Network+ 2005 Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network+

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Copyright© 2004 by Specialized Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 338 East Tarpon Street, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. Publisher: Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Contributing Writers: Bill Ferguson Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Editor: Bill Ferguson

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Suggestions/Comments Please forward all comments or suggestions to: Specialized Solutions, Inc. 338 East Tarpon St. Tarpon Springs, FL 34689

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... I

ABOUT SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS ...........................................................IX
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+ .............................................................2005 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ..................................................................................................9 YOUR VIDEO INSTRUCTOR .................................................................................................9 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST ..................................................................................................10 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................10 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................10 ABOUT THIS COURSE .......................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS ..................................................17 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING ....................................................................................17 Benefits of Networking Computers .............................................................................17 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) .................................18 The Client/Server Relationship ...................................................................................19 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................19 Peer-to-Peer Networking ............................................................................................20 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).....................................................................21 Bus Topology ..............................................................................................................21 Star Topology..............................................................................................................22 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................22 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES ......................................................................................................23 Hybrid Topologies ......................................................................................................23 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................23 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................24 NETWORK ACCESS ...........................................................................................................26 Token Passing .............................................................................................................26 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................26 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................27 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS ...........................................................................................28 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................28 Active Hubs .................................................................................................................29 Hub-Based Networks ..................................................................................................29 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................30 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................31 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1 ....................................................................................33 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS) ....................................35 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? ..................................................................................35 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking .............................................................36 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)? ........................................................37 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................37 Server/Client Software ................................................................................................39 NOS PACKAGES...............................................................................................................42 Specialized Solutions, Inc. i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Novell NetWare .......................................................................................................... 42 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System................................................... 45 Windows NT Minimum Requirements ...........................Error! Bookmark not defined. UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................ 47 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service)................................................ 48 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 50 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................. 51 REVIEW QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................ 52 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS.......... 55 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION ..................................................... 55 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL ................................................................................ 56 Application Layer ....................................................................................................... 56 Presentation Layer ..................................................................................................... 57 Session Layer.............................................................................................................. 57 Transport Layer.......................................................................................................... 57 Network Layer ............................................................................................................ 58 Data Link Layer.......................................................................................................... 58 Logical Link Control (LLC) ....................................................................................... 59 Media Access Control (MAC) .................................................................................... 59 Physical Layer............................................................................................................ 60 PROTOCOL STACKS ......................................................................................................... 62 Communication Between Peer Layers ....................................................................... 62 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD ............................................................................................ 64 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL ....................................................................................... 66 Repeaters .................................................................................................................... 66 Bridges........................................................................................................................ 66 Routers........................................................................................................................ 66 Brouters ...................................................................................................................... 67 Gateways .................................................................................................................... 67 IEEE 802 STANDARDS .................................................................................................... 68 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL ...................................................................... 70 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)......................................................... 70 ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ................................................................................ 70 PROTOCOLS AND OSI ...................................................................................................... 70 Protocol Binding ........................................................................................................ 71 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless ................................................................... 71 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols ........................................................................ 71 Networking Protocols and Stacks............................................................................... 72 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................... 73 DECnet ....................................................................................................................... 73 IPX/ SPX..................................................................................................................... 73 SMB (Server Message Block) ..................................................................................... 74 SNA (Systems Network Architecture) ......................................................................... 74 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ....................................................................... 74 IP (Internet Protocol)................................................................................................. 74 UDP (User Datagram Protocol)................................................................................ 74 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) ..................................................................................... 74 ii Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Table of Contents Telnet...........................................................................................................................75 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................75 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................75 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................75 NTP (Network Time Protocol) ....................................................................................75 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) ...............................................................................75 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................75 X.25 .............................................................................................................................76 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................76 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................76 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................76 LAT (Local Area Transport) .......................................................................................76 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................77 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................78 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................78 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) ...................................................................................78 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) ................................................................78 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) ........................................................78 ISO/OSI Standard .......................................................................................................78 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ...............................................................78 DNS (Domain Name System) ......................................................................................78 XDR (External Data Representation) .........................................................................78 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................78 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................80 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................81 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................82 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................85 NETWORK CABLING .........................................................................................................85 Coaxial Cable .............................................................................................................85 Coaxial Connectors ....................................................................................................86 Twisted-Pair Cable .....................................................................................................88 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................91 Summary of Cabling ...................................................................................................93 CABLING TERMS ..............................................................................................................94 AWG (American Wire Gauge) ....................................................................................94 Bandwidth ...................................................................................................................94 Plenum Grade Cabling ...............................................................................................94 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................95 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)..............................................................................97 Preparing the Data .....................................................................................................97 Signals and Clocking ..................................................................................................97 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel) .................................................................................98 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................98 Configurable Options..................................................................................................98 Wireless NICs............................................................................................................100 Specialized Solutions, Inc. iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Fiber-Optic NICs...................................................................................................... 100 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................ 101 Standard Bus Types .................................................................................................. 101 Laptops ..................................................................................................................... 101 NETWORK PERFORMANCE ............................................................................................. 102 WIRELESS NETWORKS ................................................................................................... 103 Why Wireless? .......................................................................................................... 103 Wireless Transmission Methods............................................................................... 104 Radio Transmission.................................................................................................. 105 Satellite Station Networking..................................................................................... 106 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 108 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 109 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.................................................................................... 112 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS .................................. 115 ACCESS METHODS......................................................................................................... 116 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) .................... 116 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) ................... 117 Token Passing........................................................................................................... 117 Demand Priority....................................................................................................... 117 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS) ............................................... 119 Packet Structure ....................................................................................................... 119 Packet Components .................................................................................................. 120 NETWORK STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 122 Logical Link Control (802.2).................................................................................... 122 Ethernet (802.3)........................................................................................................ 122 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................. 129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)................................................... 131 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 133 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 134 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.................................................................................... 136 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.......................................................................... 139 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT ................................................................................... 139 The Customer ........................................................................................................... 139 The Network Goals................................................................................................... 140 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE ......................................................................................... 142 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer.................................................................................. 142 When to Choose Client/Server ................................................................................. 143 Making the Choice.................................................................................................... 144 Public and Private networks .................................................................................... 144 DESIGN THE NETWORK.................................................................................................. 150 Media Selection ........................................................................................................ 151 Environmental Concerns.......................................................................................... 152 NOS Selection........................................................................................................... 152 Protocol Selection .................................................................................................... 152 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER ............................................................................................ 154 Cable to Computer ................................................................................................... 154 iv Specialized Solutions, Inc.

.................................................................................................................................154 Network Adapter Cards ......................................................................197 DNS .................166 Repeaters...........................169 Analog Connectivity..............Table of Contents Cable to Hub ..........................................................................161 Minimum Requirements .......................197 Specialized Solutions........................................................................192 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................194 NAMING SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................................................................174 MODEMS ..............................................................................189 RFC (Request For Comments)..............................................................................................................................................................184 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 ..EXPANDING A NETWORK ........ v .........................186 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS ..........................................................................................................160 Standards ...........................................................................................170 Circuit-switched Networks.......................182 Troubleshooting a RAS setup...........................159 PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ..................................................................................................................157 Media Compatibility ..................189 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS ...........................................................................................159 Computer Compatibility.................................................................189 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP..............................................166 Routers ...............................................................................172 VLAN.........160 Hard Work .....................................................179 Installing and Configuring RAS...........................................168 Carriers......................................................................................................................165 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL .........................183 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ......................................................................................................................157 Adapter Card Compatibility ..................................................................................................169 Digital Connectivity ...................................... Inc............165 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS..........................................................................................................................................155 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY ..........................................................172 Packet Switching Networks...............................................................................176 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS) .......................................................162 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 .........................178 Connecting Two Computers................................................................................................................................................................................173 Advanced WAN Environments ............................................................168 WAN Overview..........................164 CHAPTER 7 ...........................................182 Limitations of RAS ................................160 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ........................................................................178 RAS Protocols ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................192 Other TCP/IP Protocols .167 CONNECTION SERVICES ............................................................................................................................................167 Gateway ..............................................................166 Bridges ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................161 HCL and Windows 2000 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................ 222 EVENT VIEWER ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 225 NSLOOKUP................................................. 223 TRACERT.................................................... 223 NBTSTAT ................................. 229 USER AND SHARE LEVEL .......... 223 NETSTAT .................................................................................... 209 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS ........................................................................ 203 Class D and Class E Addresses............................................................................................................................................................................................. 219 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES............................................. 225 IFCONFIG.................................................................................... 198 NETBIOS ........................................................................................................................................................... 228 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY ................................................................................................................................. 202 IP Addresses .......................................... 221 Management Software........................................................................................... 200 NAT.................................................. 203 Class C Addresses ....................................... 199 LMHOSTS file ...................................................................................... 215 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .........SNMP ..........................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS.............................................................................................................. 200 ICS .................................................... 205 SUBNETTING ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ Inc........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 217 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8......................................................................... 198 HOSTS file............................................................... 203 Class A Addresses ... ............................................................ 225 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG ............................................................. 225 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 221 NETWORK MANAGERS ........... 199 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES ....................................................................................................................................................... 199 BOOTP ......................................... 225 PING.......................................... 203 Class B Addresses .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 227 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9.... 202 IPv4 ........................................................................................................................................................... 222 VALIDATION TOOLS .................. 221 Agent Software .................................. 200 TCP/IP ADDRESSING.......................................................... 222 Communities......... 223 ROUTE.................................... 229 vi Specialized Solutions........................................................................................................................................... 200 IP Proxy Servers........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 199 DHCP ...................................... 225 ARP ................................................................... 207 How to Subdivide a Network ...................................................................................................................................................... 203 IPv6 (IP Next Generation) ........................ 225 RARP........................................................................................................ 199 IP Gateway ............... 223 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ................

..........................................................................................................................................................260 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................234 Fault Tolerance and Power .......................................................................................................259 NIC Indicator Lights ..................234 Volumes...................................................................................................232 Backing up Data ............................................................................................................................239 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................................................................................................................................260 Name Resolution ................................................................................275 Specialized Solutions..............................................................................................................................267 ETHERNET CABLING ..............................................................................................229 Share-level Security .....................................................257 Misbehaving Protocols .................................................245 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING....251 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS ...................................................257 Cable Problems..............Table of Contents User-level Security.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................250 Hardware Networking Tools...............................................................................237 Encryption.................................................264 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY ........................................................................................242 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10 .........234 Fault Tolerance and RAID....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................232 Firewalls ...............................................................................................263 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11 .....................................................................................230 SECURITY TECHNIQUES ............................238 Disaster Recovery ...........................................................X STANDARDS..................270 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS .........................274 TCP/IP PORTS .............................................................................................. Differential.....................273 SUBNET MASKING .........271 OSI MODEL ...................................................................268 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES .........................................................................267 5-4-3 RULE ..........................................................233 Backup Software ........................................................................................................................................................234 Full............................................................................................. and Incremental Backups ....................................................................................264 CONCLUSION .......................255 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS ................................................................................250 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools...............................................................................................................................................232 Backup Options...232 Blocking Port Numbers........................................................243 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK .....................................................................................................260 Performance......275 TCP/IP UTILITIES .................... Inc.........239 Viruses............................................................................................................................245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .................................................................................269 IEEE 802.....................................................................................................236 PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES ................................. vii ................................................................................................................................269 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING) ........................................................................................................................................................................................267 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES ...........................

............................................................................... 278 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES ..... 311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6... 281 NOVELL ............................................ 281 COMPUSERVE ...........................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TOPOLOGY REVIEW ............................................................................................. 315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7............................................... 306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4................... 316 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8............... 284 SAG ............................................................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 284 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 309 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5...... 287 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS .............................................................. 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1........ 281 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS .................................................... 323 viii Specialized Solutions............................................................................................... 283 ANSI.................................................................................................................................... 281 MICROSOFT: .......... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2..................................................................... 319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10............................ 285 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS .............................. 318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9............... 278 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ......................................................................................... 276 TRANSMISSION MEDIA ...................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................... 304 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3................................................................................................................................................................................................. Inc.............................................................................................. 321 INDEX ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 283 IEEE ......................................................... 285 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY..................................................................................................................................... OTHER HELPFUL SITES .................................................................. 320 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11................................................................................................................ 283 EIA .......... 283 CCITT ................ 284 ISO..

To see other Specialized Solutions. is dedicated to providing the computer professional the highest level of self-study training and certification materials the industry has to offer.com Specialized Solutions. Inc. course offerings. Inc. please visit us at: www. One hundred percent customer satisfaction and unmatched customer service is always our commitment to the computer professional. We will always provide a quality product to customers at a price that is within reach of most computer professionals. Our highly skilled staff of computer and educational professionals are dedicated to delivering high quality.specializedsolutions. cost-effective programs that are customized to suit your needs.About Specialized Solutions About Specialized Solutions Welcome to Specialized Solutions. Specialized Solutions. We thank you for choosing our company as your resource for Information Technology SelfStudy Training. ix . We are committed to always be on the leading edge of new computer environment training products. We strive to provide training programs that far exceed the expectations of our customers.’s Network+ training and certification course. Inc. Inc.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide x Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. Technical Writers. Technical Editors. as a stand-alone textbook. at Specialized Solutions. and Digital Video Studio Professionals. We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program.Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives. We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical. Inc. Computer Graphics Experts. Network+ video training series. or as a textbook in a classroom environment. It can be used in conjunction with the Specialized Solutions. 1 . easy to follow format. We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! Specialized Solutions. Inc. Remember. Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals.

0 Media & Topologies 2.0 Protocols & Standards 3. Inc. The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey.0 Network Implementation 4.” The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1.0 Network Support Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 25% 35% 100% 2 Specialized Solutions. Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination.” “This examination includes blueprint weighting. test objectives and example content. .

802. 5.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a diagram.6 Identify the purposes.4 Recognize the following media connectors and describe their uses: • RJ-11 (Registered Jack) • RJ-45 (Registered Jack) • F-Type • ST (Straight Tip) • SC (Subscriber Connector or Standard Connector) • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) • Fiber LC (Local Connector) • MT-RJ (Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack) • USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1.2 (Logical Link Control). 802. and cable type) of the following cable standards: • 10BASE-T and 10BASE-FL • 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX • 1000BASE-T. schematic or description: • Star • Bus • Mesh • Ring 1. length.2 Specify the main features of 802. Inc. 802.3 Specify the characteristics (For example: speed. and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) networking technologies.Media and Topologies – 20% 1. topology. including: • Speed • Access method (CSMA / CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) and CSMA / CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection)) • Topology • Media 1.11 (wireless). 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX • 10 GBASE-SR. 5e. 10 GBASE-LR and 10 GBASE-ER 1.3 (Ethernet). and 6 • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) • STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) • Coaxial cable • SMF (Single Mode Fiber) optic cable • MMF (Multimode Fiber) optic cable 1. features and functions of the following network components: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • Gateways • CSU / DSU (Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit) Specialized Solutions.5 (token ring). 1000BASE-CX.0 .5 Recognize the following media types and describe their uses: • Category 3.Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: Domain 1. 3 .

1 Identify a MAC (Media Access Control) address and its parts. 2. antenna type and environmental factors).7 Identify the purpose of subnetting.8 Identify the differences between private and public network addressing schemes.11 (Frequency hopping spread spectrum) • 802. 2.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model and their functions. 2.8 Identify factors which affect the range and speed of wireless service (For example: interference.3 Identify the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) layers at which the following network components operate: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • NICs (Network Interface Card) • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) 2.0 – Protocols and Standards – 20% 2. transmission type and topology) of the following wireless technologies: • 802. 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • NICs (Network Interface Card) • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) adapters • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) • Modems • Transceivers (media converters) • Firewalls 1.9 Identify and differentiate between the following IP (Internet Protocol) addressing methods: • Static • Dynamic • Self-assigned (APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing)) 2. Inc.10 Define the purpose. addressing schemes.11x (Direct sequence spread spectrum) • Infrared • Bluetooth 1. interoperability and naming conventions: • IPX / SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange / Sequence Packet Exchange) • NetBEUI (Network Basic Input / Output System Extended User Interface) • AppleTalk / AppleTalk over IP (Internet Protocol) • TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) 2. Domain 2. B and C). 2. frequency. 2.4 Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing.7 Specify the general characteristics (For example: carrier speed. . function and use of the following protocols used in the TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) suite: • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) 4 Specialized Solutions.5 Identify the components and structure of IP (Internet Protocol) addresses (IPv4. IPv6) and the required setting for connections across the Internet.6 Identify classful IP (Internet Protocol) ranges and their subnet masks (For example: Class A.

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). SMB (Server Message Block).Introduction • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) • POP3 / IMAP4 (Post Office Protocol version 3 / Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • Telnet • SSH (Secure Shell) • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) • ARP / RARP (Address Resolution Protocol / Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) • NTP (Network Time Protocol) • NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) • IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) • LPR (Line Printer Remote) 2. ICS (Internet Connection Sharing).14 Identify the basic characteristics (For example: speed. Zeroconf (Zero configuration).13 Identify the purpose of network services and protocols (For example: DNS (Domain Name Service).11 Define the function of TCP / UDP (Transmission Control Protocol / User Datagram Protocol) ports. 2. AFP (Apple File Protocol). Inc. NFS (Network File System).25 2. 2. 5 . WINS (Windows Internet Name Service).12 Identify the well-known ports associated with the following commonly used services and protocols: • 20 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 21 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 22 SSH (Secure Shell) • 23 Telnet • 25 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • 53 DNS (Domain Name Service) • 69 TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • 80 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • 110 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) • 119 NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • 123 NTP (Network Time Protocol) • 143 IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • 443 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) 2.15 Identify the basic characteristics of the following internet access technologies: • xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) • Broadband Cable (Cable modem) • POTS / PSTN (Plain Old Telephone Service / Public Switched Telephone Network) • Satellite • Wireless Specialized Solutions. LPD (Line Printer Daemon) and Samba). NAT (Network Address Translation). capacity and media) of the following WAN (Wide Area Networks) technologies: • Packet switching • Circuit switching • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) • T1 (T Carrier level 1) / E1 / J1 • T3 (T Carrier level 3) / E3 / J3 • OCx (Optical Carrier) • X.

MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). 3. benefits and characteristics of using a firewall. network protocols and peer and server services). authentication. Includes connection to the following servers: • UNIX / Linux / MAC OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. file and print services.3 Identify the appropriate tool for a given wiring task (For example: wire crimper. 3.8 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks). .1 Identify the basic capabilities (For example: client support. application support and security) of the following server operating systems to access network resources: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. media tester / certifier. 6 Specialized Solutions. interoperability.6 Identify the purpose.0 Network Implementation – 25% 3.1x 2.16 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services: • RAS (Remote Access Service) • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) • PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) • VPN (Virtual Private Network) • RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) 2. 3. PAP (Password Authentication Protocol).7 Given a connectivity scenario. Domain 3. and physical connectivity.18 Identify authentication protocols (For example: CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol).4 Given a remote connectivity scenario comprised of a protocol. Kerberos and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)).2 Identify the basic capabilities needed for client workstations to connect to and use network resources (For example: media. configure the connection. Inc.17 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function: • IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Continued on the next page… Continued from the previous page… • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) • 802. RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service). authentication and encryption). determine the impact on network functionality of a particular security implementation (For example: port blocking / filtering. 3. punch down tool or tone generator).5 Identify the purpose.9 Identify the main characteristics and purpose of extranets and intranets. 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. 3. benefits and characteristics of using a proxy service. an authentication scheme.

6 Given a scenario. interpret visual indicators (For example: link LEDs (Light Emitting Diode) and collision LEDs (Light Emitting Diode)) to determine the nature of a stated problem. Inc. protocol configuration.3 Given a network scenario.7 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology (For example: bus. network hardware or environment). determine the impact of modifying. 3. star. Specialized Solutions. identify the cause of a stated problem: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 4. print services. warm and cold sites Domain 4. identify the cause of a stated problem (For example: bad media. authentication failure.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario. identify the network area affected and the cause of the stated failure. 7 .8 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving an infrastructure (For example: wired or wireless) problem.1). identify the cause of the problem (For example: file services. 4.12 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery: • Backup / restore • Offsite storage • Hot and cold spares • Hot. 4.10 Identify the purpose. mesh or ring) and including a network diagram. select the appropriate network utility from the following: • Tracert / traceroute • ping • arp • netstat • nbtstat • ipconfig / ifconfig • winipcfg • nslookup / dig 4. identify the utility and interpret the output.2 Given output from a network diagnostic utility (For example: those utilities listed in objective 4. physical connectivity and SOHO (Small Office / Home Office) router).Introduction 3. benefits and characteristics of using antivirus software. 4. DNS (Domain Name Service) and WINS (Windows Internet Name Service)) for network resources and users.0 Network Support – 35% 4.4 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a client accessing remote network services. adding or removing network services (For example: DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). interference.5 Given a troubleshooting scenario between a client and the following server environments.11 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance: • Power • Link redundancy • Storage • Services 3. 4. 4.

Select the most probable cause 5. Identify the symptoms and potential causes 2. . Inc. select an appropriate course of action based on a logical troubleshooting strategy. Document the solution and process 8 Specialized Solutions. This strategy can include the following steps: 1. Implement an action plan and solution including potential effects 6. Identify the results and effects of the solution 8. Establish what has changed 4. Identify the affected area 3. Test the result 7.9 Given a network problem scenario.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4.

Use the “Help” button where available. results oriented computer specialist who has extensive knowledge of Microsoft networks. as well as “Designing Security for Windows Server 2003 Network” for Exam Cram2. and CCNA. Alabama.Introduction Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not extremely complicated. Bill made his transition to Certified Technical Trainer in 1997 with ExecuTrain.” Specialized Solutions. In addition. Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand. “My job is to understand the material so well that I can make it easier for my students to learn than it was for me to learn. Bill has written the “MCDST Study Guide” for Sybex Inc. MCSE. To get the best results from your training. Your Video Instructor Your video instructor is Bill Ferguson. teaching classes for most of the national training companies and some regional training companies. Hands-on experience is best. Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge. In addition he holds the CompTIA certifications of A+. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented. 9 . Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding. not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation. Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. it may seem so. MCP+I. and Security+. Server+. MCSA. However. Bill has been in the computer industry for over 15 years. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary. Bill now runs his own company as an independent contractor in Birmingham. Originally in technical sales and sales management with Sprint. Network+. MCDST. Practice the function on your computer. use a study plan. such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. if this is your first exposure to networking. Bill says. Inc. CCSI. Bill is an enthusiastic. He is certified as an MCT.

Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills. There are no specific requirements. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find. The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry. Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book. Inc. You may be surprised at how near you are to a testing center! Evaluate your learning aptitudes. • • • How do you learn best (reading. You can locate a testing center and schedule the test on the web. 1999. watching. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive.com). You can also call VUE at 877-551-7587 or Thomson Prometric at 888-8956116. YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Schedule the test for a few weeks from now so that you will have a guidepost that is constantly reminding you that you need to study the material. German. . The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge. CONGRATULATIONS. French and Japanese. but A+ certification is not required. This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 10 Specialized Solutions. there is no one method that will work for everyone. How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam. Since most of us learn in different ways.com) or any Thomson Prometric testing center (2test. except payment of the test fee. Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. You can take the test at any Virtual University Enterprises testing center (vue.

Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read. you want to begin to understand. Make an appointment with yourself. Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time. Inc. just get a feel for it. If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course. Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). Re-read the test and review the video presentation. You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through. set aside the time to learn. This workbook will make this task much easier. You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time. • Complete the course a second time. Based on your time to learn (and your schedule). If you need to. Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises. 11 . What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through. At this time. Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. Use the rewind button as often as necessary. go though the entire course again. Specialized Solutions.Introduction Make a plan to learn. Review the video presentation one more time if necessary.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted. (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test. including one photo ID. All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam. Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam As you prepare for your certification exam it will be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure. The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer. Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam. If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams. Inc. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in. It is a closed book exam. • • • • 12 Specialized Solutions. which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test. You will be required to show two forms of identification. it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature. You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam. The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them. You will be asked to sign the form. . You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. Evaluate the questions you missed.

At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered. (such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test. Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions. If you’re not quite sure. If you don’t know the answer. You will have plenty of time as long as you use it wisely. Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam. a Network+ Training & Test Preparation Guide and a practice exam simulator. If the administrator does not do this. mark a question or answer a question. answer the question. It lists your score by objective. mark it and come back to it. put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. Specialized Solutions. Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! About This Course This Specialized Solutions Network+ course is a multi-media.) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides. (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. or if you are unclear about what you should do. you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam. skip it.Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials. Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system. Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers. Do not read too much into the question. you are given the ability to skip a question. Keep track of the time and pace yourself. The course contains five instructor led CD-ROMs. 13 . but be sure to read it in its entirety. Before retaking the exam. Usually. which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass. Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you. guess. ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam. (You don’t need to send them the score report.Introduction HINT . you can see which questions are not answered. self-study training system. marked or skipped. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. Inc. If you know the answer. If you positively don’t know the answer. you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Video Chapters Include: CD 1: Introduction and Overview Network Topologies Network Technologies Cable Standards Media Connectors CD 2: Media Types Network Components Wireless Technologies Protocols and Standards The OSI Model IP Addressing CD 3: Ports Services WAN Internet Access Remote Access Security Protocols CD 4: Server Operating Systems Client Connectivity Tools for Networking Firewalls Proxy Service Network Connectivity Virtual Local Area Networks Antivirus Software Fault Tolerance Disaster Recovery CD 5: Troubleshooting Network Utilities Troubleshooting Network Services Troubleshooting Topologies Troubleshooting Strategy Preparation for a Certification Test 14 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

15 . Inc. It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course.Introduction This study guide is divided into 11 chapters. Specialized Solutions.

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It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than to purchase a printer for every user. An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?). as a networking professional. Additionally. and applications (resources).” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service. you understand exactly what a network is.” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do. You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN. This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment. Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources. a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents. But for our purposes. Through networking. Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need. and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net. Inc. After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment.) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics. Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking. Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage. It is very important that. users can access programs. a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files. files. peripherals. 17 . A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented.

or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. When LANs are connected they create a WAN. The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits. The Internet is the world’s largest WAN. Inc. Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information. A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network. it is still considered a LAN.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function. the speed of communication between the computers is typically much faster in a LAN. Also. A WAN can connect networks from building to building or across the world. . 18 Specialized Solutions.

The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation. if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access. including hard disk space and RAM. when the user is getting information from the server. and is a client. Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity. A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or county.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals There is actually a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer. However. but they are not common. one for printing (print server). The advantages of this type of network are central administration. that access would cause the workstation to become a server. and expandability. also known as clients. The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. A mainframe will handle all the functions. Also. For example. A large network may have more than one server. there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). Users. The Internet has replaced most MANs today. Inc. It is important to know what a MAN is. network security. Specialized Solutions. efficiency in backing up the data. A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. including applications. or a mail server (E-mail). 19 . The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files. it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. one for applications (application server). A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network. configuration and management may be more challenging. These terms are not interchangeable. since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client).

This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved. In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal. Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network. a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand. network security is unreliable. The computers are simply cabled together. and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e.g. A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security. Peer-to-Peer Network 20 Specialized Solutions. All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user. Inc. Also. A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers.

scheme. Inc. the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce. A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. This cable is called a trunk. backbone. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address). An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. they do not move the transmissions along. are all determined by the topology used. To stop signal bounce. If not prevented. and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. (Network Interface Cards. or segment. However. future growth needs. map. The Bus topology is a passive topology. also called Network Adapter Cards). you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together. connectors. or topology. NICs. it prevents other devices from sending data.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. Specialized Solutions. if the cable breaks. While the signal is bouncing back and forth. design. 21 . In a Bus network. only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal. how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other. Devices only listen for data being transmitted. a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable. Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. and even how the cabling is run through a building. As a network professional. or diagram. The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable. Different topologies have different cabling requirements. refers to its physical layout. There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used. the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other.

Inc. . however. the entire network will go down. If the hub fails. The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network. the rest of the network will still continue to function. it can affect the entire network. The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network. Star Topology Ring Topology In a Ring topology. A disadvantage is that if one computer fails. 22 Specialized Solutions. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable. all devices are connected to a central point called a hub. There are no ends to terminate. The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Star Topology In a Star topology. but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down.

Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. the ring is actually in a special type of hub called a Multistation Access Unit (MSAU). These are known as Hybrid topologies. Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals With IBM Token Ring networks. The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. some Ethernet networks today are wired using a using multiple hubs. we have been discussing physical topologies. These are the methods in which a network is actually wired. It consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies. Inc. A logical topology. This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. So far. on the other hand. you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology. However. is how the network actually works. This gives us a physical star topology. 23 . Also. Before you can understand some of these special topologies. For example. but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. a computer can fail and not prevent the network from functioning. You will be able to see a physical topology. Token Ring networks are physical stars and logical rings. Specialized Solutions. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations. In these networks. they operate between the hubs like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus.

. 24 Specialized Solutions. . Since each computer has its own connection to the wireless access point (WAP). The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter 4 of this book. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points. the topology of a wireless network is that of an “invisible star”.

Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Specialized Solutions. 25 .

The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. . The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network. Multiple Access means that more than one computer 26 Specialized Solutions. they are called Token Ring and Ethernet. Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices. The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. Since there is only one token. A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit. Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods. It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token. With several devices connected to one media.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected. we create kind of a “party line”. only one device at a time can communicate on the network. and the message is delivered. The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message. Inc. This is based on the media or wiring of the network. We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards. Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD).

Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps. Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks. Inc. 27 . Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original. Specialized Solutions. Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted).Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals can be connected to the same cable.

since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network. not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified. Hubs can be classified as either passive or active. The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator. Passive Hub – Patch Panel 28 Specialized Solutions. Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only. Passive hubs do not require any electrical power to function. Inc. Today. . Just remember. they are called MSAUs (Multiple Station Access Units). Essentially. they are all the same. With a Token Ring. hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function.

Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs. An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. 4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs. 3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated. They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected. 29 . Specialized Solutions. Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity. This type type of hub requires electrical power to function. Inc. 2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available.

star. 30 Specialized Solutions. We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network. and ring. A WAN is not geographically limited and typically has greater speed of communication than a WAN. and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN. . The three main types of topology are bus. Topology is a term we use to describe the logical shape of the connection of computers in a network. Inc. go back and review the chapter again.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources. The two types of networks are LANs and WANs. A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks. It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts.

31 . Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 32 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

11. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. 9. What is the main reason for networking computers? 3. 5.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Review Questions . Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. 10. 8. What is a “sneaker net”? 4. Specialized Solutions. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. Name two media access methods. 7. What are the key differences between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2. 33 .Chapter 1 1. Name the three basic topologies. Inc.

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and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e. and database programs). as well as the operating system. Specialized Solutions.g. Hardware resources such as RAM. Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe. network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system. if you don’t have the software to run it. word-processing. We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities.Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking. This chapter is all about the various operating systems with which a networking professional needs to be familiar. You can get it all set up and turn on the power. Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment. hard disk space. What is an Operating System? Not that long ago. When we refer to the operating system in this chapter. Inc. what we are really talking about are network operating systems. it will just sit there. 35 . but without an operating system. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment. spreadsheet. When we are talking about operating systems. processor time. In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems. most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions. we are referencing the built-in network operating system component. Most of today’s client and server operating systems have a built-in network operating system. it is just a pile of metal and plastic. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 . The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other. Today.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs. 36 Specialized Solutions. In non-preemptive multitasking. Preemptive multitasking began with Windows 95 and the Intel Pentium processor. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. . It is used on all of the latest operating systems. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor. means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. Inc. A true multitasking (multi-processing) operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors. the processor is never taken away from a task. put simply. Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed.

Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems. and archiving music. Specialized Solutions. Their new graphical interface and networking capabilities make them a vast improvement over their predecessors. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network. They use an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system. Novell NetWare. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. Windows 95/98 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems. to communicate with other computers over a network. or a similar program. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. moving photos to the Web. Inc. 37 . Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration. Then. such as BSD UNIX.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. It is well-suited for editing home movies. all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network. Instead. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices. Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. and you have a working network. Microsoft Client. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network. turning on the computer and answering questions. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). Windows 95/98 Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems that include a network operating system. It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs.

It also uses System Restore. IPsec and Kerberos support. EFS (Encrypting File System). which allows for safety when installing additional software or making changes to the computer’s configuration. like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here. . It features file protection. It. It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies. like ME. a simplified visual design. is equipped to be networked easily.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server. driver certification. remote OS installation. multilingual support. Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across in real life but are unlikely to be on the test: 38 Specialized Solutions. It allows for faster user switching. peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT. Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is the newest edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users. Inc.

Specialized Solutions. the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability. Inc. the computers act as both a client and a server. However. This can also provide accessibility and security for all devices on a network. Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. In a Serverbased network. Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (uses resources locally). Inc. it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment. 39 .

Inc. Server Software As their name implies. At the very least. Servers exist to serve. The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed. Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. Some networks even cluster server so that more that one server can share a database of information. Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access). This 40 Specialized Solutions. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. most of the data is stored on the server. and to the server. Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus. However. the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. . the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Data Protection As we already discussed. The component that handles these requests is called the redirector. They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. out onto the network. server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location. This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access. Unlike most client software.

it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests. or if they need to be redirected to the server. Basically. Inc. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) provides for load balancing of the server resources as well as fault tolerance if one server were to fail. called drive designators. 41 . Specialized Solutions. If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server. If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus. It does not need to know anything about networks. This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer. which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer. etc. It does this by assigning drive letters. The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server. to resources.

486. Version 6.11 operate on 386. It is Novell’s push to gain market share and is a way of creating an Intranet. NetWare Security The purpose of a network may be to share resources. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. NetWare is administered through NetADMIN. NetWare is based upon the industry standard X500 directory architecture. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. Version 4. First. which is a DOS-based utility. messaging. . login security provides authentication and verification of user name. Versions 3. NetWare provides more than adequate network security by using a combination of approaches. 42 Specialized Solutions. Inc. management.12 and 4. routing. With NDS’ single point logon.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use. Organization of network resources such as users. it was the most popular server operating system. but there will always be data in any network to which access must be restricted. groups. as well as what kind of access they have. non-shareable. but it is losing market share to Microsoft servers every year.5 is now on the market. In the past. NetWare Directory Services (NDS) NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. or through NWADMIN. copied. Trustee rights regulate which directories and files a user can access. which is like the Internet but within a network or company. and account restrictions. name service. a user may logon from anywhere on the network and gain access with all of their assigned rights and privileges intact.EXE. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. The earliest version (2. shared. Novell NetWare The NetWare operating system has been around for a long time. we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. It may be installed in either the client or server format. deleted. password. servers. web-publishing. or changed. NetWare File Services The NetWare file server hard drive may be mapped to a client and the client machine will recognize the drive as a logical drive and be able to access it as it would any other drive in the computer. or Pentium machines. • NetWare’s popularity is due largely to its ability to provide services across multioperating system environments.2) was designed to operate on 286 machines. which is a Windows-based utility. Directory and file attributes are used to set the types of access for a file or directory such as viewed. and file and print services. In this section. and volumes is also handled with NDS. It is a reliable operating system that provides performance and security.11 is called IntranetWare. time.

Inc. a workstation. 43 . Print requests are first routed to the file server. NetWare Minimum Requirements The following are the minimum installation requirements as specified by Novell for installing their server software: Specialized Solutions. or directly to the network. NetWare also provides a method of using simple commands to send messages to other users on the network. It is compatible with E-mail programs such as Novell’s GroupWise and Microsoft Mail. as well as others.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Print Services NetWare Print Services can support up to 256 printers. next to the print server. NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS) MHS may be installed on any server and configured to be a network wide E-mail system. and finally to the printer. except an individual workstation. You can even send messages to everyone in a group. The file server and the print server can be the same computer. You can send messages to individuals or to groups very easily. Printers may be attached to the server.

.5 MB 20 MB Client Software The client software may be installed on any computer running any of the following: • • • • • 44 DOS 3.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 3. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Version 2.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for Macintosh OS Specialized Solutions.1 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS MS Windows 3.11 or OS/2 Warp and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 Macintosh 6.1 or later (Standard or Extended Edition) and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 OS/2 2.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 4.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 5: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Pentium Class or higher 64 MB 550 MB 386 or higher 16 MB 105 MB 386 or higher 6 MB 30 MB 286 or higher 2.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS OS/2 1.

You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows network. Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software). but it does have several advantages. 45 . Windows File Services Like NetWare. The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of Windows security features. The NetWare client can be installed with almost any other operating system. you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data. but Windows NT contains services such as NWLink and Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW) that allow them to work together effectively. its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows Servers. Change. This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments. Today. Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. another security method must be utilized. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. Full Control. the Windows servers may be configured to store each workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups.File Allocation Table) during installation. This type is performed by each workstation or server publicly sharing a directory on the network. or No Access may be set on the directory. Windows combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows . It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Interoperability As the word implies. Files in Windows may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network. Inc. offer even more advantages and stronger security than their predecessors. The newest of these server operating systems. The attributes such as Read. which as at the base of all Microsoft’s servers. NetWare is extremely efficient at operating with other systems. Unlike NetWare. The advanced security features of Windows are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT . As we’ve already discussed. Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. With this method. The NT Kernel. The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of Microsoft’s server/workstation technology. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories. Problems do occur when trying to operate within the Windows NT domain. Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems. actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2). Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management. Specialized Solutions. interoperability simply means the ability of an operating system to operate with other systems. and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier.

Inc. A domain controller is a server that maintains and manages all accounts. . This trend continued with the latest Windows server operating systems (Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network. Workstation Service is the redirector service. Windows Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in a Windows network. At least one domain controller is assigned to each domain.. (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource. and user rights. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. you are given the option to share it to the network. computers. 46 Specialized Solutions. more than one printer can be installed to any machine. Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service. Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible. The following is a list of services included with Windows Server software to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between Microsoft and NetWare. Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene. Windows Network Services There are many services available in Windows to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user. Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in the domain. and resources with a shared security database. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer. Microsoft uses domains to control access and authenticate users and computers. Even if you are installing a local printer. Server Service provides access to network resources. Remember. Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions).) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows Server Security Security was a major concern in the development of Windows Servers. Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers.. A domain is simply a group of users. permissions. especially with the latest Windows Server 2003 family.

Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 is the latest in the line of Microsoft server operating systems. Windows Server 2003 is the first Windows server that was built primarily with security in mind. This software is not included with Netware but can be purchased separately.well serve. It can be installed on the Microsoft client to allow it to connect the Netware server directly. In addition. Inc. FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access Microsoft file and print services. Previous Microsoft server operating systems were built to serve and then had security features to protect them. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional. It allows Novell NDS computers to be managed just as Microsoft domain controllers.. UNIX is a Specialized Solutions. Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to Windows. In contrast. which govern what users can see and do on the network. but it adds many features that are designed exclusively for security. Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory.0). DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. In fact. Windows Server 2003 offers a more secure Web Server (IIS 6. It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an Microsoft domain and the NetWare server. Installing CSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well.. This is necessary because all Microsoft client workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases. 47 . and is. Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to Microsoft’s domain controller.0) than the previous version in Windows 2000 (IIS 5. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the Microsoft service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. Installing GSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. used as such. It provides all of the advantages of Windows 2000 Server. it has more “locked down” security templates that make it less likely that users will try to go around the security. when using Windows Server 2003 you typically must remove or configure security boundaries in order to get the server to. It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network. Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be.

It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). which means that it can be changed by a software programmer. to convert the UNIX host into a file server. as well as file and printer sharing. VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top. StreetTalk provides directory. it was an extremely popular network operating system. Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms. however. security. TCP/IP. UNIX is a multi-tasking. Software is available. At its inception. Inc. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system. in fact the software is available for a free download. Because of its open source nature. The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS. OS/2. UNIX. A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources. A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. and messaging services. Linux is open source. Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows. These terminals are not stand-alone computers. but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. Like Novell NetWare. as well as others. At one time. Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system. Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX. . VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. and many other features associated with an OS.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide bulky operating system. general-purpose operating system. The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. multi-user. 48 Specialized Solutions. many variations of Linux have been created over the years such as Caldera and Red Hat.

and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC. both at home and on the go. but users also use them personally. Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production. Specialized Solutions. 49 . Inc. they developed what later became known as the mouse and the first GUI display. In conjunction with Xerox. The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction with the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book).Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984.

A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare).). It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today. In a peer-to-peer network. Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic. Study through the chapter again if you need to. Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems. Banyan VINES. Today. the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network). and data backups. the client computers rely on the server for their resources. and at least be familiar with others. an application is unaware that it is working from a network. In a server-based network. . Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. etc. With the redirector. The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security. There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system. centralization of administration. The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely). such as Novell NetWare and Windows server operating systems. The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems. 50 Specialized Solutions. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. (UNIX.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer. Inc. the most popular network operating systems also function as the network operating system.

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS)

KEYWORDS Exercise
Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition

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Review Questions
1. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system?

2.

What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking?

3.

What is the purpose of the redirector?

4.

NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments.

5.

What is NDS?

6.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5?

7.

Define interoperability.

8.

Unlike NetWare, Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one.

9.

What is NTFS?

10.

What is a domain?

11.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server?

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Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) 12. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.

13.

What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system?

14.

What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984?

15.

What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system?

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Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards

Chapter 3- The OSI Model and Communication Standards
In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, what it is and its primary function. You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles each function, and which devices function at each layer. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam.

The Seven Layers of Network Communication
The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. As a result, some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other, and how they will communicate if they are using different languages. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit; when not to transmit; and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected; how the data will flow (at what speed); and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications.

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The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you should notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers, depending upon their functions.

Seven Layers of the OSI Model
The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network. These services include file, print, and messaging services. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer. The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. This is not the actual application or program, simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail, transfer files across the network, or access a

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The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them. 57 . The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence. managing. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. and when. These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. Each connection is called a session. The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. Sessions may be established using simplex. This layer is responsible for establishing. and error free. and prepare it for its journey. This layer is also responsible for data compression. or receive. Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network.) character set conversion. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh. it presents data to the application layer. and un-packaging the data for transport. As its name implies. This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local. If Specialized Solutions. For example. and data encryption. The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging. it will break the data into packets. It provides a logical connection between the two devices. or full-duplex communication. Inc. half-duplex. if the packets are too small. and ending connections. they will be combined.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards network database. The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer. The network redirector operates at this layer. In short. bit ordering. interpreting graphics commands. without duplication. add any addressing information and error correction information. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. etc. protocol conversion. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer.

they will be broken into smaller packets. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. segmentation information and routing information. . delivery of packets is not guaranteed. 58 Specialized Solutions. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. In an ideal world. Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets. UDP is a connectionless protocol. Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission. For example. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers. it will be un-packed. Once the data is reassembled. When the data is received.518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination. When you are using a connectionless protocol. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses. but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. however. This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. Routers and NICs function on this layer. the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. This controls network congestion.) It also includes control information such as frame type. it will retransmit after a specified amount of time. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. Connectionless protocols are faster. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide they are too large. Inc. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. Should an error occur. checked for errors. It receives a packet from the Network layer and packages it into what is called a frame. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. When you are using a connection-oriented protocol. all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly. stripped of its addressing information. This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks. This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link. error free manner.

The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not. The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium. If it is. Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel. It identifies a line protocol. NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements. In this way. such as SDLC. the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards In addition. The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer. the destination computer will not send an acknowledgement. The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. The way that a network shares the channel is called its carrier access method. The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer. (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host). it will automatically resend the packet. it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. Inc. TCP/IP is somewhat “self healing”. The IEEE 802. Token Passing. The following is an example of a MAC address: Specialized Solutions. It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame. and Demand Priority. If the calculation does not check out. The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address. The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer. They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers. This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link. When the sending computer does not receive and acknowledgement. If it is not. it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer. the data is sent out on the wire to all computers. The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame. In a broadcast network such as Ethernet. Although quite rare. MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized.2 standard defines how this takes place. then it discards the data. Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers. 59 .

Inc. The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets. . Note: For more information on the OSI Model. For example. It identifies the NIC. an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable. hubs and transceivers. It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer. Repeaters. The last 3 bytes (35FD-AB) are the Device ID that is unique to the associated Vendor ID. Multipoint communication is the process of one device communicating with multiple devices on a network. all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model. Point to point communication is often used between switches and routers on a network. Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model. Point-topoint communication is the process of one device communicating with one other device .ch/. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets. visit www. Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium.iso. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses. Switches. 60 Specialized Solutions. data work at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. and determines when and how data may be transmitted. and what each one will do. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer. it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals. synchronizes the data.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 00-00-13-35-FD-AB The first 3 bytes (00-00-13) identify the manufacturer of the card. It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. Inc. 61 .

The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message. the Application layer is not the actual application. each layer reads and performs the tasks specified in its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. the process of moving through the layers is reversed. each layer is also responsible for adding or removing headers so that the data is ready to be interpreted by the next layer. This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. Inc. 62 Specialized Solutions. or suite. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. and provides services to the layer directly above it. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer. As the packet travels up through the layers. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted by you and the request is considered processed. over the network medium. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. For example: You send a request for services to the server. Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture. You are communicating directly with the Application layer. In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task.) The request is in the form of a packet. . The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. This is called a protocol stack. it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task. In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer. The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. (Remember. When the destination computer receives the data. In addition to reading the headers and performing the instructions. Headers contain instructions for tasks that need to be performed at that level. in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. The Physical layer does not add a header.

Because of this.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers. The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers. 63 . but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Signals or Bits or Data Stream into Frames Frames into Packets Frames or Datagrams into Segments Segments into data Data Data Data into Data Files or Messages Specialized Solutions. Inc. they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers.

Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers. In fact. the OSI Model is not a protocol.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed. as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol. This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. it would not match. you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections. By relating various protocols to the OSI model. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program. Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer. Also. we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. . The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 64 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments. Specialized Solutions. Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task. This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers. The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer. 65 . Inc. The specifications describe how components are supposed to function. Without them we would not have as many software or hardware packages available to us. it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work. because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system. you do need to remember the different layers and the tasks for which each layer is responsible. etc.

Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model. Inc. These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. etc. are going to be used when they write a program. routers. bridges.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices. . you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer. Repeaters. Routers are responsible for using logical addresses to move packets from one network to another and deliver them to a host. as well as where in the OSI model they operate. A repeater amplifies these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X. It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs. Data Link layer and the Network layer. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols. This weakening is known as attenuation. Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination. As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself. and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT 66 Specialized Solutions.

Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing. 67 . but usually in the Application layer). Inc. if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI. The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate. A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols or even different technologies. A popular example is an SNA Gateway. Router tables can be entered manually by a network administrator or they can be dynamically updated using routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF. Specialized Solutions. Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers. which can be used to connect an IBM mainframe computer to a Microsoft network. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. However.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Each router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it. If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router.

6 802. but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible.9 802.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards.8 802. . These standards were prepared before the OSI standards.4 802. 100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards. The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802.1 802. a little surfing might be in order.2 802.7 802. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www.11 802. February 1980).12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN.standards. This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started. (IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs.10 802.3 802. and if you would like more information on them. 68 Specialized Solutions.5 802. Inc.ieee.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. 69 . Inc.

Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers. This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments. NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another. . Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver. The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp. It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver. Network 70 Specialized Solutions. which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols. the network. ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. However. Inc. This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another). This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC. the NIC also needs a device driver to function.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer. and hence. The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks.

They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. If that fails. and in full. In a connectionless communication. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions. In today’s LANs however. For example. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function. it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data. it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected using a router. the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model. Protocol Binding In order to function. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. In a connectionless scenario. 71 .) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. Connection-Oriented vs. In connection-oriented communication. Routable vs. You have no confirmation (unless he calls you back) that he received the message. Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication. Connectionless communication is faster. Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. but connection-oriented is more reliable. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on his answering machine.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received. There is no guarantee that the message was delivered. if TCP/IP is bound first. Specialized Solutions. It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless. Inc.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X. Inc. Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks. It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable. As a networking professional. you should be familiar with these protocol stacks and you should know the OSI layer in which their components function.25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet). . 72 Specialized Solutions.

MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer. NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination. In addition to hop count. 73 • • • • • • . this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. It has been modified over the years and now contains the following components: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. regardless of speed. and handles file and print services. It resides in the Network layer. Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – Provides transmission of packets across a network. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces. At the Presentation Specialized Solutions. This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – Provides Application layer services for Macintosh.) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. Inc. This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite. (If data must cross a router SPX is used. It uses the MAC address and is non-routable. It resides in the Network layer. IPX/ SPX This protocol is the proprietary protocol that was developed by Novell for Netware servers and clients. It is a routable protocol. NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol. DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack. AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – Manages file sharing at the Application layer AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – Provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer. LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment.

TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol. . Inc.1 and later installs TCP/IP by default. The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking). and connection-oriented error control services. FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP. We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. At the Transport layer it handles sequencing. • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server. Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent. • Many companies use Netware with the TCP/IP protocol stack. It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. At the Session layer it establishes and controls sessions. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol. Novell Netware 5. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. It is also layered on IP like TCP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide layer it handles data translation. APPC supports Transport and Session layer services. It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector. flow control. so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary. while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections. 74 Specialized Solutions. SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems. No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed. TCP and IP.

It chooses the route with the fewest hops. OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer. then TFTP would be advisable over FTP. NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system. It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond. If you do not need to use passwords. ARP will first check its table and if a matching address is not found. RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. but in addition. without regard to speed. ARP keeps a table of corresponding IP and MAC addresses that have been resolved in the previous 10 minutes. It is an Application layer protocol. it will broadcast on the local subnet to determine the MAC address of the computer with the associated IP address. It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability. but in reverse. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond to the broadcast by sending its MAC address. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely. instead of only the number of hops.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Telnet can also be used for remote configuration of servers and network devices such as routers and switches. 75 . It resides in the Network layer. ARP will add the information to its table for future use. this is also a Network layer protocol. It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP is responsible for resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses. Specialized Solutions. Inc. making it connectionless. Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely. It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide X. 76 Specialized Solutions. It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP. In addition. It uses standard telephone lines and switches. DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model.25 X. but in between. which is the main reason that it is non-routable. Data is routed via the best connection at a given time. Data goes in and comes out. The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs. . It is a DEC protocol used for interactive. only printing functions. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet. This means that routes change as conditions change. It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers. Inc.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced). packets are re-examined to determine whether they are damaged. it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer. This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions.25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization. X. Instead. LAT (Local Area Transport) LAT does not have a Network layer. It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end. The second part of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment). the X. This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable. At each stop. which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines.25 network. making X.25 a very slow but very reliable protocol. it is out of the administrator’s control. This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use. This is the host on an X. This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN. The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment). This protocol is not used for data communication.25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud. X. XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs. Because of this.25 is also an equipment specification.

which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems. easy to configure and small. 77 . It may be used with bridges.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model. but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks. It is fast. Specialized Solutions. Inc.

it detects congested areas and links that are down. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model. or DHCP. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures. It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. Inc. It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. This database is typically dynamic in today’s modern networks. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands. administration. but it can also be modified manually by the network administrator. It maintains a database and provides hostname to IP address resolution. It does not support IPX. ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations. SLIP is not used as much as PPP. Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes. PPP supports IPX. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications. DHCP. . SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely over the Internet. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. NetBEUI. NWLink and NetBEUI. and connection release. It also supports data encryption.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Other Protocols The following are other protocols with which you should be familiar: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. and notifies upper layers to route around them. NetBEUI. RPC is used by the redirector to 78 Specialized Solutions. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. It handles session establishment. and other protocols as well as TCP/IP. file transfers. Like a traffic report on your radio.

79 . Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text. Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards determine if a resource is local or on the network. It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer. Specialized Solutions.

but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other. For example. if you can get to the server through a router. 80 Specialized Solutions. we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three. The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter. It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test. . Inc.

Keyword 802. 81 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc.x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition Specialized Solutions.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

10. and ending connections? 12. 6. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? 00-01-A5-D3-B4-01 82 Specialized Solutions. What is the function of the Application Layer? 9. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model. What is a MAC address? 13. managing. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. 4. 5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions – Chapter 3 1. Who developed the OSI model? 2. Inc. 7. Which OSI layer is responsible for the MAC address? 8. 3. . The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11.

Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 19. Inc. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 22. What is the function of a Gateway? 18. Will this work? Why or Why not? Specialized Solutions. without duplication and error free? 16. What are NDIS and ODI? 20. What are they? 17. Which is faster. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. Describe protocol binding. 23. 21. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 15. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 14. Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. 83 . You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic.

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It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist. There are numerous kinds of cable. Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential. video. It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. along with connectors. it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. Because it is shielded. How to properly configure and use network adapter cards. which we will address here. 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology. but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand. Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. Inc. Specialized Solutions. and the hardware aspect of network operations. 85 . Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet). network adapter cards. It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable. It can transmit voice. It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC. most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. but may still be used in some temporary installations such as a construction trailer (although wireless would be a much more likely alternative). Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation. The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. and other hardware and peripherals. a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 .Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install. and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid. The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. It is not often used in today’s networks. (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter). Xerox). and how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter. which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector. There are several cabling options. Intel. or DIX (Digital.

Thicknet was used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks. It is attached directly to the NIC but allows network signal to flow straight through it as well as to the NIC. Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. In today’s networks. it has been replaced by twisted-pair cable and fiber optic cable. . Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. BNC Cable Connectors BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable. as well as how they are attached to the cables. In the past. Inc. As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses. 86 Specialized Solutions. it is not as easy to install. It is expressed in ohms. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers. They are specified based on their impedance. In order for the network to operate at peak performance.

One of the terminators must be grounded. BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on. It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver. Inc. Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver. and is used to connect the device to the network. A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium. 87 . The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors). The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function. Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection. N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet. Specialized Solutions. This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable. and an AUI cable.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together. BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce.

It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types. Inc. most networking professionals used a clamp-on transceiver. These clamp-on transceivers were often referred to as vampire taps because they utilized sharp teeth that punctured the cable to make the connection. Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today. This cable type consists of insulated pair strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver. The twist helps 88 Specialized Solutions. This types of connections have been largely replaced by newer cable methods such as twisted-pair and fiber optic cable. Instead. this was time-consuming and it absorbed signal so it was not the common approach. There are four pair strands in most twisted-pair cables. .

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. This results in less sensitivity to EMI. UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs. It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters. The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per meter in each pair of wires. Since it is unshielded. there are six categories. Currently. Inc. The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling. The following is a summary of UTP cables. 89 . Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 1000 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM and Gigabit Ethernet Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. The tighter the twist. UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular. the faster the signal can be sent through the wires without crosstalk. There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP). it is more sensitive to EMI. Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. Twisted Pair Cabling Specialized Solutions. Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps.

They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 10 Gbps . This gives the network administrator a greater degree of flexibility and provides fault tolerance for the network cabling system. Wall Plates for RJ-45 90 Specialized Solutions. These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. An RJ-11 jack has four connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight. The RJ-45 jack’s position can therefore be changed from patch panel to patch panel to use a different set of cables for the same connection.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors. Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium. The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a special tool punch down tool to make the proper connection by stripping the insulation from the wire without breaking the wire. RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector. Inc. Wall plates are typically used to make the connection to the computers themselves. . This is an excellent way to organize network cables. The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location. An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations. The front of the patch panel contains RJ-45 ports (a port is a female counterpart for the RJ-45 jack).

(The core can also be made up of plastic. Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic).Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking. This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber. as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types. Because of this feature. it is therefore not as common as UTP. Inc.) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable. . However. but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. The following is a summary of IBM Types: Specialized Solutions. It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength. One strand transmits and one receives. 91 . They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP.. which is easier to install. the data cannot be tapped or stolen. SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses. which reduces signal loss. Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks. It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI. IBM cabling is based on its Type. fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications. IBM Connector 92 Specialized Solutions. An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite. Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data. Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. . Six twisted pairs. Contains a shield for use under carpets. Not Defined Two 62. Inc. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors. Plenum grade. These are very rarely used in today’s modern networks. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring.5/125-micron multimode fibers.

Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter. 93 . Specialized Solutions.

these fumes would circulate throughout a building in the event of a fire. PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. The signal flow is uni-directional. Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge. but cannot send a message. As the AWG wire number decreases. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire. An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time. If this type of cable were used in the plenum. Because this space does circulate air through a building. Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps) or gigabits per second (Gbps). (send and receive) but only one at a time. 94 Specialized Solutions. This space is used to circulate air through a building. For example. Inc. • Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above.Baseband vs. Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. Both you and the party you are talking to can talk and listen at the same time. the wire thickness increases. Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. For example. PVC grade cable is less expensive than Plenum grade cable but it gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned. The signal flow is bidirectional. Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions. fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only. Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. . Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). • Simplex vs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cabling Terms The following are terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. For example. It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing). a pager can receive a message.

the flexibility of the medium should be considered.) Specialized Solutions. how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners. local fire codes will need to be addressed. It is therefore specifically designed to be used in these circulation areas. shielded cable or fiber optic cable might be more appropriate. Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network. A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling. Inc. 95 .) Will the cable be installed in “noisy” areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals In contrast. such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well.) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum. Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes. For example. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives.

last but not least. Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 96 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small.) If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure. there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective. . fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping.) Transmission speeds and. Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance. On the other hand. Inc. attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor. cost are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network.

) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port. This is known as parallel communication. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. Inc. Because these paths are side-by-side. which constantly vary in one or more values. Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time. (And of course to translate it back again. data is moved along in groups. Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses. Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. It makes the physical connection to the network. or 0’s (off). Analog data has an infinite number of possible states. Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking. NICs are used to connect the computer to the network. Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame. handles network addressing. are also known as Network Adapter Cards. Today. 97 . The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium. Network cabling moves data in a single data stream.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs. Specialized Solutions. and controls the flow of data on the network. The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later. most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit. This is known as serial communication.

How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs. DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU. The time intervals between data chunks. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer. If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC. Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent. This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters. Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it. The amount of time between confirmations. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. When this occurs. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC. Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. The speed of the transmission. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the 98 Specialized Solutions. the NIC may need to be configured. Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC. The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. Inc. This makes transferring data much faster. the two cards start sending and receiving data.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique MAC address. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed. DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium. . Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer.

such as: IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU. not all devices need one. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by a device. The good news is that unlike an IRQ. This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned. The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. these devices can access the memory that they need without interrupting the processor.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. See Appendix A for common address assignments. and some are set using software. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses. In practice. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that typically no two devices can use the same interrupt. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU. DMA Channel Configuration of Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels is similar to IRQs. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. Inc. in this case the NIC. These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor. Specialized Solutions. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. With a DMA channel. Only devices like NIC cards that need this type of memory access are assigned DMA channels. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line. The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available. Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings. Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. The device is constantly listening to this channel for commands from the processor. DMA channels are used by devices that frequently need access to large amounts of memory. Other cards will need to be configured manually. 99 . Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems.

They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. or both). The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. . If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail. RJ-45. Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter. 100 Specialized Solutions. Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC. or you may have to configure it manually. Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer. Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC. they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required. Inc. Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards.

Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers. Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus. They are also called PC-Card Buses. but can be a 64-bit bus. Inc. Specialized Solutions. With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs. Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus. 101 . Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much. The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus. Today most buses are either EISA or PCI. The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. They are generally 32-bit buses. including network connectivity.

RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed. This type of card is expensive. Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU. Without this feature.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Performance Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance. Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer. The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks. Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data. 102 Specialized Solutions. This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus. Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally. thereby improving network performance. Inc. . Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data. but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data. thereby bypassing the CPU. the NIC would be a bottleneck.

but through the use of an infrared or radio medium. Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly. making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components. They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. a user can access the network from anywhere in the building. Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home. Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems. Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling. A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created. They function just like other access points (i. • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective. Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations such as ocean dwelling oil platforms. This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. or on the road. With some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down. Inc.Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking. Mobile Computing . Specialized Solutions. Wireless networks use wireless access points (WAPs) to “connect” the network devices to each other. With wireless systems. the office. but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN. Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems. Extended Local Area Networks .e. – hubs).Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs. 103 . For example. a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings.

Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference. such as windows. This involves using infrared (below Red) light to carry signals to a receiver. they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping. These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared You use infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control. Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. Infrared networks typically broadcast at about 10 Mbps. Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • 104 Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint Specialized Solutions. Inc. . The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet. and because the transmissions are tightly focused.

etc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. or direct sequence modulation. until it reaches the receiver. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint. In the hopping method. the signal is beamed towards a central unit. require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. uses broadband technology. Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. It does. Specialized Solutions. as the name implies. which are then transmitted over separate frequencies. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. In the direct sequence modulation method. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems. the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time. 105 . the message is broken into parts (called chips). ceilings. Inc. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps. however. The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping. but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. which then routes the signal appropriately. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls.

This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally. Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information. Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts. Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities. and only the destination device can receive and read the packet. Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite. mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network. 106 Specialized Solutions. It is used for line-of-sight communication. The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication. Inc. . There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Specialized Solutions. Inc. 107 .

and Fiber-Optic. . The four basic wireless types are: Infrared. Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). RJ-45. AUI. receives. This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network. Inc. etc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. In addition. It prepares. There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial. As a networking professional. Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet. 108 Specialized Solutions. Laser. you should know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type. As a network professional. Wireless networking is the trend of the future. Twisted Pair. Radio. it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks. and Microwave. Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals. You should know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. transmits. After discussing at network cabling we then took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself. we took a look at the future. and controls data flow over the network. it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. Finally.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 109 .

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair 110 Specialized Solutions. Definition .

Inc. 111 .Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword Vampire Tap Definition Specialized Solutions.

How is a vampire tap connected? 6. Inc. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9. . What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. What is the least expensive of the cable types? 112 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. What is the most expensive cable type? 13. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7. What is the most popular of the cable types? 10. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable.

15. What does AWG stand for and what is it?

16. Describe baseband.

17. Describe broadband.

18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication?

19. What is the function of a network adapter card?

20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available?

21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card?

22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network?

23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types?

24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network?

25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally?

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards
In previous chapters, we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed, along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets, or frames. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. In this chapter, we will discover how Ethernet works, as well as how Token-ring networks function. AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter. After completing this chapter, you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture, while not as popular as Ethernet, are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers, in this case, over a network. In Chapter 3, you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite, IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture, SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk

The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols; thus, they do not map directly to the OSI Model. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. Specialized Solutions, Inc. 115

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information, handle addressing, and check for errors. Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments.

A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card, also known as the network interface card (NIC), in order for it to be used with a network computer. In some instances, as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX, two protocols may be bound to one card. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC.

Access Methods
In a network, multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. If two or more computers were to send data at the same time, the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing

• Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free, it will send data. While there is data traveling on the cable, no computer will transmit data. Occasionally, however, two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. Naturally, the more users who are connected to a network, the denser network traffic becomes. Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method.

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. It is, however, the access method that works best with wireless connections; since the wireless channel can be verified before the data is sent. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. A token (a special type of packet) is circulated around the ring from computer to computer. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network, it must wait until it possesses the token. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. Data is transmitted in frames. The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. The trailer includes error control information. When the computer is ready, the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted, the frame would be resent. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. Because only one computer at a time may transmit, this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions. (Some more recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer, router, switch, or bridge. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes, addresses, and links are functioning. Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer, hub, and destination computer, instead of broadcasts over the entire network. Because of the cabling method used with this access method, (four pairs Specialized Solutions, Inc. 117

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of wires are used, which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time, but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously, the one with the highest priority is serviced first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests.

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) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. Error checking information such as Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) information. The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium. This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably. The destination address of the receiving computer. 119 . information. but we will use the term packets. Computer control data such as service requests and commands. Data files tend to be quite large. The data to be transmitted. Inc. All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission. and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. if there is a transmission error. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. or messages. Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files. Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection. Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data. Specialized Solutions. Also.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Network Communications (Frames and Packets) As we’ve discussed previously.

Usually. If there is a discrepancy. the calculation is run again. the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit. The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted. Depending upon the network. the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact. Inc. and clocking information.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet. Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network. When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer. A Packet 120 Specialized Solutions. packets can be various sizes. the source and destination addresses. If the results are the same. Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission. the trailer contains the error checking information. . usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes. Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Specialized Solutions. 121 . Inc.

It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method. it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data). Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802. Inc. Logical Link Control (802. The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology). as addressed previously. These provide the standards for the railroads. but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol. but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data). Ethernet (802. There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points. or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT). like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell). Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards. in a railroad. Not all railroads are the same (some are electric. we are going to look at different standards for networks. Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication. The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL 122 Specialized Solutions. and typically transmits at 10 Mbps. For example. The original version was a 2.3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. some are diesel. It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2). is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. . The standards define the means of communications. Thicknet coaxial (10Base5).2) The Logical Link Control layer.94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable. In this section.3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs. and some are narrow gauge).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Standards Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network. It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. some are wide gauge. However. data (in this case passengers and freight) is moved in various cars.

The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2. 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable. and computer aided design. however. If the segment must exceed this limitation. These applications include video.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps. repeaters can be used for longer distances. As its name implies. The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters. BNC connectors and a transceiver. document and image storage. indicating its maximum segment length.) This is referred to as the “5-4-3 Rule”. The minimum distance between nodes is 2. The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). The actual maximum segment length. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30.5 meters. Inc. it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system. it is most commonly created with UTP cable. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology. 10BaseT uses the star topology. The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet Specialized Solutions. 123 . It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated. While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling. The minimum distance between nodes is . 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors.5 meters. (There may be five segments but only three may be populated. to name a few. The maximum number of nodes per network 90. And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling. is 185 meters. The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters. 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications. 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable. The maximum number of nodes per network 100. 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters.5 meters.

The IEEE specification 802. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable. ATM competes.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard. It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment. When you see any of these terms. It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN. This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps. to some degree. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon. the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable. with Gigabit Ethernet. and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). Inc. 100BaseVG. they are referring to the same thing. but that will be referred to later in this book. . using the CSMA/CD access method. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet) 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade. the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology. and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. VG. although copper can be used with much shorter distances. Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks. It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets. It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology. and the longest cable length is 250 meters. 124 Specialized Solutions. 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards. Because of its intense speed. and AnyLAN.12 is the standard that defines this technology. There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know. Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable.

125 . Ethernet also works in the UNIX environment. Inc. by joining with either a router or a bridge.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP. Specialized Solutions. It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance.

but is still used today. The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub. Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished). Inc. This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token. The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes. The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1. The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable. . IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984. This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data. 126 Specialized Solutions. and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame.5 standard. A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token. Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer. The Token Ring access method. While the token is in use by a computer to send data. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. more than the cable design. It is not as popular as Ethernet. 2. it uses the baseband technology. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems. Actually. and 3). Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame. The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token. How it Works Basically.5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. it is known as a data frame. Like Ethernet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802. is what sets Token Ring apart. Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it.

As each new computer comes online. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal. This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor. The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network. 127 Specialized Solutions. This computer. the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address. After encoding the data frame. Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. as well as its own address. the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing. The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. while IBM says counter-clockwise. The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. Inc. Message This is the data or file to be transmitted. . It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected. if there were errors. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon. the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring.5 standards say it travels clockwise. Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention. To accomplish this task. The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted. The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. The IEEE 802. Beaconing In a Token Ring environment. Or. the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity. Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful. called the active monitor. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately.

The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2. as there are no male and female ends. but types 1 and 2 may also be used. Inc. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. When a computer is connected. Using STP. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable. MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails. The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network. each ring can connect up to 260 computers. IBM states that it is only 46 meters. Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network. Each node is connected to the hub via a cable. the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters. Using STP. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs. These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. Using UTP. but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters. Using UTP. it is only about 45 meters. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. just as in other networks that use a hub. In a pure token passing environment.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. . Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters. Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. This hub is known by a few names. Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network. The Type 128 Specialized Solutions. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another.5 meters.

Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub. Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. Inc. hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable. Therefore. Specialized Solutions. Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters. AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment. 129 . All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed. Patch panels are used to organize patch cables. care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible. The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software. Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable. therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers. Using a pair of repeaters. Type 6 may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub.

5 Standard) environment. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network. or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology. AppleShare also provides a print server. Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. 130 Specialized Solutions. LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring. Apple has always been open to third-party development. . it will store it to use each time it goes online. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare. the device assigns itself an address. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings. When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system. EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it. by using zones. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers. TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. and even some UNIX computers. it is very inexpensive to initiate. LocalTalk performance is rather limited. Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones. As such. This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer. EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable. UTP. This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. If it is not being used by another computer. mainframe computers. It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices. Inc.

It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters. but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors. a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data. the token still passes in numerical order. called ARCNet Plus. but it can be adequately charted to the 802. Inc. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data. this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order. These hubs may be passive. has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps. ARCNet utilizes hubs. This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology. Specialized Solutions. 131 .4 standards (Token Bus LAN). ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. If using an active hub in a Star topology. the maximum cable distance is 244 meters.5 Mbps. ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling. If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other. the source address and up to 508 bytes of data. A later version. active. or smart. ARCNet transmits data in packets. These packets contain the destination address. It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology. the token is passed in numerical order. If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors. Just like other token-passing access method architectures. Instead of the token traveling around a ring. Obviously.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802. Inc.11) IEEE 802. . Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range. Speeds up to 54 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific). Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four. 132 Specialized Solutions. The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well. generally).11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology.

Packets consist of three components: the Header. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted. and clocking information. Managing network data is all about traffic control. it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year. It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures. and the Trailer. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD. It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. Specialized Solutions. 10Base5.3 standards. Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames). Therefore. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future. Inc. Be sure that you understand how this architecture works. AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. etc. the source and destination addresses. 133 . go back and review the chapter again. the Data. CSMA/CA. which is where the error checking calculation is located. but as a networking professional you will encounter them. Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. and 10BaseT. Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network. As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. Packets will include information to identify the source address. which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Definition 134 Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Token Ring TokenTalk Trailer Zones Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. 135 .

How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7. Inc. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 136 Specialized Solutions. What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods. . CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11. 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6. 5. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10. Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. What are the three primary access methods? 2.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17. Inc. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16. What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18. What is a SMAU? 21. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20. 137 . Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? Specialized Solutions. 22. 14. Describe a MIC connector. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24. 19. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 138 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

in many cases. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. 139 . who has them. address. Specialized Solutions. This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. pay attention to details. You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks. The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them. However. The customer’s likes. you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. Finally. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network. Most importantly. As a network professional. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office. for example. we will consider hardware compatibility. The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. (If not. rather than a client’s. There are two things that you will need to know. dislikes. you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows. your design will not work for them. The size of the company and the portion of the network affected. you are not designing for yourself. The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. this is a Macintosh-based company. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation. For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. etc. Even if this network is your own. you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. (demographics). and goals. are there any printers or scanners. whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever indebted to you. etc? If. The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. Inc.

A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. . only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale). Remember. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps. or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files. The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later. For example. you are not documenting your network. files services. 140 Specialized Solutions. You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility. the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB. print services. you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. at this time. This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available. or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD. or as large as 8 GB. Once you collect this information. if the file is compressed. you must get a clear definition of goals of the network. etc. With this information in hand. prepare a design document. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint. So. Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources.

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you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it. This can range from none to very high. First. They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. as generally it is not installed during a standard installation. The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. you will need to start making some decisions. As long as you have the original software disk (CD). The commitment of management and users. but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. The level of security required. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server. they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. The wrong choice now. You may need to install the software. Inc. The most prominent are simplicity and cost. Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. This means that every 142 Specialized Solutions. may cause problems in the future. they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing. This sharing is on a directory level. Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future). The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. you will have no problem. not all nodes may need the same level of security. if you have a printer connected to your computer. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. Skill level of the network users. if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t. Also.” That is. In a peer-to-peer network. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network. You may have to add network cards and cabling. Likewise. For example. The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future. . The first is the type of network you will be designing. If you do not have this information go back and get it. all computers are equal. Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement.

the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution. Inc. For these people. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off. The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network. have high-power processor. they will also be using your processor to do their printing. In small networks. The more sophisticated the network. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. and expand as your needs expand. if employees need remote access. information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. Also. While there are many advantages. In a server-based network. must less the workings of a network. server-based networks are scaleable. administration can be a Specialized Solutions. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. 24-hours per day. Before you can use any resource. This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation. This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server. this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts. you will also need to consider the disadvantages. As for size. the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. Since these computers are larger. Remember. This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer). Also. only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. etc. slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. and lots of memory. Last but not least. all network resources are usually centralized. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. such as your printer. In a peer-to-peer situation. 143 . Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). the network must operate transparent to them. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations. instead of backing up individual workstations.Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added. a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network. You can connect more workstations. In a strict peer-topeer network. is another advantage of a server-based network. In large networks.

Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each. For this reason.0 144 Specialized Solutions. let us define the difference between the terms public and private network. it is highly recommended that you use these addresses for your private addressing. Inc.168. present each case to the client and let them make the final decision.255 255.255.0 -172. Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult. then you might have an address conflict with another entity on the Internet. In some cases. get more. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information. Actually. 10. A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet. Public and Private networks In addition.0. The only problem is that if your firewall were to come down.255. . If all else fails. For this reason.255.0.168. in others it could go either way. since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN.255. When you are sitting on the fence.255 172.0 255.255.0.0. you can use any address that you want to use inside of your own network and behind your firewalls.0 . the answer will be very obvious. A public network would be the Internet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified network professional. with open access to the global community.32.0.0 255. stick with it and move forward. there are specific addresses that are filtered by the routers at the backbone of the Internet.0. If you are not sure you have enough information.0 192. The use of these addresses will completely prevent the address conflict issue.0 -10. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design. Once you have made this decision.192.16.255.0. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer).0. which would limit its access to those outside of the company.

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Remember. Inc. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software. Also. 146 Specialized Solutions. The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have. this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks. ask him or her to show you. if all or part of a network already exists. That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has. you can skip this section. Use it as a starting place to build your own. Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form. whether hardware or software. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment. When taking this inventory. On the other hand. The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. This form should identify the equipment and its specifications. The following is an example of an inventory sheet. . you must add new hardware.

147 . etc. Inc.) # of Free Slots Network Card Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Specialized Solutions.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: Computer Printer Telecommunication Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA. PCI.

describe each program. 148 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function. Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary. Inc. . Software: If this device uses software.

Inc. 149 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

and collect all of the documentation you have been working on. Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment. make a drawing of the facility and each network node. It is time to get out that pencil and paper. By assigning them a number now. it will make future documentation easier. Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network. or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility. This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. A Network Layout 150 Specialized Solutions.

you will need to install CAT 5e or CAT 6 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 1000 Mbps speed. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files. repeaters and nodes. However. Specialized Solutions. you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. In most environments this will be no problem. you might consider CAT 3. or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. On the high end. In addition. For example. Cable Grade – Local fire codes. it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5e or CAT 6 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years. but if this is a large facility. and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace. or just good common sense. Therefore. CAT 6 is the UTP of choice. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. However. (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics. such as in an imaging environment. Inc. 5-4-3 – If your installation is coaxial Ethernet. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. consider Thinnet coaxial cable. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end). you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub. These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. Cable lengths must be considered. may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. 151 . Realistically. hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the performance criteria of the network. If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small temporary LAN. Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network. if you are not sure if expansion is in your future. a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 5 UTP cables. The 100 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly. the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3.

EMI. they are sensitive to temperature changes. or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). However. These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. which requires the use of routers. which can generate damaging ESD. Like us. low-humidity. Variable temperatures. you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference. you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. but are not limited. high-humidity. such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. . and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment. Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows 2000/2003.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise). the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers. On the other hand. which can cause corrosion. can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). on the surface. and RFI. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. The equipment should be shielded from ESD. Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment in which the computers will be operating. If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. it will work. and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. Inc. since they don’t use electricity to transmit a signal. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. 152 Specialized Solutions. Fortunately. As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network. Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. The non-routable protocols. are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. it doesn’t really matter. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. with a relative humidity of 30 percent. Fiber optics are also a good alternative when the manufacturing environment cannot allow for any possibility of even a small spark. and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source. Therefore. but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment.

Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 153 .

is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet. All the cables will be brought to one location.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. the cables are connected to a patch panel. Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends. you will most likely need to install a wall outlet. The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it. These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network. To keep these organized. The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable. . So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables. There are a few more components that need to be installed. This way you can identify each location. In most cases.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub. This way. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room. Inc. if using CAT 5 or CAT 6. The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet. One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable. 154 Specialized Solutions. One advantage of using CAT 5 or CAT 6 cable in a star topology from a hub. This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors. Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding. Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable.

Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. Therefore you must know the requirements of each. we must select a card that is compatible with both. there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC Specialized Solutions. there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed. 155 . Actually. Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network. Once that is done. This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media. That part is the network adapter card.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 156 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. a Specialized Solutions. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus. The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. Inc. Also. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance. but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. or three) that indicate the status of the card. These are little LEDs (one. Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. Before purchasing a network card. The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. the speed of the card is important. Depending on the vintage of the computer. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. will change. administration. and therefore the speed at which data can be moved. but only at 10 Mbps. Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple. In general. also called PC Cards. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection. and expansion projects. This section will look at compatibility issues. a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). 157 . For example. Micro Channel. Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards. There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA. EISA. Resolving these issues is actually quite simple. the card must be compatible with the computer. Therefore. An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network. This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. In addition to being compatible with the network. Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. you must have Token Ring cards. Not all cards are the same. Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture. which can be a useful tool. two. but only at 10 Mbps. and PCI). Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network. the number of connectors. you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots. If you are installing a Token Ring network.

Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot. you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. the computer may not boot or the conflicting devices might not be able to work simultaneously. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light indicates that data is being transferred. Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. In addition. Drivers are usually supplied with the network card. Install the appropriate drivers for the card. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer). Now the network adapter card is installed. it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. If you must do this manually. be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. 158 Specialized Solutions. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches. Physically install the card. If there are any conflicts. you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. Connect the network cabling. be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. You need to configure the card to work with your network software. Configure the IRQ and I/O address. you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using. Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards. Note: If you must remove the case. The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer. Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course. Inc. this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. but you are not finished yet. Each card must be configured for a different network. Finally. if you upgrade your operating system. the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card. In most cases with a new card. If your system is not Plug-n-Play. If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver.

Some STP cards require special connectors. Inc. different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. the engineering department may be PC-based. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines. the card should have an RJ-45 connector.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. For example. For Thinnet or Thicknet. These types of problems can be more personal in nature. as well as possible solutions. If you encounter this type of situation. AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector. 159 . some manufacturers will provide two. For example. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario. To increase marketability of their cards. Specialized Solutions. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector. as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network. The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy. Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. However. it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on. In the case of UTP. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. and possibly three.

we learned about network protocols and standards. Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network. you are going to have your work cut out for you. . Standards Earlier in this training course. hard work and standards. each component will work with the others. and knowledge of the network operating system. you will need to establish the standards for your network. With this done. Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system. With this information in hand. As the network designer or administrator. Inc. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly. and detail both its hardware and software. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them. that were identically configured. with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier. boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software. 160 Specialized Solutions. By defining the standards to which the network must comply. You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots. Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network. This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. if installed. As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards.

have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system. you find that your modem. If drivers exist. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. In this case. when upgrading from Windows 98 to Windows XP. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. you will need to upgrade. More than likely. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. however. Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system. For example. Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. Specialized Solutions. A good example is Windows 95. the Internet is the answer. network card and/or printer no longer work. The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind. the system will not run. The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. Also. 161 . you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers. The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements. Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems. you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site.Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are. all you need to do is install the Windows XP drivers for the offending hardware. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems. You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device. there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. This is a true statement. you probably do not have the necessary drivers. but your proficiency will be very low. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase. Inc.

especially with the newest operating systems such as Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000 is hardware dependent. This list will ship with the 2000 package (on the CD-ROM) and 2000 will make a check during installation. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. Microsoft Windows Catalog Still another web site to check for compatibility of hardware and software.com/windows/catalog. Inc. or hardware compatibility lists. is the Microsoft Windows Catalog at www. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision. It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with Windows 2000.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists an example of the minimum requirements for three operating systems: HCL and Windows 2000 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs. .microsoft. it most likely will not work with Windows 2000. 162 Specialized Solutions. If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary. you will need to check the HCL for that product. You can also look for the corresponding logos on the boxes of hardware and software that you are considering purchasing for your network. This is part of the Windows Logo program. If you want the latest list. Here you will find the latest information about hardware and software that is Designed for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 or at least tested to be compatible with these operating systems.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc. 163 .

However. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? 164 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 6 1. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5. 7. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. Was this a good purchase? 9. . You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6. Inc. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. he intends to expand the network in the future. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. but they are not all the same.

This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network. An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals). it may be too small. Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network. Inc.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Chapter 7 . you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network. to larger hubs that can connect many more computers. from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices.” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive. For example. 165 . Expanding a LAN with Hubs A common method for expanding networks is to use a hub. In addition to being called “hubs. Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series. A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network. Specialized Solutions. sooner or later. There are several different types of hubs.

the simple hub just won’t do the job. Fortunately. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. . Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. Traffic-generating applications. They do not translate or filter any information. have increased response times.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. such as databases. Inc. but has one additional feature. thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths. Long waits to access a printer or file. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network. Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater. You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model. 166 Specialized Solutions. They do however. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. Depending on the objectives of the LAN. amplify the signal.

Not all network protocols will work with a router. Inc. Specialized Solutions. Routers work at the Network layer of the OSI model. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment. For example. 167 . but it can switch packets across multiple networks. It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge. the NetBEUI protocol is not routable.

Be careful when choosing a carrier. When thinking of telephone lines. Inc. With dial-up networking. be sure to take into account your throughput. Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs. Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps. it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system. the distance the data must travel. 168 Specialized Solutions. but connecting at this rate is rare. there are two levels of service to consider. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection. we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. They are providing the cabling. lines. When thinking of a carrier. When considering which connection service to use. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates. These are our standard telephone connections. Typically. these connections are slow and not very reliable. . The first is public dial-up network lines.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway Connection Services When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries. The second choice is leased. each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. and the cost of the service. microwave. An example of such a system is the telephone company. Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps. does not mean that it is the best value. or dedicated. and satellite connections. Just because the cost looks good.

It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). Inc. A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN. Specialized Solutions. There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines. The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. routers and communications services are used to create a WAN. as well as those transmitted to it.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded. WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity. Most WANs are a collection of LANs. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with. The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN. if necessary. items such as bridges. These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back. It can regenerate the signal. 169 . and deals with timing issues.

Voice and data over private lines. The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. Inc. Dedicated lines are far more expensive. Voice and data over trunks between computers. Dedicated analog lines provide an instant connection. Application relays. Voice with some quality control. Voice and data over trunk circuits. they can be justified. you need DDS (Digital Data Service). Basic data. more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection. . Voice and video. Digital Connectivity When you need a faster. 170 Specialized Solutions. but if you have sufficient traffic. The down-side of these lines is that you will have to pay for them 100% of the time instead of on an “as used” basis.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Basic voice. Data applications below 1200 bps. Voice/radio with tone conditioning. This is because you lease the line 100% of the time and therefore do not have to dial-in.

data.048 Mbps 34.736 Mbps 2. and video signals. Inc. It can be used to transmit digital voice. faster download than upload 51.8 Mbps 155. It is capable of 1.544 Mbps 44. Specialized Solutions.520 or 622.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line.080 (can reach 10 Gbps) OC-1 OC-3 ATM 1 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A The T1 and the T3 standard are American. 171 . whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard.544 Mbps transmissions.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP.52 Mbps Either 155. The following table lists the most common connection types: Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A Voice Channels DATA RATE (MBPS) 24 672 32 512 N/A 1.

These lines can. Frame Relay does not check the packet at each step in its route. a packet may be sent over multiple permanent virtual circuits (PVCs).25 based packet switched networks. . Obviously. however. Today’s networks use a different technology referred to as Frame Relay. 172 Specialized Solutions. A packet switched network provides multiple paths that packets could travel from source to destination. For this reason. Standard PSTN lines have a very limited bandwidth of less than 56 Kbps. each packet was examined at each step in the path to determine whether it was damaged. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. X. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network. so it can be both reliable and fast. this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs. since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet. and reliable network messaging. convenient. This made for a very reliable and very slow connection. With Frame Relay. all of which are considered reliable. Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast. In older. be used for somewhat secure remote access by employing the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) and tunneling protocols.

without having to change the physical picture of the network. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN. adding computers or adjusting resources. Inc. 173 . etc.” Specialized Solutions.) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically. which lays out hosts (computers. An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within his company. or any other logical means. or by the specific use of the computers. This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment. printers.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment.

in actuality.2 Gbps.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN. it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds. FDDI . Inc. ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential. Because it is fiber optic-based. or fiber optic. and focuses on the home and business market. while using copper telephone wires. It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles). As well as the common voice and data. ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface).Asynchronous transfer mode uses fixed length (53 byte) cells instead of packets. These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1. has two 64 Kbps 174 Specialized Solutions. However. media limited. These cells can speed communication because the network always know exactly what to expect in regard the size of the next cell. audio. ATM . ATM can be used with FAX. While not a good choice for WANs. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services. ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial. twisted pair.Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication. It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies. . It is. video. and imaging. they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps. however. which is intended for use in the home or small business. One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need. This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network. it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference.

ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface). Specialized Solutions. like OCx with SONET. This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802. To be more precise.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps). 175 . It is capable of transmitting voice. SMDS SMDS . It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM). SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media. much like E1 is to T1. has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1.Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. Inc. data and video at rates ranging from 51. and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control. It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx).6). a call.544 Mbps). SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices. it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network. which is intended for use by large businesses. The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps). Internationally. it is the European equivalent of SONET. and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control.84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768). within one transmission frame. It carries all the bits from say.

a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2. To increase our network beyond a few computers. network cards. the term Baud has disappeared and been replaced with bps. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines. Inc. As we have already learned.32bis bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard. the Baud rate was equal to the bps. A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable.600 bps. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. there is a limit of 2400 Baud. . designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle. With this change. Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems. However. The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines. Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56. Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions. and media. 14. Today. Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data. 8.400 High-speed version of the V. 176 Specialized Solutions. These speeds are measured as bits per second. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion. With early modems.400 bps.600 bps. times as fast as the Baud rate.22bis V. connecting a few computers to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards. etc. Therefore. FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14. due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of transmitting signals over long distances. The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication.32 V. or over long distances. 4. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer.32 standard.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56. Modems transmit data at various speeds. Modems are classified by a “V” rating.

90 19. 28.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network V. Specialized Solutions.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards.32terbo V.FastClass.800 Improved V. modems – error correction standard. 177 . Backwards compatible with earlier V. Will only communicate with another V.32terbo. 57.42 V.34 V. 56.200 Not officially a standard yet. modems. Inc.600 Backwards compatible with earlier V.

Since the two computers are directly connected. either via modems and telephone lines. Let’s first look at connecting two computers. For example. the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. The difference is how each computer is being utilized. A system running Windows XP or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection. the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. You must use a Null-Modem cable. In addition. Windows XP has an feature called a direct cable connection. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). Any two computers can be connected. both of these terms mean the same thing. when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. The difference between a simple computer (Windows XP or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows Server 2003) is the number of inbound connections. By running Network Connections Wizard and following the simple 178 Specialized Solutions. Actually. A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. or directly via COM ports and a cable. On the other hand. all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer. . the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client. so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection. Inc. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building). or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem. With RAS. Also. while a true server like Windows Server 2003 will allow 256 inbound connections.

your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server. but is still in use with some systems. you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number. On the client side. the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user. This is a relatively old standard (1984). Normally. the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software. RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work. in this case. While this was the protocol of choice for a Specialized Solutions. Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking. the RAS software must be installed and running. you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection. 179 . you will use a modem to establish the connection. both computers must be using the same protocol. On the server side. These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). Inc. RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network instructions provided. Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but. The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network. From this accessory. With this in place.

This is accomplished by encapsulating one protocol with another protocol. It supports only TCP/IP. IPX. the limits of SLIP caused many problems. Encrypted Connections. such that only the sender and the receiver can accurately interpret the data that is being sent. PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. Inc. It’s only supported by RAS clients. With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide long time. AppleTalk. Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. It transmits in text only. It enables highly private network links over the public Internet. VPN (Virtual Private Networks). It provides security. Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks. and DECnet. created by PPTP and other tunneling protocols. • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the Network layer of the OSI model. in today’s networks it has several disadvantages. It provides data compression and error control. Many organizations are using tunnels. as a less explensive alternative to costly leased lines. . PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) provides for a secure encrypted tunnel for communication through the Internet. NetBEUI. Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP. RAS and Security. It can be used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private 180 Specialized Solutions. It supports encrypted passwords. It cannot encrypt logon information.

which is the highest security method. It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS. both sending and receiving. SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server. Specialized Solutions. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. . Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP. L2TP offers many advantages over PPTP. limited RAM. and Macintosh computers. Thin clients are computers with no hard drive.509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec. Unlike PPTP. it does not require IP connectivity.. authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well. It uses a key to encrypt the data. Linux. It is based on an end-to-end security model. most relating to higher security. UNIX. It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). meaning that the computers. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 Active Directory use this type of security by default. 181 . Inc. discussed here in the next chapter. L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the latest version of the tunneling protocol. It does not provide authorization. AH only authenticates the user. ICA can be used with Windows. Kerberos V5. and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. it only establishes the user’s identity. TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL. certificates (like X. It is transparent to the user. or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server. usually a user’s credit card number. a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE). as does Novell Directory Services (NDS). IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header). ESP. It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs.

At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to providing remote sharing of information. and thus more security. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary. This provides for additional authentication. Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server. Inc. All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly. As with all security measures. The type of communication port you intend to configure. Before installation. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. If another software package has “control” of the modem. you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call. Security Host (Bastion Host) A security host or bastion host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration. installing RAS can be frustrating. you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. and any other software that might use the modem. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. If it does not work the first time. This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. . 182 Specialized Solutions. you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller. This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on. By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection. In addition. Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one. RAS provides several layers of security. the modem configuration.

and you don’t need a fulltime connection. you want to keep the costs down. you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses. As a networking professional. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. Inc. The latest Microsoft server operating systems such as Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 have wizards that make installing an RAS server much simpler. 183 . it is not always the solution for every network. You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH 184 Specialized Solutions. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Definition .

Inc.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X.25 Definition Specialized Solutions. 185 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 7 1. Inc. a bridge.544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6. 7. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. . What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2. Name three RAS protocols. What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. 9. Name three advanced WAN environments. Define a repeater. Name four forms of RAS security. and a gateway. a router. What is analog communication? 5. 10. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. 186 Specialized Solutions. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. 4.

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are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board). and is in fact. Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor. some are considered to be Internet standards. which will be discussed later in the chapter. RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers. Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress). From this beginning. The four layers are: Application. It is important for the networking professional to know that TCP/IP is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. Also. and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. 189 . These standards. This is the most common protocol suite with which a networking professional works. Internet and Network Interface. it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). SNMP. as well as Internet standards. TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. such as SMTP. TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard. Inc. and the Internet. and FTP. It is also used with Ethernet networks. TCP/IP. the recognized standard for internetworking altogether. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX. and is usually seen in the combination. TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project. Transport. Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol).Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is an internet (between network) protocol. known as BSD UNIX. Specialized Solutions. these protocols were available on UNIX early on. intranets.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model. Inc. These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP.Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 190 Specialized Solutions. There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections. .

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and for the Network+ exam. and reassembles the data. Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets. It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP. there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 192 Specialized Solutions. they can be retransmitted in a timely manner. or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams. Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others. the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports. Let’s take a look at them. Inc. called packets. On a TCP/IP network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. TCP breaks data into tiny chunks. . However. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model. The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier. It then routes the information to its destination. Should lost or corrupted packets be detected. Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine. Let’s take a look at how this works.

TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination. a port is different from a socket. i. UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session. IP is connectionless. Telnet. The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. 193 . and specify a certain protocol.e. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. HTTP. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent. meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information. nor does it check for errors. This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received. and a Specialized Solutions. If the transmission has not been successful. or port numbers. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number. The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses. but does not acknowledge delivery. FTP. Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet. The port number identifies the application associated with the data. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model. The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer.. etc. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. Although the terms. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted.535. This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines. UDP transports data. The addresses. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type. When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably. IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP. the protocol number. and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number. consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65. TCP will retransmit the data. For each packet sent. Inc. IP merely routes the data.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide checksum. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer. To be more specific, the checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. When the data arrives at the destination computer, the receiving computer performs the calculation. If the checksum is the same, the data is assumed to have arrived intact. The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network, it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. Time to Live – provides TTL data. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. This cache contains a list of all the devices with which it is communicating. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five, TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server, run searches, or access multiple mail servers. 194 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet, which is what you use when you send out mail. SMTP is server to server, whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers, usually over the Internet. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People.” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files, by typing in a user name, or the word “anonymous.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents, such as web pages. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts, using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP, allowing access to a secure Web server. It uses port 443, the secure SSL port instead of port 80, the HTTP port. HTTPS, as well as SSL, allow for the use of X.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user.

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Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials

Naming Systems
Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. Remember, we are working in two worlds, the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names. Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking. DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates hostnames to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. DNS functions like a telephone directory. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers. For example, the domain bigcompany.com may have an IP address of 192.49.238.33. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose, such as government, education, commerce, or interest. Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC, also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. These domains require suffixes such as .com for businesses or .edu for educational institutions. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains:

.com .net .edu .org .gov .mil .biz .pro .info .xx

Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance, Big Company Inc. in Italy might be http://www.Bigcompany.com.it or in Australia www.Bigcompany.com.au. Also, .tv is gaining in popularity. Tuvalu is a small country, which receives financial benefit from the registration fees.

WINS In a Windows-based network, the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network. NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode, leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application. A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast), P-node (peer-peer), M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). 198 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. It predates DNS. It must be manually created and changed. LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. It must be manually created and changed. IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. For example, it could connect a LAN to the Internet. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet, it must be assigned a static IP address. This means that it is permanently assigned. It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers, sooner or later we will run out of numbers. In smaller isolated networks, IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. However, as the number of addresses required increases, you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. To resolve this, IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. That is, assigned on an “as needed” basis. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. When not needed, the address can be leased to another host. To accomplish this, you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address, subnet mask, and a default gateway if needed. Notice that the IP addresses are leased. This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. A lease can be renewed. When the term of the lease is at 50%, the client will send a request for renewal. If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available), the lease will be renewed without interruption. If not renewed, the client will attempt to contact the DHCP server that issued it the IP address directly about every 5 minutes until it reaches 87.5% of the lease, at which time the client will broadcast a request to obtain an address from any available DHCP server. If all addresses are being used or a DHCP server does not respond, the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user. In this case, the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

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The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. the proxy server. NAT also acts as a type of firewall. The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client. i. and DNS. Inc. It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers. ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other. a NAT is just a device or program that translates one set of IP addresses to another set of IP addresses. Actually. to share a single connection to the Internet. 200 Specialized Solutions. depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time. since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. . In the case of a proxy server. it serves many clients through only one connection.e. but it is most often used between a private network and the networks public address or addresses. like a LAN. who think they are communicating directly with one another. It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses. The proxy server is actually making a connection to another network or to the Internet on behalf of the client. Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network. It contains DHCP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (public IP address). IP Proxy Servers Earlier. NAT. The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties.

Inc.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions. 201 .

A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39. 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194.294.2 billion) different numbers. however.11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------16 8 2 1 128 64 32 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet. This IP address is a 32-bit binary number. it is not easy for us. are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes. Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address. Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256.00100111. So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33. 202 Specialized Solutions. Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them. Internet IP addresses. Although that is easy for a computer.967. the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique). Inc.8.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names. they are broken down into four octets.39.194. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8. let’s now take a look at IP address numbers. The result is called a dotted decimal number.296 (4. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet. An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets. . To simplify these addresses.00001000. A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001.

For the Network+ exam.8. The class can be determined by the value of the first octet.194 would be an example of a Class A address. B and C.194 would be the Host ID.8. Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks.39.194 where the Network ID would be 193. Within classes. The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223. The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID). In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID.39. 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) Specialized Solutions.194. An example of a Class B IP address would be 129. the network is divided into classes.8 and the Host ID would be 194.194.8. (A host may be any device on the network. you should pay special attention the Classes A. The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000).8. Depending on the assignment. An example of a Class C IP address would be 193. The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID). The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components. the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID. Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large.) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126.39. Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks. Inc. only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID). The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID. There are five common classes: A through E. In this case 129. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000). The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191.39 would be the Network ID and 8. The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000). 203 .39.

204 Specialized Solutions. there are only 65.used by very large networks.0. B or C address.126 128 . Class B uses two octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID. This is the loopback address. As we mentioned earlier. This organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center). . there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and for multicasting and are not available for normal host addresses.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts.0.used for medium-sized networks. Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs. and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses.534 possible Host ID numbers. if a network is going to be connected to the Internet.223 In addition. with the least number of Network IDs. so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts. there are 16. Also. You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts. Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available.191 192 .214 possible Host ID numbers. Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 . Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time. Class C IP addresses are still available. (For example.1) Class A . Class B . Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID. the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic. Inc. All in use and no longer available.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID. specifically 127.777. Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A. you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address. Likewise. Class C .

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. which only uses 32-bit addressing. An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme.net. Rather than having “classes” like IPv4. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot. use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address. A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. Unicast is an address for a single host. however. The address types are Unicast. It does. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers (0 to 9. For example. demand high bandwidth. It uses 128-bit addressing. as well as ease of configuration and security built right in. VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic. 205 . The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. to define the address type. which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits. and Multicast. IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology. Inc. Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Specialized Solutions. This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. It would make it unclear as to what was represented. IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP). however. as compared to IPv4. Anycast. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field. It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4. You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example.

IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking. Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link. All in all. Site-local address. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address. since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain.0. The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1.1 with IPv4. A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses. Inc. An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. Finally. .0. just like 127. is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix. 206 Specialized Solutions. Multicast. which replaces broadcast. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address.

255. Specialized Solutions. a subnet mask can be 255.00000000. For example: 11111111.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of creating more than one private network from one public network address by customizing your subnet mask. 255. If you “and” the IP address to the subnet mask. 207 .777.0.534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s. Before looking at anding.0. You must however. For example. In this example. separating it from the host portion of the address.0. all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet.0.255. only the traffic that is not local will pass through.0. The number of 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network.11111111.255. the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class). Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask. which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address. a router can determine which addresses are local and which addresses are for other subnets within the network. Inc.0 Class A (16. You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet.00000000 or 255. A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) in which all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address.0 In regard to classful addressing . This is done with binary addition (anding).0 255.255. have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right.255.216 hosts) Class B (65.0 (Class C).0 255.0.255.255. The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address. or 225. By using a concept called anding.0. Since a router connects each subnet. Anding is the binary addition that the router uses to make this determination. By using subnets. lets look at subnet masks. a large university may have a network spread over several buildings and perhaps remote campuses. you can reduce the overall network traffic.0 (Class B).0 (Class A). Default Subnet Masks 255.

00100000. Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33.00000000 (33. Any local addresses will not pass through. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7. By using this method.32.00001000.8.224.194) 11111111.194.0. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet.0.8. it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address.8.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones.0.194.39.194.39.11000010 (33. using our previous example of 33.00000000 (255. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID.11100000. 00100001. and through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33.0. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remember. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 208 Specialized Solutions. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now.32.0) equals 00100001.7. while the Host ID 0.8.0. let’s and it to the subnet mask of 255. Inc.00000000.32 and the Host ID is 7.00100111.00000000.32.194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask.224. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment.8. thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network. .0.

Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet.384 2.0 255.c to 223.0.0 255.255.a. Specialized Solutions.152 Number of Hosts 16.0 255. If a router is connected to two subnets.c to 126.c 192. Be sure to include some room for growth of the network. 209 .a.0. Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet.c Default Subnet Mask 255.0 255.c 128.b.0.b.0.0.0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255.b. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001. Inc.a. it will require an address for each subnet.0 Number of Networks 126 16.255.c to 191.255. A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card.a.b.a.a. There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring).255. Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment. • • • • Connect physically remote local networks.255.b.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking.b.0.255.777. A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network.216 65.097.

Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255. we have one network with approximately 65.255.0 255.240. To begin this process.248. you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC.248 255.0 255.252.255.0.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet.255.382 Hosts N/A 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 210 Specialized Solutions.255.255.36. First.0 255.255.255.255. .255. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign.0 255.255.0 255.240 255.255. You should remember the formula 2n-2 where n is the number of bits borrowed.255.255.0 255. The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network.255.255. As we begin to subnet.255.0 255.192 255.255.254.224 255.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16.0.000 hosts.255. Inc.255. We use this formula to determine the number of subnets that will be created by borrowing bits from the hosts.192. We will use an InterNIC ID of 191.255.128 255. we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host. With this number. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255.224.255.

255. Inc.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255. giving us a total requirement of 18.255. 2. Change the mode to binary (Bin). The number 18 will now be in binary (10010).255.255.36 as assigned to us by InterNIC. the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements. lets keep our network ID of 191.255. we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs. you can use the scientific calculator supplied with any Windows operating system.192 255. Enter the value of 18. We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID.255. 1.255.255. 3. Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected.255. For this example. 211 . let’s add 4 more for future expansions. Specialized Solutions. Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator). Now we get out our Windows calculator. Just to be on the safe side.248 255.240 255.224 255.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 Hosts N/A 30 14 6 2 To make this easy.255.

For this example. our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets. This will be the number of bits required for the third octet. let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255. Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth).36. instead of selecting the next subnet on our list.224.0. Inc. you can determine the available Network IDs.255. .000 hosts each. This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask.0 and the network address of 192. Had we needed to add a new subnet. To keep things simple.255. Count the number of binary digits (5). the subnet mask would be 255. The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 212 Specialized Solutions. we would have had to reconfigure the entire network.248.

up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID. on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255.0.) Specialized Solutions.36 (overall network address) 192.0.255. 213 .Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192. they are on the same network. The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network.0. and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet.36. this means that the number starts with . In dotted-decimal format.36.255. (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask.000 or .001 in the last octet. The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID.0. these are reserved for broadcast addresses. If it is different. indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively.0.192 Determine the Host IDs The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001).255.36.128 192.36. or one that is located on a remote network. A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255.64 192.160 192. the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery.36.96 192.255.36. Inc. The only restrictions are that you cannot use .32 192. This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address.0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255. Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network. For example.

255.0.191 192 .0 255. .223 214 Specialized Solutions.0.255.126 128 .255.0 255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255.0. Inc.0 CLASS ID 1 .

click the Protocols tab.” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server. in addition to other hardware and software configurations. The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using. Click the radio button to enable DNS. Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. 215 . other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window. Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor. Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. Next. Inc. or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically. This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. On some screens. However. and enter the information in the appropriate fields. DNS You can enable or disable DNS. and click Properties. Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways. you will need to type in the specified default gateway. IP Address Here. right-click on TCP/IP Protocol. you may specify a particular IP address. Specialized Solutions.

default gateway. . This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration. It also includes the DNS configuration. and subnet mask configuration. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients. WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology. 216 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Inc. Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet Definition Specialized Solutions.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 217 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword POP3 Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 218 Specialized Solutions.

12. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2. Inc. 10. 4. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Specialized Solutions. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. 219 . Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8. What is the purpose of DNS? 5. What is a domain? 7.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Review Questions Chapter 8 1. What is an FQDN and give an example? 6.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 220 Specialized Solutions.

SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks. you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device. Inc. Network Managers . the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network. The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base). Using one of these products. The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network. you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network. In addition. Specialized Solutions. It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data. From the database and the software interface. 221 .

The three commands are: Get: request data from the device. Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network. Set: sends a configuration value to a device. It will respond to commands issued by the management software. . A community can also restrict access. 222 Specialized Solutions. Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager). These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt. An additional SNMP command is the trap. therefore providing a level of security. This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager. Get-next: request the next value in a sequence. The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device. Inc.

and TCP/IP events and errors. shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination. Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports. 223 .Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. serious (!). Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses. Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred). Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names. NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. Inc. TRACERT. This includes critical system errors. Specialized Solutions. Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table. Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis. Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. but did not cause a stop. Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics. TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table. ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it. and normal (i).

clicking Run. and typing in either cmd or command. 224 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar.

RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device. and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools. NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain. NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer. the IP of a host might be 192. NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address.1. Inc. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain. and will display the current configuration of a computer. IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain. Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once. 225 . Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client. PING The lowest level test to find out if you have connectivity to a remote host.168. For example. Specialized Solutions. IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration. Ping works at the IP level.12. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 226 Specialized Solutions.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 227 . Inc.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition Specialized Solutions.

each device will need to be _________ compliant. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network. 3. List as many as you can. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 9 1. 228 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

motivated by curiosity. A disgruntled employee. she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of her particular network. the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. Very few users will have access to administrative features. from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files. the results can be devastating. or anyone who has access to your network for that matter. depending on the roles they play in your company. Inc. or even millions. The best time to set up your network security. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. or at least have your plan intact. creating chaos and costing thousands. As you might have already deduced. Specialized Solutions. Whether the sabotage is malicious. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. Users should be held accountable for the security of their individual workstations. A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords. or an irresponsible prank. before you set up the network. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems. Password practices and procedures. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. Most users will also be able to access shared files. Therefore. There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. unless safeguards are built in. Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company. Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user. User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access. you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent. of dollars. 229 . Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change.Chapter 10 – Network Security Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. can deliberately damage your network. data encryption. is right up front. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created).

a gesture of respect for the user and the system. authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required. The user can edit the file as necessary. where the administrator can easily retrieve it. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model. while the original file remains intact. A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. Password protection is. among other things. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. the user will be inclined to be less attentive to personal security. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place. Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file. . It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality. and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security. passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users. In a manner similar to the signature on a document. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. Inc. The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system. 230 Specialized Solutions. Users can access a shared resource. However. such as a template or another type of file.

231 . Inc.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Security Specialized Solutions.

you will most likely be using E-mail.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. by forwarding application traffic through the firewall. and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. at the very least. 232 Specialized Solutions. As the system administrator. Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. . Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter. For example. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system. Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. and work at the application level. If you are accessing the Internet from your network. you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs. and even more often on larger networks. Files need to be backed up daily. they can be host-based. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information. or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network. Inc. Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs. or auditing. you would block port 80. It is an important part of a network security plan. This needs to be handled in such a way that production will not be interrupted. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network.

Floppy disk capacities today. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups. Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity. Inc. the other can take over without compromising network operations. If anything happens to one. As a computer professional. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). There are several options available. so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations. so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security. Although slower than RAID. and how often backups will be performed. called the backup medium. and the procedure to follow for recovery. and are more commonly known as RAID. it is still a viable option. As you might guess. It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk.Chapter 10 – Network Security It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers. the second server should serve as a backup to the first. 233 . you must answer important questions about what to backup. the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk. range from 1. While planning your backup strategy. In addition. you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. plan to fail. These multiple disks are called disk arrays. Specialized Solutions. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. Ideally. offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other.44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. Remember. which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs. Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. how the backup information will be tested. This backup medium is suitable for small companies. those who fail to plan. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available. rather than one larger server. Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today.

is called fault tolerance. The Full backup. Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations. This usually involves some degree of redundancy. A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk. Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk. This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed. the last full backup and all of the incremental backup tapes will be needed. 234 Specialized Solutions. Differential. . but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space.. and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level. both the last differential backup tape copy and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup. as its name implies. This method will take the largest amount of storage media. To restore. Full. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups. will backup all selected data on the network. as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. Differential and Incremental. and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full. When recovering from a failure. This type of backup is usually performed weekly. but will be the easiest to restore. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. Inc. despite the presence of hardware or software failures.

this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful. With this method. is not being used commercially at the moment to an Specialized Solutions. (Provides no fault tolerance.) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk. 235 .Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 . support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing. including Novell NetWare. If more than one disk is lost. This.Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 . Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies.Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 . if anything happens to one of the drives. so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping. Several operating systems. RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme. and is a standard feature of RAID systems.Chapter 10 – Network Security The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 . such as a single file. which provides for even more fault tolerance. This technique may be applied in either software or hardware.Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 . However. The same data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure. administrators are alerted when one disk fails so that they can “regenerate” the RAID set before another disk has a chance to fail. this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent. however.Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 . a copy of the data is spread across all of the disks based on a mathematical formula such that any one disk in the set can be lost and the other disks will have a copy of all of the information that it contained.Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. Typically.” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data. the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved. If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up. then the data in the entire array is also lost. Inc.

Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI). as you might guess. which allows for better performance. is like RAID-10. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. and each type provides power for a different length of time. There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. There are different types of UPS devices. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array). Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. . A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. Inc. but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. It functions faster. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity. In this case. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. also called surge suppressors. The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power. RAID-53.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide large degree. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests. 236 Specialized Solutions. It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN. such as battery time remaining. is an issue. An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. and sags in the power supply. These types of RAID are not as commonly used and are not as likely to be on the test. Cost. A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. but at a greater cost. Like RAID-10. are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes. it offers better performance. surges. SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached. RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. since it is not dependent on another computer. SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used.

should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there. If the network administrator needs to use the workstation. symbols. Passwords should be changed more frequently in high-security networks. no matter who they are. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days. No one. This holds users accountable for their actions on the network. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. and numbers.” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents. Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed. Inc. Specialized Solutions. away. So. but are easy enough that users can remember them. and troubleshoot before the trouble starts. he or she will know how to accomplish the task. numbers and symbols. The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters and use a combination of letters. an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis. etc. Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others. and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas. This is known as a security audit. personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. 237 . include characters. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy. Users working with sensitive information such as budgets.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network. There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being applied. Some “classified” networks require password changes every day. In order for this policy to be effective.

and Leonard Adleman. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). and is used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking. This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem. 238 Specialized Solutions. other than the person for whom the message was intended.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. This method uses a 56-bit private key. DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message. RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. can understand the message. Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. Adi Shamir. It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest. and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used. Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data. the Internet is not the most secure of environments. . Inc. The name comes from their first initials. The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. Even with encryption. Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient.

is called a digital signature. They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. It is similar to DES. Prevention should also be addressed in the plan. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages. The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed. If the receiver wishes to respond. will ensure a much quicker recovery. Inc. and bulletin boards. much less a day. but they are less secure. which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). software from unknown origins. it is not a completely secure encryption method.Chapter 10 – Network Security Extra data appended to a message. There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run.000 known viruses. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities. Viruses can be spread by various sources including: shareware. Many viruses are simple annoyances. 239 . Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. both on location and at backup sites. Specialized Solutions. It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex. Symmetric Keys can also be used. files downloaded from the Internet. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. There are over 60. The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key. As the name implies. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off. With this method of encryption both parties have the same key. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method. Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip. Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters. which is used to encrypt data and to decrypt it.

Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail). Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine. It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document. Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world. enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing a new operating system. These days. but when loaded. there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market. If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes. many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet. (prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk). 240 Specialized Solutions. Make sure it is compatible with all of the operating systems that you use. just from running a program. With this in mind. Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site. Macro Virus: These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened. Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines. they mean that when you open a document you are running a program. Use extreme caution when you download files. Hundreds of viruses are written each month. Keep your anti-virus program updated. Inc. . they will go to work on the system. The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files).

Chapter 10 – Network Security Specialized Solutions. Inc. 241 .

Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 242 Specialized Solutions.

243 . What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2. passwords are assigned to __________. Inc. 3. The acronym RAID stands for __________. What is the function of a firewall? 4. 5.Chapter 10 – Network Security Review Questions Chapter 10 1. In a share level model. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Specialized Solutions. What are the three common levels of RAID? 6.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 Specialized Solutions.

Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you. The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper. it seems well defined by the person who calls and complains! But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause. As a troubleshooter. After all. Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). Inc. It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier. you will most likely be called when there is a problem. not the symptom. The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks. Specialized Solutions. Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. if you are the expert. so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. They always fail in the middle of a job. identify the affected area. and good listening skills.” is really just the symptom and not the true cause.Conclusion Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. Remember. “as reported. establish what has changed. you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem. This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems. implement a solution. test the result. Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software. In most cases. The eight parts are as follows: establish the symptoms. 245 . For those who must endure the struggle. not when all is well. Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. computers never fail at a convenient time. select the most probable cause. In order to do this. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. you are looking for the cause. you must be organized. a pen (or pencil). Remember. Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned. If fact. To make matters worse. The user of the computer or network is your best source of information. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. while for others it is a struggle. troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution. and progress with some specific tools that you can employ to simplify the process. but they often hold the keys to the problem. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now.

Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones. Inc. lights. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever. Do not make the questions too technical. One thing that might 246 Specialized Solutions. Describe any changes in the computer (noise. and so forth). do not intimidate the user. however. With a little experience. The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work toward the more complex. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works. These never seem to occur when you are present. as well as the results. You may. You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure. Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure. You will need to create your own list based on the situation. Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know. This will take time and patience. For example. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before. and when. . and most importantly. The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. Sometimes. the failure occurs. have someone demonstrate the failure to you. The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that caused the failure. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience. If it is an operatorinduced problem. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation. screen changes. Be sure to observe the failure yourself. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem.) Show me how to create the error. or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred. it is important to observe how it is created. recent software upgrade. If possible.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of the failure. the process of elimination is all that you can do. network or computer moved. have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory.

You may have to refer back to them later. If you must make any assumptions. it is important to follow it through. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up. then you know for sure that the network is physically working. The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally. If for example. Document every action and its results. Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems. make a plan and follow it. Inc. Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made. In the case of a network problem. and move forward. but you cannot receive any E-mail. If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be). create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user Specialized Solutions. Starting from the top. Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. write them down. Once a plan is created. but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration. It requires two simple steps. That way the “evidence” is not disturbed.Conclusion help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. 247 . For example. you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood. Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. Do not make any assumptions. then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. but to call you. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly.

you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem). Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work). To resolve these types of problems. In these cases. However. if an operator is afraid of computers in general. either repair or replace the defect. if the problem is software or configuration related. In these situations. With hardware. Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. Note: If the problem is software-oriented. you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. Implement the solution. It is important to use another operator. it may require some additional effort. you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures. . repair or replacement is usually all that is needed. start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not. Inc. Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities. For example. This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Once the search has been narrowed. no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed. as well as the one that is causing problems. Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures. be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes. and not the hardware or the system. 248 Specialized Solutions. the problem may be caused by the operator.

Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user. there is no substitute for experience. and the repair. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. or a follow up call just to make sure all is well. Specialized Solutions. Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists. 249 . document the problem and the repair. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms. maintain. The basis for this policy is that once the system is running. You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience. you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem.Conclusion Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems. Document the solution Finally. Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again. In troubleshooting. and share experience. Inc. the problem. This is one way to build. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction. The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle.

Inc. They secure the connection between the wires and the block. let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling. a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier. Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network. Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals. . The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician. Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack. Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools. Punch Down Tool 250 Specialized Solutions.

which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound. The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe. a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete. the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other. whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps). When working with network cabling. If the wire is broken. When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing. Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. we will have to know how to test for continuity. you can have only one of two problems. Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. resistance. the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters.Conclusion Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. You can test for AC and DC voltage. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up. There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires. We will start by looking at a multimeter. These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted). Inc. it is still possible to test for continuity. and continuity. In a wire for example. 251 . The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. Some meters will let you test for current as well. All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device. A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. in principle. These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. Since it is made up of wires. the circuit is broken. Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured. With it you can test various electronic components. For example. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. Network cabling is. a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red). Specialized Solutions. as well as the electrical power in the computer. If your meter does not have a continuity setting. it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. very easy to troubleshoot. which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. If the test is negative (no light or noise). An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other.

The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator. When used together. thus locating the wires. these tools are often called a fox and a hound. called tone generators and tone locators. if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building. However. The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. there are more often than not. The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. However. and test at the other end. Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end. this is not a problem. it will emit a tone. The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician should have one. 252 Specialized Solutions. testing for continuity will require an additional wire. This applies a signal on the wires. to find pairs of wires in a bundle. . If both ends are in the same location. several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel). Inc.

Be careful when using a crossover cable. A loopback cable is just what the name implies. Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire. It has the transmit and receive wires connected. Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic. there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment. The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions. If you are able to send a signal and have it return. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa). you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning. Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters.Conclusion Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. capture packets and generate reports. Specialized Solutions. Inc. A crossover cable is similar to a loopback. and therefore back to the network card. but is double-ended. They will monitor network traffic. because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable. the location of any break or short can be determined. also called packet sniffers. Software analyzers. 253 . By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. are usually a PC with a special network card. Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR. OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back. but used for fiber optic cabling. . 254 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck. Inc. but can be caused by a disconnected cable. 255 . Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security.Conclusion Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. For some reason. It could be the processor. The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network. Therefore. You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact. A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. Some passwords are case-sensitive. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors. the traffic is not moving. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network. Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. the network. Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords. you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate. and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors. or a disk resource. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves. If slow loading persists even after defragmenting. For example. tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night. and moves information. These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours. Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 256 Specialized Solutions. When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it. the network slows down. As networks grow. so does the traffic. check for memory bottlenecks. Inc. You must defragment the drive. . deletes. You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives.

These commands work from a command prompt. and TRACERT commands to test the network. If you are using TCP/IP. Inc. It also lets you know the time that it takes.1. PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on your intranet or on the Internet your packet is going. Remember this address. 257 . The first step is to PING the loopback address.0. you will use it often. because as a network professional. This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS. The loopback address is 127. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG.0.Conclusion Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network. Specialized Solutions. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities. On a Macintosh system. but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card. This will test the protocol stack in the computer. PING. you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu. TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination. On a Windows 95/98 computer.

WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly. 2000. your dialog box will look like the following. This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT. or 2003 system.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195. .48.55. WINIPCFG. Inc.6. XP. 258 Specialized Solutions. If you are using Windows.

use the ipxping command.Conclusion PING 195. you will be testing a larger portion of the network. Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t. Inc. and so on. you have encountered a problem. 259 . you receive a message like the following. It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network. Usually this means you have the wrong IP address. Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: Specialized Solutions. then there is a problem with the protocol. For the IPX/SPX networks. they must be okay. the server. PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer. With each step.55.6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation. If at any stage. Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems.48. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday.

260 Specialized Solutions. they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem. have two names. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution. (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). . Beyond that. That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server). we need to look at four limiting factors on performance. If present. Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files. but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow.” With nslookup. In general. If there is a sudden change in performance. while green lights indicate that all is well. These are text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. respectively. If no lights are on. or hosts. You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address. Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. To resolve this problem. the first thing to do is find out what has changed. Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name. you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup. The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS. Earlier. you can be sure that the network is not being detected. The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details. we learned that workstations. suspect a loose or disconnected cable. you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer. Inc. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector. they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. One is the IP address number. If these files are being used.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause.

This can slow down data transfer. Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps). and average time to print the document. if any one component is performing poorly. You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information. Latency Small delays in packet movement that are caused by devices is called latency. is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). adding to the network load. but are interrelated. Latency delays. the more packets that can be moved). Specialized Solutions. For example. From this information. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. The answer lies in creating a performance baseline. you will know the high. Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request. it can send data at a faster than rated speed. Therefore. after you identify the problem. if the traffic gets too congested. are negligible. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation. you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. For example. everything slows down. Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays. Inc. Resolving performance problems can be easy. you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. Just like our highway. Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. slow. at a later date. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. for the most part. The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now. but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks. or maximum speed that traffic can move. This means that for a small amount of time. An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache. The speed limit. Then. To create a baseline. 261 . if you are experiencing slow printing. you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed.Conclusion Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing. The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system. it will affect the entire network.

. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events. etc. percent of network utilization. Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network. you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. Windows has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools. available memory. Windows Performance Monitor 262 Specialized Solutions. With this activated. etc. you will be able to monitor such events as processor time. Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. With this tool. To collect these statistics.

Conclusion KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 263 . Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc.

What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Conclusion 264 Specialized Solutions. You are troubleshooting a cable problem.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1. After repairing a problem. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. You have just connected a workstation to the network. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slowly. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2. and think it might be shorted. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9. What is the loopback IP address? 7. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3. . You have located the cable in question #3. What tool would you need to find the short? 5. Inc. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8. You need to know the IP address of a workstation.

we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. Inc. Remember. When you are ready to schedule your exam. be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site. Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs. We love to hear from our students. be sure to review any areas that need improvement. our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. so if you have any questions. 265 . start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course. and don’t forget to use the Glossary.Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range. To measure your retention of these materials. you are ready to sit for your certification exam. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material. and as often. as you like. Specialized Solutions. the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. at Specialized Solutions. After taking a practice exam.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 266 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

• • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series. you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. They are specified based on their impedance. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Specialized Solutions. Maximum of 4 repeaters. Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same. 267 . It is expressed in ohms. Inc. Only 3 segments can contain nodes. In order for the network to operate at peak performance.Appendix A – Tech Summary Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing coaxial Ethernet cabling.

ArcNet networks. Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 10Base5 Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Bus 500 10 100 5 4 10Base2 Bus 185 10 30 5 4 3 268 Specialized Solutions. Length (meters) Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment Max Segments Max. . such as cable television. Military specification of RG-58 A/U. Broadband transmission. Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59. Description Stranded wire core. RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max. but also used for broadband transmissions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core. Inc.

Specialized Solutions. Inc. 269 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch.Appendix A – Tech Summary UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch. Same as type 1. IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks. Voice-grade cable. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch. Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Contains a shield for use under carpets. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Not Defined Two 62. Two STP – 26 AWG wire. Plenum grade. Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG. Six twisted pairs. Two STP –26 AWG wire. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet).5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. but adds voice capability along with data. Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Data grade up to 100 Mbps.

5 802.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model.x Standard 802. Inc. .6 802.4 802.3 802. 802. They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls.10 802.2 802.8 802.9 802.11 802.7 802.1 802.12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 270 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802.

No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually Specialized Solutions. however. COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs.Appendix A – Tech Summary IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer. COM4 COM1. The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2. 271 . there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed. Inc.

. Inc.LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address.LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 272 Specialized Solutions. The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F .

Appendix A – Tech Summary 3A0 to 3AF 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model Specialized Solutions. Inc. 273 .

x.0 Number of Networks 126 16.0.097.x to 223. x.255.x.x to 126.0 255.0 255. .255.255.0.x.384 2.x Default Subnet Mask 255.x to 191.534 254 274 Specialized Solutions.x.x 192.152 Number of Host 16.0.x.214 65.777.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Gateways Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Brouter Bridges Switches NICs.x.x 128. Inc.x.x.x. Hubs. Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001. Repeaters Computers Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address.x.x.

the subnet address. Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address. PING ARP RARP Specialized Solutions. If all is well. Uses a MAC address to find an IP address.Appendix A – Tech Summary TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device.1) to test the IP architecture and configuration. Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks. and default gateway. Sends a test packet to a specified address. Inc. Use the loopback address (127. 275 . Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the Linux user’s network interface configuration.0. it will return. Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses).0. the subnet mask.

Used to check the status of current IP connections.) Used to verify entries on a DNS server. ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries. In a star topology. (Pronounced Trace Route. Inc. 276 Specialized Solutions. Used to check the resolution of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses. . all computers are connected in a series. all computers are connected to a hub. Used to verify the route to a remote host.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it. NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology. Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents.

277 .Appendix A – Tech Summary In a ring topology. all computers are logically connected in a circle. Specialized Solutions. all computers are connected to each other. In a mesh topology. Inc.

and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry. TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals. Can also be used for precise voltage measurements. Also called a network analyzer. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages. . Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. Protocol Analyzer 278 Specialized Solutions. resistance.

279 . interface cards. Displays or prints a list of events.Appendix A – Tech Summary Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations. Used to provide information for network baselines. and bridges). Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers. hubs. Event Viewer SNMP Specialized Solutions. routers. Inc. and networks. servers.

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Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www.com Specialized Solutions.microsoft. 281 .com Novell http://www.com Other Helpful Sites http://www.cnet. Inc.novell.

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Specialized Solutions. 283 . For additional information. search for these organizations on the Internet. CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set. As its name implies. In the computing industry. This is a common code for basic characters and numbers.Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry. Inc. Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector. It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes. ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below). The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards. let alone the networking industry. This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry. it is responsible for establishing standards for communication.

This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another. As you may guess from its name. The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802. Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused. 284 Specialized Solutions. Inc. See Appendix A for a summary of the 802. the IEEE is subdivided into committees. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards. These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model. As long as both are SQL compliant.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment.x committee. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model. the data can be smoothly transferred. its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language. Inc. Since they cover a wide variety of equipment. . ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.x sub-committees.

go to www.Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE. and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE.vue. Specialized Solutions. Prices subject to change without notice.com for VUE. Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time. When you call. 285 . Method of payment. or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like.2test. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers. Payment must be made each time you take the test. Date you wish to take the test. Inc.com for Prometric or www. To register via the Internet. credit card or voucher. either by credit card. Payment is made at the time of registration. please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 286 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

The file server on an AppleTalk network. so they can communicate with other applications or nodes. Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through.Appendix E – Glossary Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. it supplies functions to applications. these three terms are often used interchangeably. or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). program. Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. A continuously variable signal. or computers on the network (nodes). or bits per second (bps). The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. opposite of digital. A dedicated server for applications. Inc. The Apple networking protocol. Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. The highest layer of the OSI Model. 287 . American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. Software.

Hardware that connects one network with another. Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. A form of mobile computing. An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. GM. Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals). Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. . Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. these are all in use at the present time. A bus driver. Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address 288 Specialized Solutions. such as Microsoft. IP Address used by medium-sized networks. or DEC. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC. British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. Inc. such as IBM. IP Address used by very large networks. A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. The signal flow is uni-directional. A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems.

stored. itself. or language. using a specific protocol. The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. A form of multitasking. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media. is a number derived from.Appendix E – Glossary Client Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable User computer “being served” by another computer. 289 . Same as a hub. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. Inc. to allow other tasks to run. which is. or Cyclic redundancy Code. Cyclic Redundancy Check. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor. Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption Specialized Solutions. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation. Software used by the client. from computer or network to another. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level. called a server. The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable. Data that is encoded for security reasons.

DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. so that one can take over for the other if it fails.A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one. The Data Link layer splits data into frames. for sending on the Physical layer. this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data. the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk. in a round-robin fashion. A limited form of bus mastering. It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly. Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency. When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. such as an individual file. This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives. (Simple “on” or “off” signal. Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 290 Specialized Solutions. It also receives acknowledgement frames. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. Also called data striping. which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks. If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. Inc.) Being able to recover data from a disaster.

File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once. An improved version of X.Appendix E – Glossary DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. with a very large amount of storage space for shared files. A group of bits containing address information. A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. Specialized Solutions. 291 DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex . A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received. A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard. and other control information. Inc. sent over a communications channel. error detection. Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network.25 packet switching technology. A network’s central computer. Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits.

is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages. defined in STD 5. It precedes the actual data. and other information. The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses. that enables two networks. RFC 791. or ring topologies. Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. and informational messages related to IP. Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture. test packets. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol. using different protocols. Inc. . A network topology that combines bus. GSNW Half-Duplex Header HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address 292 Specialized Solutions. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5. is usually represented in dotted decimal notation. even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. RFC 792.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway A computer that acts as a translator. but only one at a time. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. star. to communicate with each other.

A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data. and video data sources. across a network connection.Appendix E – Glossary IPCONFIG IPsec IRQ DOS command that tells you the IP address for your computer. Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice. a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology. Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator. Specialized Solutions. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer. 293 ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU . Inc. Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer.” Server used for E-mail. data. it’s “hardware address. internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring. Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver. A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk.

. Much like your local radio station. totally incompatible with the original PC bus. Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card 294 Specialized Solutions. protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. Also known as a network interface card. A type of hub.400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS). Provides the physical connection to the network cable. and is used by CompuServe. One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. Single Frequency Radio. introduced by IBM for its PS/2 computer line. A method of data transmission. MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission. among others. Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS. Performing multiple tasks simultaneously.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide MCA Bus Micro Channel Architecture. Inc. Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X. a 32-bit bus.

depending on the protocol. Inc. They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards. 295 Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card . including network connectivity. A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. Acts as a connection point only. Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model. Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network.Appendix E – Glossary Network Administrator Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network. The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. Specialized Solutions. Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet. An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network. A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources. A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network. A generic term used to describe a unit of data. A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers.

Defines a channel between a device and the processor. and even if a process takes full control. The space between the ceiling and the floor above. Although included as part of Windows NT. depending upon the needs of the user.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Peer-to-Peer Performance Monitor All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network. . The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack. Inc. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning. and running on TCP/IP.1. many third-party applications are available. The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time. converting character sets and encrypting data.5 of Windows 3. A hardware device. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer. which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. used to circulate air through a building. such as a printer or scanner. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer. other processes will still run. Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3. The Presentation layer formats data exchange. Dedicated server for printing. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model. A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server. Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 296 Specialized Solutions. this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking.

including support for dialup and logon. A device that forwards packets between networks. A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network. In Token-Ring networks. Inc. the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. the devices are connected in a continuous loop. A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. which then routes the signal appropriately. to be accessed via a modem. Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. The signal is beamed towards a central unit. the proxy server. Connector used with UTP and STP network cables. Used to increase cable distances in network environments. In a Ring topology. Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN Specialized Solutions.Appendix E – Glossary Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection. For example. For example. The services or peripherals that are shared over the network. Redirects a call from one port to another. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. Connector used with standard telephone wire. Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors.e. 297 . i.

acknowledgments (ACK). was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use. normally used on Ethernet. Simple Network Management Protocol. A computer on a network that provides services to other computers. Transmission rates are slower with this type. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. until it reaches the receiver.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. to be used over a serial link. connection establishment and release. Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol. Inc. The Session layer handles such things as security authentication. A uni-directional data channel. defined in RFC 1055. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP 298 Specialized Solutions. usually over Ethernet. is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP). data transfer. etc. the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15. Software that resides on a server. as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another. RFC 1157. A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. as opposed to duplex. ceilings. .

An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5. The process of subdividing a network into logical units. Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol. An access method used in a Token Ring topology. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. Using binary addition. Specialized Solutions.5 Standard) environment. measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). If the hub fails. Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. or across large flat open areas. A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. Inc. the official protocol of the Internet. the entire network goes down. A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing. that uses a large diameter.Appendix E – Glossary SONET Spread-Spectrum Radio Synchronous Optical Network Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub. 299 SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk . The maximum speed that “traffic” can move. Maximum segment length is 500 meters. so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. such as bodies of water or deserts. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters. rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms.

” A receiver set to the frequency of the generator. The “fox. Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments. defined in STD 6.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). is layered on top of IP. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. this applies a signal on the wires. and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data.” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface. thus locating the wires. Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding. which. Tool for stripping and cutting wire Tone Locator TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 300 Specialized Solutions. Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer. like TCP. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. A device that transmits and receives data. The “hound. The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport. Inc. RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol. A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information. it will emit a tone. User Datagram Protocol. . Used on transceivers.

such as Token Ring. using zones Zones Specialized Solutions. A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. 301 . Inc. resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address.Appendix E – Glossary WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 302 Specialized Solutions.

and peripheral devices. What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources. Inc. and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less). Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net. Files are easily accessed by all users. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. No security. Review Questions Chapter 1 1. It is confined to a limited area. What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use. 4. loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations. applications. like one office). A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. 2. Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area. 6. 7. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. 3.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers. Simple to install. data backups can be more easily and routinely performed. configure. A WAN is not geographically limited. 5. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server). LANs typically also have much faster communication speed than WANs. Specialized Solutions. such as data. Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security). Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. 303 . What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet.

. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access. Inc. Star. Increased performance on large networks. 2. Some NOSs function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU. and Ring. and Demand Priority. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. Centralized location of resources (server). Review Questions Chapter 2 1. Can be expanded as network grows. more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). Centralized administration. 9. 304 Specialized Solutions. 12. The three basic topologies are: Bus. Ease of data backups. Name the three basic topologies. 11.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 8. Token Passing. They represent what the topology looks like. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment. More difficult to install and configure. Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). 10. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see.

routing. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. web-publishing. It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. management. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. messaging. Specialized Solutions. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. groups. 4. redirecting them to the server. Inc. 8. Define interoperability. Unlike NetWare. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. 305 . 550 MB of free hard drive space. 6. NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. 7. 5. 64 MB RAM. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. and file and print services. What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. and volumes is also handled with NDS.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. 9. name service. servers. Organization of network resources such as users.

Presentation. What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 15. Session. 125 MB free hard drive space. . 11. Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems. 2. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. Transport. FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. Data Link. 16 MB RAM. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. 13. 12.What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Inc. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals. and Physical 3. Network. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. Application.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 10. Review Questions Chapter 3 1.1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 306 Specialized Solutions. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 14.

Network Layer 6. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer Specialized Solutions. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer. Which OSI layer is responsible the MAC address? The Data Link layer 8. and ending connections? The Session layer 12. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. 9. 11. 13. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? D3-B4-01 14. Physical 10. This is not the actual application or program. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. 307 . Presentation layer 7. managing. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. Data Link layer 5.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 4. Inc. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. It is a computer’s physical address.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 15. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence, without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 16. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 17. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. 18. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802.2 19. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. They are incompatible with each other. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com, while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. 20. Describe protocol binding. In order to function, a protocol must be bound to the NIC. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 21. Which is faster, connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster, but connection-oriented communication is more reliable. 22. . Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. AppleTalk, DECnet, IPX/SPX, PPP, PPTP, SLIP, SMB, SNA, TCP/IP, UDP, X.25, XNS 23.. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Will this work? Why or Why not? 308

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol.

Review Questions Chapter 4

1. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. 5. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. 6. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above, which is used to circulate air in a building). Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned, which would end up being circulated throughout the building. 7. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 10. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs, which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. 11. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. However, it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. 13. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths, segment lengths of up to several miles, and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. 15. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. 16. Describe baseband. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. 17. Describe broadband. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable, making the signal flow unidirectional. 18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way, can receive but not send. For example, a pager. Half-duplex communication can send or receive, but not at the same time. For example, a CB radio. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. For example, the telephone. 310 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 19. What is the function of a network adapter card? Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network. (They make the physical connection to the network.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. 20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers, including network connectivity. 22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network, to backup a cable-based network, to provide a mobile network environment, for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly, outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform. 23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared, Laser, Radio, and Microwave 24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. 25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally; Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances.

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority Specialized Solutions, Inc. 311

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

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Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). Specialized Solutions, Inc. 313

data collisions are avoided. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802. This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer. while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise. Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function. however. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends. 19. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14. 20. . Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. Inc. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token.3 standard 15. The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network. 18. Describe a MIC connector. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17. It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds. They are also called hermaphrodite connectors.5 standard 16. 314 Specialized Solutions. 21. IEEE 802. It can be either depending upon how it is set up. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise.5 says it travels clockwise. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? The IEEE 802.

How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. Inc. 3. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. 2. If no other computer is using the address. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. 5. Specialized Solutions. It also provides a print server.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 22. it stores it to use each time it connects to the network. 25. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2. 23. 4. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2. 315 . Review Questions Chapter 6 1. 24. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. etc.

An active hub requires some input power. 8. . but not enough to run it efficiently. 316 Specialized Solutions. Also.com/windows/catalog. having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time.microsoft. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. he intends to expand the network in the future. 7. However. you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network. Review Questions Chapter 7 1. but they are not all the same. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks. It will be less costly to install CAT 6 now than to replace the CAT 5 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps to handle the higher traffic. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? Check the Windows Catalog on the web at www. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. Passive hubs are used only to make connections. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. Why should you refuse this offer? First. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 6. Inc. 2. 9. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths.

A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model. They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment. 5. For example. Not all network protocols will work with a router. Name three advanced WAN environments. In older modems. Router . 4.Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Frame Relay. ISDN. a bridge. Auditing. 8. What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. Define a repeater. 10.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. and a gateway. Repeater . BAUD and bps were the same thing. Specialized Solutions. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. Callback Security.A router has all the features of a bridge. a router. Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model. amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables. Bridge . BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. Gateway .544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. and SONET 7. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. Inc. What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking). PPTP and L2TP 9. Security host. NetBEUI is not routable. They do not translate or filter any information. Name three RAS protocols. A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem. SLIP. Name four forms of RAS security. They do however.A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature. PPP. and PPTP filtering. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem. 317 .A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment.

Inc. SNMP. An example is http://www. Internet and Network Interface. What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 318 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11) Specialized Solutions. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names. What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9. 7. 4. 32 10. UDP. 3. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. 5. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3.microsoft.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1. HTU UTH 6. Transport. and ARP. 8. IP.com. ICMP. . 2. and HTTP. SMTP. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. FTP.

U U U U 12. NBTSTAT. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network. NETSTAT and TRACERT. Inc. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. Event Viewer. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment Review Questions Chapter 9 1. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. List as many as you can. each device will need to be _________ compliant. 319 . Specialized Solutions. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. 2. ROUTE.

In a share level model. Resources 3. 2. Inc. What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet. 5. passwords are assigned to __________. What are the three most common levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 5 Striped array with parity 6. It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. . 4. What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. The acronym RAID stands for____________? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. 320 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1.

but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. 2.0. 8. and Repair the Problem. 4. 6. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. Isolate the Problem. You have just connected a workstation to the network. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution. The fox and hound. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows. WINIPCFG from the RUN command. You have located the cable in question #3. You need to know the IP address of a workstation.0. 3. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. Inc. you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 11 1. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. 321 . 5. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator.1 7. What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables. and think it might be shorted. Specialized Solutions. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. What is the loopback IP address? 127. After repairing a problem.

10. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slow. Inc. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time. Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 322 Specialized Solutions. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9.

78 Boot Prom’s. 116 10Base2. 67. 116 100VG-AnyLAN. 226 Digital. 196 Class B. 164 Class A. 167 bridge. 81 Cellular Networking. 90 DLC. 109 DES (Data Encryption Standard). 79 backup utility. 119 binding. 98 Change. 79 AWG. 86 Beaconing. 42 base memory address. 114 10BaseT. 253 Banyan VINES. 151 connection-oriented. 121 Application Layer. 86 Broadband Optical Telepoint. 24 Address Resolution Protocol. 78. 160 Category 3. 189 domain controller. 16. 39 AUI connector. 89 Direct Memory Access (DMA). 89 cloud. 166 attenuation. 77 Computer compatibility. 108 Active Directory. 89 AppleShare. 109 CSNW. 196 Class C. 65 continuity. 21 Carriers. 114 A access method. 70 coaxial cable. 39 Circuit-switched. 81 Category 5. 42 active hubs. 60 attributes. 65 BNC. 38 Client Software. 217 ATM. 86 B backbone. 41 CSU/DSU. 230 Differential backup. 78. 40. 13 Clocking. 60 Broadband. 40 Specialized Solutions. Inc. 243 CSMA/CD. 34 DECnet. 96 brouter. 122 AppleTalk. 123 ARP. 50 application server. 13 ARCNet. 91 Baseband. 91 domain. 196 client software. 111 D Data Link Layer. 226 Bandwidth. 61 C Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD. 186 Analog. 69.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Index 1 100BaseX. 52 Data Protection. 34 clients. 114 10BaseFL. 231 BOOTP. 108. 114 10Base5. 67 demand priority. 70 DMA. 323 . 161 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC). 92 Boot Sector. 191 BRI.

226 FDDI . 217 IMAP4. 191 gateways. 144 Ethernet..Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Domain Name Service (DNS). 161 . 189 Domain Reflectometer (TDR). 41 H Half-Duplex. 42 Headers. 194 IPCONFIG. 249 IPsec. 192 IFCONFIG. 174 IPv6. 83 IBM Type 3 UTP. 41 Frame Relay. 174 L L2TP. 167 ISDN adapters. 187 HTTPS. K Kerberos. 245 DSMN. 185 interoperability. 71 ICS. 96 LAT. 91 IBM cabling. 191 dynamic routers. 174 LAN. 197 IPX. 186 Incremental backup. 60 E EES. 22 FAT. 67 IRQ. 86 headers. 21. 39 Full-Duplex. 231 fire codes. 96 Linux. 114 EtherTalk. 122 Event Viewer. 68. 93 ISDN. 39 IP. 243 Group policies. 42 GSNW. 231 EISA. 166 fiber-optic. 83 File Infectors. 62 Internet Control Message Protocol. 174 Line-of-Sight Infrared. 91 ISA. 185 IP address. 157 hybrid topologies. 70 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol. 187 Full backup. 120 ICA. 18 I I/O port number. 159 Gigabit Ethernet. 39 fault tolerance. (IEEE). 93 EMI. 187 hubs. 68. 81 environment. 61 Gateways. 224 FPNW.Fiber Distributed Data. 86 G gateway. 191 HTTP. 41 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). 96 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 167 FTP. 56 324 Specialized Solutions. Inc. 186 Internet Protocol (IP). 226 Infrared. 217. 226 Full Control. 215 F Fast Ethernet. 116 ground probe. 86 firewall. 112 HOSTS file. Inc. 12 Laser. 174 ICMP.

172 PPTP. 228 NFS. 31 Network standards. 213 MIC (Media Interface Connectors). 215 NCP. 31 PGP.Multiple Access Units. 151 Media Tester. 217 PING.Primary Domain Controller. 86 PPP. 215 NetWare. 232 Managing User Accounts. 231 physical topologies. 41. 191 NBTSTAT. 43 Macro Virus. 249 plenum. 114 LMHOSTS. 37 MIB (Management Information Base). 69 Network-attached storage (NAS). 68 O ODI. 171 NWLink. 36 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh. 71. 36 NetWare file server. 192 Punch Down Tool. 52 Network Neighborhood. 69 NLSP. 37 Network Adapter Cards. 64 Open Systems Interface (OSI). 21 Media Compatibility. 172 Preemptive multitasking. 67 NDIS. 167 protocol. Inc. 93 PDC . 23 Passwords. 168 MSAU. 37 NetWare Print Services. 157 PCI. 122 logical topology. 217 NTFS. 36 NetBEUI. 229 Patch Panel. 191 LocalTalk. 67 modem. 18 Ping. 23 media access methods. 30 N NAT. 157 MAUs . 64 proxy server. 89 passive hub. 243 mesh topology.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers LLC. 120 Microwave. 32 P Packet switching. 70 NETBIOS. . 30 PRI. 93 PCMCIA. 242 325 Specialized Solutions. 39 NOS – Network Operating System. 13 peer-to-peer. 164 Packet-Radio Networking. 107 protocols. 39 Null-Modem. 36 NetWare Client32 for DOS. 29 OS/2. 89 Network Layer. 18 LSL. 37 NetWare security. 14 Peer-to-peer LANs. 120 Multimeter. 114 Network Time Protocol (NTP). 71. 34 MAU. 190 NETSTAT. 29 NSLOOKUP. 49 operating system. 111 parallel communication. 98 packets. 64 NDS (NetWare Directory Services). 243 multitasking. 120. 49. 36 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95. 67 M Macintosh. 18 MHS. 36 NetWare Client32 for OS/2. 96 MLID. 67 No Access.

89 Server room. 199 T tape backup. 225 TCP. 51 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 34 server-based network. 11 SNMP. 77 Thinnet. 81 Subnetting. 167 SPX. 68 Trojan Horses. 79 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 213 Simplex. 80 U UDP. 68 Satellite Station Networking. 79 Transport Layer. 174 Standards. 225 repeater.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide R Radio. 60. 77 throughput. 16 twisted-pair. 60 Storage Area Network (SAN). 109 token ring. 13 sharing applications. 60. 227 RARP. 215 router. 71 RSA. 253 TLS. 98 Scatter Infrared. 69. 174 token passing. 158 requester. 112 transceiver. 96 SDH. 68 SMDS. sneaker net. 120 SMB. 67. 185 UTP. 175 Security. 237 trunk. 16 TRACERT. 152 star topology. 42 User Datagram Protocol (UDP). 17 static routers. 144 Server Software. 71. 35 Reflective Infrared. 228 STP. 68. 11 signal bounce. 221 segment. 245 SONET. 13 Server-based network. 16. 35 ring topology. 187 Software analyzers. 118 topology. 79 thicknet. 71. 39 redirector. 217 Read. 80 V vampire taps. 172 SMAU. 68 326 Specialized Solutions. 16. 144 Remote Access Server or RAS. 159 routers. 171 removable disks. 67 SSL. 69 terminator. 167 security. 65 RPC. 80 virtual connections. 96 relative humidity. 34. 230 S SAP. 69 ROUTE. 58 . 215. 232 troubleshooting. Inc. 86 SLIP. 68. 184 Telnet. 167 SMTP. 249 Trailer. 187 SNA. 225 removable optical disk. 33 servers. 21. 96 RAID. 17 RIP. 182 UNIX. 16 serial communication.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Viruses. 19. 231 VLAN. 165 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks). 327 . 92 workstation. 95 Wireless NICs. 70 Specialized Solutions. 13 X X. 71 XNS. 31 Windows NT Print Servers.25. 190 Wire Crimper. Inc. 242 Wireless. 31 Windows for Workgroups. 12 Warp Connect. 69. 230 W WAN. 166 XDR. 124 wireless network. 32 Windows 2000. 40 U U WINS. 154 Windows 95/98.

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