...................................................................................................................................160 Standards .............................................................................................................169 Analog Connectivity..............................................................................................................159 PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ............................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... 225 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .....................................................................................SNMP .............................................................................................................................................................. 200 IP Proxy Servers................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 202 IPv4 ............................................................................................................................. 199 BOOTP ................................... ..................................... 225 PING........................ 225 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG ..................................... 203 Class D and Class E Addresses................................................................................................................................... 227 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9............................................................. 223 TRACERT.................................................. 203 IPv6 (IP Next Generation) .............................................................. 221 NETWORK MANAGERS ................ 222 EVENT VIEWER ............................ 223 NBTSTAT ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 200 TCP/IP ADDRESSING..................................................................................................................................... 229 USER AND SHARE LEVEL ............................................................ 229 vi Specialized Solutions............................................................................................................................................................ 198 HOSTS file.......................................................................................... 223 NETSTAT ........................................................................................................... 203 Class B Addresses ....................................... 203 Class C Addresses ..................................... 198 NETBIOS ..................................................................................................................... 199 DHCP ............. 199 IP Gateway ....................................................................................................... 205 SUBNETTING ........................................................................................................... 221 Management Software.............................................................................................................................................................................. 202 IP Addresses .............................................................................................................................................................................. 225 IFCONFIG................................... 222 Communities........................................................................................................... 223 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ..... 225 ARP ................ 207 How to Subdivide a Network ........................................... 225 NSLOOKUP....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 222 VALIDATION TOOLS .......................................................................................... 199 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES ....................................................................................... 223 ROUTE.................................................................................................................. 200 ICS .............................................................................................................................................................. 228 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY ............................................. 203 Class A Addresses ................................................................................................................................ 219 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES..................... Inc............ 215 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................. 209 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS ................................. 200 NAT.................................................................................................................. 225 RARP............................................................................................... 217 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8.............................................................................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS......... 199 LMHOSTS file ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 221 Agent Software ..............................................................................................................

..257 Cable Problems...........................................................................................................................................................230 SECURITY TECHNIQUES ......239 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ..........................................................................................................................................................234 Volumes............................... vii .........................................................................................233 Backup Software .........................................................269 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING) .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................275 Specialized Solutions.................................260 Performance......................................................243 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK ....................................................................237 Encryption.....................275 TCP/IP UTILITIES ........................................................... Inc..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................273 SUBNET MASKING .....................................................................................263 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11 ..........................................232 Backing up Data ..................................242 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10 ..............................................229 Share-level Security ......................................................................................................245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ...............245 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING.234 Fault Tolerance and Power ..........................................................................................................................................................232 Backup Options.....................................................................269 IEEE 802.................................271 OSI MODEL ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... and Incremental Backups ...............................................260 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................260 Name Resolution ...................................268 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES ........250 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents User-level Security.............................270 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS .................238 Disaster Recovery .........................................................................................................................................................................................236 PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES .....X STANDARDS................................................................................267 5-4-3 RULE ............................. Differential.257 Misbehaving Protocols ........................................................................................................274 TCP/IP PORTS ................................................................................264 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY ....232 Blocking Port Numbers...........255 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS ...............................................................................................................267 ETHERNET CABLING .............................................................264 CONCLUSION ................................................................234 Full......250 Hardware Networking Tools..................................................................................................................................................................................................................232 Firewalls .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................239 Viruses..................267 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................234 Fault Tolerance and RAID.....251 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS ............................259 NIC Indicator Lights .........................................................................................................................................

..... ............................................... 309 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5............................................................................................................................................................................................... OTHER HELPFUL SITES ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 283 CCITT ..................................................... 281 MICROSOFT: ....................................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2....................................... 323 viii Specialized Solutions..... 281 COMPUSERVE ......................................................................................................... 315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7........................................................................... 284 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM................................................. 285 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY.............................................................................................. 311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6................................................................................................................................................... 283 ANSI................................................................................................................................................................. 321 INDEX . 283 EIA .......................................................... Inc............................................. 284 ISO....................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1...................................... 318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9.............................. 304 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3................................................................................................................................................ ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED......................................................................................................................................................................... 284 SAG ...................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TOPOLOGY REVIEW ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 278 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ............................................................................................................................................................ 283 IEEE ............................................................................................................................................................................ 306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4................. 285 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS ................................... 316 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8..................................................... 319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10..................................................................................................................... 320 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11.......... 281 NOVELL ....................... 287 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ..... 278 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES ............................................................................................... 281 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS .......................................................... 276 TRANSMISSION MEDIA ............................................................................................

Our highly skilled staff of computer and educational professionals are dedicated to delivering high quality.About Specialized Solutions About Specialized Solutions Welcome to Specialized Solutions. We will always provide a quality product to customers at a price that is within reach of most computer professionals. Inc. is dedicated to providing the computer professional the highest level of self-study training and certification materials the industry has to offer. Inc. please visit us at: www. We strive to provide training programs that far exceed the expectations of our customers. ix .com Specialized Solutions. cost-effective programs that are customized to suit your needs. We are committed to always be on the leading edge of new computer environment training products. One hundred percent customer satisfaction and unmatched customer service is always our commitment to the computer professional. We thank you for choosing our company as your resource for Information Technology SelfStudy Training. Inc.specializedsolutions. To see other Specialized Solutions. Specialized Solutions. course offerings. Inc.’s Network+ training and certification course.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide x Specialized Solutions.

Network+ video training series. easy to follow format. our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. 1 . as a stand-alone textbook. Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals. or as a textbook in a classroom environment. and Digital Video Studio Professionals. We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! Specialized Solutions. We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program. Inc. Remember. Computer Graphics Experts. Technical Editors. at Specialized Solutions. It can be used in conjunction with the Specialized Solutions. Technical Writers.Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives. Inc. We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical.

” The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1. The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content. test objectives and example content.” “This examination includes blueprint weighting.0 Network Implementation 4.0 Media & Topologies 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey.0 Protocols & Standards 3. Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination.0 Network Support Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 25% 35% 100% 2 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

2 Specify the main features of 802. 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX • 10 GBASE-SR.3 (Ethernet). 3 . and cable type) of the following cable standards: • 10BASE-T and 10BASE-FL • 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX • 1000BASE-T.0 . 802. and 6 • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) • STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) • Coaxial cable • SMF (Single Mode Fiber) optic cable • MMF (Multimode Fiber) optic cable 1.5 (token ring). 5e. 5.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a diagram. 802.4 Recognize the following media connectors and describe their uses: • RJ-11 (Registered Jack) • RJ-45 (Registered Jack) • F-Type • ST (Straight Tip) • SC (Subscriber Connector or Standard Connector) • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) • Fiber LC (Local Connector) • MT-RJ (Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack) • USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1.6 Identify the purposes.3 Specify the characteristics (For example: speed.Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: Domain 1.Media and Topologies – 20% 1. topology. features and functions of the following network components: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • Gateways • CSU / DSU (Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit) Specialized Solutions. schematic or description: • Star • Bus • Mesh • Ring 1.5 Recognize the following media types and describe their uses: • Category 3. 10 GBASE-LR and 10 GBASE-ER 1. and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) networking technologies.2 (Logical Link Control).11 (wireless). 802. including: • Speed • Access method (CSMA / CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) and CSMA / CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection)) • Topology • Media 1. Inc. length. 1000BASE-CX.

5 Identify the components and structure of IP (Internet Protocol) addresses (IPv4. 2. interoperability and naming conventions: • IPX / SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange / Sequence Packet Exchange) • NetBEUI (Network Basic Input / Output System Extended User Interface) • AppleTalk / AppleTalk over IP (Internet Protocol) • TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) 2. .11x (Direct sequence spread spectrum) • Infrared • Bluetooth 1. antenna type and environmental factors).7 Specify the general characteristics (For example: carrier speed.8 Identify the differences between private and public network addressing schemes. addressing schemes. 2.11 (Frequency hopping spread spectrum) • 802.8 Identify factors which affect the range and speed of wireless service (For example: interference.10 Define the purpose. 2. IPv6) and the required setting for connections across the Internet. transmission type and topology) of the following wireless technologies: • 802. frequency. 2. function and use of the following protocols used in the TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) suite: • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) 4 Specialized Solutions. B and C).2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model and their functions. Domain 2.6 Identify classful IP (Internet Protocol) ranges and their subnet masks (For example: Class A.0 – Protocols and Standards – 20% 2.9 Identify and differentiate between the following IP (Internet Protocol) addressing methods: • Static • Dynamic • Self-assigned (APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing)) 2.1 Identify a MAC (Media Access Control) address and its parts.3 Identify the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) layers at which the following network components operate: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • NICs (Network Interface Card) • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) 2. Inc.4 Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • NICs (Network Interface Card) • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) adapters • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) • Modems • Transceivers (media converters) • Firewalls 1. 2.7 Identify the purpose of subnetting. 2.

13 Identify the purpose of network services and protocols (For example: DNS (Domain Name Service). SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). NFS (Network File System). NAT (Network Address Translation). Inc. 2. WINS (Windows Internet Name Service). 5 .11 Define the function of TCP / UDP (Transmission Control Protocol / User Datagram Protocol) ports. Zeroconf (Zero configuration).Introduction • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) • POP3 / IMAP4 (Post Office Protocol version 3 / Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • Telnet • SSH (Secure Shell) • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) • ARP / RARP (Address Resolution Protocol / Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) • NTP (Network Time Protocol) • NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) • IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) • LPR (Line Printer Remote) 2.14 Identify the basic characteristics (For example: speed.25 2. 2. ICS (Internet Connection Sharing).12 Identify the well-known ports associated with the following commonly used services and protocols: • 20 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 21 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 22 SSH (Secure Shell) • 23 Telnet • 25 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • 53 DNS (Domain Name Service) • 69 TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • 80 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • 110 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) • 119 NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • 123 NTP (Network Time Protocol) • 143 IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • 443 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) 2. SMB (Server Message Block).15 Identify the basic characteristics of the following internet access technologies: • xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) • Broadband Cable (Cable modem) • POTS / PSTN (Plain Old Telephone Service / Public Switched Telephone Network) • Satellite • Wireless Specialized Solutions. AFP (Apple File Protocol). capacity and media) of the following WAN (Wide Area Networks) technologies: • Packet switching • Circuit switching • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) • T1 (T Carrier level 1) / E1 / J1 • T3 (T Carrier level 3) / E3 / J3 • OCx (Optical Carrier) • X. LPD (Line Printer Daemon) and Samba).

6 Specialized Solutions.0 Network Implementation – 25% 3. 3. media tester / certifier. punch down tool or tone generator). Kerberos and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)).8 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks). 3.17 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function: • IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Continued on the next page… Continued from the previous page… • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) • 802. file and print services. Domain 3. PAP (Password Authentication Protocol). benefits and characteristics of using a firewall. application support and security) of the following server operating systems to access network resources: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. determine the impact on network functionality of a particular security implementation (For example: port blocking / filtering. MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). .4 Given a remote connectivity scenario comprised of a protocol. network protocols and peer and server services). configure the connection. interoperability.7 Given a connectivity scenario. 3. RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service). 3. an authentication scheme.9 Identify the main characteristics and purpose of extranets and intranets.18 Identify authentication protocols (For example: CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). authentication and encryption).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. 3. and physical connectivity.3 Identify the appropriate tool for a given wiring task (For example: wire crimper. benefits and characteristics of using a proxy service. 3. Includes connection to the following servers: • UNIX / Linux / MAC OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3.16 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services: • RAS (Remote Access Service) • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) • PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) • VPN (Virtual Private Network) • RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) 2.6 Identify the purpose.1x 2. Inc.2 Identify the basic capabilities needed for client workstations to connect to and use network resources (For example: media.5 Identify the purpose. authentication.1 Identify the basic capabilities (For example: client support.

3 Given a network scenario. 4.4 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a client accessing remote network services. warm and cold sites Domain 4. identify the network area affected and the cause of the stated failure. identify the cause of a stated problem (For example: bad media. DNS (Domain Name Service) and WINS (Windows Internet Name Service)) for network resources and users. interference. 4.Introduction 3.0 Network Support – 35% 4. Specialized Solutions. identify the utility and interpret the output. select the appropriate network utility from the following: • Tracert / traceroute • ping • arp • netstat • nbtstat • ipconfig / ifconfig • winipcfg • nslookup / dig 4.12 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery: • Backup / restore • Offsite storage • Hot and cold spares • Hot. authentication failure.5 Given a troubleshooting scenario between a client and the following server environments.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario.6 Given a scenario. interpret visual indicators (For example: link LEDs (Light Emitting Diode) and collision LEDs (Light Emitting Diode)) to determine the nature of a stated problem. benefits and characteristics of using antivirus software.10 Identify the purpose.8 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving an infrastructure (For example: wired or wireless) problem. network hardware or environment). identify the cause of the problem (For example: file services. protocol configuration.1). adding or removing network services (For example: DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).11 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance: • Power • Link redundancy • Storage • Services 3. determine the impact of modifying. print services. star. 4. Inc. physical connectivity and SOHO (Small Office / Home Office) router). 7 . 4.7 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology (For example: bus. mesh or ring) and including a network diagram.2 Given output from a network diagnostic utility (For example: those utilities listed in objective 4. 3. 4. identify the cause of a stated problem: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 4.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. Implement an action plan and solution including potential effects 6. select an appropriate course of action based on a logical troubleshooting strategy. Identify the affected area 3.9 Given a network problem scenario. . Test the result 7. Identify the symptoms and potential causes 2. Select the most probable cause 5. This strategy can include the following steps: 1. Document the solution and process 8 Specialized Solutions. Identify the results and effects of the solution 8. Establish what has changed 4.

Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge.” Specialized Solutions. Alabama. results oriented computer specialist who has extensive knowledge of Microsoft networks. such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand. Your Video Instructor Your video instructor is Bill Ferguson. He is certified as an MCT. Bill has written the “MCDST Study Guide” for Sybex Inc. Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. and CCNA. To get the best results from your training. Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding. MCP+I. Bill says. and Security+. However. Originally in technical sales and sales management with Sprint. Bill has been in the computer industry for over 15 years. as well as “Designing Security for Windows Server 2003 Network” for Exam Cram2. Bill is an enthusiastic. In addition. MCDST. it may seem so. MCSA. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented. use a study plan. 9 . Network+. “My job is to understand the material so well that I can make it easier for my students to learn than it was for me to learn.Introduction Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not extremely complicated. CCSI. teaching classes for most of the national training companies and some regional training companies. if this is your first exposure to networking. Server+. Practice the function on your computer. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary. Hands-on experience is best. Bill made his transition to Certified Technical Trainer in 1997 with ExecuTrain. In addition he holds the CompTIA certifications of A+. not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation. Inc. Use the “Help” button where available. Bill now runs his own company as an independent contractor in Birmingham. MCSE.

Since most of us learn in different ways. watching. YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Schedule the test for a few weeks from now so that you will have a guidepost that is constantly reminding you that you need to study the material. there is no one method that will work for everyone. This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find. • • • How do you learn best (reading. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive. Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam. CONGRATULATIONS. Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs. except payment of the test fee. Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test. hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 10 Specialized Solutions.com) or any Thomson Prometric testing center (2test. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills. There are no specific requirements. Inc. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English. German. How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam.com). You can take the test at any Virtual University Enterprises testing center (vue. but A+ certification is not required.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book. The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. You can also call VUE at 877-551-7587 or Thomson Prometric at 888-8956116. . French and Japanese. The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry. You may be surprised at how near you are to a testing center! Evaluate your learning aptitudes. 1999. You can locate a testing center and schedule the test on the web. A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge.

Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises. Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time. Specialized Solutions. just get a feel for it. You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through. Review the video presentation one more time if necessary. It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point. If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course.Introduction Make a plan to learn. Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. set aside the time to learn. • Complete the course a second time. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read. At this time. Inc. What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through. This workbook will make this task much easier. Use the rewind button as often as necessary. you want to begin to understand. Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). 11 . If you need to. Based on your time to learn (and your schedule). You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time. Make an appointment with yourself. Re-read the test and review the video presentation. go though the entire course again.

Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam. If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams. Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam As you prepare for your certification exam it will be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure. (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam. which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer. All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam. You will be asked to sign the form. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test. It is a closed book exam. • • • • 12 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Evaluate the questions you missed. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in. it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature. including one photo ID. You will be required to show two forms of identification. . You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam. You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted.

(such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test. mark it and come back to it. you are given the ability to skip a question. (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. Before retaking the exam. If you’re not quite sure. you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam. Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! About This Course This Specialized Solutions Network+ course is a multi-media. Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. Keep track of the time and pace yourself. but be sure to read it in its entirety. marked or skipped.Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials. If you positively don’t know the answer. or if you are unclear about what you should do. It lists your score by objective. mark a question or answer a question.) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. (You don’t need to send them the score report. you can see which questions are not answered. self-study training system. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you. If you know the answer. Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam. Specialized Solutions. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides.Introduction HINT . 13 . answer the question. At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered. Do not read too much into the question. You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. Inc. The course contains five instructor led CD-ROMs. skip it. You will have plenty of time as long as you use it wisely. guess. Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions. Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers. If you don’t know the answer. ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam. which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass. a Network+ Training & Test Preparation Guide and a practice exam simulator. put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. Usually. Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score. If the administrator does not do this.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Video Chapters Include: CD 1: Introduction and Overview Network Topologies Network Technologies Cable Standards Media Connectors CD 2: Media Types Network Components Wireless Technologies Protocols and Standards The OSI Model IP Addressing CD 3: Ports Services WAN Internet Access Remote Access Security Protocols CD 4: Server Operating Systems Client Connectivity Tools for Networking Firewalls Proxy Service Network Connectivity Virtual Local Area Networks Antivirus Software Fault Tolerance Disaster Recovery CD 5: Troubleshooting Network Utilities Troubleshooting Network Services Troubleshooting Topologies Troubleshooting Strategy Preparation for a Certification Test 14 Specialized Solutions. .

It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course. Specialized Solutions. 15 . Inc.Introduction This study guide is divided into 11 chapters.

.

After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment.” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do. Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking. You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN. as a networking professional. It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than to purchase a printer for every user.) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents. Through networking. It is very important that. Inc. a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data. A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented. Additionally. and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net. Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need. 17 . users can access programs. files. and applications (resources). This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment. Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources. An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?). peripherals.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking. But for our purposes. you understand exactly what a network is.” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service. Specialized Solutions. a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files. Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage.

Also. The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits. or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. . the speed of communication between the computers is typically much faster in a LAN. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function. Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information. When LANs are connected they create a WAN. The Internet is the world’s largest WAN. A WAN can connect networks from building to building or across the world. A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network. 18 Specialized Solutions. it is still considered a LAN.

Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. configuration and management may be more challenging. The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer. one for printing (print server). A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. Also. Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. The advantages of this type of network are central administration. Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity. network security. The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation. 19 . log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. The Internet has replaced most MANs today. A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network. since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client). it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. Users. but they are not common. if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access. it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. or a mail server (E-mail). These terms are not interchangeable. However. that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files. when the user is getting information from the server. including hard disk space and RAM. including applications. and expandability. For example.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals There is actually a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). Specialized Solutions. A mainframe will handle all the functions. also known as clients. It is important to know what a MAN is. A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or county. The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. and is a client. Inc. one for applications (application server). there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). efficiency in backing up the data. A large network may have more than one server. that access would cause the workstation to become a server.

All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user. . In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal.g. Peer-to-Peer Network 20 Specialized Solutions. Inc. The computers are simply cabled together.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers. network security is unreliable. Also. a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand. A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install. A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security. Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network. This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved. and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e.

However. A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. backbone. the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other. a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address). how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal. (Network Interface Cards. they do not move the transmissions along. Devices only listen for data being transmitted. future growth needs. The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable. or topology. Specialized Solutions. The Bus topology is a passive topology. are all determined by the topology used. if the cable breaks. and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. Different topologies have different cabling requirements.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. map. This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. it prevents other devices from sending data. 21 . In a Bus network. connectors. the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce. or segment. NICs. also called Network Adapter Cards). While the signal is bouncing back and forth. Inc. or diagram. Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used. To stop signal bounce. you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together. scheme. and even how the cabling is run through a building. The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other. design. There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). refers to its physical layout. An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. If not prevented. This cable is called a trunk. As a network professional.

it can affect the entire network. It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology. The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Star Topology In a Star topology. The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. There are no ends to terminate. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable. all devices are connected to a central point called a hub. If the hub fails. 22 Specialized Solutions. Inc. the entire network will go down. but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down. A disadvantage is that if one computer fails. the rest of the network will still continue to function. The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network. . Star Topology Ring Topology In a Ring topology. however.

we have been discussing physical topologies. These are known as Hybrid topologies. on the other hand. but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. is how the network actually works. You will be able to see a physical topology. It consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology. For example. Specialized Solutions. So far. Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. the ring is actually in a special type of hub called a Multistation Access Unit (MSAU). The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. These are the methods in which a network is actually wired. In these networks. Token Ring networks are physical stars and logical rings. they operate between the hubs like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations. 23 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals With IBM Token Ring networks. This gives us a physical star topology. a computer can fail and not prevent the network from functioning. A logical topology. Inc. This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies. Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies. some Ethernet networks today are wired using a using multiple hubs. Before you can understand some of these special topologies. However. Also.

The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter 4 of this book. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points. Inc. Since each computer has its own connection to the wireless access point (WAP). . the topology of a wireless network is that of an “invisible star”. 24 Specialized Solutions.

Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Specialized Solutions. 25 . Inc.

Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages. The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message. Since there is only one token. Inc. The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. . The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. only one device at a time can communicate on the network. Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). With several devices connected to one media. A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit. Multiple Access means that more than one computer 26 Specialized Solutions. It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token. they are called Token Ring and Ethernet. and the message is delivered. This is based on the media or wiring of the network. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods. We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network. we create kind of a “party line”.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected. Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices.

Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original. Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted). Inc. Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals can be connected to the same cable. 27 . Specialized Solutions. Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks.

Inc. Passive Hub – Patch Panel 28 Specialized Solutions. they are called MSAUs (Multiple Station Access Units). . not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network. With a Token Ring. Just remember. Passive hubs do not require any electrical power to function. The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator. Hubs can be classified as either passive or active. hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function. Today. Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified. they are all the same. since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network. Essentially.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks.

This type type of hub requires electrical power to function. They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected. An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. 4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs. 29 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs. 2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available. Inc. Specialized Solutions. 3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated. Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity.

A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks. It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. 30 Specialized Solutions. go back and review the chapter again. Inc. The two types of networks are LANs and WANs. We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network. A WAN is not geographically limited and typically has greater speed of communication than a WAN. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. The three main types of topology are bus. . and ring. star. Topology is a term we use to describe the logical shape of the connection of computers in a network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources. and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN.

Inc. 31 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 32 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. 8. 5.Chapter 1 1. Specialized Solutions. 33 . What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. 11. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Name two media access methods. 9. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. What is a “sneaker net”? 4. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6. Inc. 10.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Review Questions . What are the key differences between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2. 7. What is the main reason for networking computers? 3. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. Name the three basic topologies.

.

we are referencing the built-in network operating system component. processor time. You can get it all set up and turn on the power. Today. network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system. but without an operating system. word-processing. what we are really talking about are network operating systems. Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe. The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e. Specialized Solutions. most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment. 35 . This chapter is all about the various operating systems with which a networking professional needs to be familiar. The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other.Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking. as well as the operating system. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well. and database programs). In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems. hard disk space. Inc. What is an Operating System? Not that long ago. if you don’t have the software to run it. We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities. spreadsheet.g. Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment. it is just a pile of metal and plastic. it will just sit there. When we are talking about operating systems. and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). Most of today’s client and server operating systems have a built-in network operating system.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 . When we refer to the operating system in this chapter. Hardware resources such as RAM.

Inc. Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed. . means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. the processor is never taken away from a task. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. In non-preemptive multitasking.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs. It is used on all of the latest operating systems. Preemptive multitasking began with Windows 95 and the Intel Pentium processor. 36 Specialized Solutions. Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. A true multitasking (multi-processing) operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors. put simply.

Their new graphical interface and networking capabilities make them a vast improvement over their predecessors. Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs. Instead.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. 37 . They use an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network. such as BSD UNIX. and you have a working network. Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems. It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. Specialized Solutions. and archiving music. It is well-suited for editing home movies. or a similar program. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices. to communicate with other computers over a network. All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood. Then. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system. Inc. turning on the computer and answering questions. Windows 95/98 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems. all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. Microsoft Client. Windows 95/98 Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems that include a network operating system. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card. Novell NetWare. moving photos to the Web. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network.

which allows for safety when installing additional software or making changes to the computer’s configuration. It also uses System Restore. remote OS installation. EFS (Encrypting File System). It features file protection. peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT. It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies. It allows for faster user switching. Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is the newest edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users. is equipped to be networked easily. Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across in real life but are unlikely to be on the test: 38 Specialized Solutions. a simplified visual design. IPsec and Kerberos support. like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here. It. like ME. driver certification. . Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server. multilingual support.

Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (uses resources locally). the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability. Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network. This can also provide accessibility and security for all devices on a network.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. Inc. it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment. the computers act as both a client and a server. 39 . Inc. In a Serverbased network. However. Specialized Solutions.

. At the very least. Servers exist to serve. This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. Unlike most client software.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task. the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. Some networks even cluster server so that more that one server can share a database of information. out onto the network. most of the data is stored on the server. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus. the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. Server Software As their name implies. However. The component that handles these requests is called the redirector. Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords. server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location. This 40 Specialized Solutions. Inc. if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. and to the server. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access. Data Protection As we already discussed. Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access). Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server. The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed.

Specialized Solutions. If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server. It does this by assigning drive letters. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs. called drive designators.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) provides for load balancing of the server resources as well as fault tolerance if one server were to fail. to resources. Basically. It does not need to know anything about networks. it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests. Inc. If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus. This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer. 41 . which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer. or if they need to be redirected to the server. etc. The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server.

which is like the Internet but within a network or company. we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. • NetWare’s popularity is due largely to its ability to provide services across multioperating system environments. which is a DOS-based utility. name service. With NDS’ single point logon. It is a reliable operating system that provides performance and security. login security provides authentication and verification of user name. NetWare Directory Services (NDS) NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. It may be installed in either the client or server format. NetWare File Services The NetWare file server hard drive may be mapped to a client and the client machine will recognize the drive as a logical drive and be able to access it as it would any other drive in the computer. and account restrictions. NetWare Security The purpose of a network may be to share resources. time. Trustee rights regulate which directories and files a user can access. password. NetWare is based upon the industry standard X500 directory architecture. groups. Novell NetWare The NetWare operating system has been around for a long time. NetWare is administered through NetADMIN. as well as what kind of access they have. 486. servers.12 and 4. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. Version 4. Organization of network resources such as users. or Pentium machines.5 is now on the market.11 operate on 386. It is Novell’s push to gain market share and is a way of creating an Intranet. routing. it was the most popular server operating system. Version 6. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages.2) was designed to operate on 286 machines.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use. copied. web-publishing. First. . a user may logon from anywhere on the network and gain access with all of their assigned rights and privileges intact. In the past. NetWare provides more than adequate network security by using a combination of approaches. or changed. but it is losing market share to Microsoft servers every year. 42 Specialized Solutions. and file and print services. In this section. management. or through NWADMIN. messaging. but there will always be data in any network to which access must be restricted. The earliest version (2. Directory and file attributes are used to set the types of access for a file or directory such as viewed.11 is called IntranetWare. deleted. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. shared. Versions 3.EXE. and volumes is also handled with NDS. which is a Windows-based utility. Inc. non-shareable.

It is compatible with E-mail programs such as Novell’s GroupWise and Microsoft Mail. except an individual workstation. a workstation. NetWare Minimum Requirements The following are the minimum installation requirements as specified by Novell for installing their server software: Specialized Solutions. You can send messages to individuals or to groups very easily. Printers may be attached to the server. NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS) MHS may be installed on any server and configured to be a network wide E-mail system. or directly to the network. Inc. as well as others. NetWare also provides a method of using simple commands to send messages to other users on the network. next to the print server. Print requests are first routed to the file server. and finally to the printer. You can even send messages to everyone in a group. 43 . The file server and the print server can be the same computer.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Print Services NetWare Print Services can support up to 256 printers.

X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 5: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Pentium Class or higher 64 MB 550 MB 386 or higher 16 MB 105 MB 386 or higher 6 MB 30 MB 286 or higher 2.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 4.5 MB 20 MB Client Software The client software may be installed on any computer running any of the following: • • • • • 44 DOS 3.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 3.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for Macintosh OS Specialized Solutions.11 or OS/2 Warp and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 Macintosh 6.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Version 2. . Inc.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS OS/2 1.1 or later (Standard or Extended Edition) and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 OS/2 2.1 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS MS Windows 3.

The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of Windows security features. Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems. the Windows servers may be configured to store each workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups. Files in Windows may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network. 45 . Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. Today. Windows File Services Like NetWare. You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows network. you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data. The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of Microsoft’s server/workstation technology. Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software). This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments. but Windows NT contains services such as NWLink and Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW) that allow them to work together effectively. Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Interoperability As the word implies.File Allocation Table) during installation. With this method. Inc. and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier. offer even more advantages and stronger security than their predecessors. This type is performed by each workstation or server publicly sharing a directory on the network. Specialized Solutions. Full Control. The NetWare client can be installed with almost any other operating system. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. interoperability simply means the ability of an operating system to operate with other systems. its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows Servers. NetWare is extremely efficient at operating with other systems. Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management. or No Access may be set on the directory. The NT Kernel. Unlike NetWare. It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. Windows combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2). but it does have several advantages. Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version. In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows . Problems do occur when trying to operate within the Windows NT domain. another security method must be utilized. which as at the base of all Microsoft’s servers. The newest of these server operating systems. The attributes such as Read. Change. As we’ve already discussed. The advanced security features of Windows are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT .

Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible. Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions). Workstation Service is the redirector service. 46 Specialized Solutions. permissions. Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in the domain. The following is a list of services included with Windows Server software to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between Microsoft and NetWare. Windows Network Services There are many services available in Windows to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user. Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers. Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service.. A domain is simply a group of users. At least one domain controller is assigned to each domain. Even if you are installing a local printer. and user rights. Windows Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in a Windows network. you are given the option to share it to the network. computers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows Server Security Security was a major concern in the development of Windows Servers. Remember. more than one printer can be installed to any machine. and resources with a shared security database. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. especially with the latest Windows Server 2003 family. Microsoft uses domains to control access and authenticate users and computers. This trend continued with the latest Windows server operating systems (Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource. A domain controller is a server that maintains and manages all accounts. Server Service provides access to network resources. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer.) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer. .. Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network. Inc.

it has more “locked down” security templates that make it less likely that users will try to go around the security. Windows Server 2003 is the first Windows server that was built primarily with security in mind.0) than the previous version in Windows 2000 (IIS 5. but it adds many features that are designed exclusively for security. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the Microsoft service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. It can be installed on the Microsoft client to allow it to connect the Netware server directly. It provides all of the advantages of Windows 2000 Server.. Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to Microsoft’s domain controller. Previous Microsoft server operating systems were built to serve and then had security features to protect them. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases. It allows Novell NDS computers to be managed just as Microsoft domain controllers.well serve. Windows Server 2003 offers a more secure Web Server (IIS 6. Installing GSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. 47 .Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an Microsoft domain and the NetWare server. Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System. Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 is the latest in the line of Microsoft server operating systems. and is. It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network.. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access Microsoft file and print services. In fact. when using Windows Server 2003 you typically must remove or configure security boundaries in order to get the server to. This software is not included with Netware but can be purchased separately. UNIX is a Specialized Solutions. Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. In contrast.0). In addition. Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be. This is necessary because all Microsoft client workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point. It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators. Installing CSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to Windows. Inc. which govern what users can see and do on the network. used as such.

however. which means that it can be changed by a software programmer. At its inception. These terminals are not stand-alone computers. in fact the software is available for a free download. StreetTalk provides directory. A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system. security. Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. and messaging services. Software is available. Inc. multi-user. Because of its open source nature. OS/2. TCP/IP. The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS. Linux is open source. general-purpose operating system. A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users. It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms. The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. and many other features associated with an OS. At one time. as well as others. UNIX is a multi-tasking. It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows. It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). to convert the UNIX host into a file server. VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources. as well as file and printer sharing. Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system. but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. . many variations of Linux have been created over the years such as Caldera and Red Hat. UNIX. Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide bulky operating system. it was an extremely popular network operating system. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top. Like Novell NetWare. 48 Specialized Solutions.

Specialized Solutions. both at home and on the go. but users also use them personally. The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction with the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book). 49 . In conjunction with Xerox.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984. Inc. they developed what later became known as the mouse and the first GUI display. and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC. Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production.

centralization of administration. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems. A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare). etc. Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems. Banyan VINES. The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security.). Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic. (UNIX. 50 Specialized Solutions. Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. an application is unaware that it is working from a network. and data backups. Today. the most popular network operating systems also function as the network operating system. the client computers rely on the server for their resources. The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely). Study through the chapter again if you need to. The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly. such as Novell NetWare and Windows server operating systems. and at least be familiar with others. There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system. In a server-based network. It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today. Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network). . Inc. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. In a peer-to-peer network. With the redirector.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer.

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS)

KEYWORDS Exercise
Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

51

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

Review Questions
1. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system?

2.

What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking?

3.

What is the purpose of the redirector?

4.

NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments.

5.

What is NDS?

6.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5?

7.

Define interoperability.

8.

Unlike NetWare, Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one.

9.

What is NTFS?

10.

What is a domain?

11.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server?

52

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) 12. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.

13.

What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system?

14.

What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984?

15.

What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system?

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

53

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

54

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards

Chapter 3- The OSI Model and Communication Standards
In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, what it is and its primary function. You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles each function, and which devices function at each layer. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam.

The Seven Layers of Network Communication
The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. As a result, some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other, and how they will communicate if they are using different languages. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit; when not to transmit; and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected; how the data will flow (at what speed); and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications.

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

55

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you should notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers, depending upon their functions.

Seven Layers of the OSI Model
The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network. These services include file, print, and messaging services. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer. The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. This is not the actual application or program, simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail, transfer files across the network, or access a

56

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

and un-packaging the data for transport. if the packets are too small. The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit. or full-duplex communication. and data encryption. protocol conversion. The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them. This layer is responsible for establishing. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh. The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. Each connection is called a session. These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. add any addressing information and error correction information. it will break the data into packets. Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure. they will be combined. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. Inc. it presents data to the application layer. and when. The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence. As its name implies. and prepare it for its journey. In short. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer. half-duplex. managing. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. The network redirector operates at this layer. The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network. bit ordering. If Specialized Solutions. For example. and ending connections. Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. or receive. without duplication. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. 57 . etc. The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards network database. It provides a logical connection between the two devices. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local. This layer is also responsible for data compression. interpreting graphics commands. and error free. Sessions may be established using simplex.) character set conversion.

all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly. 58 Specialized Solutions. When you are using a connection-oriented protocol. but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. stripped of its addressing information. Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards. The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer. This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks. For example. segmentation information and routing information. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. When the data is received. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol.) It also includes control information such as frame type. the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. When you are using a connectionless protocol. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. UDP is a connectionless protocol. delivery of packets is not guaranteed. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers. Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. . This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols.518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. This controls network congestion. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. Should an error occur. checked for errors. however. error free manner. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. they will be broken into smaller packets. it will be un-packed. It receives a packet from the Network layer and packages it into what is called a frame. Routers and NICs function on this layer. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. In an ideal world. Connectionless protocols are faster. it will retransmit after a specified amount of time. especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination. the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide they are too large. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. Once the data is reassembled. Inc.

then it discards the data. the destination computer will not send an acknowledgement. The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. Although quite rare. The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). It identifies a line protocol. If it is. TCP/IP is somewhat “self healing”. the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions. and Demand Priority. it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer. In a broadcast network such as Ethernet. The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). 59 .2 standard defines how this takes place. Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel. Inc. NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards In addition. They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers. Token Passing. The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame. If it is not. When the sending computer does not receive and acknowledgement. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame. the data is sent out on the wire to all computers. It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not. The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer. The IEEE 802. Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers. (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host). The way that a network shares the channel is called its carrier access method. The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards. it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium. If the calculation does not check out. This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers. The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer. it will automatically resend the packet. The following is an example of a MAC address: Specialized Solutions. MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized. The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer. The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address. In this way. such as SDLC. It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link.

Repeaters. It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets. Point-topoint communication is the process of one device communicating with one other device . .ch/. visit www. For example. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. Note: For more information on the OSI Model. 60 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 00-00-13-35-FD-AB The first 3 bytes (00-00-13) identify the manufacturer of the card.iso. The last 3 bytes (35FD-AB) are the Device ID that is unique to the associated Vendor ID. The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames. Switches. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer. and what each one will do. Point to point communication is often used between switches and routers on a network. data work at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer. Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model. all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model. hubs and transceivers. Inc. Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer. It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer. synchronizes the data. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium. Multipoint communication is the process of one device communicating with multiple devices on a network. It identifies the NIC. and determines when and how data may be transmitted. The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets. it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses.

61 . Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions.

Headers contain instructions for tasks that need to be performed at that level.) The request is in the form of a packet. This is called a protocol stack. The Physical layer does not add a header. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate. These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task. protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. the Application layer is not the actual application. or suite. Inc. When the destination computer receives the data. in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers. In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer. The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. For example: You send a request for services to the server. it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. each layer is also responsible for adding or removing headers so that the data is ready to be interpreted by the next layer. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack. the process of moving through the layers is reversed. This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted by you and the request is considered processed. The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message. (Remember. Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture. As the packet travels up through the layers. each layer reads and performs the tasks specified in its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. 62 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task. . over the network medium. You are communicating directly with the Application layer. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. In addition to reading the headers and performing the instructions. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer. and provides services to the layer directly above it.

but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Signals or Bits or Data Stream into Frames Frames into Packets Frames or Datagrams into Segments Segments into data Data Data Data into Data Files or Messages Specialized Solutions. they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers. Because of this.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers. The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers. Inc. 63 .

the OSI Model is not a protocol. Also.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections. Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer. you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed. This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. it would not match. Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers. The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 64 Specialized Solutions. Inc. as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol. This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model. By relating various protocols to the OSI model. we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program. . In fact. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model.

Specialized Solutions. it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work. These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments. etc. This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate. The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer. because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system. Inc. Without them we would not have as many software or hardware packages available to us. Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task. The specifications describe how components are supposed to function.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers. 65 . you do need to remember the different layers and the tasks for which each layer is responsible.

A repeater amplifies these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model. Repeaters. and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network. Routers are responsible for using logical addresses to move packets from one network to another and deliver them to a host. The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices. are going to be used when they write a program. Inc. Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols. etc. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer. This weakening is known as attenuation. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X. . routers. Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. as well as where in the OSI model they operate. These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT 66 Specialized Solutions. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself. It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs. They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination. Data Link layer and the Network layer. bridges.

If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Each router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it. 67 . Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers. the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. Inc. Router tables can be entered manually by a network administrator or they can be dynamically updated using routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF. if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI. However. but usually in the Application layer). which can be used to connect an IBM mainframe computer to a Microsoft network. A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols or even different technologies. A popular example is an SNA Gateway. The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate. Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. Specialized Solutions.

standards.7 802.5 802.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards. 68 Specialized Solutions. but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible.ieee.12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN.3 802.1 802. February 1980). Inc.6 802.11 802. Inc.2 802. . These standards were prepared before the OSI standards.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards.4 802. visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www.10 802.9 802.8 802. The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802. and if you would like more information on them. This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started. a little surfing might be in order. (IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. 69 . Inc.

the NIC also needs a device driver to function. and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another). Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers. The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp. This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer. However. which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver. Inc. the network. It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver. NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments. Network 70 Specialized Solutions. The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver. and hence. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks.

the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. but connection-oriented is more reliable. In a connectionless communication. if TCP/IP is bound first. In a connectionless scenario. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. and in full. You have no confirmation (unless he calls you back) that he received the message. If that fails. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent. It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function. They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. Connection-Oriented vs. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. Routable vs. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received. Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable. Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network. In connection-oriented communication. Specialized Solutions. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions.) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. For example. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on his answering machine. There is no guarantee that the message was delivered. It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. Inc. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department. In today’s LANs however. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. 71 . Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication. Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless. it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol. This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data. Protocol Binding In order to function. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. Connectionless communication is faster. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected using a router. Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X. you should be familiar with these protocol stacks and you should know the OSI layer in which their components function. It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable. 72 Specialized Solutions. Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks.25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet). Inc. As a networking professional.

this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP. DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack. It is a routable protocol. and handles file and print services. LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers. NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model. (If data must cross a router SPX is used. In addition to hop count. It chooses the route with the fewest hops.) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment. This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – Provides Application layer services for Macintosh. Inc. Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – Provides transmission of packets across a network. It has been modified over the years and now contains the following components: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. It resides in the Network layer. IPX/ SPX This protocol is the proprietary protocol that was developed by Novell for Netware servers and clients. It uses the MAC address and is non-routable. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer. NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination. It resides in the Network layer. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. At the Presentation Specialized Solutions. 73 • • • • • • . regardless of speed. This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite. AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – Manages file sharing at the Application layer AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – Provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer.

We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with. so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary. APPC supports Transport and Session layer services. • Many companies use Netware with the TCP/IP protocol stack. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network. 74 Specialized Solutions. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking).1 and later installs TCP/IP by default. Inc. Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide layer it handles data translation. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead. At the Session layer it establishes and controls sessions. • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol. No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed. It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems. flow control. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network. TCP and IP. while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers. . Novell Netware 5. SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names. At the Transport layer it handles sequencing. It is also layered on IP like TCP. FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system. and connection-oriented error control services.

It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability. ARP will add the information to its table for future use. but in reverse. It is an Application layer protocol. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. this is also a Network layer protocol. NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system. OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer. If you do not need to use passwords. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources. Telnet can also be used for remote configuration of servers and network devices such as routers and switches. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server. RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP is responsible for resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. 75 . It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond. making it connectionless. ARP will first check its table and if a matching address is not found. Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely. then TFTP would be advisable over FTP. instead of only the number of hops. Inc. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP. ARP keeps a table of corresponding IP and MAC addresses that have been resolved in the previous 10 minutes. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. It resides in the Network layer. without regard to speed. It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond to the broadcast by sending its MAC address. but in addition. it will broadcast on the local subnet to determine the MAC address of the computer with the associated IP address. The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely.

. Because of this. X. DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. LAT (Local Area Transport) LAT does not have a Network layer. Instead.25 is also an equipment specification. which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines. It uses standard telephone lines and switches.25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud. the X. This means that routes change as conditions change. It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet. The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment).25 X. but in between. The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs.25 network. 76 Specialized Solutions. This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end. which is the main reason that it is non-routable. Inc. This protocol is not used for data communication. This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. Data goes in and comes out. The second part of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment). packets are re-examined to determine whether they are damaged. It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer. This is the host on an X. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable.25 a very slow but very reliable protocol. asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN. It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP. making X.25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization. In addition. XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs. This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use. It is a DEC protocol used for interactive. it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer. This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits. At each stop.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide X. X. it is out of the administrator’s control.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced). Data is routed via the best connection at a given time. only printing functions.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model. but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks. It is fast. It may be used with bridges. Inc. 77 . which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems. Specialized Solutions. easy to configure and small.

It also supports data encryption. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely over the Internet. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer. PPP supports IPX. administration. . Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes. or DHCP. NetBEUI. but it can also be modified manually by the network administrator. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. Like a traffic report on your radio. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. It handles session establishment. This database is typically dynamic in today’s modern networks. and other protocols as well as TCP/IP. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations. SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it. Inc. file transfers. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures. NWLink and NetBEUI. It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands. It maintains a database and provides hostname to IP address resolution. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. RPC is used by the redirector to 78 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Other Protocols The following are other protocols with which you should be familiar: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. SLIP is not used as much as PPP. DHCP. NetBEUI. It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. it detects congested areas and links that are down. It does not support IPX. and notifies upper layers to route around them. and connection release.

Inc. 79 . Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards determine if a resource is local or on the network. Specialized Solutions. It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer.

we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test. but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network. Inc. The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other. For example. 80 Specialized Solutions. you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three. if you can get to the server through a router.

81 .x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition Specialized Solutions. Keyword 802. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc.

managing. 7. 4. Who developed the OSI model? 2. and ending connections? 12. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? 00-01-A5-D3-B4-01 82 Specialized Solutions. 3. 5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions – Chapter 3 1. 10. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model. What is the function of the Application Layer? 9. Inc. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11. . Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. 6. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. Which OSI layer is responsible for the MAC address? 8. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. What is a MAC address? 13. Name the seven layers of the OSI model.

Which is faster. without duplication and error free? 16. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. What is the function of a Gateway? 18.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 14. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 22. What are they? 17. Inc. What are NDIS and ODI? 20. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. 21. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 19. Describe protocol binding. Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. Will this work? Why or Why not? Specialized Solutions. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 15. 23. 83 .

.

along with connectors. and other hardware and peripherals. There are numerous kinds of cable. which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector. The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover. Xerox). It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation.Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. or DIX (Digital. Specialized Solutions. It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential. The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. It is not often used in today’s networks. Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid. but may still be used in some temporary installations such as a construction trailer (although wireless would be a much more likely alternative). it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. Inc. video. It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable. (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter). There are several cabling options. and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. Because it is shielded.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 . network adapter cards. Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install. 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology. It can transmit voice. most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist. Intel. but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand. How to properly configure and use network adapter cards. which we will address here. It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. and the hardware aspect of network operations. 85 . Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet). and how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter.

It is expressed in ohms. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers. It is attached directly to the NIC but allows network signal to flow straight through it as well as to the NIC. They are specified based on their impedance. As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses. In order for the network to operate at peak performance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. Inc. Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. In the past. . BNC Cable Connectors BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable. 86 Specialized Solutions. In today’s networks. it is not as easy to install. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. Thicknet was used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. it has been replaced by twisted-pair cable and fiber optic cable. as well as how they are attached to the cables.

and an AUI cable. It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver. Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together. A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium. Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function. The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors). BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on. It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection. This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable. BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. and is used to connect the device to the network. N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet. Specialized Solutions. Inc. One of the terminators must be grounded. 87 .

This cable type consists of insulated pair strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another. this was time-consuming and it absorbed signal so it was not the common approach. Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver. This types of connections have been largely replaced by newer cable methods such as twisted-pair and fiber optic cable. . There are four pair strands in most twisted-pair cables. Inc. Instead. It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types. The twist helps 88 Specialized Solutions. most networking professionals used a clamp-on transceiver. These clamp-on transceivers were often referred to as vampire taps because they utilized sharp teeth that punctured the cable to make the connection.

The tighter the twist.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. there are six categories. The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per meter in each pair of wires. It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters. UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular. Currently. Since it is unshielded. The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling. Inc. UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs. Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 1000 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM and Gigabit Ethernet Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. it is more sensitive to EMI. the faster the signal can be sent through the wires without crosstalk. 89 . Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. This results in less sensitivity to EMI. Twisted Pair Cabling Specialized Solutions. The following is a summary of UTP cables. There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP).

An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors. Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations. This is an excellent way to organize network cables. The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a special tool punch down tool to make the proper connection by stripping the insulation from the wire without breaking the wire. The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location. Wall Plates for RJ-45 90 Specialized Solutions. . An RJ-11 jack has four connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight. This gives the network administrator a greater degree of flexibility and provides fault tolerance for the network cabling system. Inc. The RJ-45 jack’s position can therefore be changed from patch panel to patch panel to use a different set of cables for the same connection. Wall plates are typically used to make the connection to the computers themselves. They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 10 Gbps . These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. The front of the patch panel contains RJ-45 ports (a port is a female counterpart for the RJ-45 jack). RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector.

It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI. IBM cabling is based on its Type.. the data cannot be tapped or stolen. fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances. Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber. Inc. 91 . They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP. .Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking. as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types. One strand transmits and one receives. Because of this feature. which reduces signal loss. which is easier to install. it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength. It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses. However. but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. The following is a summary of IBM Types: Specialized Solutions. Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic). IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks. it is therefore not as common as UTP. (The core can also be made up of plastic.) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable.

5/125-micron multimode fibers. An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). These are very rarely used in today’s modern networks. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Six twisted pairs. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. . Contains a shield for use under carpets. Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Plenum grade. Inc. Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data. The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors. IBM Connector 92 Specialized Solutions. Not Defined Two 62. IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables.

Specialized Solutions.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter. Inc. 93 .

An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time. but cannot send a message. The signal flow is bidirectional. For example. fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps) or gigabits per second (Gbps). PVC grade cable is less expensive than Plenum grade cable but it gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned. This space is used to circulate air through a building. Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways. Both you and the party you are talking to can talk and listen at the same time. . Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only. a pager can receive a message. Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum. Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions. • Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above. It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing).Baseband vs. Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions. • Simplex vs. Because this space does circulate air through a building. Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge. PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. 94 Specialized Solutions. For example. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). As the AWG wire number decreases.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cabling Terms The following are terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. (send and receive) but only one at a time. The signal flow is uni-directional. these fumes would circulate throughout a building in the event of a fire. For example. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire. Inc. Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. If this type of cable were used in the plenum. the wire thickness increases.

local fire codes will need to be addressed. shielded cable or fiber optic cable might be more appropriate.) Specialized Solutions. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives. It is therefore specifically designed to be used in these circulation areas. 95 . such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well.) Will the cable be installed in “noisy” areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting. Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network. Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes. A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals In contrast. Inc. For example. how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners. the flexibility of the medium should be considered.) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum.

) Transmission speeds and. there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective. On the other hand. cost are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network. last but not least. attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small. . fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping. Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance.) If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure. Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 96 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time. data is moved along in groups. It makes the physical connection to the network. Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. Inc. This is known as parallel communication. Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). Specialized Solutions. which constantly vary in one or more values. Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses. Analog data has an infinite number of possible states. handles network addressing. Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame. The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium. Because these paths are side-by-side. Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking. Network cabling moves data in a single data stream. We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later. (And of course to translate it back again.) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs. or 0’s (off). Today. most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit. are also known as Network Adapter Cards. The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. 97 . and controls the flow of data on the network. NICs are used to connect the computer to the network. This is known as serial communication.

The speed of the transmission.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique MAC address. Inc. The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent. Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. the two cards start sending and receiving data. This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters. If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed. When this occurs. The time intervals between data chunks. DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU. Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it. Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer. Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC. DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium. The amount of time between confirmations. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC. the NIC may need to be configured. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the 98 Specialized Solutions. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC. How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. . This makes transferring data much faster. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer.

The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line. With a DMA channel. The good news is that unlike an IRQ. DMA channels are used by devices that frequently need access to large amounts of memory. Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings. Other cards will need to be configured manually. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. and some are set using software.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. Only devices like NIC cards that need this type of memory access are assigned DMA channels. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU. Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. DMA Channel Configuration of Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels is similar to IRQs. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by a device. not all devices need one. certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. In practice. See Appendix A for common address assignments. these devices can access the memory that they need without interrupting the processor. These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor. Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems. in this case the NIC. Specialized Solutions. such as: IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that typically no two devices can use the same interrupt. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses. The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. 99 . Inc. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned. This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. The device is constantly listening to this channel for commands from the processor.

Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter. Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards. Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC. They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable. The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. 100 Specialized Solutions. they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail. Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer. RJ-45. Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC. . or both). or you may have to configure it manually. Inc.

including network connectivity. They are generally 32-bit buses. With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs. They are also called PC-Card Buses. Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers. Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus. Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much. Specialized Solutions. Inc. Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus. The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus. The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus. but can be a 64-bit bus.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. Today most buses are either EISA or PCI. 101 .

it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally. Inc. Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data. . The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks. the NIC would be a bottleneck. thereby improving network performance. This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus. RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed. Without this feature. Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Performance Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance. but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. thereby bypassing the CPU. Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU. Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data. 102 Specialized Solutions. Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer. This type of card is expensive.

a user can access the network from anywhere in the building. This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. Extended Local Area Networks .e.Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking. the office. People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home. A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks. They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations such as ocean dwelling oil platforms. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components. Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly. but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN. but through the use of an infrared or radio medium. For example. With wireless systems. With some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down. 103 . Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. – hubs). They function just like other access points (i. Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling. • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective. Wireless networks use wireless access points (WAPs) to “connect” the network devices to each other. a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings. Mobile Computing . or on the road. Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created. Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems. Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems. Inc. Specialized Solutions.Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs.

Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • 104 Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared You use infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control. Inc. and because the transmissions are tightly focused. they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping. The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet. . Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference. such as windows. This involves using infrared (below Red) light to carry signals to a receiver. Infrared networks typically broadcast at about 10 Mbps. These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources.

uses broadband technology. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint. require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. which then routes the signal appropriately. the message is broken into parts (called chips). The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. It does. however. Inc. Specialized Solutions. etc. the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls. In the hopping method. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station. 105 . or direct sequence modulation. Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. until it reaches the receiver. but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping. ceilings. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. as the name implies. In the direct sequence modulation method. the signal is beamed towards a central unit. which are then transmitted over separate frequencies. Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems.

There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite. Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite. The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances. and only the destination device can receive and read the packet. These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally. Inc. It is used for line-of-sight communication. mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network. Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. . Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver. 106 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities. or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Specialized Solutions. Inc. 107 .

AUI. and Microwave. it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network. As a networking professional. etc. After discussing at network cabling we then took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself. we took a look at the future. In addition. 108 Specialized Solutions. Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals. . it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. Wireless networking is the trend of the future. Inc. Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet. You should know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. Twisted Pair. Finally. and controls data flow over the network. receives. As a network professional. you should know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type. It prepares. There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial. Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). RJ-45. transmits. The four basic wireless types are: Infrared. Laser. and Fiber-Optic. Radio.

109 . Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair 110 Specialized Solutions. Definition . Inc.

Inc. 111 .Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword Vampire Tap Definition Specialized Solutions.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7. What is the most expensive cable type? 13. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. . What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5. How is a vampire tap connected? 6. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. What is the least expensive of the cable types? 112 Specialized Solutions. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12. Inc. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9. What is the most popular of the cable types? 10.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable.

15. What does AWG stand for and what is it?

16. Describe baseband.

17. Describe broadband.

18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication?

19. What is the function of a network adapter card?

20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available?

21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card?

22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network?

23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types?

24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network?

25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally?

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

113

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

114

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards
In previous chapters, we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed, along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets, or frames. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. In this chapter, we will discover how Ethernet works, as well as how Token-ring networks function. AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter. After completing this chapter, you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture, while not as popular as Ethernet, are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers, in this case, over a network. In Chapter 3, you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite, IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture, SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk

The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols; thus, they do not map directly to the OSI Model. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. Specialized Solutions, Inc. 115

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information, handle addressing, and check for errors. Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments.

A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card, also known as the network interface card (NIC), in order for it to be used with a network computer. In some instances, as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX, two protocols may be bound to one card. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC.

Access Methods
In a network, multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. If two or more computers were to send data at the same time, the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing

• Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free, it will send data. While there is data traveling on the cable, no computer will transmit data. Occasionally, however, two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. Naturally, the more users who are connected to a network, the denser network traffic becomes. Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method.

116

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. It is, however, the access method that works best with wireless connections; since the wireless channel can be verified before the data is sent. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. A token (a special type of packet) is circulated around the ring from computer to computer. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network, it must wait until it possesses the token. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. Data is transmitted in frames. The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. The trailer includes error control information. When the computer is ready, the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted, the frame would be resent. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. Because only one computer at a time may transmit, this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions. (Some more recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer, router, switch, or bridge. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes, addresses, and links are functioning. Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer, hub, and destination computer, instead of broadcasts over the entire network. Because of the cabling method used with this access method, (four pairs Specialized Solutions, Inc. 117

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of wires are used, which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time, but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously, the one with the highest priority is serviced first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests.

118

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. Error checking information such as Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) information. if there is a transmission error. Data files tend to be quite large. Inc. All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. Also. The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. or messages. information. data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium. This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data. 119 . (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably. Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. The destination address of the receiving computer.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Network Communications (Frames and Packets) As we’ve discussed previously. Computer control data such as service requests and commands. The data to be transmitted.) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). but we will use the term packets. Specialized Solutions. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files. Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection.

Usually. Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network. the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit. . Inc. packets can be various sizes. When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer. A Packet 120 Specialized Solutions. If the results are the same. the calculation is run again. If there is a discrepancy. and clocking information. the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact. the source and destination addresses. The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted. Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. Depending upon the network. usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes. CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet. the trailer contains the error checking information. Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet.

121 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication. Ethernet (802. in a railroad. it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data). but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol. as addressed previously. Inc. or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT). some are wide gauge. However. Thicknet coaxial (10Base5). but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data). Logical Link Control (802. For example. The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements.94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable. Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. data (in this case passengers and freight) is moved in various cars. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology). .3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs. The original version was a 2. Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802.2) The Logical Link Control layer. some are diesel.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Standards Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network. The standards define the means of communications. There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards. It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method. and typically transmits at 10 Mbps. There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points. These provide the standards for the railroads. In this section. It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2).3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. Not all railroads are the same (some are electric. like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell). we are going to look at different standards for networks. The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL 122 Specialized Solutions. and some are narrow gauge). is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium.

5 meters.) This is referred to as the “5-4-3 Rule”. 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. (There may be five segments but only three may be populated. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology. Inc. The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters. BNC connectors and a transceiver. The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications. While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling. The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2. it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated. The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet Specialized Solutions. The minimum distance between nodes is 2. to name a few. 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system. 123 . And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling. The maximum number of nodes per network 100. however. is 185 meters. 10BaseT uses the star topology.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps. 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable. 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors. repeaters can be used for longer distances. The actual maximum segment length.5 meters. and computer aided design. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30. The minimum distance between nodes is . These applications include video. indicating its maximum segment length. document and image storage.5 meters. The maximum number of nodes per network 90. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs. The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters. it is most commonly created with UTP cable. As its name implies. If the segment must exceed this limitation.

but that will be referred to later in this book.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard. This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps. It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN. 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards. and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs). Because of its intense speed.12 is the standard that defines this technology. Inc. It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets. Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable. 124 Specialized Solutions. with Gigabit Ethernet. they are referring to the same thing. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon. (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment. Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks. the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable. and AnyLAN. 100BaseVG. It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. although copper can be used with much shorter distances. using the CSMA/CD access method. ATM competes. and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology. to some degree.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet) 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade. . There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know. VG. the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology. and the longest cable length is 250 meters. The IEEE specification 802. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable. When you see any of these terms.

125 . Ethernet also works in the UNIX environment. Inc. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP. by joining with either a router or a bridge. It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance.

Inc. . The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame. This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data. The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable. it uses the baseband technology.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802. Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished). The Token Ring access method. 2. While the token is in use by a computer to send data. more than the cable design. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. but is still used today. The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems. Actually. Like Ethernet.5 standard. Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame. IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984. The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token. The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1. How it Works Basically. This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data. A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token. 126 Specialized Solutions. The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token.5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer. is what sets Token Ring apart. it is known as a data frame. It is not as popular as Ethernet. Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it. and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. and 3).

The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal. The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. if there were errors. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted. while IBM says counter-clockwise. the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. This computer. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. Beaconing In a Token Ring environment. The IEEE 802. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor. Message This is the data or file to be transmitted. Inc. It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network.5 standards say it travels clockwise. Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. . the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity. As each new computer comes online.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. Or. After encoding the data frame. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon. Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention. the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing. the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected. 127 Specialized Solutions. The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring. The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring. called the active monitor. The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time. Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful. as well as its own address. To accomplish this task.

Using STP.5 meters. This hub is known by a few names. Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network. . MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails. but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters. The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2. Using STP. Each node is connected to the hub via a cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable. Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. Using UTP. Inc. Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another. When a computer is connected. Using UTP. The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs. These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. as there are no male and female ends. it is only about 45 meters. the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. just as in other networks that use a hub. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters. IBM states that it is only 46 meters. Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters. The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. In a pure token passing environment. The Type 128 Specialized Solutions. each ring can connect up to 260 computers. but types 1 and 2 may also be used.

Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper. A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments. hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable. Using a pair of repeaters. AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. Type 6 may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub. The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers. Therefore. care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible. Specialized Solutions. All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters. Inc. 129 . Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable. Patch panels are used to organize patch cables.

Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones. If it is not being used by another computer. and even some UNIX computers. LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP. Apple has always been open to third-party development. the device assigns itself an address. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address. AppleShare also provides a print server. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring. EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system. 130 Specialized Solutions. As such. It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices. . EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers. or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology. A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings. by using zones. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare. LocalTalk performance is rather limited. TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. mainframe computers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers. This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network.5 Standard) environment. Inc. it will store it to use each time it goes online. When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. it is very inexpensive to initiate. UTP. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer.

If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other. or smart. active. This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology. A later version. It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2. 131 . ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. the source address and up to 508 bytes of data. but it can be adequately charted to the 802. It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology. the token still passes in numerical order. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data. called ARCNet Plus. this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order. Specialized Solutions. ARCNet utilizes hubs. Just like other token-passing access method architectures. These packets contain the destination address. a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters. the token is passed in numerical order. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors. Obviously. These hubs may be passive. but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable.5 Mbps. If using an active hub in a Star topology. Inc. ARCNet transmits data in packets. ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling. the maximum cable distance is 244 meters. Instead of the token traveling around a ring.4 standards (Token Bus LAN). has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps. If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors.

132 Specialized Solutions. Speeds up to 54 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific). Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range. . generally). The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well. Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802.11) IEEE 802.11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology. Inc.

3 standards. Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network. the Data. Packets consist of three components: the Header. and clocking information. and the Trailer. It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. Therefore. As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. the source and destination addresses.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. and 10BaseT. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames). which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting. but as a networking professional you will encounter them. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD. Be sure that you understand how this architecture works. Specialized Solutions. 133 . Packets will include information to identify the source address. The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future. it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method. go back and review the chapter again. AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring. destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted. which is where the error checking calculation is located. If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data. CSMA/CA. it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year. 10Base5. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. etc. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. Managing network data is all about traffic control. Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet. Inc.

. Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Definition 134 Specialized Solutions.

135 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Token Ring TokenTalk Trailer Zones Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 136 Specialized Solutions. What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. Inc. . CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6. Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11. 3. What are the three primary access methods? 2. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods. 5.

Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16. What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? Specialized Solutions. Describe a MIC connector. What is a SMAU? 21. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 14. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17. Inc. 19. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. 22. 137 . What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 138 Specialized Solutions.

Inc. The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. Most importantly. whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever indebted to you. pay attention to details. The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. The size of the company and the portion of the network affected.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. 139 . you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows. etc. However. this is a Macintosh-based company. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network. for example. (If not. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office. The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. you are not designing for yourself. Specialized Solutions. address. Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks. The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have. are there any printers or scanners. Finally. As a network professional. Even if this network is your own. rather than a client’s. (demographics). For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have. in many cases. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. The customer’s likes. who has them. how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them. etc? If. You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. we will consider hardware compatibility. This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. There are two things that you will need to know. dislikes. your design will not work for them. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. and goals.

With this information in hand. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. Inc. you must get a clear definition of goals of the network. 140 Specialized Solutions. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources. . or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale). Once you collect this information. etc. The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later. prepare a design document. or as large as 8 GB. only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network. or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files. Remember.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. So. print services. or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD. you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. files services. you are not documenting your network. You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility. the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB. There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available. For example. Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint. if the file is compressed. at this time. This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components.

Inc. 141 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

You may have to add network cards and cabling. You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. The first is the type of network you will be designing. You may need to install the software. First. not all nodes may need the same level of security. they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing. but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it. you will need to start making some decisions. In a peer-to-peer network. Also.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future). Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server. Likewise. The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. The most prominent are simplicity and cost. The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. may cause problems in the future. Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. as generally it is not installed during a standard installation. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. This can range from none to very high. you will have no problem. Inc. If you do not have this information go back and get it. This sharing is on a directory level. The commitment of management and users. . if you have a printer connected to your computer. Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement. As long as you have the original software disk (CD). The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. Skill level of the network users. if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t. The level of security required. For example.” That is. This means that every 142 Specialized Solutions. they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network). all computers are equal. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network. The wrong choice now.

the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. Inc. For these people. This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. Since these computers are larger. any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. Also. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer). slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). they will also be using your processor to do their printing. instead of backing up individual workstations. 24-hours per day. and lots of memory. is another advantage of a server-based network. the network must operate transparent to them. Also. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. server-based networks are scaleable. As for size. Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security. In large networks. While there are many advantages. must less the workings of a network. The more sophisticated the network. You can connect more workstations. etc. have high-power processor. Last but not least. In a strict peer-topeer network. 143 . Remember. and expand as your needs expand. if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts. The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network. This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older. This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations. When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added. This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server. administration can be a Specialized Solutions. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. Before you can use any resource. This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution. you will also need to consider the disadvantages.Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. if employees need remote access. In a peer-to-peer situation. Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off. such as your printer. Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. all network resources are usually centralized. In a server-based network. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. In small networks. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation.

Once you have made this decision. In some cases.0 -10.0.0 192. with open access to the global community. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information.0 255.255. you can use any address that you want to use inside of your own network and behind your firewalls.168.255. The use of these addresses will completely prevent the address conflict issue. For this reason.255. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design. For this reason.255 172. which would limit its access to those outside of the company. The only problem is that if your firewall were to come down.255. there are specific addresses that are filtered by the routers at the backbone of the Internet. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer).0.0. let us define the difference between the terms public and private network. then you might have an address conflict with another entity on the Internet.0 -172.192. the answer will be very obvious.0.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified network professional. If you are not sure you have enough information. A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet.0 255.0. since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN. in others it could go either way. Actually. Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult. . Public and Private networks In addition.255.0.0. Inc. get more.32. it is highly recommended that you use these addresses for your private addressing. If all else fails. A public network would be the Internet. Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each. 10.0 .255 255.168. When you are sitting on the fence.16.255.0.0 144 Specialized Solutions. present each case to the client and let them make the final decision. stick with it and move forward.

145 . Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

On the other hand. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have. The following is an example of an inventory sheet. ask him or her to show you. 146 Specialized Solutions. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment. if all or part of a network already exists. this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks. When taking this inventory. whether hardware or software. . you must add new hardware. The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. you can skip this section. That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you. Remember. The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. Also. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has. This form should identify the equipment and its specifications. Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form. Use it as a starting place to build your own. Inc. if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: Computer Printer Telecommunication Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA. Inc.) # of Free Slots Network Card Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Specialized Solutions. PCI. 147 . etc.

. Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary. describe each program. Software: If this device uses software. 148 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function. Inc.

Inc. 149 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

and collect all of the documentation you have been working on. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment. or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility. make a drawing of the facility and each network node. Inc. Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network. It is time to get out that pencil and paper. . This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. it will make future documentation easier.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network. A Network Layout 150 Specialized Solutions. By assigning them a number now.

but if this is a large facility. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. Cable lengths must be considered. (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly. if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files. However. hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. Specialized Solutions. you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. Realistically. or just good common sense. it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5e or CAT 6 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years. may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation. In addition. a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 5 UTP cables. Inc. It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. CAT 6 is the UTP of choice. Cable Grade – Local fire codes. 151 . In most environments this will be no problem. Therefore. you might consider CAT 3. The 100 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network. and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments. On the high end. such as in an imaging environment. repeaters and nodes. It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the performance criteria of the network. you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub. However. the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3. For example. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end). if you are not sure if expansion is in your future. 5-4-3 – If your installation is coaxial Ethernet. If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small temporary LAN. you will need to install CAT 5e or CAT 6 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 1000 Mbps speed. consider Thinnet coaxial cable.

can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically. but are not limited. and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source. since they don’t use electricity to transmit a signal. Like us. and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. However. The non-routable protocols. As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. high-humidity. Therefore.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise). you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. Variable temperatures. and RFI. On the other hand. which can generate damaging ESD. The equipment should be shielded from ESD. such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. which requires the use of routers. EMI. you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. 152 Specialized Solutions. Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. with a relative humidity of 30 percent. Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment in which the computers will be operating. it doesn’t really matter. are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. they are sensitive to temperature changes. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network. low-humidity. or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. Fortunately. it will work. the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers. such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. Fiber optics are also a good alternative when the manufacturing environment cannot allow for any possibility of even a small spark. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). on the surface. Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment. . NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference. Inc. It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment. If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. which can cause corrosion. it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows 2000/2003.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 153 . Inc.

Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends. is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable. One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable. Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable. The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it. you will most likely need to install a wall outlet. In most cases.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room. . To keep these organized. Inc. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet. Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. the cables are connected to a patch panel. One advantage of using CAT 5 or CAT 6 cable in a star topology from a hub. All the cables will be brought to one location. 154 Specialized Solutions. There are a few more components that need to be installed. These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network. So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables. This way. if using CAT 5 or CAT 6. This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors. This way you can identify each location. The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet.

Inc. 155 . This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media. there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed. Once that is done. Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. we must select a card that is compatible with both. That part is the network adapter card. there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC Specialized Solutions. Actually. Therefore you must know the requirements of each.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 156 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network. EISA. but only at 10 Mbps. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. If you are installing a Token Ring network. but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. Resolving these issues is actually quite simple. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance. Not all cards are the same. and PCI). The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. administration. and expansion projects. a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. also called PC Cards. you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots. there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. will change. Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus. the card must be compatible with the computer. two. and therefore the speed at which data can be moved. Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards. 157 . In addition to being compatible with the network. Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting. Inc. the speed of the card is important. Also. An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network. There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. Depending on the vintage of the computer. but only at 10 Mbps. Therefore. These are little LEDs (one. you must have Token Ring cards. Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple. In general. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. This section will look at compatibility issues. the number of connectors. a Specialized Solutions. which can be a useful tool. Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network. For example. The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. Before purchasing a network card. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look. or three) that indicate the status of the card. Micro Channel.

You need to configure the card to work with your network software. Finally. be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. If you must do this manually. Configure the IRQ and I/O address. Install the appropriate drivers for the card. Physically install the card. Connect the network cabling. the computer may not boot or the conflicting devices might not be able to work simultaneously. If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver. The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches. Drivers are usually supplied with the network card. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. but you are not finished yet. you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer. the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card. If there are any conflicts. In addition. be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer). you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using. Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course. Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. 158 Specialized Solutions. Each card must be configured for a different network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light indicates that data is being transferred. Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. Inc. . Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot. Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards. Now the network adapter card is installed. In most cases with a new card. If your system is not Plug-n-Play. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use. this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. Note: If you must remove the case. if you upgrade your operating system.

If you encounter this type of situation. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network. Specialized Solutions. In the case of UTP. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines. as well as possible solutions. These types of problems can be more personal in nature. For example. the engineering department may be PC-based. To increase marketability of their cards. the card should have an RJ-45 connector. different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. For Thinnet or Thicknet. Inc. However. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. and possibly three. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario. some manufacturers will provide two. Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy. 159 . AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector. For example. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector. Some STP cards require special connectors. the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on. it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day.

As the network designer or administrator. Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network. you will need to establish the standards for your network. Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network. With this information in hand. This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card. with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier. Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system. boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software. . Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. that were identically configured. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. By defining the standards to which the network must comply. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly. and detail both its hardware and software. You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots. we learned about network protocols and standards. 160 Specialized Solutions. and knowledge of the network operating system. hard work and standards. each component will work with the others. As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards. Inc. if installed. Standards Earlier in this training course. With this done. you are going to have your work cut out for you.

the system will not run. In this case. the Internet is the answer. you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site. If drivers exist. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. This is a true statement. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. but your proficiency will be very low. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase. More than likely. These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system. when upgrading from Windows 98 to Windows XP. Specialized Solutions. you will need to upgrade. The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system. you find that your modem. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are. you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers. network card and/or printer no longer work. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind. you probably do not have the necessary drivers. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems. 161 . A good example is Windows 95. You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device. however. all you need to do is install the Windows XP drivers for the offending hardware. have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. Also. Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements. Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems. For example. Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system.

This is part of the Windows Logo program. 162 Specialized Solutions. This list will ship with the 2000 package (on the CD-ROM) and 2000 will make a check during installation. You can also look for the corresponding logos on the boxes of hardware and software that you are considering purchasing for your network. If you want the latest list.microsoft. especially with the newest operating systems such as Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. Microsoft Windows Catalog Still another web site to check for compatibility of hardware and software.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists an example of the minimum requirements for three operating systems: HCL and Windows 2000 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000 is hardware dependent.com/windows/catalog. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision. If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary. Here you will find the latest information about hardware and software that is Designed for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 or at least tested to be compatible with these operating systems. It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with Windows 2000. is the Microsoft Windows Catalog at www. or hardware compatibility lists. you will need to check the HCL for that product. Inc. it most likely will not work with Windows 2000. .

163 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc.

However. but they are not all the same. Inc. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 6 1. . 7. Was this a good purchase? 9. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? 164 Specialized Solutions. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. he intends to expand the network in the future. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6.

A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network. it may be too small. For example. Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Chapter 7 . Expanding a LAN with Hubs A common method for expanding networks is to use a hub. There are several different types of hubs. Specialized Solutions. Inc. you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network. from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices. to larger hubs that can connect many more computers. An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals). This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network. 165 . Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location. sooner or later.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network. In addition to being called “hubs.” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. They do however. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. the simple hub just won’t do the job. Fortunately. such as databases. . Long waits to access a printer or file. You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. Inc. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater. thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths. Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network. amplify the signal. you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. They do not translate or filter any information. Traffic-generating applications. Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network. Depending on the objectives of the LAN. When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. have increased response times. Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. but has one additional feature. 166 Specialized Solutions.

167 . the NetBEUI protocol is not routable. Inc. Specialized Solutions. Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. For example.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. Not all network protocols will work with a router. It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. Routers work at the Network layer of the OSI model. Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment.

Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps. these connections are slow and not very reliable. These are our standard telephone connections. microwave. With dial-up networking. there are two levels of service to consider. the distance the data must travel. but connecting at this rate is rare. When thinking of a carrier. Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs. we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. When thinking of telephone lines. each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. or dedicated. . Just because the cost looks good. The first is public dial-up network lines. and satellite connections. be sure to take into account your throughput. lines. The second choice is leased. Inc. it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system. When considering which connection service to use. An example of such a system is the telephone company. 168 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway Connection Services When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances. They are providing the cabling. and the cost of the service. Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps. does not mean that it is the best value. Typically. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates. Be careful when choosing a carrier. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection.

Inc. These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity. WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded. The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. 169 . Most WANs are a collection of LANs. It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN. It can regenerate the signal. Specialized Solutions. It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back. items such as bridges. and deals with timing issues. There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines. as well as those transmitted to it. routers and communications services are used to create a WAN. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with. if necessary.

Digital Connectivity When you need a faster. Inc. The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. they can be justified. Dedicated lines are far more expensive. Voice and data over trunk circuits. Voice and data over trunks between computers. Voice and video. but if you have sufficient traffic. you need DDS (Digital Data Service). Voice and data over private lines. Voice with some quality control. Voice/radio with tone conditioning. Dedicated analog lines provide an instant connection. . Basic data. The down-side of these lines is that you will have to pay for them 100% of the time instead of on an “as used” basis. Application relays. This is because you lease the line 100% of the time and therefore do not have to dial-in. Data applications below 1200 bps. more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Basic voice. 170 Specialized Solutions.

171 . Specialized Solutions.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP. Inc.736 Mbps 2.520 or 622.080 (can reach 10 Gbps) OC-1 OC-3 ATM 1 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A The T1 and the T3 standard are American. It is capable of 1.8 Mbps 155. and video signals. data. faster download than upload 51.544 Mbps transmissions.544 Mbps 44.048 Mbps 34. whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line. The following table lists the most common connection types: Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A Voice Channels DATA RATE (MBPS) 24 672 32 512 N/A 1.52 Mbps Either 155. It can be used to transmit digital voice.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. Obviously. X. . This made for a very reliable and very slow connection. Standard PSTN lines have a very limited bandwidth of less than 56 Kbps. A packet switched network provides multiple paths that packets could travel from source to destination. so it can be both reliable and fast. Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast. all of which are considered reliable. These lines can. With Frame Relay. and reliable network messaging. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network. each packet was examined at each step in the path to determine whether it was damaged. since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet. Frame Relay does not check the packet at each step in its route. For this reason.25 based packet switched networks. Today’s networks use a different technology referred to as Frame Relay. this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs. In older. however. a packet may be sent over multiple permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). be used for somewhat secure remote access by employing the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) and tunneling protocols. convenient. 172 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

” Specialized Solutions.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment. adding computers or adjusting resources. An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within his company.) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically. This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment. without having to change the physical picture of the network. Inc. 173 . or by the specific use of the computers. printers. etc. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN. or any other logical means. which lays out hosts (computers. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN.

One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need. you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies. it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference.Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication. These cells can speed communication because the network always know exactly what to expect in regard the size of the next cell. they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN. It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles). However. twisted pair. Because it is fiber optic-based. . ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface). has two 64 Kbps 174 Specialized Solutions. While not a good choice for WANs. it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds. media limited. ATM . This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network. As well as the common voice and data. in actuality. It is. while using copper telephone wires. ATM can be used with FAX. however. or fiber optic. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services. These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1. and imaging. Inc. It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial.2 Gbps. video.Asynchronous transfer mode uses fixed length (53 byte) cells instead of packets. ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential. FDDI . and focuses on the home and business market. audio. which is intended for use in the home or small business.

has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1. much like E1 is to T1. Internationally.544 Mbps). It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM).Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. SMDS SMDS . SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices. and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control. which is intended for use by large businesses. It is capable of transmitting voice. It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx). and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control. like OCx with SONET. it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network. To be more precise. data and video at rates ranging from 51. 175 . ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface). SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media. it is the European equivalent of SONET. This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802. a call. within one transmission frame. Specialized Solutions.84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768). It carries all the bits from say. Inc.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps). The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps).6).

600 bps.22bis V.400 High-speed version of the V. the term Baud has disappeared and been replaced with bps. To increase our network beyond a few computers. 4. Modems transmit data at various speeds. the Baud rate was equal to the bps. FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14. Modems are classified by a “V” rating.32bis bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard.32 standard. connecting a few computers to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56. . and media. 176 Specialized Solutions.32 V. A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable. etc. due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of transmitting signals over long distances. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate. 8. a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2. With this change. network cards. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion. The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V. Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56.400 bps. However. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines. As we have already learned. or over long distances. With early modems. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. times as fast as the Baud rate. there is a limit of 2400 Baud. Therefore. The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication. Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions. Today.600 bps. 14. Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle. These speeds are measured as bits per second. Inc.

Specialized Solutions. modems – error correction standard.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards.42 V. modems. Backwards compatible with earlier V. 177 .FastClass.600 Backwards compatible with earlier V.32terbo. 56. 28. Inc. Will only communicate with another V. 57.32terbo V.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network V.200 Not officially a standard yet.34 V.800 Improved V.90 19.

With RAS. By running Network Connections Wizard and following the simple 178 Specialized Solutions. all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer. the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. while a true server like Windows Server 2003 will allow 256 inbound connections. so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection. Also. The difference is how each computer is being utilized. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client. Since the two computers are directly connected. On the other hand. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors. or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. Any two computers can be connected. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building). the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. You must use a Null-Modem cable. Actually. when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. or directly via COM ports and a cable. In addition. Let’s first look at connecting two computers. A system running Windows XP or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. For example. . Inc. The difference between a simple computer (Windows XP or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows Server 2003) is the number of inbound connections. there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number. both of these terms mean the same thing. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. Windows XP has an feature called a direct cable connection. This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem. A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. either via modems and telephone lines.

Normally. you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection. your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server. the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user. RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security. From this accessory. This is a relatively old standard (1984). With this in place. The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network. you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number. you will use a modem to establish the connection. RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work. 179 . both computers must be using the same protocol. On the server side. While this was the protocol of choice for a Specialized Solutions. On the client side. These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). the RAS software must be installed and running. in this case. but is still in use with some systems. the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software. Inc.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network instructions provided. Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but. Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking.

It can be used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private 180 Specialized Solutions. It enables highly private network links over the public Internet. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. It supports only TCP/IP. It transmits in text only. in today’s networks it has several disadvantages. It provides data compression and error control. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) provides for a secure encrypted tunnel for communication through the Internet. AppleTalk. as a less explensive alternative to costly leased lines. This is accomplished by encapsulating one protocol with another protocol. NetBEUI. It provides security. . With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications. IPX. • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the Network layer of the OSI model. and DECnet. PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today. Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide long time. Many organizations are using tunnels. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. Encrypted Connections. such that only the sender and the receiver can accurately interpret the data that is being sent. Inc. It cannot encrypt logon information. It’s only supported by RAS clients. the limits of SLIP caused many problems. RAS and Security. It supports encrypted passwords. Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks. VPN (Virtual Private Networks). created by PPTP and other tunneling protocols.

ICA can be used with Windows. which is the highest security method. a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE). it only establishes the user’s identity.. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 Active Directory use this type of security by default. It does not provide authorization. and Macintosh computers. IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header). Kerberos V5. TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL. AH only authenticates the user. UNIX. It is transparent to the user. It is based on an end-to-end security model. as does Novell Directory Services (NDS). SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server. . Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). usually a user’s credit card number. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network. ESP. both sending and receiving. limited RAM. It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP. Specialized Solutions. or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server. meaning that the computers. It uses a key to encrypt the data. authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well. Inc. Unlike PPTP. discussed here in the next chapter. most relating to higher security. L2TP offers many advantages over PPTP. and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the latest version of the tunneling protocol. Linux. Thin clients are computers with no hard drive. It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs.509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket. 181 . certificates (like X. it does not require IP connectivity. It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS.

Inc. the modem configuration. Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. Before installation. If another software package has “control” of the modem. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. 182 Specialized Solutions. Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller. RAS provides several layers of security. you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server. By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection. This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on. . As with all security measures. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. Security Host (Bastion Host) A security host or bastion host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call. This provides for additional authentication. In addition. All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to providing remote sharing of information. The type of communication port you intend to configure. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. If it does not work the first time. you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration. At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system. and thus more security. and any other software that might use the modem. installing RAS can be frustrating. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one.

you want to keep the costs down. You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. 183 . Specialized Solutions. it is not always the solution for every network. and you don’t need a fulltime connection. you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses. Inc. The latest Microsoft server operating systems such as Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 have wizards that make installing an RAS server much simpler. As a networking professional.

Definition . Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH 184 Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc.

Inc. 185 .25 Definition Specialized Solutions.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X.

Define a repeater. What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. Name three advanced WAN environments. Inc. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. What is analog communication? 5.544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 7 1. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. Name four forms of RAS security. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. 10. a bridge. 9. 4. Name three RAS protocols. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2. and a gateway. . a router. 186 Specialized Solutions. 7.

187 .Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Specialized Solutions. Inc.

.

Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project. 189 . RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP. and is in fact. Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. This is the most common protocol suite with which a networking professional works. The four layers are: Application. and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is an internet (between network) protocol. intranets. Internet and Network Interface. and FTP. SNMP. are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board). and the Internet. TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. These standards. such as SMTP. the recognized standard for internetworking altogether. it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. TCP/IP. known as BSD UNIX. TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. It is also used with Ethernet networks. Also. which will be discussed later in the chapter. Specialized Solutions. TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol). Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). these protocols were available on UNIX early on. Inc. some are considered to be Internet standards. Transport. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers. TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard. Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress). TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. It is important for the networking professional to know that TCP/IP is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. From this beginning. as well as Internet standards. and is usually seen in the combination.

These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP.Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 190 Specialized Solutions. Inc. There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model.

191 . Inc.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions.

Should lost or corrupted packets be detected. Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others. The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier. or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams. This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 192 Specialized Solutions. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model. Let’s take a look at how this works. and reassembles the data. the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports. Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP. Let’s take a look at them. they can be retransmitted in a timely manner. It then routes the information to its destination. However. Inc. Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. On a TCP/IP network. there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. and for the Network+ exam. called packets. . TCP breaks data into tiny chunks.

a port is different from a socket. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent. IP is connectionless. For each packet sent. The addresses. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted. etc.e. TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination. IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet. TCP will retransmit the data. meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number. and a Specialized Solutions. If the transmission has not been successful. The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses. Inc. or port numbers. The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535. FTP. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably. and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number. Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet.. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number. The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023. and specify a certain protocol. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. UDP transports data. HTTP. UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session. Although the terms. consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65. The port number identifies the application associated with the data. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer. but does not acknowledge delivery. 193 . i. IP merely routes the data. This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type.535. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. Telnet. the protocol number. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. nor does it check for errors. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned. This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide checksum. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer. To be more specific, the checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. When the data arrives at the destination computer, the receiving computer performs the calculation. If the checksum is the same, the data is assumed to have arrived intact. The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network, it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. Time to Live – provides TTL data. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. This cache contains a list of all the devices with which it is communicating. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five, TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server, run searches, or access multiple mail servers. 194 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet, which is what you use when you send out mail. SMTP is server to server, whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers, usually over the Internet. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People.” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files, by typing in a user name, or the word “anonymous.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents, such as web pages. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts, using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP, allowing access to a secure Web server. It uses port 443, the secure SSL port instead of port 80, the HTTP port. HTTPS, as well as SSL, allow for the use of X.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user.

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

195

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

196

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials

Naming Systems
Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. Remember, we are working in two worlds, the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names. Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking. DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates hostnames to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. DNS functions like a telephone directory. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers. For example, the domain bigcompany.com may have an IP address of 192.49.238.33. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose, such as government, education, commerce, or interest. Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC, also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. These domains require suffixes such as .com for businesses or .edu for educational institutions. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you.

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

197

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains:

.com .net .edu .org .gov .mil .biz .pro .info .xx

Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance, Big Company Inc. in Italy might be http://www.Bigcompany.com.it or in Australia www.Bigcompany.com.au. Also, .tv is gaining in popularity. Tuvalu is a small country, which receives financial benefit from the registration fees.

WINS In a Windows-based network, the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network. NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode, leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application. A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast), P-node (peer-peer), M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). 198 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. It predates DNS. It must be manually created and changed. LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. It must be manually created and changed. IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. For example, it could connect a LAN to the Internet. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet, it must be assigned a static IP address. This means that it is permanently assigned. It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers, sooner or later we will run out of numbers. In smaller isolated networks, IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. However, as the number of addresses required increases, you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. To resolve this, IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. That is, assigned on an “as needed” basis. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. When not needed, the address can be leased to another host. To accomplish this, you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address, subnet mask, and a default gateway if needed. Notice that the IP addresses are leased. This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. A lease can be renewed. When the term of the lease is at 50%, the client will send a request for renewal. If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available), the lease will be renewed without interruption. If not renewed, the client will attempt to contact the DHCP server that issued it the IP address directly about every 5 minutes until it reaches 87.5% of the lease, at which time the client will broadcast a request to obtain an address from any available DHCP server. If all addresses are being used or a DHCP server does not respond, the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user. In this case, the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

199

IP Proxy Servers Earlier. it serves many clients through only one connection. Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network. It contains DHCP. ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time. 200 Specialized Solutions. to share a single connection to the Internet. It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses. i. NAT also acts as a type of firewall. a NAT is just a device or program that translates one set of IP addresses to another set of IP addresses. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers. who think they are communicating directly with one another. It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client. NAT.e. since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. the proxy server. The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other. Inc. The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. The proxy server is actually making a connection to another network or to the Internet on behalf of the client. but it is most often used between a private network and the networks public address or addresses. Actually. like a LAN. . and DNS.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (public IP address). In the case of a proxy server. depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time.

Inc. 201 .Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions.

the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique).00001000. Although that is easy for a computer. This IP address is a 32-bit binary number. it is not easy for us. Internet IP addresses. 202 Specialized Solutions. An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets.967. .00100111. are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes.296 (4. Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them.11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------16 8 2 1 128 64 32 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet. let’s now take a look at IP address numbers. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet. To simplify these addresses. however.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names.2 billion) different numbers. A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4. Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address. 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8.39. So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33.8. A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001. they are broken down into four octets.294. Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes. The result is called a dotted decimal number.194. Inc. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39.

194. The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use. An example of a Class C IP address would be 193. An example of a Class B IP address would be 129. The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191. The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID).194 where the Network ID would be 193.8 and the Host ID would be 194. Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks.39.39.) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126. In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID.8. Inc. 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) Specialized Solutions. The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000). The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000).39 would be the Network ID and 8. B and C.194 would be the Host ID.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components.39.194 would be an example of a Class A address. The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID). The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39. The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33. Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks. The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID. (A host may be any device on the network. Within classes.8.8. the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID. Depending on the assignment.194. 203 . In this case 129. The class can be determined by the value of the first octet. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000). Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large. There are five common classes: A through E. For the Network+ exam.8. only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID).39. you should pay special attention the Classes A. the network is divided into classes.

Also. Class B . Class C IP addresses are still available.0.191 192 . so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts. the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic. 204 Specialized Solutions. B or C address.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID.223 In addition. Class B uses two octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID.214 possible Host ID numbers.0. This organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center). (For example. Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs. Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A. As we mentioned earlier. This is the loopback address. Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available. Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 . if a network is going to be connected to the Internet. specifically 127. with the least number of Network IDs. Class C . Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID.777.126 128 . All in use and no longer available. . and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses. Likewise. there are 16. Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time.534 possible Host ID numbers. Inc.used by very large networks. you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts.1) Class A . there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and for multicasting and are not available for normal host addresses. there are only 65.used for medium-sized networks.

The address types are Unicast. Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Specialized Solutions. It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4. however. demand high bandwidth. IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology. Anycast. which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits. The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. It would make it unclear as to what was represented. then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers (0 to 9. which only uses 32-bit addressing. For example.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address. Inc. IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP). An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. and Multicast.net. as compared to IPv4. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field. as well as ease of configuration and security built right in. 205 . Unicast is an address for a single host. It uses 128-bit addressing. to define the address type. however. A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example. Rather than having “classes” like IPv4. This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. It does. VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic.

. Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one. just like 127. A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses. Multicast.1 with IPv4. The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1. An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking. since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain. Site-local address. Finally.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address. All in all.0. 206 Specialized Solutions.0. Inc. which replaces broadcast. is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address.

0 255.0.255. By using a concept called anding.0 (Class C).0 In regard to classful addressing .255.216 hosts) Class B (65.0. or 225. Anding is the binary addition that the router uses to make this determination.11111111. a router can determine which addresses are local and which addresses are for other subnets within the network.255.0. By using subnets. only the traffic that is not local will pass through. A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) in which all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address. the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class). separating it from the host portion of the address.0 Class A (16. lets look at subnet masks. You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet.0 255.255. which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of creating more than one private network from one public network address by customizing your subnet mask. Inc.0 (Class B).0. 255.0. all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet. You must however.255. you can reduce the overall network traffic.0. For example: 11111111. Specialized Solutions.00000000 or 255.777.534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s. have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right.0. This is done with binary addition (anding). a large university may have a network spread over several buildings and perhaps remote campuses.0 (Class A).00000000. For example. Since a router connects each subnet. The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address. Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask.255. The number of 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network.255. a subnet mask can be 255. Default Subnet Masks 255. If you “and” the IP address to the subnet mask. Before looking at anding. In this example. 207 .

8.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remember.39.194) 11111111.00100000.00000000 (255. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 208 Specialized Solutions.8. Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33. thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network.11000010 (33.0.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones. Inc.00000000.0. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33.224.32. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment.7.194. 00100001.8.194.32 and the Host ID is 7.00000000 (33.11100000.8.39.0.0.194.00001000.0. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet. Any local addresses will not pass through.32.8. .00100111.0) equals 00100001.32. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID. it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address. and through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33.0. let’s and it to the subnet mask of 255. while the Host ID 0. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now. By using this method.224. using our previous example of 33.194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask.00000000.

Inc.255.b.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001.b. 209 .0 255.b. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet.c Default Subnet Mask 255. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring).a.255. Specialized Solutions.0. Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate.b. Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment.255. Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet.0 Number of Networks 126 16. A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network.b.0 255.255.a.a.a.255. If a router is connected to two subnets. A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card.255.0 255.0.0 255.097.0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255.c 192.c 128.0. it will require an address for each subnet.0. Be sure to include some room for growth of the network. • • • • Connect physically remote local networks.152 Number of Hosts 16.0.216 65.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking.777.384 2.c to 223.a. There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required.c to 191.a.0. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner.b.c to 126.

The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network.0 255.0 255.240.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet. we have one network with approximately 65. You should remember the formula 2n-2 where n is the number of bits borrowed.255.255. Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255.36.255.0 255.0 255.255.0.0 255.128 255. Inc.224 255.254.000 hosts.255.248.192. As we begin to subnet.255.255.255.255. First.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16.255. With this number.224.255. We will use an InterNIC ID of 191. To begin this process. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign.255.255. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255. we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host.192 255.0 255. you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC.255. .255.255.255.255.248 255.252.255.255.0 255.255. We use this formula to determine the number of subnets that will be created by borrowing bits from the hosts.382 Hosts N/A 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 210 Specialized Solutions.240 255.0.

we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs.255. 1.255.192 255. 2.255. you can use the scientific calculator supplied with any Windows operating system.255.255. Enter the value of 18. 211 . Specialized Solutions. giving us a total requirement of 18.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255.255. Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator).255. lets keep our network ID of 191.255.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 Hosts N/A 30 14 6 2 To make this easy. For this example.36 as assigned to us by InterNIC. The number 18 will now be in binary (10010). the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements. Just to be on the safe side.224 255. 3.248 255.240 255. Now we get out our Windows calculator.255. We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID. Inc.255. let’s add 4 more for future expansions. Change the mode to binary (Bin). Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected.

This will be the number of bits required for the third octet. The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 212 Specialized Solutions. the subnet mask would be 255. For this example.224. you can determine the available Network IDs.255. our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets.248. Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask. instead of selecting the next subnet on our list. To keep things simple. This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2. let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4.255. Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth).0.000 hosts each.36. we would have had to reconfigure the entire network. . Inc. Had we needed to add a new subnet.0 and the network address of 192. Count the number of binary digits (5).

36. Inc.128 192.36.255. The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID. and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet. The only restrictions are that you cannot use . A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255. For example.36.255. The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network. this means that the number starts with .Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192.36 (overall network address) 192.0. If it is different.32 192. these are reserved for broadcast addresses. Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network. indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively. 213 .160 192.) Specialized Solutions.64 192.36.0.255.192 Determine the Host IDs The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001). on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255. or one that is located on a remote network.96 192.0.36. In dotted-decimal format. (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask. This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address.0.255. up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID. the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery.000 or .36. they are on the same network.0.0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255.001 in the last octet.

223 214 Specialized Solutions.255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255.191 192 .0.255.0.255.0 255.0 CLASS ID 1 .126 128 . .0 255. Inc.0.

you may specify a particular IP address. Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. DNS You can enable or disable DNS.” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server. you will need to type in the specified default gateway. IP Address Here. The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using. 215 . Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor. This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information. Next. click the Protocols tab. right-click on TCP/IP Protocol. and click Properties. However. Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways. Inc. Click the radio button to enable DNS. other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window. Specialized Solutions. Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. in addition to other hardware and software configurations. or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. On some screens. and enter the information in the appropriate fields.

216 Specialized Solutions. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients. It also includes the DNS configuration. This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration. and subnet mask configuration. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology. default gateway. Inc. WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 217 . Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword POP3 Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 218 Specialized Solutions.

How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP. What is an FQDN and give an example? 6.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Review Questions Chapter 8 1. What is a domain? 7. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. Inc. 12. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Specialized Solutions. 4. What is the purpose of DNS? 5. 219 . 10. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 220 Specialized Solutions.

221 . Network Managers .SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks. It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data. the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network. The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network. In addition. Specialized Solutions. you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device. you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network. From the database and the software interface. Using one of these products. Inc. The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base).

A community can also restrict access. Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager). An additional SNMP command is the trap. The three commands are: Get: request data from the device. This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager. These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt. Inc. Get-next: request the next value in a sequence. The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents. Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device. therefore providing a level of security. . It will respond to commands issued by the management software. 222 Specialized Solutions. Set: sends a configuration value to a device.

NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table. Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names. This includes critical system errors. and TCP/IP events and errors. but did not cause a stop. 223 . Specialized Solutions. and normal (i). ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it. shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination. Inc. TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. TRACERT. Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis. Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports. serious (!). Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics. Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred). Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses.

clicking Run.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar. . Inc. and typing in either cmd or command. 224 Specialized Solutions.

NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter. Ping works at the IP level. and will display the current configuration of a computer. RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address. Inc. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device. IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client. Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same. and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot. NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address. 225 . IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration. NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain. Specialized Solutions. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address. PING The lowest level test to find out if you have connectivity to a remote host. the IP of a host might be 192. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer.168. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain.12. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host.1. NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified. For example.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 226 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

Inc. 227 . Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

List as many as you can. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. each device will need to be _________ compliant. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network. Inc. . 3. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 9 1. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2. 228 Specialized Solutions.

creating chaos and costing thousands. can deliberately damage your network. Specialized Solutions. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. the results can be devastating. A disgruntled employee. Password practices and procedures. Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user. Most users will also be able to access shared files. depending on the roles they play in your company. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. of dollars. you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent. Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change. A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords. Users should be held accountable for the security of their individual workstations. before you set up the network. or anyone who has access to your network for that matter. There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created). Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. motivated by curiosity. 229 . is right up front. data encryption. As you might have already deduced. or even millions. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems. unless safeguards are built in. she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of her particular network. anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. or at least have your plan intact.Chapter 10 – Network Security Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. Therefore. from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files. User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access. or an irresponsible prank. The best time to set up your network security. the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network. Inc. Very few users will have access to administrative features. Whether the sabotage is malicious.

Inc. A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. the user will be inclined to be less attentive to personal security. such as a template or another type of file. Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file. while the original file remains intact. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model. Password protection is. The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system. In a manner similar to the signature on a document. should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required. 230 Specialized Solutions. Users can access a shared resource. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. a gesture of respect for the user and the system. and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security. authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source. among other things. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place. passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users. It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. . However.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. where the administrator can easily retrieve it. The user can edit the file as necessary.

231 .Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Security Specialized Solutions. Inc.

you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs. If you are accessing the Internet from your network. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network. Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. you would block port 80. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs. Files need to be backed up daily. if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. As the system administrator. . but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information. Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. or auditing. at the very least. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. you will most likely be using E-mail. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network. or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. For example. and work at the application level. Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. and even more often on larger networks. they can be host-based. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system. by forwarding application traffic through the firewall. Inc. It is an important part of a network security plan. This needs to be handled in such a way that production will not be interrupted. Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. 232 Specialized Solutions.

There are several options available. Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. you must answer important questions about what to backup. and how often backups will be performed. While planning your backup strategy. so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations. range from 1. Remember. Inc. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. rather than one larger server. and are more commonly known as RAID. for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity. the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk. how the backup information will be tested. plan to fail. These multiple disks are called disk arrays. Ideally. Specialized Solutions. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk. Although slower than RAID. Floppy disk capacities today. In addition.Chapter 10 – Network Security It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers. 233 . you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data. offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other. called the backup medium. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). it is still a viable option. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups. the other can take over without compromising network operations. If anything happens to one. so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security. Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available. This backup medium is suitable for small companies. Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. As a computer professional. It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. As you might guess. and the procedure to follow for recovery. those who fail to plan.44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. the second server should serve as a backup to the first. which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs.

Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations. the last full backup and all of the incremental backup tapes will be needed. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. as its name implies. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space. both the last differential backup tape copy and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups. despite the presence of hardware or software failures. and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full. will backup all selected data on the network. A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk.. but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed. This method will take the largest amount of storage media. as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk. Inc. Differential. is called fault tolerance. The Full backup. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup. This type of backup is usually performed weekly. When recovering from a failure. Full. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server. Differential and Incremental. 234 Specialized Solutions. but will be the easiest to restore.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient. This usually involves some degree of redundancy. To restore. .

however. This technique may be applied in either software or hardware. the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved. support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing. a copy of the data is spread across all of the disks based on a mathematical formula such that any one disk in the set can be lost and the other disks will have a copy of all of the information that it contained. With this method.Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 . this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful. If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up. (Provides no fault tolerance.Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. This. such as a single file. Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies. If more than one disk is lost. Inc. 235 .) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk. this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent. then the data in the entire array is also lost. However.Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 .Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 . which provides for even more fault tolerance. RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme. so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping. Several operating systems. if anything happens to one of the drives.Chapter 10 – Network Security The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 . and is a standard feature of RAID systems.Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 .Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 . is not being used commercially at the moment to an Specialized Solutions. Typically. administrators are alerted when one disk fails so that they can “regenerate” the RAID set before another disk has a chance to fail. The same data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure. including Novell NetWare.” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data.

. A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. Like RAID-10. but at a greater cost. RAID-53. are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes. These types of RAID are not as commonly used and are not as likely to be on the test. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. since it is not dependent on another computer. RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array). also called surge suppressors. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests. Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI). 236 Specialized Solutions. There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. Cost. as you might guess. Inc. It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. It functions faster. and sags in the power supply.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide large degree. is like RAID-10. In this case. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity. but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. is an issue. SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached. and each type provides power for a different length of time. There are different types of UPS devices. which allows for better performance. it offers better performance. RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. surges. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power. allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. such as battery time remaining.

Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others. he or she will know how to accomplish the task. Passwords should be changed more frequently in high-security networks. numbers and symbols. This is known as a security audit. no matter who they are. personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days. and numbers. etc. Inc. symbols. include characters. and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas. So. Users working with sensitive information such as budgets. In order for this policy to be effective. away. but are easy enough that users can remember them. If the network administrator needs to use the workstation. Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. 237 . Some “classified” networks require password changes every day. should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there. an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis.” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents. Specialized Solutions. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being applied.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network. There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy. This holds users accountable for their actions on the network. The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters and use a combination of letters. and troubleshoot before the trouble starts. No one.

These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem. Inc. and is used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking. the Internet is not the most secure of environments. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data. Even with encryption.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon. and Leonard Adleman. A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. can understand the message. The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. The name comes from their first initials. 238 Specialized Solutions. Adi Shamir. other than the person for whom the message was intended. Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient. This method uses a 56-bit private key. Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest. DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used. RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. .

The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. both on location and at backup sites. Viruses can be spread by various sources including: shareware. which is used to encrypt data and to decrypt it. If the receiver wishes to respond. They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. Inc. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex. With this method of encryption both parties have the same key. the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages. The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability.Chapter 10 – Network Security Extra data appended to a message. Prevention should also be addressed in the plan. It is similar to DES. Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. There are over 60. will ensure a much quicker recovery. it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed. but they are less secure. is called a digital signature.000 known viruses. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters. As the name implies. Specialized Solutions. which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption. Many viruses are simple annoyances. Symmetric Keys can also be used. files downloaded from the Internet. The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. 239 . There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run. much less a day. it is not a completely secure encryption method. software from unknown origins. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off. and bulletin boards. It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method. but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities.

Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world. . Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine. With this in mind. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site. (prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk). Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document. they will go to work on the system. many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet. 240 Specialized Solutions. Hundreds of viruses are written each month. there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market. they mean that when you open a document you are running a program. Use extreme caution when you download files. If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes. Inc. but when loaded. enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing a new operating system. just from running a program. These days. Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines. Macro Virus: These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs. Keep your anti-virus program updated. Make sure it is compatible with all of the operating systems that you use. The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files). Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks. (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail).

241 .Chapter 10 – Network Security Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. . Inc. Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 242 Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

What are the three common levels of RAID? 6. Inc. passwords are assigned to __________. The acronym RAID stands for __________. 5. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Specialized Solutions. In a share level model. What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2. 3.Chapter 10 – Network Security Review Questions Chapter 10 1. 243 . What is the function of a firewall? 4.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 Specialized Solutions.

you will most likely be called when there is a problem. Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause. so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier. Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned. Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). As a troubleshooter. Remember. They always fail in the middle of a job. it seems well defined by the person who calls and complains! But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. 245 . you are looking for the cause. select the most probable cause. After all. In most cases. implement a solution. but they often hold the keys to the problem. you must be organized.” is really just the symptom and not the true cause. Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. To make matters worse. This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems. while for others it is a struggle. the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software. The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper. and progress with some specific tools that you can employ to simplify the process. For those who must endure the struggle. The user of the computer or network is your best source of information. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks. Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. The eight parts are as follows: establish the symptoms. and good listening skills. a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you. Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. a pen (or pencil). computers never fail at a convenient time. establish what has changed. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. not when all is well. if you are the expert. you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. “as reported. troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. Remember. Inc. or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now. If fact. not the symptom.Conclusion Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. In order to do this. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. Specialized Solutions. test the result. This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. identify the affected area.

however. and when. Be sure to observe the failure yourself. Do not make the questions too technical. but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure. Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever.) Show me how to create the error. With a little experience. have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory. screen changes. have someone demonstrate the failure to you. and most importantly. it is important to observe how it is created. If possible. or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred. You may. You will need to create your own list based on the situation. Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of the failure. You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation. recent software upgrade. For example. the failure occurs. Inc. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works. One thing that might 246 Specialized Solutions. the process of elimination is all that you can do. These never seem to occur when you are present. Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know. and so forth). . Describe any changes in the computer (noise. network or computer moved. The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. as well as the results. The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that caused the failure. Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem. lights. This will take time and patience. If it is an operatorinduced problem. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work toward the more complex. Sometimes. do not intimidate the user.

Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. For example. You may have to refer back to them later. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. and move forward. Document every action and its results. but you cannot receive any E-mail. make a plan and follow it. but to call you. Starting from the top. Once a plan is created. but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration. Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems. If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be). Do not make any assumptions. If for example. It requires two simple steps. then you know for sure that the network is physically working. it is important to follow it through. The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up. write them down. Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made. Inc. isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user Specialized Solutions. Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. That way the “evidence” is not disturbed.Conclusion help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. 247 . In the case of a network problem. you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood. If you must make any assumptions.

In these cases. as well as the one that is causing problems. no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed. and not the hardware or the system. Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures. This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how. 248 Specialized Solutions. either repair or replace the defect. you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem). Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities. Note: If the problem is software-oriented. To resolve these types of problems. In these situations. It is important to use another operator. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures. it may require some additional effort. This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome. However. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work). Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. if an operator is afraid of computers in general.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Once the search has been narrowed. you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. Implement the solution. the problem may be caused by the operator. start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not. be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes. For example. you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. . Inc. if the problem is software or configuration related. Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems. With hardware. repair or replacement is usually all that is needed.

You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists. you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems. and share experience. This is one way to build. and the repair. Document the solution Finally. or a follow up call just to make sure all is well. Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user. Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again. Inc. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction. The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. 249 .Conclusion Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. maintain. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. document the problem and the repair. there is no substitute for experience. You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience. The basis for this policy is that once the system is running. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. In troubleshooting. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms. Specialized Solutions. the problem.

Inc. a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier. Punch Down Tool 250 Specialized Solutions. The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire. Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack. let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling. Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician. . Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools. They secure the connection between the wires and the block. Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals.

All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device. When working with network cabling. An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up. in principle. you can have only one of two problems. With it you can test various electronic components. If the wire is broken. the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other. resistance. Network cabling is. a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete. which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. Specialized Solutions. A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing. These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. and continuity. Inc. Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. Since it is made up of wires. the circuit is broken. Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. If the test is negative (no light or noise). the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. We will start by looking at a multimeter. These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted). very easy to troubleshoot. a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red).Conclusion Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. For example. 251 . In a wire for example. it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe. we will have to know how to test for continuity. The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured. If your meter does not have a continuity setting. as well as the electrical power in the computer. You can test for AC and DC voltage. Some meters will let you test for current as well. There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires. it is still possible to test for continuity. which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps).

Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. and test at the other end. If both ends are in the same location. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. thus locating the wires. this is not a problem. The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator. there are more often than not. Inc. However. to find pairs of wires in a bundle. it will emit a tone. You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end. these tools are often called a fox and a hound. several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel). called tone generators and tone locators. However. if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building. 252 Specialized Solutions. testing for continuity will require an additional wire. The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky. This applies a signal on the wires. When used together. . The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician should have one.

Software analyzers. there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment. and therefore back to the network card. the location of any break or short can be determined. are usually a PC with a special network card. A crossover cable is similar to a loopback. Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire. By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic. If you are able to send a signal and have it return. These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. Specialized Solutions. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa). you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning. capture packets and generate reports. It has the transmit and receive wires connected. Inc. The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling. Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters. A loopback cable is just what the name implies. Be careful when using a crossover cable. They will monitor network traffic. 253 . It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. also called packet sniffers. Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions. but is double-ended.Conclusion Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable.

254 Specialized Solutions. OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back. but used for fiber optic cabling. Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR.

you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors. 255 . For some reason. Therefore. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail.Conclusion Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so. the network. Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. It could be the processor. but can be caused by a disconnected cable. and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors. The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network. Some passwords are case-sensitive. due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck. This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate. the traffic is not moving. or a disk resource. Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact. Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security. Inc. Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network.

When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it. deletes. and moves information. If slow loading persists even after defragmenting. check for memory bottlenecks. As networks grow. These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours. tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night. You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves. For example. . Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 256 Specialized Solutions. so does the traffic. the network slows down. Inc. You must defragment the drive.

This will test the protocol stack in the computer. TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination. On a Windows 95/98 computer. and TRACERT commands to test the network. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on your intranet or on the Internet your packet is going. These commands work from a command prompt. If you are using TCP/IP. but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG. Specialized Solutions. The first step is to PING the loopback address. PING.Conclusion Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network. PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation.1. This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS. It also lets you know the time that it takes. you will use it often. you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu.0. Remember this address. Inc. because as a network professional.0. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities. On a Macintosh system. The loopback address is 127. 257 .

If you are using Windows. your dialog box will look like the following. WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly. . 2000. This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT. WINIPCFG.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195. XP. 258 Specialized Solutions.6. Inc. or 2003 system.48.55.

PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer. If at any stage. then there is a problem with the protocol. the server. With each step. It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday. you have encountered a problem. use the ipxping command. they must be okay. For the IPX/SPX networks. Inc.Conclusion PING 195. you receive a message like the following. and so on.6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation. Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems.48.55. Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: Specialized Solutions. Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t. Usually this means you have the wrong IP address. you will be testing a larger portion of the network. 259 .

260 Specialized Solutions. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. respectively. you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup. the first thing to do is find out what has changed. while green lights indicate that all is well. If no lights are on. If there is a sudden change in performance. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. or hosts. you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory. Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector. they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. To resolve this problem. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer. Earlier. Inc.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause. The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS. but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. If these files are being used. These are text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses. In general. Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files. How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution. One is the IP address number.” With nslookup. have two names. That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server). If present. Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem. suspect a loose or disconnected cable. Beyond that. you can be sure that the network is not being detected. they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name. (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). we need to look at four limiting factors on performance. we learned that workstations. Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. . The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details.

Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. 261 . The speed limit. you will know the high. if you are experiencing slow printing. For example. The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now. You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information. and average time to print the document. it can send data at a faster than rated speed. Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory. Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays. Specialized Solutions. Inc. the more packets that can be moved). is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). Latency Small delays in packet movement that are caused by devices is called latency. To create a baseline. everything slows down. for the most part. if the traffic gets too congested.Conclusion Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing. slow. Resolving performance problems can be easy. adding to the network load. if any one component is performing poorly. Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request. you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed. Therefore. This can slow down data transfer. An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. Just like our highway. A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache. after you identify the problem. For example. From this information. Latency delays. Then. at a later date. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system. This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation. The answer lies in creating a performance baseline. but are interrelated. or maximum speed that traffic can move. The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps). you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. it will affect the entire network. are negligible. This means that for a small amount of time.

Inc. Windows Performance Monitor 262 Specialized Solutions. . percent of network utilization. available memory. With this tool. Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network. To collect these statistics. etc. you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself. With this activated. Windows has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. you will be able to monitor such events as processor time. etc.

Inc.Conclusion KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 263 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition Specialized Solutions.

and think it might be shorted. What is the loopback IP address? 7. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Conclusion 264 Specialized Solutions. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slowly.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1. What tool would you need to find the short? 5. . What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. You have just connected a workstation to the network. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. You have located the cable in question #3. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2. After repairing a problem. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. Inc. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9.

and as often. and don’t forget to use the Glossary. you are ready to sit for your certification exam. start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course. Remember. be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site. After taking a practice exam. Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs. as you like. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material. When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range. the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. be sure to review any areas that need improvement. our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. 265 .Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. at Specialized Solutions. Specialized Solutions. we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. Inc. or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. When you are ready to schedule your exam. To measure your retention of these materials. We love to hear from our students. so if you have any questions.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 266 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. 267 . In order for the network to operate at peak performance. Inc. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. It is expressed in ohms. • • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series. They are specified based on their impedance. Only 3 segments can contain nodes. you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Specialized Solutions. Maximum of 4 repeaters. Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same.Appendix A – Tech Summary Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing coaxial Ethernet cabling.

Description Stranded wire core. such as cable television. Length (meters) Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment Max Segments Max. . Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59. Military specification of RG-58 A/U. ArcNet networks. RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core. Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 10Base5 Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Bus 500 10 100 5 4 10Base2 Bus 185 10 30 5 4 3 268 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Broadband transmission. but also used for broadband transmissions.

Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring.Appendix A – Tech Summary UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps.5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG. but adds voice capability along with data. Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks. Six twisted pairs. Plenum grade. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch. Data grade up to 100 Mbps. Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps. 269 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Not Defined Two 62. Voice-grade cable. Two STP – 26 AWG wire. Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch. Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Contains a shield for use under carpets. Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch. Two STP –26 AWG wire. Same as type 1. Inc. Specialized Solutions. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet).

x Standard 802. They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls.9 802.6 802.4 802. 802.1 802.7 802.5 802.8 802.2 802.3 802.11 802. .12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 270 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model. Inc.10 802.

The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2. COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs.Appendix A – Tech Summary IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer. there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed. No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually Specialized Solutions. COM4 COM1. however. 271 . Inc.

LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 272 Specialized Solutions. Inc.LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address. The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F . .

Appendix A – Tech Summary 3A0 to 3AF 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model Specialized Solutions. 273 . Inc.

0 255.255.255.0 Number of Networks 126 16. .534 254 274 Specialized Solutions.x.152 Number of Host 16.x.x to 191.x.0 255.0.x.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Gateways Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Brouter Bridges Switches NICs. x.x.x.x 128.x.x to 223.x.0. Inc.777.214 65. x.255.097.x Default Subnet Mask 255.x to 126.0. Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001. Hubs.x 192.384 2. Repeaters Computers Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address.x.x.

Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address. PING ARP RARP Specialized Solutions. Use the loopback address (127. 275 .0. Inc.0.Appendix A – Tech Summary TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the Linux user’s network interface configuration. Sends a test packet to a specified address. Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks. If all is well.1) to test the IP architecture and configuration. the subnet mask. Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. it will return. and default gateway. the subnet address. Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses).

Used to check the resolution of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses. In a star topology. Used to verify the route to a remote host.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it. ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries.) Used to verify entries on a DNS server. Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents. (Pronounced Trace Route. . 276 Specialized Solutions. Inc. NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology. all computers are connected in a series. all computers are connected to a hub. Used to check the status of current IP connections.

Specialized Solutions. all computers are logically connected in a circle. all computers are connected to each other. Inc. In a mesh topology. 277 .Appendix A – Tech Summary In a ring topology.

resistance. Also called a network analyzer. An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals. Can also be used for precise voltage measurements. Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages. Protocol Analyzer 278 Specialized Solutions. Inc. . and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry.

Event Viewer SNMP Specialized Solutions. interface cards. Used to provide information for network baselines. 279 . and bridges). Inc.Appendix A – Tech Summary Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations. Displays or prints a list of events. and networks. Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers. hubs. routers. servers.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 280 Specialized Solutions.

cnet.com Other Helpful Sites http://www.com Specialized Solutions.microsoft.Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www. 281 .novell. Inc.com Novell http://www.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 282 Specialized Solutions.

Specialized Solutions. EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry. ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below). let alone the networking industry.Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. In the computing industry. CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. it is responsible for establishing standards for communication. Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes. It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. Inc. This is a common code for basic characters and numbers. As its name implies. 283 . The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards. search for these organizations on the Internet. For additional information. This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry. it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set.

See Appendix A for a summary of the 802. Inc. This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another. As you may guess from its name. 284 Specialized Solutions. As long as both are SQL compliant.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment. Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused. the IEEE is subdivided into committees. the data can be smoothly transferred. ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product. These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model. its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language. Inc.x sub-committees. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards. Since they cover a wide variety of equipment.x committee.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model. . The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802.

please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number. credit card or voucher.Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE. or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers. Date you wish to take the test. Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time. Prices subject to change without notice.com for Prometric or www. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test. go to www. 285 . either by credit card. Inc. Specialized Solutions.vue. Method of payment. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like. Payment is made at the time of registration. When you call.com for VUE. To register via the Internet. and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE.2test. Payment must be made each time you take the test.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 286 Specialized Solutions.

Software. Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. 287 . Inc. American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. A continuously variable signal. A dedicated server for applications. Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies. usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). so they can communicate with other applications or nodes. Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. The highest layer of the OSI Model. Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. The Apple networking protocol. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. opposite of digital. or bits per second (bps). or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. The file server on an AppleTalk network. program.Appendix E – Glossary Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. these three terms are often used interchangeably. or computers on the network (nodes). it supplies functions to applications.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals). such as Microsoft. The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC. . these are all in use at the present time. Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. Hardware that connects one network with another. Inc. GM. A form of mobile computing. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances. A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems. IP Address used by very large networks. such as IBM. An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. IP Address used by medium-sized networks. A bus driver. The signal flow is uni-directional. or DEC. Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address 288 Specialized Solutions.

Same as a hub. which is. from computer or network to another. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media. or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. A form of multitasking. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. Cyclic Redundancy Check. The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable. or language. to allow other tasks to run. or Cyclic redundancy Code. Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption Specialized Solutions.Appendix E – Glossary Client Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable User computer “being served” by another computer. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. Software used by the client. at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level. using a specific protocol. is a number derived from. itself. stored. 289 . Data that is encoded for security reasons. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor. The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. Inc. called a server.

The Data Link layer splits data into frames. . the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk. Also called data striping. A limited form of bus mastering. It also receives acknowledgement frames. so that one can take over for the other if it fails. (Simple “on” or “off” signal. If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it.) Being able to recover data from a disaster. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data. Inc. Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 290 Specialized Solutions. Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency. It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly. so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives.A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . in a round-robin fashion. such as an individual file. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one. DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. for sending on the Physical layer. When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway.

sent over a communications channel. A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. Specialized Solutions. A group of bits containing address information. and other control information. A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once. An improved version of X. 291 DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex . A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received.Appendix E – Glossary DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. with a very large amount of storage space for shared files. Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits. Inc.25 packet switching technology. A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard. File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network. A network’s central computer. error detection.

that enables two networks. Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. A network topology that combines bus. . using different protocols. GSNW Half-Duplex Header HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address 292 Specialized Solutions. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. It precedes the actual data. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5. HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. star. Inc. test packets.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway A computer that acts as a translator. defined in STD 5. or ring topologies. and informational messages related to IP. is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages. Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). RFC 792. and other information. but only one at a time. to communicate with each other. Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol. even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. is usually represented in dotted decimal notation. The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses. RFC 791.

and video data sources. Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. Inc. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network. Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer.Appendix E – Glossary IPCONFIG IPsec IRQ DOS command that tells you the IP address for your computer. data. Specialized Solutions. A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data. Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator.” Server used for E-mail. it’s “hardware address. A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring. across a network connection. Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver. a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology. Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC. 293 ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU .

Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card 294 Specialized Solutions. among others.400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS). Also known as a network interface card. Provides the physical connection to the network cable. A method of data transmission. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. a 32-bit bus. Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS. MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems. The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X. Inc. protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources. totally incompatible with the original PC bus. Much like your local radio station. . One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. and is used by CompuServe. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. A type of hub. Performing multiple tasks simultaneously. introduced by IBM for its PS/2 computer line.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide MCA Bus Micro Channel Architecture. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission. Single Frequency Radio.

A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. depending on the protocol. Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network. 295 Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card . A generic term used to describe a unit of data. Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet. Acts as a connection point only. Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model. Inc. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. including network connectivity. An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network.Appendix E – Glossary Network Administrator Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network. A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards. A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. Specialized Solutions. The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer.

1. The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack. . which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. The Presentation layer formats data exchange. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Peer-to-Peer Performance Monitor All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server. Defines a channel between a device and the processor. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer. A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server. The space between the ceiling and the floor above. used to circulate air through a building. many third-party applications are available. Although included as part of Windows NT. The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time. Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 296 Specialized Solutions. A hardware device. depending upon the needs of the user. converting character sets and encrypting data. such as a printer or scanner. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model. and running on TCP/IP. and even if a process takes full control. Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer.5 of Windows 3. Dedicated server for printing. this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning. other processes will still run.

The services or peripherals that are shared over the network. A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network. Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. to be accessed via a modem. In Token-Ring networks. the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. The signal is beamed towards a central unit. A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network.e.Appendix E – Glossary Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection. Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors. For example. the devices are connected in a continuous loop. In a Ring topology. the proxy server. including support for dialup and logon. Inc. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. which then routes the signal appropriately. A device that forwards packets between networks. For example. Redirects a call from one port to another. Connector used with UTP and STP network cables. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN Specialized Solutions. 297 . Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. i. Used to increase cable distances in network environments. Connector used with standard telephone wire.

the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15. ceilings.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP). Simple Network Management Protocol. until it reaches the receiver. acknowledgments (ACK). SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. to be used over a serial link. etc. defined in RFC 1055. Transmission rates are slower with this type. . Inc. was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use. as opposed to duplex. Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. A computer on a network that provides services to other computers. SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP 298 Specialized Solutions. A uni-directional data channel. The Session layer handles such things as security authentication. as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. data transfer. RFC 1157. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. normally used on Ethernet. usually over Ethernet. connection establishment and release. Software that resides on a server. Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol.

measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). The process of subdividing a network into logical units.5 Standard) environment. A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing. so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. the entire network goes down. such as bodies of water or deserts. 299 SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk . rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms. A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. The maximum speed that “traffic” can move. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters. If the hub fails. or across large flat open areas. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings. Maximum segment length is 500 meters. Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. An access method used in a Token Ring topology. that uses a large diameter. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub.Appendix E – Glossary SONET Spread-Spectrum Radio Synchronous Optical Network Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. Specialized Solutions. Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol. the official protocol of the Internet. Inc. Using binary addition. A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce.

A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. Used on transceivers. and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. thus locating the wires.” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface. The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport. The “hound. Tool for stripping and cutting wire Tone Locator TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 300 Specialized Solutions. User Datagram Protocol. Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding. The “fox. A device that transmits and receives data. Inc. it will emit a tone. this applies a signal on the wires. The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information. Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). defined in STD 6. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. like TCP. is layered on top of IP. . RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. which. Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments.” A receiver set to the frequency of the generator.

resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address. 301 .Appendix E – Glossary WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves. using zones Zones Specialized Solutions. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks. such as Token Ring. A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. Inc.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 302 Specialized Solutions.

3. 5. like one office). 7. LANs typically also have much faster communication speed than WANs. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. Inc. A WAN is not geographically limited. What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. and peripheral devices. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server). configure. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. It is confined to a limited area. Files are easily accessed by all users. 2. data backups can be more easily and routinely performed. Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area. 303 . applications. loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations. Simple to install.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers. such as data. 4. What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources. What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use. 6. Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. No security. Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security). Review Questions Chapter 1 1. Specialized Solutions. and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less).

Centralized location of resources (server). 12. Token Passing. Ease of data backups. They represent what the topology looks like. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). Some NOSs function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. Inc. and Ring. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access. . Can be expanded as network grows. What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU. 11. 9. Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see. 10. Review Questions Chapter 2 1.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 8. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment. 304 Specialized Solutions. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. Increased performance on large networks. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. The three basic topologies are: Bus. Star. 2. More difficult to install and configure. Centralized administration. Name the three basic topologies. and Demand Priority.

Specialized Solutions. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. web-publishing.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. name service. messaging. Organization of network resources such as users. Define interoperability. and volumes is also handled with NDS. 7. redirecting them to the server. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. groups. Inc. 305 . What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. 550 MB of free hard drive space. servers. 64 MB RAM. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. and file and print services. What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. 8. 9. It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments. 4. NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security. Unlike NetWare. management. 6. routing. 5. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security.

11. . What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 15.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 10. Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT. and Physical 3. Network. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. 13. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. 125 MB free hard drive space. Application. Inc. Transport. Presentation.1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU. Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. 16 MB RAM. Review Questions Chapter 3 1. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals. Session. 2. 12. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 306 Specialized Solutions. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems. Data Link.What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 14. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. Name the seven layers of the OSI model.

13. 307 . Data Link layer 5. Network Layer 6. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. Inc. Physical 10. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 4. This is not the actual application or program. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. It is a computer’s physical address. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. 11. Presentation layer 7. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? D3-B4-01 14. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. and ending connections? The Session layer 12. managing. 9. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer Specialized Solutions. Which OSI layer is responsible the MAC address? The Data Link layer 8. What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 15. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence, without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 16. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 17. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. 18. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802.2 19. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. They are incompatible with each other. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com, while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. 20. Describe protocol binding. In order to function, a protocol must be bound to the NIC. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 21. Which is faster, connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster, but connection-oriented communication is more reliable. 22. . Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. AppleTalk, DECnet, IPX/SPX, PPP, PPTP, SLIP, SMB, SNA, TCP/IP, UDP, X.25, XNS 23.. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Will this work? Why or Why not? 308

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol.

Review Questions Chapter 4

1. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. 5. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. 6. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above, which is used to circulate air in a building). Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned, which would end up being circulated throughout the building. 7. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

309

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 10. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs, which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. 11. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. However, it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. 13. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths, segment lengths of up to several miles, and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. 15. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. 16. Describe baseband. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. 17. Describe broadband. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable, making the signal flow unidirectional. 18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way, can receive but not send. For example, a pager. Half-duplex communication can send or receive, but not at the same time. For example, a CB radio. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. For example, the telephone. 310 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 19. What is the function of a network adapter card? Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network. (They make the physical connection to the network.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. 20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers, including network connectivity. 22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network, to backup a cable-based network, to provide a mobile network environment, for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly, outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform. 23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared, Laser, Radio, and Microwave 24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. 25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally; Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances.

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority Specialized Solutions, Inc. 311

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

312

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). Specialized Solutions, Inc. 313

How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17. data collisions are avoided. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. They are also called hermaphrodite connectors. while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise.5 standard 16. The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network. IEEE 802. Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. Describe a MIC connector. however. It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds. 314 Specialized Solutions. 21. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802. 19. It can be either depending upon how it is set up. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? The IEEE 802.5 says it travels clockwise. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function. Inc. 20. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token. . 18.3 standard 15.

it stores it to use each time it connects to the network.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 22. 315 . What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. Specialized Solutions. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it. 25. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. 4. etc. 24. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No. 5. Inc. 3. 23. 2. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2. Review Questions Chapter 6 1. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers. It also provides a print server. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. If no other computer is using the address. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper.

Review Questions Chapter 7 1. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. Inc. 7. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS.microsoft. having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network. It will be less costly to install CAT 6 now than to replace the CAT 5 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps to handle the higher traffic. 8. . 2.com/windows/catalog. Why should you refuse this offer? First.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 6. he intends to expand the network in the future. 316 Specialized Solutions. you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network. but they are not all the same. Passive hubs are used only to make connections. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. An active hub requires some input power. 9. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks. but not enough to run it efficiently. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. Also. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? Check the Windows Catalog on the web at www. However.

SLIP. Specialized Solutions. BAUD and bps were the same thing. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps.Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Auditing.A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment. Repeater . Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model. and PPTP filtering. Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. Name three advanced WAN environments. a router. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. Define a repeater. 10. Name four forms of RAS security. Gateway . Name three RAS protocols. ISDN. and a gateway. a bridge. Frame Relay. 4. Bridge . In older modems. A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem. Security host. 5.544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. NetBEUI is not routable. Not all network protocols will work with a router. They do not translate or filter any information. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. PPTP and L2TP 9. For example. They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network. amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables. Router . BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. They do however. BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem. Callback Security. 317 . 8. What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking). Inc.A router has all the features of a bridge. and SONET 7. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. PPP.A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature.

An example is http://www. Internet and Network Interface. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application. 3. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP. . ICMP. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. 2. 8. IP.com. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 318 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11) Specialized Solutions. SMTP. 5. and HTTP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1. 32 10. 4. HTU UTH 6.microsoft. UDP. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9. 7. What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. SNMP. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3. What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses. and ARP. FTP. Inc. Transport.

Specialized Solutions. NBTSTAT. Inc. Event Viewer. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups. List as many as you can. 319 . What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status. ROUTE. U U U U 12. NETSTAT and TRACERT.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3. each device will need to be _________ compliant. 2. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment Review Questions Chapter 9 1.

What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. passwords are assigned to __________. 2. 4. It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. What are the three most common levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 5 Striped array with parity 6. Inc. In a share level model. What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password. . 320 Specialized Solutions. What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet. 5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1. Resources 3. The acronym RAID stands for____________? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks.

and Repair the Problem. 4. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. 6.0. 321 . are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution. you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. The fox and hound. You have just connected a workstation to the network. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office.0.1 7.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 11 1. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows. What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. After repairing a problem. Isolate the Problem. You have located the cable in question #3. 5. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables. 2. Specialized Solutions. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. What is the loopback IP address? 127. 3. WINIPCFG from the RUN command. Inc. and think it might be shorted. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator. 8.

Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted. . Inc. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slow.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 322 Specialized Solutions. 10.

39 Circuit-switched. 13 ARCNet. 116 100VG-AnyLAN. 69. Inc. 114 10Base5. 24 Address Resolution Protocol. 86 Beaconing. 96 brouter. 41 CSU/DSU. 109 CSNW. 114 A access method. 40. 89 Direct Memory Access (DMA). 86 B backbone. 21 Carriers. 92 Boot Sector. 61 C Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD. 186 Analog. 231 BOOTP. 42 active hubs. 90 DLC. 253 Banyan VINES. 78. 196 Class C. 164 Class A. 16. 81 Cellular Networking. 323 . 38 Client Software. 217 ATM. 226 Digital.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Index 1 100BaseX. 166 attenuation. 52 Data Protection. 191 BRI. 50 application server. 89 AppleShare. 67. 78 Boot Prom’s. 160 Category 3. 111 D Data Link Layer. 78. 65 continuity. 77 Computer compatibility. 151 connection-oriented. 196 Class B. 81 Category 5. 13 Clocking. 91 domain. 60 Broadband. 114 10BaseFL. 40 Specialized Solutions. 119 binding. 79 backup utility. 230 Differential backup. 109 DES (Data Encryption Standard). 167 bridge. 108 Active Directory. 39 AUI connector. 34 clients. 98 Change. 123 ARP. 226 Bandwidth. 114 10BaseT. 60 attributes. 91 Baseband. 116 10Base2. 65 BNC. 189 domain controller. 161 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC). 196 client software. 70 DMA. 108. 42 base memory address. 70 coaxial cable. 79 AWG. 86 Broadband Optical Telepoint. 67 demand priority. 34 DECnet. 122 AppleTalk. 121 Application Layer. 243 CSMA/CD. 89 cloud.

81 environment. 114 EtherTalk. 215 F Fast Ethernet. 68. 157 hybrid topologies. 167 ISDN adapters. 191 gateways. 167 FTP. 91 ISA. 185 IP address. 42 GSNW. 96 Linux.Fiber Distributed Data. 39 IP. 192 IFCONFIG. 39 Full-Duplex. 191 HTTP. 18 I I/O port number. 185 interoperability. 187 HTTPS. 161 . 22 FAT. 174 LAN. Inc. 93 ISDN. 39 fault tolerance. 217 IMAP4. 174 ICMP. 186 Internet Protocol (IP). 86 firewall. 174 IPv6. 12 Laser. 189 Domain Reflectometer (TDR). 56 324 Specialized Solutions. 86 headers. 96 LAT. 174 L L2TP. 83 File Infectors. 120 ICA.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Domain Name Service (DNS). 91 IBM cabling. K Kerberos. 93 EMI. 70 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol. 217. 186 Incremental backup. 144 Ethernet. 249 IPsec. 42 Headers. 68. Inc. 224 FPNW. 83 IBM Type 3 UTP. 41 H Half-Duplex. 116 ground probe. 21. 174 Line-of-Sight Infrared. 226 Infrared. 112 HOSTS file. 86 G gateway. 61 Gateways. 191 dynamic routers. 62 Internet Control Message Protocol. 226 Full Control. 67 IRQ. 231 fire codes. 245 DSMN. 243 Group policies. 41 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). 231 EISA. 41 Frame Relay. 187 Full backup. 122 Event Viewer. 159 Gigabit Ethernet. 71 ICS. 226 FDDI . 96 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 197 IPX. 60 E EES. 187 hubs. (IEEE).. 194 IPCONFIG. 166 fiber-optic.

. 36 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95. 231 physical topologies. 228 NFS. 36 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh. 23 Passwords. 31 Network standards. 30 PRI. 18 Ping. 93 PCMCIA. 67 No Access. 14 Peer-to-peer LANs. 157 PCI. 232 Managing User Accounts. 215 NetWare. 36 NetWare Client32 for OS/2. 243 mesh topology. 120 Microwave. 37 NetWare Print Services. 114 LMHOSTS. 190 NETSTAT. 29 OS/2. 69 Network-attached storage (NAS). 36 NetWare Client32 for DOS. 151 Media Tester. 39 Null-Modem. 13 peer-to-peer. 107 protocols. 64 proxy server. 98 packets. 242 325 Specialized Solutions. 157 MAUs . 64 Open Systems Interface (OSI). 120 Multimeter. 89 passive hub. 168 MSAU. 64 NDS (NetWare Directory Services). 49 operating system. 23 media access methods. 21 Media Compatibility. 71. 249 plenum. 52 Network Neighborhood. 171 NWLink. 213 MIC (Media Interface Connectors). 43 Macro Virus. 215 NCP. 167 protocol. 67 NDIS. 30 N NAT. 36 NetBEUI.Multiple Access Units. 217 NTFS. 68 O ODI. 70 NETBIOS. 71. 86 PPP. 37 MIB (Management Information Base). 114 Network Time Protocol (NTP). 192 Punch Down Tool. 34 MAU. 36 NetWare file server. 111 parallel communication. 67 M Macintosh. 69 NLSP. 31 PGP. 96 MLID. 122 logical topology. 93 PDC .Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers LLC. 164 Packet-Radio Networking. 229 Patch Panel. 89 Network Layer. 18 LSL. 18 MHS. 172 Preemptive multitasking. 191 NBTSTAT. 191 LocalTalk. 37 NetWare security. 29 NSLOOKUP. 39 NOS – Network Operating System. 67 modem. 41. 120. 32 P Packet switching. 172 PPTP. 49. 217 PING. 243 multitasking. Inc. 37 Network Adapter Cards.Primary Domain Controller.

228 STP. 182 UNIX. 227 RARP. 58 . 217 Read. 187 SNA. 249 Trailer. 120 SMB. 68. 69. 89 Server room. 152 star topology. 167 SMTP. 39 redirector. 175 Security. 77 Thinnet. 21. 118 topology. 96 relative humidity. 199 T tape backup. 230 S SAP. 159 routers. 35 ring topology. 16 serial communication. 174 token passing. 42 User Datagram Protocol (UDP). 80 virtual connections. 187 Software analyzers. 80 U UDP. 68 SMDS. 80 V vampire taps. 69 ROUTE. 221 segment. 215 router. 16. 86 SLIP. 60. Inc. 34. 79 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 17 static routers. 184 Telnet. 237 trunk. 109 token ring. 71. 16 TRACERT. 213 Simplex. 232 troubleshooting. 16. 81 Subnetting. 17 RIP. 60. 68 Trojan Horses. 68. 67 SSL. 167 security. 33 servers. 172 SMAU. 174 Standards. 225 TCP. 16 twisted-pair. 68 326 Specialized Solutions. 13 Server-based network. 225 repeater. 51 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 96 RAID. 77 throughput. 35 Reflective Infrared. 245 SONET. 65 RPC. 71 RSA. 34 server-based network. 98 Scatter Infrared. 79 thicknet. sneaker net. 11 signal bounce. 171 removable disks. 215. 60 Storage Area Network (SAN). 79 Transport Layer. 167 SPX. 112 transceiver. 69 terminator. 144 Server Software. 67. 225 removable optical disk. 144 Remote Access Server or RAS. 13 sharing applications. 253 TLS. 185 UTP. 68 Satellite Station Networking. 71.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide R Radio. 158 requester. 11 SNMP. 96 SDH.

19. 71 XNS. 231 VLAN. 165 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks). 124 wireless network. 70 Specialized Solutions. 32 Windows 2000. 13 X X. 40 U U WINS. 166 XDR. 31 Windows NT Print Servers. 92 workstation. 327 . 95 Wireless NICs. Inc.25. 242 Wireless. 154 Windows 95/98. 31 Windows for Workgroups. 69. 12 Warp Connect. 190 Wire Crimper.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Viruses. 230 W WAN.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful