Network+ 2005 Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network+

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Copyright© 2004 by Specialized Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 338 East Tarpon Street, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. Publisher: Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Contributing Writers: Bill Ferguson Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Editor: Bill Ferguson

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Suggestions/Comments Please forward all comments or suggestions to: Specialized Solutions, Inc. 338 East Tarpon St. Tarpon Springs, FL 34689

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... I

ABOUT SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS ...........................................................IX
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+ .............................................................2005 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ..................................................................................................9 YOUR VIDEO INSTRUCTOR .................................................................................................9 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST ..................................................................................................10 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................10 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................10 ABOUT THIS COURSE .......................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS ..................................................17 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING ....................................................................................17 Benefits of Networking Computers .............................................................................17 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) .................................18 The Client/Server Relationship ...................................................................................19 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................19 Peer-to-Peer Networking ............................................................................................20 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).....................................................................21 Bus Topology ..............................................................................................................21 Star Topology..............................................................................................................22 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................22 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES ......................................................................................................23 Hybrid Topologies ......................................................................................................23 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................23 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................24 NETWORK ACCESS ...........................................................................................................26 Token Passing .............................................................................................................26 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................26 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................27 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS ...........................................................................................28 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................28 Active Hubs .................................................................................................................29 Hub-Based Networks ..................................................................................................29 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................30 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................31 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1 ....................................................................................33 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS) ....................................35 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? ..................................................................................35 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking .............................................................36 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)? ........................................................37 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................37 Server/Client Software ................................................................................................39 NOS PACKAGES...............................................................................................................42 Specialized Solutions, Inc. i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Novell NetWare .......................................................................................................... 42 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System................................................... 45 Windows NT Minimum Requirements ...........................Error! Bookmark not defined. UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................ 47 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service)................................................ 48 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 50 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................. 51 REVIEW QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................ 52 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS.......... 55 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION ..................................................... 55 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL ................................................................................ 56 Application Layer ....................................................................................................... 56 Presentation Layer ..................................................................................................... 57 Session Layer.............................................................................................................. 57 Transport Layer.......................................................................................................... 57 Network Layer ............................................................................................................ 58 Data Link Layer.......................................................................................................... 58 Logical Link Control (LLC) ....................................................................................... 59 Media Access Control (MAC) .................................................................................... 59 Physical Layer............................................................................................................ 60 PROTOCOL STACKS ......................................................................................................... 62 Communication Between Peer Layers ....................................................................... 62 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD ............................................................................................ 64 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL ....................................................................................... 66 Repeaters .................................................................................................................... 66 Bridges........................................................................................................................ 66 Routers........................................................................................................................ 66 Brouters ...................................................................................................................... 67 Gateways .................................................................................................................... 67 IEEE 802 STANDARDS .................................................................................................... 68 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL ...................................................................... 70 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)......................................................... 70 ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ................................................................................ 70 PROTOCOLS AND OSI ...................................................................................................... 70 Protocol Binding ........................................................................................................ 71 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless ................................................................... 71 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols ........................................................................ 71 Networking Protocols and Stacks............................................................................... 72 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................... 73 DECnet ....................................................................................................................... 73 IPX/ SPX..................................................................................................................... 73 SMB (Server Message Block) ..................................................................................... 74 SNA (Systems Network Architecture) ......................................................................... 74 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ....................................................................... 74 IP (Internet Protocol)................................................................................................. 74 UDP (User Datagram Protocol)................................................................................ 74 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) ..................................................................................... 74 ii Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Table of Contents Telnet...........................................................................................................................75 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................75 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................75 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................75 NTP (Network Time Protocol) ....................................................................................75 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) ...............................................................................75 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................75 X.25 .............................................................................................................................76 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................76 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................76 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................76 LAT (Local Area Transport) .......................................................................................76 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................77 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................78 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................78 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) ...................................................................................78 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) ................................................................78 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) ........................................................78 ISO/OSI Standard .......................................................................................................78 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ...............................................................78 DNS (Domain Name System) ......................................................................................78 XDR (External Data Representation) .........................................................................78 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................78 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................80 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................81 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................82 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................85 NETWORK CABLING .........................................................................................................85 Coaxial Cable .............................................................................................................85 Coaxial Connectors ....................................................................................................86 Twisted-Pair Cable .....................................................................................................88 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................91 Summary of Cabling ...................................................................................................93 CABLING TERMS ..............................................................................................................94 AWG (American Wire Gauge) ....................................................................................94 Bandwidth ...................................................................................................................94 Plenum Grade Cabling ...............................................................................................94 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................95 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)..............................................................................97 Preparing the Data .....................................................................................................97 Signals and Clocking ..................................................................................................97 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel) .................................................................................98 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................98 Configurable Options..................................................................................................98 Wireless NICs............................................................................................................100 Specialized Solutions, Inc. iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Fiber-Optic NICs...................................................................................................... 100 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................ 101 Standard Bus Types .................................................................................................. 101 Laptops ..................................................................................................................... 101 NETWORK PERFORMANCE ............................................................................................. 102 WIRELESS NETWORKS ................................................................................................... 103 Why Wireless? .......................................................................................................... 103 Wireless Transmission Methods............................................................................... 104 Radio Transmission.................................................................................................. 105 Satellite Station Networking..................................................................................... 106 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 108 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 109 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.................................................................................... 112 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS .................................. 115 ACCESS METHODS......................................................................................................... 116 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) .................... 116 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) ................... 117 Token Passing........................................................................................................... 117 Demand Priority....................................................................................................... 117 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS) ............................................... 119 Packet Structure ....................................................................................................... 119 Packet Components .................................................................................................. 120 NETWORK STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 122 Logical Link Control (802.2).................................................................................... 122 Ethernet (802.3)........................................................................................................ 122 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................. 129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)................................................... 131 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 133 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 134 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.................................................................................... 136 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.......................................................................... 139 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT ................................................................................... 139 The Customer ........................................................................................................... 139 The Network Goals................................................................................................... 140 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE ......................................................................................... 142 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer.................................................................................. 142 When to Choose Client/Server ................................................................................. 143 Making the Choice.................................................................................................... 144 Public and Private networks .................................................................................... 144 DESIGN THE NETWORK.................................................................................................. 150 Media Selection ........................................................................................................ 151 Environmental Concerns.......................................................................................... 152 NOS Selection........................................................................................................... 152 Protocol Selection .................................................................................................... 152 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER ............................................................................................ 154 Cable to Computer ................................................................................................... 154 iv Specialized Solutions, Inc.

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................165 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL .....197 Specialized Solutions...................................................................................................................192 Other TCP/IP Protocols ....................................................................................197 DNS ......................................................................................................................178 Connecting Two Computers....................................................................................................................................................................................172 VLAN...................................161 HCL and Windows 2000 .........................................................................................................................................................................................186 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS .................................................................166 Repeaters..............................................................................................................................................192 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols ........................................................................................................159 Computer Compatibility...160 Hard Work ...174 MODEMS .................................................................................................................................................183 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ..............................EXPANDING A NETWORK .............................................................................................184 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 .................................167 Gateway ......161 Minimum Requirements ...................................................................................................189 RFC (Request For Comments).........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................159 PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS .........................................................167 CONNECTION SERVICES ...............................182 Troubleshooting a RAS setup....................................................................................189 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP.............................................................................155 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY ..............................194 NAMING SYSTEMS .168 Carriers................................Table of Contents Cable to Hub ................................................................................................................................................................................166 Bridges ......................................................................................................................................................179 Installing and Configuring RAS..................................162 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 ................. v ............................................................................168 WAN Overview..................157 Media Compatibility .......................................165 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS...............................................................................................................................160 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ...............................................................................................182 Limitations of RAS .........................................157 Adapter Card Compatibility .........................154 Network Adapter Cards .............169 Digital Connectivity ..........................................173 Advanced WAN Environments ..................................................................................166 Routers ..........................................................................................176 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS) ...... Inc...............................................................................170 Circuit-switched Networks.............................................164 CHAPTER 7 ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................172 Packet Switching Networks................................................................................................................................................................................178 RAS Protocols ............189 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................169 Analog Connectivity.................................................................160 Standards ......................................................

............................................................. 223 NETSTAT ............................................................................................................................................................. 222 VALIDATION TOOLS ........................................................... 198 NETBIOS ..................................................... 200 IP Proxy Servers................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. .............. 225 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG .................................................................................................................................................................... 219 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES............................................................................................................................................ 203 Class D and Class E Addresses.................................................................. 209 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS ................. 200 NAT................................................................................... 215 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................. 223 NBTSTAT ........................................................................................... 199 BOOTP ......................................................................................................................................................................... Inc.......................................................................................................... 223 TRACERT........................................................ 222 EVENT VIEWER ................................................................................................. 221 NETWORK MANAGERS ............................ 202 IP Addresses ............................................................................................ 207 How to Subdivide a Network ................................................................. 203 Class C Addresses ................................................................................................................................... 229 vi Specialized Solutions.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 225 IFCONFIG................................ 228 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY .SNMP .......................... 225 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................... 200 ICS .................................................................................................................................................................. 223 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .............. 202 IPv4 ................................................................................................................................. 229 USER AND SHARE LEVEL ......................................................................................................... 198 HOSTS file.............................................................................................................................. 199 LMHOSTS file ................. 199 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES ................................... 227 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9.........................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS................ 203 Class A Addresses ............................ 205 SUBNETTING ................... 200 TCP/IP ADDRESSING............... 203 IPv6 (IP Next Generation) ....................... 223 ROUTE......................................................................................... 222 Communities..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 217 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8.................... 225 PING............................................................................................................................................................................................... 199 IP Gateway ........ 225 RARP................................................................... 199 DHCP .. 225 NSLOOKUP.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 221 Agent Software .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 203 Class B Addresses ................................................................................................................................ 225 ARP .................................................................................................................................... 221 Management Software........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....232 Backup Options...................................245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .......................243 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK ..............................................................................................263 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11 ................................................................270 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS ..237 Encryption...............................................................................236 PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES ......................267 ETHERNET CABLING .................................................................................................................................229 Share-level Security ....................................................................................................................269 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING) .......................................................267 5-4-3 RULE ...............................................X STANDARDS............ Differential.................................................................................................................271 OSI MODEL ...........................................................................................260 Name Resolution .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................245 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING.........................................................................................................................................................234 Full.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................267 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES ................................... and Incremental Backups ...................232 Firewalls ...............250 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools........................................................264 CONCLUSION .....................................................................................................250 Hardware Networking Tools.............................................273 SUBNET MASKING ........................................242 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10 .........................................................................................................................................257 Cable Problems..............Table of Contents User-level Security...............................234 Volumes...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................251 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS ..........................................................................................................234 Fault Tolerance and Power .........................260 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ....................................264 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY .................................................274 TCP/IP PORTS ........................................................................239 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ...........................................239 Viruses...................................................275 TCP/IP UTILITIES ...............................................................................................................................................................................................269 IEEE 802................238 Disaster Recovery ...........................................................................................................................................255 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................233 Backup Software ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................259 NIC Indicator Lights .............................................. vii ........................ Inc....................................................................................................................................................................................................232 Blocking Port Numbers...............................................275 Specialized Solutions...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................234 Fault Tolerance and RAID......................................232 Backing up Data ..........................230 SECURITY TECHNIQUES ..............................................................................268 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES ...........257 Misbehaving Protocols ..........................................................260 Performance...................................................

...... 323 viii Specialized Solutions............................. 311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6....................................................................................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2....................................................................................................................... 281 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS ..........................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TOPOLOGY REVIEW ................................................................................................................................................................ 321 INDEX ................................................................................................................... 281 MICROSOFT: ..................... 318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9........................................................................................ 283 IEEE ................................................................. 287 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ..................................................... 285 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Inc.............................................................................................................. 281 COMPUSERVE ............................................................................................................................... 276 TRANSMISSION MEDIA ...................... 309 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5........................... 283 ANSI................................................................. 283 CCITT ............ 281 NOVELL ............................... 278 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES ......................................................................................................................................... OTHER HELPFUL SITES .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1..................................................................................... 320 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11........................................................................................................................................................................... 306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 278 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .......................... 316 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8........................................................................................................................... 284 ISO........ 304 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3........................................................... 315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7....... 283 EIA ...................................................... 284 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM.............................................. 284 SAG ......... .............................. 319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10............................................................... 285 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS .......................................................................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.

We are committed to always be on the leading edge of new computer environment training products. One hundred percent customer satisfaction and unmatched customer service is always our commitment to the computer professional. Specialized Solutions. Inc.com Specialized Solutions. Inc. is dedicated to providing the computer professional the highest level of self-study training and certification materials the industry has to offer. Inc. We will always provide a quality product to customers at a price that is within reach of most computer professionals.’s Network+ training and certification course.specializedsolutions.About Specialized Solutions About Specialized Solutions Welcome to Specialized Solutions. Our highly skilled staff of computer and educational professionals are dedicated to delivering high quality. We strive to provide training programs that far exceed the expectations of our customers. please visit us at: www. cost-effective programs that are customized to suit your needs. Inc. ix . course offerings. We thank you for choosing our company as your resource for Information Technology SelfStudy Training. To see other Specialized Solutions.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide x Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

Technical Editors. Technical Writers. and Digital Video Studio Professionals. We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! Specialized Solutions. or as a textbook in a classroom environment. Network+ video training series. easy to follow format. at Specialized Solutions. Inc. our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals. as a stand-alone textbook. It can be used in conjunction with the Specialized Solutions. Remember. We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program. Computer Graphics Experts. We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical. Inc. 1 .Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey. .0 Media & Topologies 2. Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination.0 Network Implementation 4.” “This examination includes blueprint weighting.” The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1. Inc. The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content.0 Protocols & Standards 3. test objectives and example content.0 Network Support Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 25% 35% 100% 2 Specialized Solutions.

Media and Topologies – 20% 1. schematic or description: • Star • Bus • Mesh • Ring 1. 802.11 (wireless). and cable type) of the following cable standards: • 10BASE-T and 10BASE-FL • 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX • 1000BASE-T.Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: Domain 1. Inc. and 6 • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) • STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) • Coaxial cable • SMF (Single Mode Fiber) optic cable • MMF (Multimode Fiber) optic cable 1.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a diagram.5 Recognize the following media types and describe their uses: • Category 3. and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) networking technologies. topology. including: • Speed • Access method (CSMA / CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) and CSMA / CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection)) • Topology • Media 1.3 Specify the characteristics (For example: speed. 3 . 802. 5. length. 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX • 10 GBASE-SR.2 (Logical Link Control).3 (Ethernet).4 Recognize the following media connectors and describe their uses: • RJ-11 (Registered Jack) • RJ-45 (Registered Jack) • F-Type • ST (Straight Tip) • SC (Subscriber Connector or Standard Connector) • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) • Fiber LC (Local Connector) • MT-RJ (Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack) • USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1. features and functions of the following network components: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • Gateways • CSU / DSU (Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit) Specialized Solutions. 1000BASE-CX.6 Identify the purposes.2 Specify the main features of 802.0 . 10 GBASE-LR and 10 GBASE-ER 1.5 (token ring). 802. 5e.

4 Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing. Inc. 2.6 Identify classful IP (Internet Protocol) ranges and their subnet masks (For example: Class A.11x (Direct sequence spread spectrum) • Infrared • Bluetooth 1. addressing schemes.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • NICs (Network Interface Card) • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) adapters • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) • Modems • Transceivers (media converters) • Firewalls 1.9 Identify and differentiate between the following IP (Internet Protocol) addressing methods: • Static • Dynamic • Self-assigned (APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing)) 2.0 – Protocols and Standards – 20% 2.8 Identify the differences between private and public network addressing schemes. 2.1 Identify a MAC (Media Access Control) address and its parts. IPv6) and the required setting for connections across the Internet. Domain 2.11 (Frequency hopping spread spectrum) • 802. 2.3 Identify the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) layers at which the following network components operate: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • NICs (Network Interface Card) • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) 2. antenna type and environmental factors). function and use of the following protocols used in the TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) suite: • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) 4 Specialized Solutions. B and C).7 Identify the purpose of subnetting.7 Specify the general characteristics (For example: carrier speed. transmission type and topology) of the following wireless technologies: • 802. 2.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model and their functions. frequency.10 Define the purpose.8 Identify factors which affect the range and speed of wireless service (For example: interference. 2. .5 Identify the components and structure of IP (Internet Protocol) addresses (IPv4. interoperability and naming conventions: • IPX / SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange / Sequence Packet Exchange) • NetBEUI (Network Basic Input / Output System Extended User Interface) • AppleTalk / AppleTalk over IP (Internet Protocol) • TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) 2. 2.

11 Define the function of TCP / UDP (Transmission Control Protocol / User Datagram Protocol) ports. ICS (Internet Connection Sharing). WINS (Windows Internet Name Service). 5 .15 Identify the basic characteristics of the following internet access technologies: • xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) • Broadband Cable (Cable modem) • POTS / PSTN (Plain Old Telephone Service / Public Switched Telephone Network) • Satellite • Wireless Specialized Solutions.13 Identify the purpose of network services and protocols (For example: DNS (Domain Name Service). 2. capacity and media) of the following WAN (Wide Area Networks) technologies: • Packet switching • Circuit switching • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) • T1 (T Carrier level 1) / E1 / J1 • T3 (T Carrier level 3) / E3 / J3 • OCx (Optical Carrier) • X. 2.12 Identify the well-known ports associated with the following commonly used services and protocols: • 20 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 21 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 22 SSH (Secure Shell) • 23 Telnet • 25 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • 53 DNS (Domain Name Service) • 69 TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • 80 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • 110 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) • 119 NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • 123 NTP (Network Time Protocol) • 143 IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • 443 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) 2.14 Identify the basic characteristics (For example: speed. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). Inc.Introduction • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) • POP3 / IMAP4 (Post Office Protocol version 3 / Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • Telnet • SSH (Secure Shell) • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) • ARP / RARP (Address Resolution Protocol / Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) • NTP (Network Time Protocol) • NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) • IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) • LPR (Line Printer Remote) 2. NAT (Network Address Translation). Zeroconf (Zero configuration). NFS (Network File System). SMB (Server Message Block).25 2. LPD (Line Printer Daemon) and Samba). AFP (Apple File Protocol).

Kerberos and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)). Domain 3. 6 Specialized Solutions. authentication and encryption).0 Network Implementation – 25% 3. benefits and characteristics of using a proxy service. an authentication scheme.8 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks). file and print services. 3. punch down tool or tone generator). and physical connectivity.4 Given a remote connectivity scenario comprised of a protocol. authentication. 3. RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service).3 Identify the appropriate tool for a given wiring task (For example: wire crimper. determine the impact on network functionality of a particular security implementation (For example: port blocking / filtering.9 Identify the main characteristics and purpose of extranets and intranets. benefits and characteristics of using a firewall. configure the connection.2 Identify the basic capabilities needed for client workstations to connect to and use network resources (For example: media. interoperability. 3.7 Given a connectivity scenario. media tester / certifier.1x 2. Inc. application support and security) of the following server operating systems to access network resources: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3.5 Identify the purpose.6 Identify the purpose.18 Identify authentication protocols (For example: CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). 3. 3. 3. network protocols and peer and server services). Includes connection to the following servers: • UNIX / Linux / MAC OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. . MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2.16 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services: • RAS (Remote Access Service) • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) • PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) • VPN (Virtual Private Network) • RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) 2.1 Identify the basic capabilities (For example: client support.17 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function: • IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Continued on the next page… Continued from the previous page… • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) • 802. PAP (Password Authentication Protocol).

print services. select the appropriate network utility from the following: • Tracert / traceroute • ping • arp • netstat • nbtstat • ipconfig / ifconfig • winipcfg • nslookup / dig 4. 4. 4.4 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a client accessing remote network services.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario. warm and cold sites Domain 4.5 Given a troubleshooting scenario between a client and the following server environments. DNS (Domain Name Service) and WINS (Windows Internet Name Service)) for network resources and users. benefits and characteristics of using antivirus software. interference. identify the cause of a stated problem (For example: bad media.1). 3. star.2 Given output from a network diagnostic utility (For example: those utilities listed in objective 4. 4. authentication failure.7 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology (For example: bus. 4. determine the impact of modifying. protocol configuration. 4. physical connectivity and SOHO (Small Office / Home Office) router).10 Identify the purpose. Specialized Solutions. identify the cause of the problem (For example: file services. Inc.Introduction 3.11 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance: • Power • Link redundancy • Storage • Services 3. interpret visual indicators (For example: link LEDs (Light Emitting Diode) and collision LEDs (Light Emitting Diode)) to determine the nature of a stated problem. identify the utility and interpret the output. network hardware or environment). identify the network area affected and the cause of the stated failure. mesh or ring) and including a network diagram.3 Given a network scenario. identify the cause of a stated problem: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 4.12 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery: • Backup / restore • Offsite storage • Hot and cold spares • Hot. 7 .6 Given a scenario. adding or removing network services (For example: DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).8 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving an infrastructure (For example: wired or wireless) problem.0 Network Support – 35% 4.

. Establish what has changed 4. Inc. This strategy can include the following steps: 1. Identify the results and effects of the solution 8. Identify the affected area 3. Document the solution and process 8 Specialized Solutions. Identify the symptoms and potential causes 2. Select the most probable cause 5. Test the result 7.9 Given a network problem scenario. Implement an action plan and solution including potential effects 6.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. select an appropriate course of action based on a logical troubleshooting strategy.

Bill has written the “MCDST Study Guide” for Sybex Inc. and Security+. Use the “Help” button where available.Introduction Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not extremely complicated. such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. CCSI. He is certified as an MCT. as well as “Designing Security for Windows Server 2003 Network” for Exam Cram2. Network+. Inc. it may seem so. Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge. use a study plan. and CCNA. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented. Bill now runs his own company as an independent contractor in Birmingham. results oriented computer specialist who has extensive knowledge of Microsoft networks. Hands-on experience is best. not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation.” Specialized Solutions. Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding. MCSE. teaching classes for most of the national training companies and some regional training companies. MCP+I. Alabama. Server+. Your Video Instructor Your video instructor is Bill Ferguson. Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand. Bill has been in the computer industry for over 15 years. Originally in technical sales and sales management with Sprint. MCDST. In addition. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary. Bill made his transition to Certified Technical Trainer in 1997 with ExecuTrain. To get the best results from your training. Bill is an enthusiastic. Bill says. if this is your first exposure to networking. However. MCSA. Practice the function on your computer. In addition he holds the CompTIA certifications of A+. 9 . “My job is to understand the material so well that I can make it easier for my students to learn than it was for me to learn.

Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive. There are no specific requirements. YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Schedule the test for a few weeks from now so that you will have a guidepost that is constantly reminding you that you need to study the material. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find. The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. except payment of the test fee. You can also call VUE at 877-551-7587 or Thomson Prometric at 888-8956116. CONGRATULATIONS. Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs. . but A+ certification is not required. Inc. • • • How do you learn best (reading. hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 10 Specialized Solutions. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills. watching. French and Japanese. German. there is no one method that will work for everyone.com). You may be surprised at how near you are to a testing center! Evaluate your learning aptitudes. You can locate a testing center and schedule the test on the web. This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. You can take the test at any Virtual University Enterprises testing center (vue. Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book.com) or any Thomson Prometric testing center (2test. Since most of us learn in different ways. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English. A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge. 1999. The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam.

Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. Based on your time to learn (and your schedule). just get a feel for it. Review the video presentation one more time if necessary. you want to begin to understand. If you need to. If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course. Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time. • Complete the course a second time. It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point. Make an appointment with yourself. Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). Inc. Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). 11 . What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through. This workbook will make this task much easier. Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises. Specialized Solutions. At this time. You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time. Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read.Introduction Make a plan to learn. go though the entire course again. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. Re-read the test and review the video presentation. Use the rewind button as often as necessary. set aside the time to learn. You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted. It is a closed book exam. Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam As you prepare for your certification exam it will be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure. Inc. it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature. You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam. including one photo ID. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test. • • • • 12 Specialized Solutions. You will be required to show two forms of identification. If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams. All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam. Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam. . which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test. You will be asked to sign the form. Evaluate the questions you missed. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in. The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form. You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them. (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam.

put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. If the administrator does not do this. which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass. answer the question. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. a Network+ Training & Test Preparation Guide and a practice exam simulator. ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam.Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials. If you know the answer. It lists your score by objective. you are given the ability to skip a question.) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. Inc. If you’re not quite sure. The course contains five instructor led CD-ROMs. Specialized Solutions. Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions. If you positively don’t know the answer. but be sure to read it in its entirety. Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. skip it. Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system. At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered. guess. or if you are unclear about what you should do. Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers. You will have plenty of time as long as you use it wisely. you can see which questions are not answered. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides. (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam. Do not read too much into the question. you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam.Introduction HINT . You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. mark a question or answer a question. Usually. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you. you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score. Keep track of the time and pace yourself. 13 . Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! About This Course This Specialized Solutions Network+ course is a multi-media. marked or skipped. (such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test. If you don’t know the answer. self-study training system. Before retaking the exam. (You don’t need to send them the score report. mark it and come back to it.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Video Chapters Include: CD 1: Introduction and Overview Network Topologies Network Technologies Cable Standards Media Connectors CD 2: Media Types Network Components Wireless Technologies Protocols and Standards The OSI Model IP Addressing CD 3: Ports Services WAN Internet Access Remote Access Security Protocols CD 4: Server Operating Systems Client Connectivity Tools for Networking Firewalls Proxy Service Network Connectivity Virtual Local Area Networks Antivirus Software Fault Tolerance Disaster Recovery CD 5: Troubleshooting Network Utilities Troubleshooting Network Services Troubleshooting Topologies Troubleshooting Strategy Preparation for a Certification Test 14 Specialized Solutions.

Introduction This study guide is divided into 11 chapters. It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course. 15 . Inc. Specialized Solutions.

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a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data.) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics. You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN. Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking. a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files.” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service. users can access programs. Specialized Solutions. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents. files. This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment. and applications (resources). and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net. as a networking professional. A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented. 17 . Through networking.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking. Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need. It is very important that. you understand exactly what a network is. After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment. Additionally. Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources. It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than to purchase a printer for every user. Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage. Inc. But for our purposes. peripherals. An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?).” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do.

Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information. or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function. . A WAN can connect networks from building to building or across the world. Also. the speed of communication between the computers is typically much faster in a LAN. it is still considered a LAN. 18 Specialized Solutions. The Internet is the world’s largest WAN. The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits. When LANs are connected they create a WAN.

when the user is getting information from the server. A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or county. network security. A mainframe will handle all the functions. if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access. efficiency in backing up the data. Also. that access would cause the workstation to become a server. The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation. it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. and is a client. since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client). Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. Users. one for applications (application server). also known as clients. Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. including hard disk space and RAM. and expandability. These terms are not interchangeable. A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. including applications. but they are not common. log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. However. Specialized Solutions. configuration and management may be more challenging. The advantages of this type of network are central administration.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals There is actually a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). For example. It is important to know what a MAN is. there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network. The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. one for printing (print server). that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files. The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity. The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer. The Internet has replaced most MANs today. Inc. or a mail server (E-mail). 19 . A large network may have more than one server.

All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user. A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install. In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal. Also. network security is unreliable.g. The computers are simply cabled together. Inc. and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e. This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved. . Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network. a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand. Peer-to-Peer Network 20 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers. A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security.

it prevents other devices from sending data. the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other. Different topologies have different cabling requirements. As a network professional. how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). Devices only listen for data being transmitted. While the signal is bouncing back and forth. The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used. This cable is called a trunk. the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address). refers to its physical layout. connectors. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together. and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other. If not prevented. The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable. scheme. map. However. The Bus topology is a passive topology. An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. or segment. This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. if the cable breaks. There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal. also called Network Adapter Cards). or diagram. Specialized Solutions. 21 . are all determined by the topology used. backbone. (Network Interface Cards. you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable. To stop signal bounce. Inc. future growth needs. Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. or topology. design. In a Bus network. they do not move the transmissions along. NICs. and even how the cabling is run through a building.

however. the rest of the network will still continue to function. 22 Specialized Solutions. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable. Inc. The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. it can affect the entire network. The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network. There are no ends to terminate. It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology. the entire network will go down. If the hub fails. Star Topology Ring Topology In a Ring topology. all devices are connected to a central point called a hub. The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network. but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Star Topology In a Star topology. . A disadvantage is that if one computer fails.

Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies. Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. some Ethernet networks today are wired using a using multiple hubs. Token Ring networks are physical stars and logical rings. For example. These are the methods in which a network is actually wired. a computer can fail and not prevent the network from functioning. Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies. This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. A logical topology. These are known as Hybrid topologies. In these networks. You will be able to see a physical topology. the ring is actually in a special type of hub called a Multistation Access Unit (MSAU). you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology. Before you can understand some of these special topologies. Inc. It consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. Also. The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. is how the network actually works. 23 . So far. they operate between the hubs like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus. on the other hand. This gives us a physical star topology. we have been discussing physical topologies. However.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals With IBM Token Ring networks. Specialized Solutions. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations.

the topology of a wireless network is that of an “invisible star”. Since each computer has its own connection to the wireless access point (WAP).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points. . Inc. . The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter 4 of this book. 24 Specialized Solutions.

Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Specialized Solutions. 25 .

and the message is delivered. Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. Inc. Multiple Access means that more than one computer 26 Specialized Solutions. Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices. We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards. we create kind of a “party line”.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected. only one device at a time can communicate on the network. . The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). they are called Token Ring and Ethernet. It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token. The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network. The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message. A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit. This is based on the media or wiring of the network. With several devices connected to one media. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods. Since there is only one token.

Inc. 27 . Specialized Solutions. Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps. Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original. Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals can be connected to the same cable. Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted).

hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function. they are all the same. Today. Essentially. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified. since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network. they are called MSAUs (Multiple Station Access Units). Hubs can be classified as either passive or active. not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network. The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator. With a Token Ring. Passive hubs do not require any electrical power to function. Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks. Inc. Passive Hub – Patch Panel 28 Specialized Solutions. Just remember. .

An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. 4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs. They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected. Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity. 2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available. 29 . Inc. This type type of hub requires electrical power to function. Specialized Solutions. 3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs.

We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources. Inc. go back and review the chapter again. 30 Specialized Solutions. star. . The three main types of topology are bus. and ring. A WAN is not geographically limited and typically has greater speed of communication than a WAN. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. The two types of networks are LANs and WANs. It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN. Topology is a term we use to describe the logical shape of the connection of computers in a network.

Inc. 31 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 32 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

Specialized Solutions.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Review Questions . 11. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. Name two media access methods. 10. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12. Name the three basic topologies. 8. What is the main reason for networking computers? 3. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. Inc.Chapter 1 1. 5. 9. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6. What is a “sneaker net”? 4. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. 7. 33 . Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. What are the key differences between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2.

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When we refer to the operating system in this chapter. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well. You can get it all set up and turn on the power. Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 . most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions. word-processing. We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities. The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other. Today. processor time. This chapter is all about the various operating systems with which a networking professional needs to be familiar. what we are really talking about are network operating systems. it will just sit there. What is an Operating System? Not that long ago. 35 . The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e.Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking. Inc. In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems. and database programs).g. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment. spreadsheet. if you don’t have the software to run it. as well as the operating system. but without an operating system. Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment. Hardware resources such as RAM. When we are talking about operating systems. hard disk space. we are referencing the built-in network operating system component. Most of today’s client and server operating systems have a built-in network operating system. network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system. Specialized Solutions. and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). it is just a pile of metal and plastic.

Inc. 36 Specialized Solutions. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs. In non-preemptive multitasking. Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. the processor is never taken away from a task. Preemptive multitasking began with Windows 95 and the Intel Pentium processor. Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed. A true multitasking (multi-processing) operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors. It is used on all of the latest operating systems. put simply. .

and archiving music. 37 .Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. turning on the computer and answering questions. Instead. moving photos to the Web. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs. Then. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems. Windows 95/98 Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems that include a network operating system. Novell NetWare. Specialized Solutions. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices. such as BSD UNIX. Their new graphical interface and networking capabilities make them a vast improvement over their predecessors. Inc. all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network. They use an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. Microsoft Client. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system. to communicate with other computers over a network. and you have a working network. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. or a similar program. All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood. It is well-suited for editing home movies. Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration. It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card. Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. Windows 95/98 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems.

. a simplified visual design. like ME. It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies. is equipped to be networked easily. It features file protection.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server. Inc. remote OS installation. which allows for safety when installing additional software or making changes to the computer’s configuration. like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here. EFS (Encrypting File System). Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is the newest edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users. Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across in real life but are unlikely to be on the test: 38 Specialized Solutions. peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT. multilingual support. IPsec and Kerberos support. It also uses System Restore. It allows for faster user switching. driver certification. It.

In a Serverbased network. Inc. the computers act as both a client and a server. However. Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network. Inc. 39 .Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (uses resources locally). it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment. the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability. This can also provide accessibility and security for all devices on a network. Specialized Solutions.

Server Software As their name implies. Unlike most client software. Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access). the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access. . Some networks even cluster server so that more that one server can share a database of information. most of the data is stored on the server. if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus. Data Protection As we already discussed. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. Servers exist to serve. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed. Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task. However. out onto the network. the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. The component that handles these requests is called the redirector. Inc. At the very least. and to the server. This 40 Specialized Solutions. Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server. server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location.

to resources. Basically. it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests. Inc. etc. which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer. This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer. It does this by assigning drive letters. It does not need to know anything about networks. If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server. If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) provides for load balancing of the server resources as well as fault tolerance if one server were to fail. 41 . The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs. Specialized Solutions. The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server. or if they need to be redirected to the server. called drive designators.

but there will always be data in any network to which access must be restricted. management. non-shareable. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security.2) was designed to operate on 286 machines. Organization of network resources such as users. Version 6. name service. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. or Pentium machines.5 is now on the market. NetWare Directory Services (NDS) NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. routing. 42 Specialized Solutions. a user may logon from anywhere on the network and gain access with all of their assigned rights and privileges intact. Trustee rights regulate which directories and files a user can access. NetWare Security The purpose of a network may be to share resources. servers. Directory and file attributes are used to set the types of access for a file or directory such as viewed. It may be installed in either the client or server format. The earliest version (2. 486. time. which is like the Internet but within a network or company. . Novell NetWare The NetWare operating system has been around for a long time. In this section. and account restrictions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use.11 is called IntranetWare. • NetWare’s popularity is due largely to its ability to provide services across multioperating system environments. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. or through NWADMIN. groups.12 and 4. In the past. or changed. which is a Windows-based utility. It is a reliable operating system that provides performance and security. NetWare File Services The NetWare file server hard drive may be mapped to a client and the client machine will recognize the drive as a logical drive and be able to access it as it would any other drive in the computer. NetWare is administered through NetADMIN. It is Novell’s push to gain market share and is a way of creating an Intranet. NetWare is based upon the industry standard X500 directory architecture. NetWare provides more than adequate network security by using a combination of approaches. First. we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. as well as what kind of access they have. but it is losing market share to Microsoft servers every year. Version 4. which is a DOS-based utility. web-publishing. password. Versions 3. copied.11 operate on 386. With NDS’ single point logon. deleted.EXE. messaging. Inc. shared. and volumes is also handled with NDS. and file and print services. it was the most popular server operating system. login security provides authentication and verification of user name.

Printers may be attached to the server. Inc. It is compatible with E-mail programs such as Novell’s GroupWise and Microsoft Mail. The file server and the print server can be the same computer. Print requests are first routed to the file server. next to the print server. NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS) MHS may be installed on any server and configured to be a network wide E-mail system. and finally to the printer. except an individual workstation. NetWare Minimum Requirements The following are the minimum installation requirements as specified by Novell for installing their server software: Specialized Solutions. You can even send messages to everyone in a group. NetWare also provides a method of using simple commands to send messages to other users on the network.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Print Services NetWare Print Services can support up to 256 printers. as well as others. a workstation. or directly to the network. You can send messages to individuals or to groups very easily. 43 .

0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS OS/2 1.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 4.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 3.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 5: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Pentium Class or higher 64 MB 550 MB 386 or higher 16 MB 105 MB 386 or higher 6 MB 30 MB 286 or higher 2.1 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS MS Windows 3.1 or later (Standard or Extended Edition) and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 OS/2 2. .0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for Macintosh OS Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Version 2.11 or OS/2 Warp and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 Macintosh 6. Inc.5 MB 20 MB Client Software The client software may be installed on any computer running any of the following: • • • • • 44 DOS 3.

Windows combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier. Inc. interoperability simply means the ability of an operating system to operate with other systems. This type is performed by each workstation or server publicly sharing a directory on the network. The advanced security features of Windows are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT . Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version. Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management. With this method. Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software). The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of Windows security features. its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows Servers. Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems. Change. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Interoperability As the word implies. The attributes such as Read. 45 . Windows File Services Like NetWare. Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data. You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows network. In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows . The NT Kernel. another security method must be utilized. which as at the base of all Microsoft’s servers. Unlike NetWare. Today. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories. The newest of these server operating systems. Full Control. As we’ve already discussed. Specialized Solutions. but it does have several advantages. offer even more advantages and stronger security than their predecessors. Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2). The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of Microsoft’s server/workstation technology. or No Access may be set on the directory. Files in Windows may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network. The NetWare client can be installed with almost any other operating system. but Windows NT contains services such as NWLink and Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW) that allow them to work together effectively. Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. NetWare is extremely efficient at operating with other systems.File Allocation Table) during installation. Problems do occur when trying to operate within the Windows NT domain. the Windows servers may be configured to store each workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups.

permissions. 46 Specialized Solutions. Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers. Windows Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in a Windows network. especially with the latest Windows Server 2003 family. Even if you are installing a local printer.) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer. Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene. Windows Network Services There are many services available in Windows to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user. A domain is simply a group of users. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer. Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in the domain. computers. At least one domain controller is assigned to each domain. more than one printer can be installed to any machine. (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows Server Security Security was a major concern in the development of Windows Servers.. Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service. and user rights. Microsoft uses domains to control access and authenticate users and computers. Remember. Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible.. Server Service provides access to network resources. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. Workstation Service is the redirector service. Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions). A domain controller is a server that maintains and manages all accounts. Inc. and resources with a shared security database. . This trend continued with the latest Windows server operating systems (Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. you are given the option to share it to the network. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network. The following is a list of services included with Windows Server software to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between Microsoft and NetWare.

and is. when using Windows Server 2003 you typically must remove or configure security boundaries in order to get the server to. Windows Server 2003 offers a more secure Web Server (IIS 6. it has more “locked down” security templates that make it less likely that users will try to go around the security. Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to Windows. Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. This is necessary because all Microsoft client workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point. Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be. UNIX is a Specialized Solutions. In fact.0).. used as such. 47 . In addition. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the Microsoft service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 is the latest in the line of Microsoft server operating systems. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases.0) than the previous version in Windows 2000 (IIS 5. which govern what users can see and do on the network. Inc. FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access Microsoft file and print services. Windows Server 2003 is the first Windows server that was built primarily with security in mind. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. It can be installed on the Microsoft client to allow it to connect the Netware server directly. Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional. It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives. It provides all of the advantages of Windows 2000 Server.. Installing CSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. This software is not included with Netware but can be purchased separately. Installing GSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. In contrast. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators. Previous Microsoft server operating systems were built to serve and then had security features to protect them.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an Microsoft domain and the NetWare server. but it adds many features that are designed exclusively for security. It allows Novell NDS computers to be managed just as Microsoft domain controllers. Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to Microsoft’s domain controller. It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network.well serve.

Because of its open source nature. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system. to convert the UNIX host into a file server. A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users. At its inception. Inc. it was an extremely popular network operating system. and many other features associated with an OS. OS/2. multi-user.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide bulky operating system. Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. and messaging services. A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. These terminals are not stand-alone computers. TCP/IP. 48 Specialized Solutions. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources. . It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows. in fact the software is available for a free download. UNIX is a multi-tasking. Like Novell NetWare. Linux is open source. VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments. security. It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top. however. which means that it can be changed by a software programmer. general-purpose operating system. It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms. At one time. The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. as well as others. many variations of Linux have been created over the years such as Caldera and Red Hat. Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system. StreetTalk provides directory. but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. UNIX. Software is available. Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX. The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. as well as file and printer sharing.

but users also use them personally. Specialized Solutions. In conjunction with Xerox. 49 . The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction with the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book). Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984. and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC. both at home and on the go. they developed what later became known as the mouse and the first GUI display. Inc.

50 Specialized Solutions. Banyan VINES. centralization of administration. With the redirector. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems. Today. The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security. A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare). There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system. Study through the chapter again if you need to. The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely). such as Novell NetWare and Windows server operating systems. and data backups. The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly. and at least be familiar with others. It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today.). an application is unaware that it is working from a network. Inc. etc. Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. In a server-based network. the most popular network operating systems also function as the network operating system. Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic. (UNIX. the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer. In a peer-to-peer network. the client computers rely on the server for their resources. .

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS)

KEYWORDS Exercise
Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition

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Review Questions
1. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system?

2.

What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking?

3.

What is the purpose of the redirector?

4.

NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments.

5.

What is NDS?

6.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5?

7.

Define interoperability.

8.

Unlike NetWare, Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one.

9.

What is NTFS?

10.

What is a domain?

11.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server?

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Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) 12. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.

13.

What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system?

14.

What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984?

15.

What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system?

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Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards

Chapter 3- The OSI Model and Communication Standards
In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, what it is and its primary function. You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles each function, and which devices function at each layer. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam.

The Seven Layers of Network Communication
The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. As a result, some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other, and how they will communicate if they are using different languages. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit; when not to transmit; and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected; how the data will flow (at what speed); and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications.

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The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you should notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers, depending upon their functions.

Seven Layers of the OSI Model
The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network. These services include file, print, and messaging services. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer. The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. This is not the actual application or program, simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail, transfer files across the network, or access a

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These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. Inc. interpreting graphics commands.) character set conversion. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. and un-packaging the data for transport. it presents data to the application layer. 57 . For example. The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit. Each connection is called a session. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network. As its name implies. if the packets are too small. If Specialized Solutions.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards network database. Sessions may be established using simplex. and prepare it for its journey. without duplication. and ending connections. protocol conversion. or receive. bit ordering. etc. Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure. It provides a logical connection between the two devices. managing. This layer is also responsible for data compression. or full-duplex communication. The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh. they will be combined. half-duplex. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer. The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer. add any addressing information and error correction information. it will break the data into packets. The network redirector operates at this layer. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. and error free. The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them. In short. and data encryption. The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence. The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. and when. This layer is responsible for establishing. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network. This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local.

This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers. This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. For example. however. delivery of packets is not guaranteed. Inc. Should an error occur. segmentation information and routing information. 58 Specialized Solutions. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. This controls network congestion. In an ideal world. they will be broken into smaller packets. error free manner.518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. Routers and NICs function on this layer. the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets. This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link. it will retransmit after a specified amount of time. all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly.) It also includes control information such as frame type. but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. When you are using a connection-oriented protocol. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. checked for errors. UDP is a connectionless protocol. When you are using a connectionless protocol. Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide they are too large. stripped of its addressing information. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards. When the data is received. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination. . Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission. It receives a packet from the Network layer and packages it into what is called a frame. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. Once the data is reassembled. Connectionless protocols are faster. it will be un-packed. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols.

Inc. The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. and Demand Priority. The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards. The following is an example of a MAC address: Specialized Solutions. Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel. the data is sent out on the wire to all computers. When the sending computer does not receive and acknowledgement. The way that a network shares the channel is called its carrier access method. The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. such as SDLC.2 standard defines how this takes place. The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer. The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address. The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame. It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link. then it discards the data. In this way. it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. The IEEE 802. 59 . NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements. Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers. In a broadcast network such as Ethernet. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame. They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers. the destination computer will not send an acknowledgement. If the calculation does not check out.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards In addition. This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer. Although quite rare. MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized. TCP/IP is somewhat “self healing”. It identifies a line protocol. If it is. Token Passing. It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers. The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer. If it is not. (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host). it will automatically resend the packet. it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer. the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions.

Note: For more information on the OSI Model.ch/. Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model. For example. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses. It identifies the NIC. Repeaters. The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets. Point-topoint communication is the process of one device communicating with one other device . Multipoint communication is the process of one device communicating with multiple devices on a network. all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model. and determines when and how data may be transmitted. It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. hubs and transceivers. It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. 60 Specialized Solutions. . visit www. The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames. an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable.iso. Point to point communication is often used between switches and routers on a network. Switches. data work at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. synchronizes the data. and what each one will do. it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets. Inc. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium. The last 3 bytes (35FD-AB) are the Device ID that is unique to the associated Vendor ID.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 00-00-13-35-FD-AB The first 3 bytes (00-00-13) identify the manufacturer of the card. Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer.

Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. 61 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers. over the network medium. Inc. or suite. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer. in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer. . protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. In addition to reading the headers and performing the instructions. each layer reads and performs the tasks specified in its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. This is called a protocol stack. the process of moving through the layers is reversed. each layer is also responsible for adding or removing headers so that the data is ready to be interpreted by the next layer. Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture. These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task. 62 Specialized Solutions. This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. and provides services to the layer directly above it. In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. (Remember. The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. You are communicating directly with the Application layer. The Physical layer does not add a header. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer. Headers contain instructions for tasks that need to be performed at that level. As the packet travels up through the layers.) The request is in the form of a packet. When the destination computer receives the data. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted by you and the request is considered processed. For example: You send a request for services to the server. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack. The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message. In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate. the Application layer is not the actual application.

Because of this. 63 . The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers. they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers. but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Signals or Bits or Data Stream into Frames Frames into Packets Frames or Datagrams into Segments Segments into data Data Data Data into Data Files or Messages Specialized Solutions. Inc.

you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model. the OSI Model is not a protocol. as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol. . you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. Inc. This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. Also. By relating various protocols to the OSI model. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model. Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer. In fact. Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers. This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program. it would not match. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections. The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 64 Specialized Solutions.

This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate. you do need to remember the different layers and the tasks for which each layer is responsible. Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task. These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers. The specifications describe how components are supposed to function. it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work. The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer. Inc. etc. 65 . Without them we would not have as many software or hardware packages available to us. Specialized Solutions. because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system.

Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices. Routers are responsible for using logical addresses to move packets from one network to another and deliver them to a host. This weakening is known as attenuation. A repeater amplifies these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs. and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT 66 Specialized Solutions. as well as where in the OSI model they operate. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X. Inc. It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs. . Repeaters. Data Link layer and the Network layer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. are going to be used when they write a program. They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination. Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. bridges. Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model. you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer. etc. As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself. routers. These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change.

It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router. A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols or even different technologies. Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). A popular example is an SNA Gateway. Router tables can be entered manually by a network administrator or they can be dynamically updated using routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF. Specialized Solutions. However. Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers. if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI. Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Each router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it. the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing. 67 . but usually in the Application layer). A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. which can be used to connect an IBM mainframe computer to a Microsoft network. The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate.

standards.ieee.3 802.6 802. a little surfing might be in order. but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible. 100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards. . 68 Specialized Solutions.12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards. visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www. Inc.2 802.7 802. This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started.5 802. Inc. (IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs.11 802. These standards were prepared before the OSI standards. and if you would like more information on them.10 802. The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802. February 1980).9 802.8 802.4 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers.1 802.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. 69 . Inc.

and hence. which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp. Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers. Network 70 Specialized Solutions. the network. Inc. ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC. Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver. This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another). which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols. NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another. This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC. It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments. the NIC also needs a device driver to function. However.

Inc. Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model. Connection-Oriented vs. and in full. It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function. Specialized Solutions. For example. if TCP/IP is bound first. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network. They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless. In a connectionless scenario. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication. Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. Routable vs. There is no guarantee that the message was delivered. This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. In today’s LANs however. Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected using a router. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. If that fails. You have no confirmation (unless he calls you back) that he received the message. 71 . Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party. but connection-oriented is more reliable. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department. Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable.) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions. Connectionless communication is faster. Protocol Binding In order to function. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on his answering machine. In connection-oriented communication. the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. In a connectionless communication.

Inc. It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable. . As a networking professional.25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet). you should be familiar with these protocol stacks and you should know the OSI layer in which their components function. 72 Specialized Solutions. Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X.

IPX/ SPX This protocol is the proprietary protocol that was developed by Novell for Netware servers and clients. NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination. Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – Provides transmission of packets across a network. LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers. DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer. This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – Provides Application layer services for Macintosh. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. It is a routable protocol. NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol. In addition to hop count. It uses the MAC address and is non-routable. At the Presentation Specialized Solutions. This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment. regardless of speed. (If data must cross a router SPX is used. It has been modified over the years and now contains the following components: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. 73 • • • • • • . It resides in the Network layer. this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – Manages file sharing at the Application layer AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – Provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer. Inc. and handles file and print services.) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol. It resides in the Network layer.

SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems. FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system. 74 Specialized Solutions. It is also layered on IP like TCP. . At the Transport layer it handles sequencing. and connection-oriented error control services. At the Session layer it establishes and controls sessions. Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network. We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. Inc. APPC supports Transport and Session layer services. • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers. It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed.1 and later installs TCP/IP by default. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names. It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols. while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections. TCP and IP. Novell Netware 5. SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network. • Many companies use Netware with the TCP/IP protocol stack. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide layer it handles data translation. The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking). so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary. TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol. flow control.

Telnet can also be used for remote configuration of servers and network devices such as routers and switches. 75 . If you do not need to use passwords. Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond to the broadcast by sending its MAC address. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. this is also a Network layer protocol. it will broadcast on the local subnet to determine the MAC address of the computer with the associated IP address. but in reverse. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP is responsible for resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). then TFTP would be advisable over FTP. Specialized Solutions. It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP. It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond. ARP will first check its table and if a matching address is not found. It resides in the Network layer. ARP will add the information to its table for future use. ARP keeps a table of corresponding IP and MAC addresses that have been resolved in the previous 10 minutes. without regard to speed. but in addition. Inc. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP. RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function. The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely. instead of only the number of hops. making it connectionless. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. It is an Application layer protocol. OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer. It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability. It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources.

XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs. It uses standard telephone lines and switches. DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer. In addition. Data goes in and comes out. Inc. Because of this. X. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable.25 a very slow but very reliable protocol. packets are re-examined to determine whether they are damaged. The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs. which is the main reason that it is non-routable. LAT (Local Area Transport) LAT does not have a Network layer.25 network.25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization. X. It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP.25 X. . This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. This is the host on an X. asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN. but in between. It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide X. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet. it is out of the administrator’s control.25 is also an equipment specification. Instead. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end. Data is routed via the best connection at a given time. This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced). This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use. The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment).25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud. It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers. the X. It is a DEC protocol used for interactive. which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines. making X. 76 Specialized Solutions. This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits. This means that routes change as conditions change. only printing functions. The second part of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment). This protocol is not used for data communication. At each stop.

easy to configure and small.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model. It may be used with bridges. Specialized Solutions. Inc. It is fast. which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems. but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks. 77 .

It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. and other protocols as well as TCP/IP. It maintains a database and provides hostname to IP address resolution. It does not support IPX. or DHCP. It also supports data encryption. but it can also be modified manually by the network administrator. file transfers. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely over the Internet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Other Protocols The following are other protocols with which you should be familiar: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. . DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications. and connection release. SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. Inc. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes. and notifies upper layers to route around them. This database is typically dynamic in today’s modern networks. RPC is used by the redirector to 78 Specialized Solutions. PPP supports IPX. ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it. SLIP is not used as much as PPP. NetBEUI. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations. It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. NetBEUI. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer. NWLink and NetBEUI. administration. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures. It handles session establishment. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. it detects congested areas and links that are down. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. Like a traffic report on your radio. DHCP.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards determine if a resource is local or on the network. Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text. Inc. Specialized Solutions. 79 . It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer.

For example. but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network. 80 Specialized Solutions. if you can get to the server through a router. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter. we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other. . The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional. It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test. you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three.

x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition Specialized Solutions. Keyword 802. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 81 .

6. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. 3. Inc. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11. Who developed the OSI model? 2. What is a MAC address? 13. What is the function of the Application Layer? 9. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. 10. managing. . 4. 5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions – Chapter 3 1. Which OSI layer is responsible for the MAC address? 8. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. and ending connections? 12. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. 7. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? 00-01-A5-D3-B4-01 82 Specialized Solutions. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model.

You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 14. Inc. Which is faster. What is the function of a Gateway? 18. 83 . Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 19. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 15. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 22. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. Describe protocol binding. 23. without duplication and error free? 16. Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. What are they? 17. Will this work? Why or Why not? Specialized Solutions. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. 21. What are NDIS and ODI? 20.

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and other hardware and peripherals. It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. 85 . The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet). The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist. Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential. which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector. It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation. It is not often used in today’s networks. 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology. which we will address here. Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid. it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand. and the hardware aspect of network operations.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 . Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install. How to properly configure and use network adapter cards.Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. along with connectors. and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. video. There are several cabling options. It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC. Xerox). It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable. but may still be used in some temporary installations such as a construction trailer (although wireless would be a much more likely alternative). Inc. Specialized Solutions. There are numerous kinds of cable. or DIX (Digital. network adapter cards. (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter). and how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter. It can transmit voice. a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover. most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. Because it is shielded. Intel.

as well as how they are attached to the cables. It is attached directly to the NIC but allows network signal to flow straight through it as well as to the NIC. Thicknet was used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks. In the past. They are specified based on their impedance. In today’s networks. As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses. 86 Specialized Solutions. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. BNC Cable Connectors BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable. it is not as easy to install. Inc. it has been replaced by twisted-pair cable and fiber optic cable. Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. It is expressed in ohms. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together. This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable. Inc. Specialized Solutions. Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver. 87 . and an AUI cable. The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function. It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection. One of the terminators must be grounded. BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors). It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver. A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium. N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet. BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on. Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. and is used to connect the device to the network.

This cable type consists of insulated pair strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another. . This types of connections have been largely replaced by newer cable methods such as twisted-pair and fiber optic cable. Instead. It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types. Inc. most networking professionals used a clamp-on transceiver. These clamp-on transceivers were often referred to as vampire taps because they utilized sharp teeth that punctured the cable to make the connection. Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today. The twist helps 88 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver. this was time-consuming and it absorbed signal so it was not the common approach. There are four pair strands in most twisted-pair cables.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. Twisted Pair Cabling Specialized Solutions. Currently. This results in less sensitivity to EMI. there are six categories. UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular. It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters. Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 1000 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM and Gigabit Ethernet Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs. The tighter the twist. it is more sensitive to EMI. the faster the signal can be sent through the wires without crosstalk. The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per meter in each pair of wires. 89 . Since it is unshielded. There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP). Inc. The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling. The following is a summary of UTP cables. Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps.

The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location. They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 10 Gbps . These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a special tool punch down tool to make the proper connection by stripping the insulation from the wire without breaking the wire. The front of the patch panel contains RJ-45 ports (a port is a female counterpart for the RJ-45 jack). Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium. The RJ-45 jack’s position can therefore be changed from patch panel to patch panel to use a different set of cables for the same connection. Wall plates are typically used to make the connection to the computers themselves. Inc. This gives the network administrator a greater degree of flexibility and provides fault tolerance for the network cabling system. An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger. An RJ-11 jack has four connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight. . RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations. This is an excellent way to organize network cables. Wall Plates for RJ-45 90 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors.

Because of this feature.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking. 91 . fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances. it is therefore not as common as UTP.) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable. but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. which reduces signal loss. . Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic). This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber.. IBM cabling is based on its Type. One strand transmits and one receives. IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks. the data cannot be tapped or stolen. (The core can also be made up of plastic. as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types. Inc. The following is a summary of IBM Types: Specialized Solutions. which is easier to install. It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses. it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength. It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI. They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP. However.

Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet).5/125-micron multimode fibers. These are very rarely used in today’s modern networks. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Contains a shield for use under carpets. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Six twisted pairs. IBM Connector 92 Specialized Solutions. Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data. An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite. Not Defined Two 62.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Inc. IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications. Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Plenum grade. . Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2.

Specialized Solutions.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter. 93 . Inc.

For example. (send and receive) but only one at a time. Both you and the party you are talking to can talk and listen at the same time. but cannot send a message. Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways. . If this type of cable were used in the plenum. Inc. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps) or gigabits per second (Gbps). An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time. these fumes would circulate throughout a building in the event of a fire.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cabling Terms The following are terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness.Baseband vs. • Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above. As the AWG wire number decreases. The signal flow is bidirectional. the wire thickness increases. This space is used to circulate air through a building. a pager can receive a message. • Simplex vs. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing). Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge. Because this space does circulate air through a building. Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. PVC grade cable is less expensive than Plenum grade cable but it gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned. Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only. fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions. PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions. For example. Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. 94 Specialized Solutions. Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum. For example. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire. The signal flow is uni-directional.

local fire codes will need to be addressed. 95 . Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network. A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling. For example. such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals In contrast.) Specialized Solutions. It is therefore specifically designed to be used in these circulation areas. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives.) Will the cable be installed in “noisy” areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting. shielded cable or fiber optic cable might be more appropriate. Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes.) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum. the flexibility of the medium should be considered. Inc. how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners.

) If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure. Inc. Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 96 Specialized Solutions. cost are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network. . attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small. there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective. Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance. last but not least. On the other hand. fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping.) Transmission speeds and.

most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit. and controls the flow of data on the network. We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later. 97 . Today. are also known as Network Adapter Cards. This is known as serial communication. Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. NICs are used to connect the computer to the network. This is known as parallel communication. Analog data has an infinite number of possible states.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. Specialized Solutions. It makes the physical connection to the network. Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves. Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side. handles network addressing. data is moved along in groups. The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. Network cabling moves data in a single data stream. Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses. Because these paths are side-by-side. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking. which constantly vary in one or more values. Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame.) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port. (And of course to translate it back again. or 0’s (off). Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium. Inc.

This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters. Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent. The speed of the transmission. DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting. When this occurs. Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC. Inc. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU. If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. The time intervals between data chunks. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the 98 Specialized Solutions. the two cards start sending and receiving data. How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs. the NIC may need to be configured. Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique MAC address. . The amount of time between confirmations. Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it. This makes transferring data much faster. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC.

Specialized Solutions. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by a device. With a DMA channel. Inc. The good news is that unlike an IRQ. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. not all devices need one. The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address. such as: IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU. The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. Only devices like NIC cards that need this type of memory access are assigned DMA channels. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned. 99 . Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. See Appendix A for common address assignments.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. DMA Channel Configuration of Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels is similar to IRQs. in this case the NIC. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU. Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems. certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. DMA channels are used by devices that frequently need access to large amounts of memory. Other cards will need to be configured manually. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that typically no two devices can use the same interrupt. These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor. these devices can access the memory that they need without interrupting the processor. Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings. and some are set using software. In practice. The device is constantly listening to this channel for commands from the processor.

100 Specialized Solutions. The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. or you may have to configure it manually. Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter. Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC. Inc. If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail. Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards. RJ-45. they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required. Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. or both). . They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable. Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC.

Inc. 101 . With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. including network connectivity. They are also called PC-Card Buses. but can be a 64-bit bus. Today most buses are either EISA or PCI. Specialized Solutions. They are generally 32-bit buses. Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers. Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus. Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much. The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus. The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus. Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus.

Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer. thereby improving network performance. Inc. Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data. thereby bypassing the CPU. Without this feature. the NIC would be a bottleneck. . it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally. but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Performance Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance. Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data. This type of card is expensive. Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data. Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU. RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed. 102 Specialized Solutions. The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks.

or on the road.Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking. but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN. Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems. Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems. Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems. They function just like other access points (i. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. Mobile Computing . making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. a user can access the network from anywhere in the building. A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks. Extended Local Area Networks . 103 . Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home. a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings. With wireless systems.Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs. Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created. • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective.e. For example. Wireless networks use wireless access points (WAPs) to “connect” the network devices to each other. the office. With some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down. Inc. They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. but through the use of an infrared or radio medium. – hubs). This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components. Specialized Solutions. Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly. Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations such as ocean dwelling oil platforms.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared You use infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control. Inc. Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. Infrared networks typically broadcast at about 10 Mbps. they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping. and because the transmissions are tightly focused. The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet. such as windows. . Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference. These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources. Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • 104 Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint Specialized Solutions. This involves using infrared (below Red) light to carry signals to a receiver.

The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls. require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint. as the name implies. 105 . In the hopping method. the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. Inc. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. which then routes the signal appropriately. until it reaches the receiver. In the direct sequence modulation method. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. which are then transmitted over separate frequencies. the signal is beamed towards a central unit. but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. the message is broken into parts (called chips). ceilings. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. etc. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps. uses broadband technology. The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping. however. Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. or direct sequence modulation. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. Specialized Solutions. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station. Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. It does.

There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite. Inc. Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally. . The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. and only the destination device can receive and read the packet. Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite. or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts. 106 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities. Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver. These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information. mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network. It is used for line-of-sight communication. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Specialized Solutions. 107 . Inc.

As a networking professional. After discussing at network cabling we then took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself. and Microwave.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals. you should know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type. transmits. The four basic wireless types are: Infrared. and Fiber-Optic. Laser. . As a network professional. It prepares. it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks. RJ-45. In addition. 108 Specialized Solutions. Wireless networking is the trend of the future. You should know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. we took a look at the future. Twisted Pair. Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet. and controls data flow over the network. receives. Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial. Radio. etc. Finally. it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network. Inc. AUI.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 109 . Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions Definition Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc.

Definition .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair 110 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword Vampire Tap Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. 111 .

What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. What is the most popular of the cable types? 10. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12. What is the most expensive cable type? 13. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9. How is a vampire tap connected? 6. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. Inc. What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7. What is the least expensive of the cable types? 112 Specialized Solutions. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable.

15. What does AWG stand for and what is it?

16. Describe baseband.

17. Describe broadband.

18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication?

19. What is the function of a network adapter card?

20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available?

21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card?

22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network?

23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types?

24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network?

25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally?

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards
In previous chapters, we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed, along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets, or frames. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. In this chapter, we will discover how Ethernet works, as well as how Token-ring networks function. AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter. After completing this chapter, you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture, while not as popular as Ethernet, are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers, in this case, over a network. In Chapter 3, you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite, IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture, SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk

The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols; thus, they do not map directly to the OSI Model. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. Specialized Solutions, Inc. 115

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information, handle addressing, and check for errors. Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments.

A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card, also known as the network interface card (NIC), in order for it to be used with a network computer. In some instances, as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX, two protocols may be bound to one card. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC.

Access Methods
In a network, multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. If two or more computers were to send data at the same time, the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing

• Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free, it will send data. While there is data traveling on the cable, no computer will transmit data. Occasionally, however, two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. Naturally, the more users who are connected to a network, the denser network traffic becomes. Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method.

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. It is, however, the access method that works best with wireless connections; since the wireless channel can be verified before the data is sent. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. A token (a special type of packet) is circulated around the ring from computer to computer. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network, it must wait until it possesses the token. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. Data is transmitted in frames. The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. The trailer includes error control information. When the computer is ready, the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted, the frame would be resent. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. Because only one computer at a time may transmit, this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions. (Some more recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer, router, switch, or bridge. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes, addresses, and links are functioning. Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer, hub, and destination computer, instead of broadcasts over the entire network. Because of the cabling method used with this access method, (four pairs Specialized Solutions, Inc. 117

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of wires are used, which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time, but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously, the one with the highest priority is serviced first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests.

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Error checking information such as Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) information. 119 . Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably. The data to be transmitted. Also. Inc. Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Network Communications (Frames and Packets) As we’ve discussed previously. data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium. Computer control data such as service requests and commands. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. Data files tend to be quite large.) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. information. The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. or messages. The destination address of the receiving computer. only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data. Specialized Solutions. but we will use the term packets. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files. This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. if there is a transmission error.

the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit. The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted. and clocking information. Inc. When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer. Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. packets can be various sizes. the calculation is run again. the trailer contains the error checking information. . If there is a discrepancy.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet. Usually. CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet. Depending upon the network. If the results are the same. Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission. the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact. usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes. Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network. A Packet 120 Specialized Solutions. the source and destination addresses.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Specialized Solutions. 121 . Inc.

There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards. Inc. Ethernet (802. It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2). as addressed previously. or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT). some are diesel. in a railroad. but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data). In this section. Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802. . For example. we are going to look at different standards for networks. The original version was a 2. Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. and some are narrow gauge). Thicknet coaxial (10Base5). Logical Link Control (802. it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data). data (in this case passengers and freight) is moved in various cars. and typically transmits at 10 Mbps. like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell). some are wide gauge.94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable. The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL 122 Specialized Solutions. is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium.3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points. The standards define the means of communications. Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication. The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements.3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs. Not all railroads are the same (some are electric. However. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology).2) The Logical Link Control layer. but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Standards Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network. It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. These provide the standards for the railroads. It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method.

The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable.5 meters. it is most commonly created with UTP cable. and computer aided design. The maximum number of nodes per network 90. meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. 123 . 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. however. These applications include video. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system. And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling. is 185 meters. 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable. document and image storage. While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs. to name a few. The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters. it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps. As its name implies. The minimum distance between nodes is 2. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30.5 meters. 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications. If the segment must exceed this limitation.) This is referred to as the “5-4-3 Rule”. The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters. The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters. The minimum distance between nodes is . indicating its maximum segment length. The actual maximum segment length. repeaters can be used for longer distances. (There may be five segments but only three may be populated. Inc. BNC connectors and a transceiver. 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors. 10BaseT uses the star topology.5 meters. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2. The maximum number of nodes per network 100. The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet Specialized Solutions.

124 Specialized Solutions. the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable. and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). using the CSMA/CD access method. Because of its intense speed. the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology. It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN. When you see any of these terms. It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology. 100BaseVG. but that will be referred to later in this book. and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. ATM competes. This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps. It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets. The IEEE specification 802.12 is the standard that defines this technology. they are referring to the same thing. and AnyLAN. There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know. although copper can be used with much shorter distances. with Gigabit Ethernet.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard. . and the longest cable length is 250 meters. to some degree. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable. Inc. 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards. Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet) 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs). It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. VG. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon. (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment. Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP. Inc. 125 . It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance. Specialized Solutions. Ethernet also works in the UNIX environment. by joining with either a router or a bridge.

The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes. It is not as popular as Ethernet. but is still used today. 2. 126 Specialized Solutions. The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring.5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data. Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer. more than the cable design. Actually. Like Ethernet. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub. it is known as a data frame.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802. Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished). The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable. and 3). Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems. Inc. While the token is in use by a computer to send data. The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1. .5 standard. A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token. How it Works Basically. The Token Ring access method. it uses the baseband technology. IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token. is what sets Token Ring apart. Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame. The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token. Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data. and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps.

The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. Beaconing In a Token Ring environment. Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. 127 Specialized Solutions. The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time. The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. This computer. while IBM says counter-clockwise. . The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring. Or. the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal. It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected. Inc. called the active monitor.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. as well as its own address. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon. Message This is the data or file to be transmitted. the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring. After encoding the data frame. As each new computer comes online. This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. To accomplish this task. the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity. Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful. Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention.5 standards say it travels clockwise. the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. if there were errors. the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing. The IEEE 802.

MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails. Using UTP. each ring can connect up to 260 computers.5 meters. but types 1 and 2 may also be used. The Type 128 Specialized Solutions. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. Using STP. Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network. This hub is known by a few names. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2. Inc. The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network. Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. it is only about 45 meters. Each node is connected to the hub via a cable. the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. Using UTP. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another. Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters. as there are no male and female ends. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. In a pure token passing environment. When a computer is connected. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. IBM states that it is only 46 meters. The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters. Using STP. but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters. Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. just as in other networks that use a hub.

Type 6 may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub. Specialized Solutions. Therefore. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software. All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed. Inc. 129 . Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters. Using a pair of repeaters. Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper. Patch panels are used to organize patch cables. A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments. therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures. care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable.

A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it. or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology. mainframe computers. by using zones. EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable. it will store it to use each time it goes online.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings. . 130 Specialized Solutions. If it is not being used by another computer. This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers. AppleShare also provides a print server. and even some UNIX computers. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring. UTP. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network. it is very inexpensive to initiate. LocalTalk performance is rather limited. When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. Apple has always been open to third-party development. EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices. This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare. the device assigns itself an address. Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers.5 Standard) environment. As such. LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system. Inc. Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones.

4 standards (Token Bus LAN). the source address and up to 508 bytes of data. active. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors. Instead of the token traveling around a ring. If using an active hub in a Star topology. this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters. Obviously. but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable. ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling. These packets contain the destination address. the maximum cable distance is 244 meters.5 Mbps. Inc. Just like other token-passing access method architectures. ARCNet utilizes hubs. or smart. ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. the token still passes in numerical order. but it can be adequately charted to the 802. It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology. A later version. the token is passed in numerical order. called ARCNet Plus. a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data. has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps. If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors. 131 . ARCNet transmits data in packets. If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other. Specialized Solutions. These hubs may be passive. It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology. This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology.

132 Specialized Solutions. Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802. Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range.11) IEEE 802.11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology. . generally). The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well. Speeds up to 54 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific).

which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting. Specialized Solutions. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. Therefore.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. and the Trailer. CSMA/CA. destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD. The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. etc.3 standards. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method. which is where the error checking calculation is located. Packets will include information to identify the source address. Managing network data is all about traffic control. AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. Be sure that you understand how this architecture works. and clocking information. but as a networking professional you will encounter them. As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet. If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data. the source and destination addresses. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future. go back and review the chapter again. it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year. Inc. 10Base5. It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures. It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. the Data. Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames). Packets consist of three components: the Header. Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network. and 10BaseT. 133 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Definition 134 Specialized Solutions. . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc.

Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Token Ring TokenTalk Trailer Zones Definition Specialized Solutions. 135 .

5. What are the three primary access methods? 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12. . Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. 3. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1. Inc. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 136 Specialized Solutions. CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7.

Describe a MIC connector. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 19. What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? Specialized Solutions. 14. 137 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13. What is a SMAU? 21. What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16. 22. Inc. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 138 Specialized Solutions. .

rather than a client’s. dislikes. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. As a network professional. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. your design will not work for them. whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever indebted to you. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office. (If not. and goals. address. The size of the company and the portion of the network affected. The customer’s likes. There are two things that you will need to know. We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. who has them. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. 139 . This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. Finally. pay attention to details. Specialized Solutions. Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks. you are not designing for yourself. Inc. in many cases. This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. are there any printers or scanners. you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. etc. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network. Most importantly. The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. etc? If. you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. for example. we will consider hardware compatibility. (demographics). The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have. Even if this network is your own. how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them. You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. this is a Macintosh-based company. The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. However. you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows.

Inc. This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components. With this information in hand. Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. if the file is compressed. you must get a clear definition of goals of the network. files services. you are not documenting your network. So. or as large as 8 GB. or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. at this time. or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files. you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network. or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale). You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility. print services. Remember. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps. The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later. etc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources. . A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. For example. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint. prepare a design document. Once you collect this information. 140 Specialized Solutions. the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB.

Inc. 141 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement. not all nodes may need the same level of security. they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network). all computers are equal. as generally it is not installed during a standard installation. Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future. For example. The first is the type of network you will be designing. you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it. Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server. This means that every 142 Specialized Solutions. Also.” That is. you will need to start making some decisions. if you have a printer connected to your computer. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network. The most prominent are simplicity and cost. In a peer-to-peer network. The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. may cause problems in the future. The level of security required. The commitment of management and users. They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. This sharing is on a directory level. Inc. As long as you have the original software disk (CD). You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. . The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. The wrong choice now. you will have no problem. Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future). First. Likewise. If you do not have this information go back and get it.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. You may need to install the software. This can range from none to very high. The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t. You may have to add network cards and cabling. Skill level of the network users. Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing.

Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server. server-based networks are scaleable. Remember. The more sophisticated the network. Also. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. As for size. Also. Since these computers are larger. have high-power processor. Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. 143 . This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older. this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts. if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network. When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). In small networks. While there are many advantages. any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. if employees need remote access. This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. and lots of memory. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. 24-hours per day. Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer). The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network. the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. Inc. In a server-based network. You can connect more workstations. Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security. you will also need to consider the disadvantages. and expand as your needs expand. In a peer-to-peer situation. Last but not least. such as your printer. slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). In a strict peer-topeer network. For these people. all network resources are usually centralized. the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution. only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added. Before you can use any resource. is another advantage of a server-based network. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation. the network must operate transparent to them. they will also be using your processor to do their printing. This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. administration can be a Specialized Solutions. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. must less the workings of a network. In large networks. instead of backing up individual workstations. This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations. etc.

let us define the difference between the terms public and private network. 10.0.168.0.0 -10. it is highly recommended that you use these addresses for your private addressing.0.0. If all else fails. stick with it and move forward. The use of these addresses will completely prevent the address conflict issue.255. then you might have an address conflict with another entity on the Internet. there are specific addresses that are filtered by the routers at the backbone of the Internet. In some cases. get more. A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet. A public network would be the Internet.255. with open access to the global community.0. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer). the answer will be very obvious. Public and Private networks In addition. If you are not sure you have enough information. which would limit its access to those outside of the company. Actually.0. Inc.255. you can use any address that you want to use inside of your own network and behind your firewalls. Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information. present each case to the client and let them make the final decision. For this reason.0 144 Specialized Solutions. For this reason.0 255.255. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design.255. Once you have made this decision.255 172. since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN.255 255. Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each.192.0.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified network professional.0 -172.0 . When you are sitting on the fence.16.0 255. The only problem is that if your firewall were to come down.255.0 192.168.0. . in others it could go either way.32.

145 . Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

Remember. On the other hand. this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment. if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. Also. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software. . 146 Specialized Solutions. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation. Use it as a starting place to build your own. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like. if all or part of a network already exists. you must add new hardware. The following is an example of an inventory sheet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form. When taking this inventory. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has. Inc. The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. ask him or her to show you. whether hardware or software. This form should identify the equipment and its specifications. you can skip this section. That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have.

PCI. etc.) # of Free Slots Network Card Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Specialized Solutions. Inc. 147 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: Computer Printer Telecommunication Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA.

Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary. 148 Specialized Solutions. Software: If this device uses software.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function. describe each program. Inc. .

149 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc.

This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. it will make future documentation easier. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment. A Network Layout 150 Specialized Solutions. Inc. . make a drawing of the facility and each network node. or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility. and collect all of the documentation you have been working on. Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network. By assigning them a number now. It is time to get out that pencil and paper.

It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace. the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3. you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments. or just good common sense. The 100 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. repeaters and nodes. such as in an imaging environment. it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5e or CAT 6 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years. if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files. Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network. In addition. you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub. you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. 151 . hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 5 UTP cables. 5-4-3 – If your installation is coaxial Ethernet. consider Thinnet coaxial cable. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small temporary LAN. For example. you will need to install CAT 5e or CAT 6 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 1000 Mbps speed. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. but if this is a large facility. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. Inc. where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics. Cable lengths must be considered. may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly. and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the performance criteria of the network. In most environments this will be no problem. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. On the high end. However. It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. Cable Grade – Local fire codes. if you are not sure if expansion is in your future. or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). CAT 6 is the UTP of choice. However. Therefore. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end). Realistically. Specialized Solutions. you might consider CAT 3.

Therefore. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment. the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers. which can cause corrosion. it doesn’t really matter. but are not limited. which can generate damaging ESD. It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. with a relative humidity of 30 percent.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise). These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. high-humidity. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. it will work. Variable temperatures. Like us. and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source. you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. Fortunately. you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. low-humidity. and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment. On the other hand. As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. and RFI. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. Fiber optics are also a good alternative when the manufacturing environment cannot allow for any possibility of even a small spark. The non-routable protocols. on the surface. since they don’t use electricity to transmit a signal. The equipment should be shielded from ESD. Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. EMI. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically. Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment in which the computers will be operating. but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. . which requires the use of routers. However. or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). 152 Specialized Solutions. NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference. such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows 2000/2003. Inc. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. they are sensitive to temperature changes.

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One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable. To keep these organized. Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends. This way. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room. it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet. The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet. The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable. In most cases. So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables. . The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it. you will most likely need to install a wall outlet.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub. One advantage of using CAT 5 or CAT 6 cable in a star topology from a hub. There are a few more components that need to be installed. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding. is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. 154 Specialized Solutions. the cables are connected to a patch panel. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. All the cables will be brought to one location. These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network. if using CAT 5 or CAT 6. This way you can identify each location. Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable. This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors.

Actually. there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC Specialized Solutions. there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed. This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media. Inc. we must select a card that is compatible with both. That part is the network adapter card. Therefore you must know the requirements of each. 155 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network. Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. Once that is done.

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Therefore. Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting. This section will look at compatibility issues. EISA. you must have Token Ring cards. also called PC Cards. 157 . There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA. the speed of the card is important. These are little LEDs (one. will change. Inc. An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network. and PCI). Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple. administration. or three) that indicate the status of the card. you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. the card must be compatible with the computer. For example. a Specialized Solutions. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look. The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. Before purchasing a network card. which can be a useful tool. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus. Micro Channel. In general. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus. the number of connectors. Resolving these issues is actually quite simple. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. but only at 10 Mbps. Depending on the vintage of the computer. there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. If you are installing a Token Ring network. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture. In addition to being compatible with the network. and expansion projects. The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. two. a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards. Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network. but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. Also. Not all cards are the same. The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. but only at 10 Mbps. and therefore the speed at which data can be moved. Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network.

Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer. you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. but you are not finished yet. Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. 158 Specialized Solutions. you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using. In most cases with a new card. Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. Connect the network cabling. Note: If you must remove the case. If you must do this manually. The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. Configure the IRQ and I/O address. Physically install the card. Inc. the computer may not boot or the conflicting devices might not be able to work simultaneously. If your system is not Plug-n-Play. this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. if you upgrade your operating system. In addition. Install the appropriate drivers for the card. the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card. Each card must be configured for a different network. Drivers are usually supplied with the network card.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light indicates that data is being transferred. Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot. You need to configure the card to work with your network software. Now the network adapter card is installed. be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver. . be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches. Finally. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use. Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer). If there are any conflicts. you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course.

For example. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day. For Thinnet or Thicknet. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. These types of problems can be more personal in nature. To increase marketability of their cards. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario. Some STP cards require special connectors. Specialized Solutions. If you encounter this type of situation. However. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. 159 . Inc. the engineering department may be PC-based. as well as possible solutions. some manufacturers will provide two. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector. Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy. For example. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it. different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. In the case of UTP. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on. as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network. the card should have an RJ-45 connector. AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector. the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based. and possibly three.

we learned about network protocols and standards. As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards. you are going to have your work cut out for you.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. 160 Specialized Solutions. hard work and standards. Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network. with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier. This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card. You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots. Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network. and knowledge of the network operating system. that were identically configured. you will need to establish the standards for your network. Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system. As the network designer or administrator. Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. if installed. By defining the standards to which the network must comply. Standards Earlier in this training course. Inc. . With this done. each component will work with the others. and detail both its hardware and software. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly. With this information in hand. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them. boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software.

however. Inc. you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. the system will not run. Specialized Solutions. you will need to upgrade. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems. Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system. Also. For example. when upgrading from Windows 98 to Windows XP.Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are. If drivers exist. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase. You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device. More than likely. A good example is Windows 95. have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system. The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind. network card and/or printer no longer work. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. but your proficiency will be very low. all you need to do is install the Windows XP drivers for the offending hardware. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. the Internet is the answer. These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system. The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements. Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems. you find that your modem. you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site. 161 . you probably do not have the necessary drivers. there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. In this case. This is a true statement.

162 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists an example of the minimum requirements for three operating systems: HCL and Windows 2000 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs. If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary. is the Microsoft Windows Catalog at www. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware.com/windows/catalog. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with Windows 2000. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000 is hardware dependent. . or hardware compatibility lists.microsoft. you will need to check the HCL for that product. it most likely will not work with Windows 2000. You can also look for the corresponding logos on the boxes of hardware and software that you are considering purchasing for your network. Microsoft Windows Catalog Still another web site to check for compatibility of hardware and software. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision. Inc. This list will ship with the 2000 package (on the CD-ROM) and 2000 will make a check during installation. Here you will find the latest information about hardware and software that is Designed for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 or at least tested to be compatible with these operating systems. This is part of the Windows Logo program. especially with the newest operating systems such as Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. If you want the latest list.

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Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3. . Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. 7. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. but they are not all the same. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6. However. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4. Was this a good purchase? 9. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. he intends to expand the network in the future.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 6 1. Inc. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? 164 Specialized Solutions.

Expanding a LAN with Hubs A common method for expanding networks is to use a hub.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Chapter 7 .” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive. Inc.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network. A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network. This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network. sooner or later. Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series. In addition to being called “hubs. For example. An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals). 165 . from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices. you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network. it may be too small. to larger hubs that can connect many more computers. There are several different types of hubs. Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location. Specialized Solutions.

such as databases. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater. . They do however. You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. Traffic-generating applications. Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network. thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths. Inc. Fortunately. Depending on the objectives of the LAN. They do not translate or filter any information. have increased response times. Long waits to access a printer or file.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. the simple hub just won’t do the job. but has one additional feature. 166 Specialized Solutions. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. amplify the signal. you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model.

but it can switch packets across multiple networks. Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment. the NetBEUI protocol is not routable. Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Specialized Solutions. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. Routers work at the Network layer of the OSI model. It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. Not all network protocols will work with a router. For example. Inc. 167 .Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge.

Typically. They are providing the cabling. it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system. microwave. but connecting at this rate is rare. there are two levels of service to consider. When thinking of telephone lines. 168 Specialized Solutions. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection. and the cost of the service. The first is public dial-up network lines. Be careful when choosing a carrier. With dial-up networking. lines. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway Connection Services When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries. each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. When thinking of a carrier. . these connections are slow and not very reliable. Just because the cost looks good. does not mean that it is the best value. When considering which connection service to use. An example of such a system is the telephone company. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates. the distance the data must travel. be sure to take into account your throughput. and satellite connections. Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps. The second choice is leased. we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs. Inc. Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps. or dedicated. These are our standard telephone connections.

items such as bridges.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded. It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). Inc. routers and communications services are used to create a WAN. as well as those transmitted to it. The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. and deals with timing issues. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity. It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back. Most WANs are a collection of LANs. The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with. A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN. WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs. There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines. 169 . Specialized Solutions. if necessary. It can regenerate the signal.

Voice with some quality control. The down-side of these lines is that you will have to pay for them 100% of the time instead of on an “as used” basis. This is because you lease the line 100% of the time and therefore do not have to dial-in. you need DDS (Digital Data Service). Voice and video. Digital Connectivity When you need a faster. Basic data. . Voice and data over private lines. Voice/radio with tone conditioning. they can be justified. Voice and data over trunks between computers. Voice and data over trunk circuits. Inc. 170 Specialized Solutions. but if you have sufficient traffic.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Basic voice. Application relays. The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. Data applications below 1200 bps. Dedicated analog lines provide an instant connection. Dedicated lines are far more expensive. more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection.

080 (can reach 10 Gbps) OC-1 OC-3 ATM 1 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A The T1 and the T3 standard are American. data.52 Mbps Either 155.736 Mbps 2.520 or 622. faster download than upload 51.8 Mbps 155. It can be used to transmit digital voice. It is capable of 1.544 Mbps 44. whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard. 171 . and video signals.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line.544 Mbps transmissions.048 Mbps 34. Specialized Solutions. Inc.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP. The following table lists the most common connection types: Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A Voice Channels DATA RATE (MBPS) 24 672 32 512 N/A 1.

since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. Today’s networks use a different technology referred to as Frame Relay. so it can be both reliable and fast. A packet switched network provides multiple paths that packets could travel from source to destination. With Frame Relay. a packet may be sent over multiple permanent virtual circuits (PVCs).25 based packet switched networks. however. X. . convenient. 172 Specialized Solutions. this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs. Frame Relay does not check the packet at each step in its route. These lines can. Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast. all of which are considered reliable. Obviously. Standard PSTN lines have a very limited bandwidth of less than 56 Kbps. For this reason. each packet was examined at each step in the path to determine whether it was damaged. and reliable network messaging. be used for somewhat secure remote access by employing the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) and tunneling protocols. Inc. This made for a very reliable and very slow connection. In older. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network.

This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment.) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically. etc.” Specialized Solutions. without having to change the physical picture of the network. 173 . printers. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN. which lays out hosts (computers. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN. An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within his company. or any other logical means. Inc. adding computers or adjusting resources. or by the specific use of the computers.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment.

ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface). you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies. Because it is fiber optic-based.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN.Asynchronous transfer mode uses fixed length (53 byte) cells instead of packets. ATM can be used with FAX. audio. It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles). has two 64 Kbps 174 Specialized Solutions. This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network. ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial. FDDI . While not a good choice for WANs. they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps. however. It is. These cells can speed communication because the network always know exactly what to expect in regard the size of the next cell.2 Gbps. As well as the common voice and data. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services. and imaging. Inc. in actuality. However. . while using copper telephone wires. It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need. which is intended for use in the home or small business. ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential. it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds. and focuses on the home and business market. media limited. or fiber optic. video. twisted pair. These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1. ATM . it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference.Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication.

which is intended for use by large businesses. 175 . To be more precise.6). and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps). Internationally. SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices.Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. like OCx with SONET. SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media. It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM).84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768). a call. has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1. much like E1 is to T1. ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface). Specialized Solutions. This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802.544 Mbps). It carries all the bits from say. The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps). within one transmission frame. and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control. data and video at rates ranging from 51. Inc. it is the European equivalent of SONET. It is capable of transmitting voice. it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network. SMDS SMDS . It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx).

600 bps. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. Today. . etc. due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of transmitting signals over long distances. 8. there is a limit of 2400 Baud. network cards. Modems transmit data at various speeds. a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2. The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V. times as fast as the Baud rate. However. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines. The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication. With early modems. 176 Specialized Solutions. or over long distances. To increase our network beyond a few computers. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer.32bis bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard.400 High-speed version of the V. Inc.32 standard. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate. designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle. A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable. Modems are classified by a “V” rating.400 bps. With this change.22bis V. As we have already learned. the term Baud has disappeared and been replaced with bps.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections. These speeds are measured as bits per second.32 V. Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions. Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56. 14. Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud. Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data. Therefore. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems. and media. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56. FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines.600 bps. 4. connecting a few computers to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards. the Baud rate was equal to the bps.

Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network V. 56.200 Not officially a standard yet.800 Improved V.32terbo. 177 . Specialized Solutions.42 V. modems – error correction standard. 57. modems. Will only communicate with another V. Backwards compatible with earlier V.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards.32terbo V. 28.FastClass.34 V.600 Backwards compatible with earlier V.90 19. Inc.

This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client. In addition. A system running Windows XP or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection. the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. Since the two computers are directly connected. With RAS. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors. Let’s first look at connecting two computers. By running Network Connections Wizard and following the simple 178 Specialized Solutions. A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. The difference is how each computer is being utilized. all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer. there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. Windows XP has an feature called a direct cable connection. You must use a Null-Modem cable. the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. either via modems and telephone lines. For example. both of these terms mean the same thing. while a true server like Windows Server 2003 will allow 256 inbound connections. when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. On the other hand. The difference between a simple computer (Windows XP or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows Server 2003) is the number of inbound connections. Actually. . Inc. or directly via COM ports and a cable. Also. Any two computers can be connected.

On the server side. 179 . Inc. These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). Normally. the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software. Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but. With this in place. you will use a modem to establish the connection. you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection. both computers must be using the same protocol. RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security. the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network instructions provided. but is still in use with some systems. Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking. While this was the protocol of choice for a Specialized Solutions. in this case. RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work. the RAS software must be installed and running. your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server. From this accessory. The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network. This is a relatively old standard (1984). you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number. On the client side.

It supports only TCP/IP. It supports encrypted passwords. Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP. PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today. It provides security. Many organizations are using tunnels. AppleTalk. It’s only supported by RAS clients. It can be used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private 180 Specialized Solutions. and DECnet. NetBEUI. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) provides for a secure encrypted tunnel for communication through the Internet. Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. It transmits in text only. • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the Network layer of the OSI model. This is accomplished by encapsulating one protocol with another protocol. Encrypted Connections. VPN (Virtual Private Networks). . as a less explensive alternative to costly leased lines. With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications. Inc. It cannot encrypt logon information. in today’s networks it has several disadvantages. It enables highly private network links over the public Internet. such that only the sender and the receiver can accurately interpret the data that is being sent. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. the limits of SLIP caused many problems. IPX. Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks. It provides data compression and error control.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide long time. created by PPTP and other tunneling protocols. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. RAS and Security.

509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec. Thin clients are computers with no hard drive. Linux. It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS. It does not provide authorization. 181 . ESP. certificates (like X. Specialized Solutions. ICA can be used with Windows. it does not require IP connectivity. both sending and receiving. IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header). SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server. It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs. . It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). Unlike PPTP.. or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server. It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP. meaning that the computers. It is transparent to the user. limited RAM. and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. UNIX. it only establishes the user’s identity. usually a user’s credit card number. which is the highest security method. most relating to higher security. TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket. Kerberos V5. Inc. discussed here in the next chapter. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 Active Directory use this type of security by default. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission. and Macintosh computers. Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. AH only authenticates the user. It uses a key to encrypt the data. It is based on an end-to-end security model. authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well. L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the latest version of the tunneling protocol. L2TP offers many advantages over PPTP. a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE). as does Novell Directory Services (NDS).Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network.

If another software package has “control” of the modem. Inc. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. If it does not work the first time. Before installation. and thus more security. you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. As with all security measures. All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly. installing RAS can be frustrating.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to providing remote sharing of information. RAS provides several layers of security. The type of communication port you intend to configure. This provides for additional authentication. Security Host (Bastion Host) A security host or bastion host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. the modem configuration. . This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on. This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. and any other software that might use the modem. you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary. Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection. you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. In addition. you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server. 182 Specialized Solutions. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller. At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system. Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server.

183 . Specialized Solutions. you want to keep the costs down. it is not always the solution for every network. you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses. Inc. The latest Microsoft server operating systems such as Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 have wizards that make installing an RAS server much simpler. As a networking professional.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps. and you don’t need a fulltime connection.

Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH 184 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Definition .

Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X.25 Definition Specialized Solutions. 185 . Inc.

Inc.544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6. a router. 7. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. Define a repeater. 4. 186 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 7 1. Name three advanced WAN environments. . 9. and a gateway. What is analog communication? 5. Name four forms of RAS security. What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. Name three RAS protocols. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. 10. a bridge. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2.

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Transport. which will be discussed later in the chapter. It is important for the networking professional to know that TCP/IP is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. and FTP. 189 . Specialized Solutions. such as SMTP. TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). Inc. Internet and Network Interface. TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard. Also. From this beginning. are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board). The four layers are: Application. and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. some are considered to be Internet standards. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers. SNMP. Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress). Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor. and is usually seen in the combination. TCP/IP. as well as Internet standards.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is an internet (between network) protocol. TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project. and is in fact. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. intranets. This is the most common protocol suite with which a networking professional works. known as BSD UNIX. and the Internet. TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. the recognized standard for internetworking altogether. these protocols were available on UNIX early on. TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol). It is also used with Ethernet networks. it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. These standards. TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX. RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model. Inc. There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections.Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 190 Specialized Solutions. . These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP.

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there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. called packets. It then routes the information to its destination. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model. Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others. Inc. and for the Network+ exam. Should lost or corrupted packets be detected. On a TCP/IP network. A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. and reassembles the data. TCP breaks data into tiny chunks. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets. The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 192 Specialized Solutions. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP. However. The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. they can be retransmitted in a timely manner. This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. . Let’s take a look at them. Let’s take a look at how this works. It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission. Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine. or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer. This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number. etc. FTP. meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information. and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number. If the transmission has not been successful. IP merely routes the data. 193 . consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65.. The port number identifies the application associated with the data. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent. When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet.e. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned. TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably. HTTP. the protocol number. and a Specialized Solutions. Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP. This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines. Inc. Telnet. and specify a certain protocol. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session. Although the terms. The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535. or port numbers. The addresses. UDP transports data. but does not acknowledge delivery. The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. IP is connectionless. For each packet sent. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point. i. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. TCP will retransmit the data. nor does it check for errors.535. a port is different from a socket. The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide checksum. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer. To be more specific, the checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. When the data arrives at the destination computer, the receiving computer performs the calculation. If the checksum is the same, the data is assumed to have arrived intact. The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network, it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. Time to Live – provides TTL data. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. This cache contains a list of all the devices with which it is communicating. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five, TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server, run searches, or access multiple mail servers. 194 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet, which is what you use when you send out mail. SMTP is server to server, whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers, usually over the Internet. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People.” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files, by typing in a user name, or the word “anonymous.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents, such as web pages. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts, using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP, allowing access to a secure Web server. It uses port 443, the secure SSL port instead of port 80, the HTTP port. HTTPS, as well as SSL, allow for the use of X.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user.

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Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials

Naming Systems
Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. Remember, we are working in two worlds, the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names. Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking. DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates hostnames to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. DNS functions like a telephone directory. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers. For example, the domain bigcompany.com may have an IP address of 192.49.238.33. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose, such as government, education, commerce, or interest. Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC, also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. These domains require suffixes such as .com for businesses or .edu for educational institutions. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains:

.com .net .edu .org .gov .mil .biz .pro .info .xx

Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance, Big Company Inc. in Italy might be http://www.Bigcompany.com.it or in Australia www.Bigcompany.com.au. Also, .tv is gaining in popularity. Tuvalu is a small country, which receives financial benefit from the registration fees.

WINS In a Windows-based network, the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network. NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode, leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application. A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast), P-node (peer-peer), M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). 198 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. It predates DNS. It must be manually created and changed. LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. It must be manually created and changed. IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. For example, it could connect a LAN to the Internet. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet, it must be assigned a static IP address. This means that it is permanently assigned. It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers, sooner or later we will run out of numbers. In smaller isolated networks, IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. However, as the number of addresses required increases, you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. To resolve this, IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. That is, assigned on an “as needed” basis. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. When not needed, the address can be leased to another host. To accomplish this, you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address, subnet mask, and a default gateway if needed. Notice that the IP addresses are leased. This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. A lease can be renewed. When the term of the lease is at 50%, the client will send a request for renewal. If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available), the lease will be renewed without interruption. If not renewed, the client will attempt to contact the DHCP server that issued it the IP address directly about every 5 minutes until it reaches 87.5% of the lease, at which time the client will broadcast a request to obtain an address from any available DHCP server. If all addresses are being used or a DHCP server does not respond, the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user. In this case, the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

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It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses. The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties. like a LAN.e. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers. Actually. Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network. NAT also acts as a type of firewall. In the case of a proxy server. . to share a single connection to the Internet. but it is most often used between a private network and the networks public address or addresses. It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. i. the proxy server. it serves many clients through only one connection.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (public IP address). 200 Specialized Solutions. who think they are communicating directly with one another. It contains DHCP. Inc. The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client. since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. NAT. a NAT is just a device or program that translates one set of IP addresses to another set of IP addresses. depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time. The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time. IP Proxy Servers Earlier. and DNS. The proxy server is actually making a connection to another network or to the Internet on behalf of the client. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other.

Inc. 201 .Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions.

11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------16 8 2 1 128 64 32 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39. A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4. let’s now take a look at IP address numbers.39.00001000.194. the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique).296 (4. . Inc.8. The result is called a dotted decimal number. A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001. 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194. they are broken down into four octets. it is not easy for us.967. This IP address is a 32-bit binary number. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes. however. Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8. Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address. To simplify these addresses. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet. are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes. An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets.00100111. So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33.294. 202 Specialized Solutions. Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256.2 billion) different numbers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names. Internet IP addresses. Although that is easy for a computer.

The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000). you should pay special attention the Classes A. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000). The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID).194 where the Network ID would be 193. Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks. B and C.39.8. 203 . In this case 129. The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID). The class can be determined by the value of the first octet.194 would be an example of a Class A address. The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID.39.8 and the Host ID would be 194.194 would be the Host ID. Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks. An example of a Class C IP address would be 193.39 would be the Network ID and 8. In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID. The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223.194.8.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components. Depending on the assignment. The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33. An example of a Class B IP address would be 129.8.39. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID.194. only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID).39. There are five common classes: A through E. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use. Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large. The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191. The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000).) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126. Inc.8. the network is divided into classes. (A host may be any device on the network. Within classes. the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID. For the Network+ exam. 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) Specialized Solutions.

This organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center). Class B . Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time. the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic.534 possible Host ID numbers. As we mentioned earlier. and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses. All in use and no longer available.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID.214 possible Host ID numbers. Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 . Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs. specifically 127. with the least number of Network IDs. so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts.1) Class A . Class C . 204 Specialized Solutions. You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts.0.191 192 .used by very large networks. . Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available. there are only 65. Class B uses two octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID. Likewise.0. Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID. This is the loopback address. Class C IP addresses are still available. Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address.223 In addition. Also.used for medium-sized networks. there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and for multicasting and are not available for normal host addresses.777. Inc. B or C address. (For example. if a network is going to be connected to the Internet.126 128 . there are 16.

IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology. then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme. It does. Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Specialized Solutions. Inc. Unicast is an address for a single host. which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits. The address types are Unicast. This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. For example.net. as compared to IPv4. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot. use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address. however. VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic. It uses 128-bit addressing. Anycast. You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. however. 205 . It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field. An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers (0 to 9. It would make it unclear as to what was represented. IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP). demand high bandwidth. which only uses 32-bit addressing. A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. to define the address type. Rather than having “classes” like IPv4. and Multicast. as well as ease of configuration and security built right in.

An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. Site-local address. since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain. A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses. is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one. The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1. Finally. Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link.0. just like 127. Inc. IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking. All in all. which replaces broadcast.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address. Multicast.0. .1 with IPv4. 206 Specialized Solutions.

255.0.0. or 225.0. a subnet mask can be 255. By using a concept called anding. only the traffic that is not local will pass through. The number of 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network.0 (Class A). Before looking at anding. Inc.11111111. Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask.255.255.0 255. Since a router connects each subnet.00000000. For example: 11111111.0. This is done with binary addition (anding). you can reduce the overall network traffic. You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet. separating it from the host portion of the address. a router can determine which addresses are local and which addresses are for other subnets within the network. The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address.0. the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class).0 255. By using subnets. In this example.0 (Class B). A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) in which all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address.255.0 Class A (16.534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s. a large university may have a network spread over several buildings and perhaps remote campuses. Default Subnet Masks 255. Anding is the binary addition that the router uses to make this determination. 255.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of creating more than one private network from one public network address by customizing your subnet mask.0 (Class C).255. lets look at subnet masks. all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet. 207 .0 In regard to classful addressing .216 hosts) Class B (65. Specialized Solutions. For example.255.0. have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right. which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address.255.0.777. If you “and” the IP address to the subnet mask. You must however.00000000 or 255.

8.8.8.0.224. and through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33.194) 11111111. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now.7. .32.194.00000000 (255. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7. it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID. Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33. thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network.194. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet.11000010 (33.194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask.32.0. let’s and it to the subnet mask of 255.0.224.00100111. using our previous example of 33.00100000. while the Host ID 0. By using this method.32 and the Host ID is 7.00000000.0. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment.00000000. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 208 Specialized Solutions.11100000. 00100001. Any local addresses will not pass through. Inc.00000000 (33.0.39.0.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remember.8.39.0) equals 00100001.8.00001000.194.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet.32.

• • • • Connect physically remote local networks. A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card.0.384 2. There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required.097.c to 223.152 Number of Hosts 16. Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate.255.0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255.0.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001.b. 209 .216 65.a. it will require an address for each subnet.0. Specialized Solutions.b.c Default Subnet Mask 255.a.0 255. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner.a.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking.c 128.0.255. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring). Inc. A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network.b.0 255.c to 126.255.0.c 192. Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment.b.0 255.c to 191.255. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet.255.255.777. Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet.a.a.b.b.a. Be sure to include some room for growth of the network. If a router is connected to two subnets.0.0 255.0 Number of Networks 126 16.

To begin this process.255.248.255.255.382 Hosts N/A 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 210 Specialized Solutions. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255.255.255.255.248 255.0 255. we have one network with approximately 65. You should remember the formula 2n-2 where n is the number of bits borrowed. We use this formula to determine the number of subnets that will be created by borrowing bits from the hosts.128 255.192.240 255.0 255. We will use an InterNIC ID of 191.255.0 255.000 hosts.255.192 255.240.255.255.255.0 255.255.255.254. we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host.255. Inc.255.252. With this number.0 255.255.0 255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet.255. .0 255. As we begin to subnet.224.36.255.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign. Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255.0. you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC.255.255. The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network. First.255.0.224 255.

255. 2.255. Now we get out our Windows calculator. 3. Enter the value of 18. lets keep our network ID of 191. We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID. Inc. Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected.255. 1. For this example. Change the mode to binary (Bin).224 255. Specialized Solutions.255.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 Hosts N/A 30 14 6 2 To make this easy.192 255. Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator). The number 18 will now be in binary (10010).255. we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs.240 255. let’s add 4 more for future expansions. you can use the scientific calculator supplied with any Windows operating system.255.255. 211 . giving us a total requirement of 18. Just to be on the safe side.36 as assigned to us by InterNIC.255.248 255. the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements.255.255.

let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255. our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets. Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth).000 hosts each.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 212 Specialized Solutions.0. Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask.248.36. . For this example.0 and the network address of 192.255. Had we needed to add a new subnet.255. This will be the number of bits required for the third octet. Count the number of binary digits (5).224. This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2. you can determine the available Network IDs. the subnet mask would be 255. instead of selecting the next subnet on our list. To keep things simple. Inc. we would have had to reconfigure the entire network.

255. The only restrictions are that you cannot use . this means that the number starts with .36.0. indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively.0.36. This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address.0. and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet. If it is different. these are reserved for broadcast addresses. on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255.192 Determine the Host IDs The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001).255.255.0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255. A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255. Inc.64 192.36 (overall network address) 192. they are on the same network.128 192. up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID.36. The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID.36.36.32 192.000 or . 213 . Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network.160 192. For example.001 in the last octet.0. (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask. In dotted-decimal format. The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network.) Specialized Solutions.96 192.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192. the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery. or one that is located on a remote network.0.255.36.

255. .0.0 CLASS ID 1 .0 255.255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255.191 192 .126 128 .255.223 214 Specialized Solutions.0.0 255.0. Inc.

other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window. right-click on TCP/IP Protocol. and enter the information in the appropriate fields. However. Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways. Inc. IP Address Here. Specialized Solutions. click the Protocols tab.” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server. Click the radio button to enable DNS. 215 . you may specify a particular IP address. This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information. Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. and click Properties. or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically. in addition to other hardware and software configurations.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. you will need to type in the specified default gateway. The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using. Next. Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor. DNS You can enable or disable DNS. On some screens.

default gateway. . Inc. This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration. It also includes the DNS configuration. 216 Specialized Solutions. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients. and subnet mask configuration. WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 217 . Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet Definition Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword POP3 Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 218 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2. 10. 12. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups. 219 . What is an FQDN and give an example? 6. 4. What is a domain? 7. What is the purpose of DNS? 5. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Review Questions Chapter 8 1. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Specialized Solutions. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8. Inc.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 220 Specialized Solutions. .

Using one of these products. It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data. The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base).Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network. Specialized Solutions. you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network. the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network. Network Managers . In addition.SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks. From the database and the software interface. 221 . The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator. you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device. Inc.

Inc. It will respond to commands issued by the management software. 222 Specialized Solutions. These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device. The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents. therefore providing a level of security. Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager). The three commands are: Get: request data from the device. . Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network. An additional SNMP command is the trap. A community can also restrict access. Get-next: request the next value in a sequence. Set: sends a configuration value to a device. This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager.

Inc. and TCP/IP events and errors. Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses. Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis. and normal (i).Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred). serious (!). TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it. Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports. Specialized Solutions. Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table. Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table. NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics. TRACERT. Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names. but did not cause a stop. This includes critical system errors. NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination. 223 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar. and typing in either cmd or command. Inc. 224 Specialized Solutions. . clicking Run.

and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter. NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host. and will display the current configuration of a computer.1. IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration. Inc. RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address. Specialized Solutions. Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain. For example.168. NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. Ping works at the IP level.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address. IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu. NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device. Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once. NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain. PING The lowest level test to find out if you have connectivity to a remote host. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain.12. the IP of a host might be 192. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer. 225 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 226 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 227 . Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition Specialized Solutions.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc.

. List as many as you can. 228 Specialized Solutions. Inc. 3. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. each device will need to be _________ compliant. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 9 1. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network.

anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. or at least have your plan intact. you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent. Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change. of dollars. Users should be held accountable for the security of their individual workstations. Password practices and procedures. motivated by curiosity. Therefore. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of her particular network. the results can be devastating. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created). or an irresponsible prank. Inc. creating chaos and costing thousands. There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. can deliberately damage your network.Chapter 10 – Network Security Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access. data encryption. Very few users will have access to administrative features. depending on the roles they play in your company. from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files. the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network. A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems. The best time to set up your network security. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. Whether the sabotage is malicious. 229 . or anyone who has access to your network for that matter. or even millions. unless safeguards are built in. As you might have already deduced. before you set up the network. Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company. Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user. is right up front. A disgruntled employee. Specialized Solutions. Most users will also be able to access shared files.

such as a template or another type of file. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place. In a manner similar to the signature on a document. It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality. among other things. . and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security. should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required. The user can edit the file as necessary. A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file. where the administrator can easily retrieve it. authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source. 230 Specialized Solutions. The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system. passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. However. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. Inc. Users can access a shared resource. the user will be inclined to be less attentive to personal security. while the original file remains intact. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. Password protection is. a gesture of respect for the user and the system.

Inc.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Security Specialized Solutions. 231 .

It is an important part of a network security plan. 232 Specialized Solutions. or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. If you are accessing the Internet from your network. For example. you will most likely be using E-mail. you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system. but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information. As the system administrator. Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter. Files need to be backed up daily. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. and work at the application level. by forwarding application traffic through the firewall. they can be host-based. Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. . at the very least. Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network. and even more often on larger networks. or auditing. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. This needs to be handled in such a way that production will not be interrupted. Inc. you would block port 80. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network.

which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs. In addition. and the procedure to follow for recovery. These multiple disks are called disk arrays. Ideally. it is still a viable option. rather than one larger server. As you might guess. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk. the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available. you must answer important questions about what to backup.44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups. and how often backups will be performed. There are several options available. It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. called the backup medium. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. This backup medium is suitable for small companies. you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data. the second server should serve as a backup to the first. Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. and are more commonly known as RAID. Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security. Floppy disk capacities today. Specialized Solutions. Remember. plan to fail. offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other. Although slower than RAID. so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations. Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. Inc. If anything happens to one. As a computer professional.Chapter 10 – Network Security It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers. those who fail to plan. how the backup information will be tested. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today. the other can take over without compromising network operations. for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity. 233 . While planning your backup strategy. range from 1.

234 Specialized Solutions. This method will take the largest amount of storage media. Differential.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient. This type of backup is usually performed weekly. This usually involves some degree of redundancy. Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk. as its name implies. despite the presence of hardware or software failures. and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level. This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed. When recovering from a failure. as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk. Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations. . the last full backup and all of the incremental backup tapes will be needed. both the last differential backup tape copy and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used. The Full backup.. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups. but will be the easiest to restore. Full. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space. but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server. will backup all selected data on the network. To restore. and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full. Inc. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. Differential and Incremental. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup. is called fault tolerance.

If more than one disk is lost. a copy of the data is spread across all of the disks based on a mathematical formula such that any one disk in the set can be lost and the other disks will have a copy of all of the information that it contained. If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up.) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk. this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful.Chapter 10 – Network Security The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 . This technique may be applied in either software or hardware. is not being used commercially at the moment to an Specialized Solutions. 235 . however. This. However. Typically.Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 .Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. then the data in the entire array is also lost. RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme.Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 .” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data. such as a single file. so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping. support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing.Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 . which provides for even more fault tolerance. this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent.Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 . With this method. Several operating systems. Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies. administrators are alerted when one disk fails so that they can “regenerate” the RAID set before another disk has a chance to fail. The same data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure. Inc. including Novell NetWare. and is a standard feature of RAID systems. if anything happens to one of the drives. the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved. (Provides no fault tolerance.Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 .

are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes. A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. RAID-53. In this case. Like RAID-10. such as battery time remaining. The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. surges. These types of RAID are not as commonly used and are not as likely to be on the test. A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. There are different types of UPS devices. since it is not dependent on another computer. Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. It functions faster. There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity. it offers better performance. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests. An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power. the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI). also called surge suppressors. which allows for better performance. but at a greater cost.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide large degree. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array). and each type provides power for a different length of time. is an issue. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. is like RAID-10. It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN. Inc. . and sags in the power supply. as you might guess. allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. Cost. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. 236 Specialized Solutions.

” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents. If the network administrator needs to use the workstation. This holds users accountable for their actions on the network. Passwords should be changed more frequently in high-security networks. So. Specialized Solutions. There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days. Users working with sensitive information such as budgets. and troubleshoot before the trouble starts. Some “classified” networks require password changes every day. 237 . personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis. This is known as a security audit. Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy. The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters and use a combination of letters. away. In order for this policy to be effective. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being applied.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network. symbols. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them. but are easy enough that users can remember them. Inc. No one. should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there. include characters. he or she will know how to accomplish the task. numbers and symbols. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. etc. no matter who they are. and numbers. Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others. and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas.

A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. Even with encryption. DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient. It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest. other than the person for whom the message was intended. This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem. and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used. RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data. 238 Specialized Solutions. the Internet is not the most secure of environments. These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. and Leonard Adleman.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. This method uses a 56-bit private key. Inc. The name comes from their first initials. . can understand the message. Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. and is used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking. Adi Shamir. Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon.

will ensure a much quicker recovery. it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed. Viruses can be spread by various sources including: shareware. The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. Specialized Solutions. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method. but they are less secure. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex. the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. 239 . it is not a completely secure encryption method. files downloaded from the Internet. The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters.000 known viruses. The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key. Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. It is similar to DES. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off. It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability. much less a day. There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run. but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. is called a digital signature. If the receiver wishes to respond. With this method of encryption both parties have the same key. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). Many viruses are simple annoyances. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities. software from unknown origins. both on location and at backup sites. There are over 60. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages. Prevention should also be addressed in the plan.Chapter 10 – Network Security Extra data appended to a message. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. Symmetric Keys can also be used. As the name implies. They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. and bulletin boards. Inc. which is used to encrypt data and to decrypt it.

Use extreme caution when you download files. (prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk). Hundreds of viruses are written each month. It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document. Keep your anti-virus program updated. Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines. Make sure it is compatible with all of the operating systems that you use. Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world. Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine. there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market. (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail). . they mean that when you open a document you are running a program. If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes. many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet. enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing a new operating system.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs. Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. With this in mind. they will go to work on the system. These days. just from running a program. Macro Virus: These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened. The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files). Inc. 240 Specialized Solutions. Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks. but when loaded. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site.

Chapter 10 – Network Security Specialized Solutions. Inc. 241 .

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 242 Specialized Solutions.

In a share level model. passwords are assigned to __________. What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2. Inc. 243 .Chapter 10 – Network Security Review Questions Chapter 10 1. 3. 5. What are the three common levels of RAID? 6. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Specialized Solutions. What is the function of a firewall? 4. The acronym RAID stands for __________.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

implement a solution. you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems. As a troubleshooter. establish what has changed. the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem. Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause. They always fail in the middle of a job. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software. Remember. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. not the symptom.Conclusion Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. a pen (or pencil). while for others it is a struggle. To make matters worse. Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. In most cases. identify the affected area. Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. and good listening skills. The user of the computer or network is your best source of information. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. For those who must endure the struggle. or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now. What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. The eight parts are as follows: establish the symptoms. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution. test the result. The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks.” is really just the symptom and not the true cause. you must be organized. In order to do this. Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. and progress with some specific tools that you can employ to simplify the process. This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. select the most probable cause. if you are the expert. Inc. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. but they often hold the keys to the problem. troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. computers never fail at a convenient time. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. “as reported. Remember. After all. it seems well defined by the person who calls and complains! But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned. so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. you will most likely be called when there is a problem. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier. a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you. you are looking for the cause. Specialized Solutions. The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper. 245 . If fact. not when all is well.

For example. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience. and so forth). You will need to create your own list based on the situation. recent software upgrade. Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem. have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory. If it is an operatorinduced problem. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation.) Show me how to create the error. Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure. Inc. These never seem to occur when you are present. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before. The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. it is important to observe how it is created. Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know. lights. but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure. Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones. the failure occurs. You may. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever. The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that caused the failure. however. screen changes. One thing that might 246 Specialized Solutions. as well as the results. The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work toward the more complex. network or computer moved. or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of the failure. and most importantly. With a little experience. Sometimes. If possible. This will take time and patience. have someone demonstrate the failure to you. Do not make the questions too technical. and when. You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. Describe any changes in the computer (noise. Be sure to observe the failure yourself. do not intimidate the user. . the process of elimination is all that you can do.

If for example. make a plan and follow it. If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be).Conclusion help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. Do not make any assumptions. Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. If you must make any assumptions. It requires two simple steps. then you know for sure that the network is physically working. then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. but to call you. In the case of a network problem. 247 . Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up. Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems. but you cannot receive any E-mail. and move forward. Inc. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. Once a plan is created. it is important to follow it through. You may have to refer back to them later. create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. Starting from the top. For example. That way the “evidence” is not disturbed. write them down. Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made. Document every action and its results. The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally. isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user Specialized Solutions. but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration. is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly.

repair or replacement is usually all that is needed. the problem may be caused by the operator. if an operator is afraid of computers in general. With hardware. start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures. In these cases. you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities. In these situations. you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem). This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome. if the problem is software or configuration related. it may require some additional effort. and not the hardware or the system. you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. as well as the one that is causing problems. For example. Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work). be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Once the search has been narrowed. However. 248 Specialized Solutions. This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how. Note: If the problem is software-oriented. Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. either repair or replace the defect. It is important to use another operator. Implement the solution. Inc. no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed. . To resolve these types of problems. Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems.

Document the solution Finally. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms. there is no substitute for experience. You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience. The basis for this policy is that once the system is running. the problem. document the problem and the repair. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems. Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user. Inc. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. and the repair. you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem.Conclusion Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again. This is one way to build. Specialized Solutions. and share experience. 249 . The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists. maintain. or a follow up call just to make sure all is well. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction. In troubleshooting.

Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools. Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack. They secure the connection between the wires and the block. Punch Down Tool 250 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician. Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network. . let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling. Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals. The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire. a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier. Inc.

Network cabling is. A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other. the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. If the test is negative (no light or noise). resistance. it is still possible to test for continuity. We will start by looking at a multimeter. it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. If your meter does not have a continuity setting. Inc. When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing. which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. Since it is made up of wires. the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps). A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. In a wire for example. An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other. Specialized Solutions. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up. All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device. the circuit is broken. a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red). If the wire is broken. With it you can test various electronic components. as well as the electrical power in the computer. a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete. and continuity. When working with network cabling.Conclusion Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe. we will have to know how to test for continuity. Some meters will let you test for current as well. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured. For example. You can test for AC and DC voltage. Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. in principle. There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires. very easy to troubleshoot. Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. 251 . whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. you can have only one of two problems. The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters. These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted). The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound.

If both ends are in the same location. to find pairs of wires in a bundle. testing for continuity will require an additional wire. there are more often than not. Inc. The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky. You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end. The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. thus locating the wires. However. 252 Specialized Solutions. it will emit a tone. if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building. When used together. This applies a signal on the wires. several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel). this is not a problem. called tone generators and tone locators. The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician should have one. Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. However. and test at the other end. . When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. these tools are often called a fox and a hound. The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet).

but is double-ended. It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning. there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment. and therefore back to the network card. Inc. also called packet sniffers. Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa). If you are able to send a signal and have it return. are usually a PC with a special network card. A crossover cable is similar to a loopback.Conclusion Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable. By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. Specialized Solutions. 253 . Be careful when using a crossover cable. Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic. capture packets and generate reports. Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable. They will monitor network traffic. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions. It has the transmit and receive wires connected. A loopback cable is just what the name implies. These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters. The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling. Software analyzers. the location of any break or short can be determined.

OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back. 254 Specialized Solutions. . Inc. but used for fiber optic cabling.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR.

you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. Some passwords are case-sensitive. The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network. due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck. the network. A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. the traffic is not moving. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact. You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so. or a disk resource. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network. For some reason. Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security. but can be caused by a disconnected cable. Therefore. Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam.Conclusion Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. It could be the processor. and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors. Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords. If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate. 255 . Inc. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail.

As networks grow. deletes. You must defragment the drive.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves. the network slows down. When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it. so does the traffic. Inc. and moves information. If slow loading persists even after defragmenting. . tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night. For example. These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours. You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives. check for memory bottlenecks. Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 256 Specialized Solutions.

This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS. If you are using TCP/IP. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on your intranet or on the Internet your packet is going. PING. you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu. Inc.1. you will use it often. and TRACERT commands to test the network.Conclusion Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network. It also lets you know the time that it takes. 257 . The first step is to PING the loopback address. This will test the protocol stack in the computer.0. but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card. These commands work from a command prompt. TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination. because as a network professional.0. Specialized Solutions. On a Macintosh system. On a Windows 95/98 computer. PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation. Remember this address. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities. The loopback address is 127.

This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT. WINIPCFG. your dialog box will look like the following.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195. XP. 258 Specialized Solutions. or 2003 system. 2000. If you are using Windows. .48. Inc.55. WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly.6.

then there is a problem with the protocol.55. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol. you have encountered a problem.48. they must be okay. For the IPX/SPX networks. PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer. the server. Usually this means you have the wrong IP address. Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems.Conclusion PING 195. Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: Specialized Solutions. 259 . Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t. If at any stage. With each step. use the ipxping command.6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation. you receive a message like the following. you will be testing a larger portion of the network. and so on. Inc. It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday.

To resolve this problem. If there is a sudden change in performance. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem. The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS. Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. Earlier. we need to look at four limiting factors on performance. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name. you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. have two names. That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server). while green lights indicate that all is well. but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow. If no lights are on.” With nslookup. 260 Specialized Solutions. You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause. you can be sure that the network is not being detected. the first thing to do is find out what has changed. Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files. If present. Beyond that. you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory. we learned that workstations. (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). Inc. How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. or hosts. If these files are being used. One is the IP address number. suspect a loose or disconnected cable. . they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector. The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details. Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer. In general. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. These are text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses. respectively.

after you identify the problem. The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now. is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. Latency Small delays in packet movement that are caused by devices is called latency. you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps). everything slows down. The speed limit. if you are experiencing slow printing. 261 . Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information.Conclusion Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing. you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. if the traffic gets too congested. adding to the network load. or maximum speed that traffic can move. Just like our highway. The answer lies in creating a performance baseline. A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache. but are interrelated. An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. Specialized Solutions. and average time to print the document. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation. slow. Latency delays. for the most part. it can send data at a faster than rated speed. you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed. if any one component is performing poorly. This means that for a small amount of time. Therefore. it will affect the entire network. Inc. For example. are negligible. To create a baseline. This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request. the more packets that can be moved). This can slow down data transfer. at a later date. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. For example. Resolving performance problems can be easy. you will know the high. Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory. but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks. From this information. Then. The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system.

Windows has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools. etc. Inc. Windows Performance Monitor 262 Specialized Solutions. With this activated. available memory. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events. . Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network. you will be able to monitor such events as processor time. you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself. With this tool. To collect these statistics.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. percent of network utilization. Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. etc.

Conclusion KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 263 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc. Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition Specialized Solutions.

After repairing a problem. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slowly. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Conclusion 264 Specialized Solutions. You have located the cable in question #3. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8. You are troubleshooting a cable problem.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1. . You have just connected a workstation to the network. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3. What is the loopback IP address? 7. and think it might be shorted. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4. Inc. What tool would you need to find the short? 5. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10.

We love to hear from our students. start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course. To measure your retention of these materials. and as often. Remember. so if you have any questions. you are ready to sit for your certification exam. at Specialized Solutions. we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. as you like. When you are ready to schedule your exam. Specialized Solutions. Inc.Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site. 265 . the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. After taking a practice exam. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material. Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs. our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range. be sure to review any areas that need improvement. and don’t forget to use the Glossary.

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all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Specialized Solutions. Maximum of 4 repeaters. Inc. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. 267 . They are specified based on their impedance. you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule. • • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series. It is expressed in ohms.Appendix A – Tech Summary Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing coaxial Ethernet cabling. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. Only 3 segments can contain nodes. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core. Inc. ArcNet networks. but also used for broadband transmissions. Length (meters) Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment Max Segments Max. Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 10Base5 Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Bus 500 10 100 5 4 10Base2 Bus 185 10 30 5 4 3 268 Specialized Solutions. Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59. such as cable television. Military specification of RG-58 A/U. RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max. Description Stranded wire core. Broadband transmission.

Contains a shield for use under carpets. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps. Not Defined Two 62. but adds voice capability along with data. Same as type 1.Appendix A – Tech Summary UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps. Two STP –26 AWG wire. Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG. Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch. Specialized Solutions. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Two STP – 26 AWG wire. Voice-grade cable. Inc. IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks. Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet).5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. 269 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Plenum grade. Six twisted pairs. Data grade up to 100 Mbps. Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch.

5 802.9 802.8 802. 802.3 802.11 802.7 802. .4 802. They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls. Inc.1 802.12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 270 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802.x Standard 802.2 802.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model.10 802.6 802.

there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed. however. COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs.Appendix A – Tech Summary IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer. 271 . No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually Specialized Solutions. Inc. The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2. COM4 COM1.

The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F .LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 272 Specialized Solutions.LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address. . Inc.

Appendix A – Tech Summary 3A0 to 3AF 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model Specialized Solutions. Inc. 273 .

x.x.x.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Gateways Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Brouter Bridges Switches NICs. Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001.x.x to 126.0. .0 Number of Networks 126 16.255. Repeaters Computers Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address.214 65.x.x. x.x.097.0.534 254 274 Specialized Solutions. x.x.384 2.x 192.0 255. Inc.255.x.0 255.x.x 128.152 Number of Host 16.x to 223.x Default Subnet Mask 255.777.0.x to 191. Hubs.255.

1) to test the IP architecture and configuration. the subnet mask.Appendix A – Tech Summary TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device.0. PING ARP RARP Specialized Solutions. it will return. Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks. Inc. If all is well.0. Sends a test packet to a specified address. 275 . Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the Linux user’s network interface configuration. Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. the subnet address. Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses). and default gateway. Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address. Use the loopback address (127.

ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries. Used to check the resolution of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses. Used to check the status of current IP connections. all computers are connected in a series. (Pronounced Trace Route. NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology. all computers are connected to a hub. Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it. Used to verify the route to a remote host. In a star topology. .) Used to verify entries on a DNS server. Inc. 276 Specialized Solutions.

Appendix A – Tech Summary In a ring topology. all computers are logically connected in a circle. Specialized Solutions. 277 . all computers are connected to each other. Inc. In a mesh topology.

An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals. resistance. . TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry. Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. Can also be used for precise voltage measurements. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks. Protocol Analyzer 278 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages. Also called a network analyzer. Inc.

Event Viewer SNMP Specialized Solutions. Inc. Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers. routers. servers.Appendix A – Tech Summary Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations. hubs. Displays or prints a list of events. Used to provide information for network baselines. and bridges). 279 . interface cards. and networks.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 280 Specialized Solutions.

Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www.com Other Helpful Sites http://www.novell. Inc.com Novell http://www.com Specialized Solutions.microsoft.cnet. 281 .

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 282 Specialized Solutions.

This is a common code for basic characters and numbers. Specialized Solutions. search for these organizations on the Internet. In the computing industry. This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry. It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. As its name implies. let alone the networking industry. Inc. EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. it is responsible for establishing standards for communication. Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector. For additional information. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards. 283 . CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below). it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set.Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes.

As long as both are SQL compliant. As you may guess from its name. its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language.x sub-committees. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards. 284 Specialized Solutions. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Since they cover a wide variety of equipment. This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another. Inc. . These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model.x committee. the IEEE is subdivided into committees. The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802. Inc. ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product. the data can be smoothly transferred.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment. Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused. See Appendix A for a summary of the 802.

Payment must be made each time you take the test. Inc.com for VUE. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test. Specialized Solutions. and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE. Date you wish to take the test.Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE. Prices subject to change without notice. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers.2test. go to www. or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer. Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time. either by credit card. Payment is made at the time of registration. To register via the Internet. Method of payment. When you call.vue. credit card or voucher. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like. 285 . please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number.com for Prometric or www.

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or bits per second (bps). Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). opposite of digital. The highest layer of the OSI Model. or computers on the network (nodes). A dedicated server for applications. The Apple networking protocol. program. The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies. or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. it supplies functions to applications. Software. American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. 287 . The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. so they can communicate with other applications or nodes. A continuously variable signal. The file server on an AppleTalk network.Appendix E – Glossary Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. these three terms are often used interchangeably. Inc.

Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address 288 Specialized Solutions. such as IBM. Inc. these are all in use at the present time. such as Microsoft. British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. . Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems. GM. Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances. IP Address used by very large networks. A bus driver. Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. A form of mobile computing. The signal flow is uni-directional. IP Address used by medium-sized networks. Hardware that connects one network with another. A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. or DEC. The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC.

or Cyclic redundancy Code.Appendix E – Glossary Client Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable User computer “being served” by another computer. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. from computer or network to another. is a number derived from. Same as a hub. called a server. which is. or language. or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. Cyclic Redundancy Check. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media. The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable. Inc. Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption Specialized Solutions. Software used by the client. itself. The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation. 289 . Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. using a specific protocol. A form of multitasking. Data that is encoded for security reasons. stored. at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level. to allow other tasks to run.

It also receives acknowledgement frames. Inc. When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 290 Specialized Solutions. such as an individual file. . the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk.) Being able to recover data from a disaster. in a round-robin fashion. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one. Also called data striping. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. A limited form of bus mastering.A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients. The Data Link layer splits data into frames. (Simple “on” or “off” signal. for sending on the Physical layer. so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives. If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly. DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data. This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks. so that one can take over for the other if it fails. Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency.

An improved version of X. A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors.25 packet switching technology.Appendix E – Glossary DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. Inc. Specialized Solutions. sent over a communications channel. A network’s central computer. A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard. and other control information. error detection. with a very large amount of storage space for shared files. A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received. A group of bits containing address information. 291 DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex . A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network. Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits. Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once.

GSNW Half-Duplex Header HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address 292 Specialized Solutions. but only one at a time. to communicate with each other. or ring topologies. RFC 792. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. using different protocols. Inc. and other information. Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture. Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. RFC 791. that enables two networks. even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. defined in STD 5. . test packets. HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. It precedes the actual data. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5. A network topology that combines bus. Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). star. The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway A computer that acts as a translator. is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol. is usually represented in dotted decimal notation. and informational messages related to IP.

Appendix E – Glossary IPCONFIG IPsec IRQ DOS command that tells you the IP address for your computer. it’s “hardware address. A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver. Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator. and video data sources. A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data.” Server used for E-mail. Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC. Inc. internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring. Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network. Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer. 293 ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU . Specialized Solutions. data. Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice. a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer. across a network connection.

MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide MCA Bus Micro Channel Architecture. . Performing multiple tasks simultaneously. Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. Much like your local radio station. among others. totally incompatible with the original PC bus. Inc. protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources. a 32-bit bus. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. introduced by IBM for its PS/2 computer line. Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X. and is used by CompuServe. Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card 294 Specialized Solutions. Also known as a network interface card. Provides the physical connection to the network cable.400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS). A type of hub. Single Frequency Radio. A method of data transmission. One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting.

They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. including network connectivity. depending on the protocol. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources. Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet. An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network. A generic term used to describe a unit of data. Inc. A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network. The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. Specialized Solutions. Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model. Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network. A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. 295 Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card . A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards.Appendix E – Glossary Network Administrator Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. Acts as a connection point only.

The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time. Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 296 Specialized Solutions. Although included as part of Windows NT. Defines a channel between a device and the processor. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Peer-to-Peer Performance Monitor All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model. many third-party applications are available. The space between the ceiling and the floor above. The Presentation layer formats data exchange. which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. other processes will still run. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning.1. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network. such as a printer or scanner. A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server. Dedicated server for printing. A hardware device. Inc.5 of Windows 3. Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3. . and running on TCP/IP. and even if a process takes full control. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer. The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack. used to circulate air through a building. this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking. converting character sets and encrypting data. depending upon the needs of the user.

the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. which then routes the signal appropriately. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN Specialized Solutions. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. i. Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors. Used to increase cable distances in network environments. The signal is beamed towards a central unit.Appendix E – Glossary Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection. A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network. Redirects a call from one port to another.e. The services or peripherals that are shared over the network. A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network. Inc. to be accessed via a modem. For example. Connector used with standard telephone wire. Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. For example. the proxy server. A device that forwards packets between networks. In Token-Ring networks. including support for dialup and logon. 297 . Connector used with UTP and STP network cables. In a Ring topology. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. the devices are connected in a continuous loop. Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address.

A computer on a network that provides services to other computers. Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another. A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. Transmission rates are slower with this type. as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP 298 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Simple Network Management Protocol. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol. Software that resides on a server. is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP). was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. etc. . usually over Ethernet. until it reaches the receiver. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. defined in RFC 1055. data transfer. normally used on Ethernet. RFC 1157. acknowledgments (ACK). Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. to be used over a serial link. The Session layer handles such things as security authentication.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use. as opposed to duplex. A uni-directional data channel. ceilings. connection establishment and release.

Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). Inc. If the hub fails. the entire network goes down. rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms. A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. such as bodies of water or deserts. A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub. or across large flat open areas. An access method used in a Token Ring topology. that uses a large diameter. Using binary addition.Appendix E – Glossary SONET Spread-Spectrum Radio Synchronous Optical Network Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5. A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing. 299 SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk .5 Standard) environment. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. Specialized Solutions. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters. Maximum segment length is 500 meters. so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. The process of subdividing a network into logical units. the official protocol of the Internet. The maximum speed that “traffic” can move. Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol.

When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. which. like TCP. Inc. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. User Datagram Protocol. RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol. Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer. The “fox.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. A device that transmits and receives data. . Tool for stripping and cutting wire Tone Locator TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 300 Specialized Solutions. Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments. Used on transceivers.” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface. defined in STD 6. The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information. The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport. this applies a signal on the wires. The “hound. Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding. it will emit a tone. is layered on top of IP. thus locating the wires. A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments.” A receiver set to the frequency of the generator.

301 . using zones Zones Specialized Solutions. Inc. resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks. such as Token Ring.Appendix E – Glossary WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves. A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 302 Specialized Solutions.

A WAN is not geographically limited. 303 . Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Files are easily accessed by all users. data backups can be more easily and routinely performed. A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area. What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. configure.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers. 7. 3. loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations. and peripheral devices. LANs typically also have much faster communication speed than WANs. 4. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet. Simple to install. Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security). 5. 6. applications. Review Questions Chapter 1 1. Inc. Specialized Solutions. such as data. What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use. like one office). It is confined to a limited area. 2. What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server). Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. No security. and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less). Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net.

Name the three basic topologies. 10. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see. . and Demand Priority. 9.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 8. Token Passing. 11. Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. Inc. Review Questions Chapter 2 1. Can be expanded as network grows. and Ring. more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). Some NOSs function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. The three basic topologies are: Bus. 2. Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. They represent what the topology looks like. Centralized administration. Star. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU. Increased performance on large networks. What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. Ease of data backups. File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. More difficult to install and configure. 304 Specialized Solutions. 12. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. Centralized location of resources (server).

and file and print services. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. Unlike NetWare. routing. 64 MB RAM. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. Specialized Solutions. 7. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. 550 MB of free hard drive space. Define interoperability. messaging. 305 . and volumes is also handled with NDS. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. groups. 8. Organization of network resources such as users. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. redirecting them to the server. What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. web-publishing. 9. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. 5. 6. It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments. What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. 4. name service. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security. management. servers. Inc.

What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 14. and Physical 3. 2. Transport. Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT. Application. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare. Review Questions Chapter 3 1. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. Session. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 10. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU. Inc. Data Link. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. .What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. Network. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 306 Specialized Solutions. What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 15. Presentation. 13. What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals. 12. 125 MB free hard drive space. 11. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. 16 MB RAM.1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network. Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server.

13.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 4. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. Network Layer 6. Data Link layer 5. Which OSI layer is responsible the MAC address? The Data Link layer 8. Presentation layer 7. This is not the actual application or program. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer Specialized Solutions. What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? D3-B4-01 14. Inc. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. 11. and ending connections? The Session layer 12. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. managing. Physical 10. 307 . Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. 9. It is a computer’s physical address.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 15. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence, without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 16. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 17. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. 18. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802.2 19. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. They are incompatible with each other. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com, while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. 20. Describe protocol binding. In order to function, a protocol must be bound to the NIC. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 21. Which is faster, connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster, but connection-oriented communication is more reliable. 22. . Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. AppleTalk, DECnet, IPX/SPX, PPP, PPTP, SLIP, SMB, SNA, TCP/IP, UDP, X.25, XNS 23.. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Will this work? Why or Why not? 308

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol.

Review Questions Chapter 4

1. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. 5. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. 6. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above, which is used to circulate air in a building). Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned, which would end up being circulated throughout the building. 7. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 10. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs, which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. 11. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. However, it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. 13. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths, segment lengths of up to several miles, and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. 15. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. 16. Describe baseband. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. 17. Describe broadband. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable, making the signal flow unidirectional. 18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way, can receive but not send. For example, a pager. Half-duplex communication can send or receive, but not at the same time. For example, a CB radio. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. For example, the telephone. 310 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 19. What is the function of a network adapter card? Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network. (They make the physical connection to the network.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. 20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers, including network connectivity. 22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network, to backup a cable-based network, to provide a mobile network environment, for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly, outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform. 23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared, Laser, Radio, and Microwave 24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. 25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally; Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances.

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority Specialized Solutions, Inc. 311

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). Specialized Solutions, Inc. 313

The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network.5 standard 16. 20. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802. IEEE 802. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. . This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17.5 says it travels clockwise. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token. 21. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? The IEEE 802. Inc. They are also called hermaphrodite connectors. It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise. 18. however. data collisions are avoided.3 standard 15. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14. 314 Specialized Solutions. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. It can be either depending upon how it is set up. Describe a MIC connector. 19.

23. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. etc. It also provides a print server. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. If no other computer is using the address. Specialized Solutions. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. 315 . How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 22. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No. 5. 24. 2. Inc. Review Questions Chapter 6 1. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. 3. NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers. 4. it stores it to use each time it connects to the network. 25. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2.

he intends to expand the network in the future. . What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks. 316 Specialized Solutions.com/windows/catalog. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? Check the Windows Catalog on the web at www. Inc. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network. 9. It will be less costly to install CAT 6 now than to replace the CAT 5 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps to handle the higher traffic. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS. 2. having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 6. 7. An active hub requires some input power. However. Why should you refuse this offer? First. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. Passive hubs are used only to make connections. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. but not enough to run it efficiently. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. Review Questions Chapter 7 1. 8.microsoft. Also. but they are not all the same.

Name three RAS protocols. Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model.Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. 4. They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. Bridge . For example. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN.A router has all the features of a bridge. What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking). Router .A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature. They do however. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. Callback Security. BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. Name four forms of RAS security. and SONET 7. Name three advanced WAN environments. They do not translate or filter any information. Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model. Repeater . a router. Not all network protocols will work with a router. amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables. BAUD and bps were the same thing. 8. What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network. In older modems. 5. SLIP. Auditing. A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem. and a gateway. Gateway . Security host. 317 . Specialized Solutions.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. PPTP and L2TP 9. and PPTP filtering. Define a repeater. NetBEUI is not routable. ISDN. Frame Relay. Inc.A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment.544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. PPP. a bridge. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. 10.

IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 318 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11) Specialized Solutions. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names. FTP. 3. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3. ICMP. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP. and ARP.microsoft.com. 2. SMTP. UDP. IP. 8. Inc. and HTTP. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. SNMP. . 5. 32 10. Internet and Network Interface. An example is http://www. HTU UTH 6. Transport. 7. What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9. What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses. 4.

Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups. each device will need to be _________ compliant.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. 2. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3. List as many as you can. ROUTE. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. Specialized Solutions. 319 . NETSTAT and TRACERT. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment Review Questions Chapter 9 1. NBTSTAT. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. Inc. Event Viewer. U U U U 12. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network.

5. 4. In a share level model. What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet. 2. What are the three most common levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 5 Striped array with parity 6. It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. . Inc. passwords are assigned to __________. What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. 320 Specialized Solutions. Resources 3. The acronym RAID stands for____________? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1.

What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows. What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP.1 7. Inc. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. 5. 2. and Repair the Problem. You have just connected a workstation to the network. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. You have located the cable in question #3. WINIPCFG from the RUN command. Specialized Solutions. you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network. Isolate the Problem. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables. 4. 8. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. What is the loopback IP address? 127. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution.0. You are troubleshooting a cable problem.0. 3.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 11 1. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. After repairing a problem. 321 . 6. and think it might be shorted. The fox and hound.

10. Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 322 Specialized Solutions. Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slow.

78. 21 Carriers. 86 B backbone. 92 Boot Sector. 226 Digital. 108 Active Directory. 13 ARCNet. 196 Class C. 161 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC). 91 Baseband. 226 Bandwidth. 89 Direct Memory Access (DMA). 86 Broadband Optical Telepoint. Inc. 78 Boot Prom’s. 189 domain controller. 78. 13 Clocking. 122 AppleTalk. 67 demand priority. 114 10Base5. 109 CSNW. 24 Address Resolution Protocol. 116 100VG-AnyLAN. 119 binding. 77 Computer compatibility. 60 attributes. 34 DECnet. 108. 39 AUI connector. 323 . 39 Circuit-switched. 52 Data Protection. 164 Class A. 81 Cellular Networking. 69. 116 10Base2. 41 CSU/DSU. 86 Beaconing. 243 CSMA/CD. 61 C Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD. 191 BRI. 231 BOOTP. 186 Analog. 196 Class B. 151 connection-oriented. 65 BNC. 114 A access method. 121 Application Layer. 91 domain. 67. 98 Change. 50 application server. 40 Specialized Solutions. 217 ATM. 111 D Data Link Layer. 89 AppleShare. 160 Category 3. 123 ARP. 96 brouter. 70 coaxial cable. 253 Banyan VINES. 109 DES (Data Encryption Standard). 38 Client Software. 196 client software. 81 Category 5. 114 10BaseFL. 65 continuity. 60 Broadband. 42 base memory address. 167 bridge.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Index 1 100BaseX. 70 DMA. 40. 79 backup utility. 166 attenuation. 90 DLC. 34 clients. 230 Differential backup. 114 10BaseT. 79 AWG. 42 active hubs. 16. 89 cloud.

185 interoperability. 41 H Half-Duplex. 68. 187 hubs. 56 324 Specialized Solutions. 60 E EES. 93 EMI. 174 L L2TP. Inc. 39 fault tolerance. 224 FPNW. Inc. 191 HTTP. 86 G gateway. 120 ICA. 186 Incremental backup. 96 LAT. 116 ground probe. 226 Full Control. 197 IPX. 21. 192 IFCONFIG. 114 EtherTalk. 187 HTTPS. 62 Internet Control Message Protocol. 243 Group policies. 174 ICMP. 12 Laser. 93 ISDN. 231 fire codes.Fiber Distributed Data. K Kerberos. 96 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 61 Gateways.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Domain Name Service (DNS). 245 DSMN. 91 ISA. 112 HOSTS file. 71 ICS. 91 IBM cabling. 122 Event Viewer. 167 ISDN adapters. 187 Full backup. 157 hybrid topologies. 166 fiber-optic. 167 FTP. 186 Internet Protocol (IP). 144 Ethernet. 83 IBM Type 3 UTP. 67 IRQ. 191 dynamic routers. 22 FAT. 231 EISA. 161 . 249 IPsec. 226 Infrared. 217 IMAP4. 68. 86 headers. 191 gateways. 18 I I/O port number. 41 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). 217. 39 IP. 215 F Fast Ethernet. 159 Gigabit Ethernet. 42 Headers. 39 Full-Duplex. 86 firewall. 83 File Infectors. 185 IP address. 189 Domain Reflectometer (TDR). 194 IPCONFIG. 42 GSNW. 174 Line-of-Sight Infrared. (IEEE). 41 Frame Relay. 81 environment. 96 Linux. 174 IPv6.. 174 LAN. 226 FDDI . 70 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol.

Primary Domain Controller. 93 PDC . 151 Media Tester. 64 proxy server. 231 physical topologies. 93 PCMCIA. 114 LMHOSTS. 228 NFS. 31 PGP. 167 protocol. 191 NBTSTAT. 122 logical topology.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers LLC. 67 NDIS. 172 Preemptive multitasking. . 29 OS/2. 217 PING. 29 NSLOOKUP. 190 NETSTAT. 14 Peer-to-peer LANs. 30 N NAT. 30 PRI. 229 Patch Panel. 18 LSL. 168 MSAU. 49 operating system.Multiple Access Units. 21 Media Compatibility. 89 passive hub. 107 protocols. 49. 191 LocalTalk. 249 plenum. 37 MIB (Management Information Base). 213 MIC (Media Interface Connectors). 243 mesh topology. 67 modem. 69 Network-attached storage (NAS). 23 media access methods. 96 MLID. 69 NLSP. 43 Macro Virus. 157 MAUs . 242 325 Specialized Solutions. 171 NWLink. 39 NOS – Network Operating System. 71. 32 P Packet switching. 18 Ping. 36 NetWare file server. 37 Network Adapter Cards. 86 PPP. 120. 64 NDS (NetWare Directory Services). 243 multitasking. 157 PCI. 23 Passwords. 41. 89 Network Layer. 215 NetWare. 34 MAU. 36 NetWare Client32 for OS/2. 31 Network standards. 70 NETBIOS. 217 NTFS. 39 Null-Modem. 37 NetWare Print Services. 71. 172 PPTP. 13 peer-to-peer. 64 Open Systems Interface (OSI). 36 NetWare Client32 for DOS. 164 Packet-Radio Networking. 232 Managing User Accounts. 111 parallel communication. 114 Network Time Protocol (NTP). 36 NetBEUI. 120 Microwave. 52 Network Neighborhood. 68 O ODI. 18 MHS. 98 packets. 36 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95. 192 Punch Down Tool. 215 NCP. 37 NetWare security. 67 M Macintosh. Inc. 67 No Access. 36 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh. 120 Multimeter.

98 Scatter Infrared. 182 UNIX. 60 Storage Area Network (SAN). 67. 144 Remote Access Server or RAS. 35 Reflective Infrared. 16 twisted-pair. 68 SMDS. 35 ring topology. 159 routers. 225 removable optical disk. 13 sharing applications. 60. 11 signal bounce. 79 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 174 Standards. 187 SNA. 11 SNMP. 120 SMB. 34 server-based network. sneaker net. 175 Security. 80 V vampire taps. 16 TRACERT. 237 trunk. 158 requester. 68 Trojan Horses. 213 Simplex. 67 SSL. 17 static routers. 33 servers. 65 RPC. 71 RSA. 42 User Datagram Protocol (UDP). 144 Server Software. 69. 225 TCP. 167 SPX. 167 SMTP. 118 topology. 171 removable disks. 225 repeater. 167 security. 253 TLS. 68. 77 Thinnet. Inc. 109 token ring.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide R Radio. 230 S SAP. 68 326 Specialized Solutions. 217 Read. 71. 21. 80 virtual connections. 187 Software analyzers. 174 token passing. 81 Subnetting. 69 ROUTE. 79 thicknet. 16. 17 RIP. 245 SONET. 80 U UDP. 68 Satellite Station Networking. 77 throughput. 232 troubleshooting. 185 UTP. 228 STP. 199 T tape backup. 79 Transport Layer. 184 Telnet. 51 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 86 SLIP. 172 SMAU. 215. 96 RAID. 69 terminator. 89 Server room. 96 relative humidity. 39 redirector. 13 Server-based network. 215 router. 71. 34. 16. 58 . 60. 227 RARP. 112 transceiver. 16 serial communication. 221 segment. 249 Trailer. 68. 152 star topology. 96 SDH.

231 VLAN. 32 Windows 2000. 71 XNS. 190 Wire Crimper. 124 wireless network. Inc.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Viruses. 13 X X. 95 Wireless NICs. 70 Specialized Solutions. 165 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks). 242 Wireless. 327 . 154 Windows 95/98. 166 XDR. 31 Windows NT Print Servers. 31 Windows for Workgroups.25. 92 workstation. 19. 40 U U WINS. 69. 12 Warp Connect. 230 W WAN.

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