Network+ 2005 Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network+

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Copyright© 2004 by Specialized Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 338 East Tarpon Street, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. Publisher: Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Contributing Writers: Bill Ferguson Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Editor: Bill Ferguson

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Suggestions/Comments Please forward all comments or suggestions to: Specialized Solutions, Inc. 338 East Tarpon St. Tarpon Springs, FL 34689

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... I

ABOUT SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS ...........................................................IX
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+ .............................................................2005 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ..................................................................................................9 YOUR VIDEO INSTRUCTOR .................................................................................................9 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST ..................................................................................................10 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................10 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................10 ABOUT THIS COURSE .......................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS ..................................................17 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING ....................................................................................17 Benefits of Networking Computers .............................................................................17 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) .................................18 The Client/Server Relationship ...................................................................................19 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................19 Peer-to-Peer Networking ............................................................................................20 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).....................................................................21 Bus Topology ..............................................................................................................21 Star Topology..............................................................................................................22 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................22 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES ......................................................................................................23 Hybrid Topologies ......................................................................................................23 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................23 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................24 NETWORK ACCESS ...........................................................................................................26 Token Passing .............................................................................................................26 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................26 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................27 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS ...........................................................................................28 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................28 Active Hubs .................................................................................................................29 Hub-Based Networks ..................................................................................................29 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................30 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................31 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1 ....................................................................................33 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS) ....................................35 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? ..................................................................................35 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking .............................................................36 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)? ........................................................37 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................37 Server/Client Software ................................................................................................39 NOS PACKAGES...............................................................................................................42 Specialized Solutions, Inc. i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Novell NetWare .......................................................................................................... 42 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System................................................... 45 Windows NT Minimum Requirements ...........................Error! Bookmark not defined. UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................ 47 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service)................................................ 48 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 50 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................. 51 REVIEW QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................ 52 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS.......... 55 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION ..................................................... 55 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL ................................................................................ 56 Application Layer ....................................................................................................... 56 Presentation Layer ..................................................................................................... 57 Session Layer.............................................................................................................. 57 Transport Layer.......................................................................................................... 57 Network Layer ............................................................................................................ 58 Data Link Layer.......................................................................................................... 58 Logical Link Control (LLC) ....................................................................................... 59 Media Access Control (MAC) .................................................................................... 59 Physical Layer............................................................................................................ 60 PROTOCOL STACKS ......................................................................................................... 62 Communication Between Peer Layers ....................................................................... 62 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD ............................................................................................ 64 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL ....................................................................................... 66 Repeaters .................................................................................................................... 66 Bridges........................................................................................................................ 66 Routers........................................................................................................................ 66 Brouters ...................................................................................................................... 67 Gateways .................................................................................................................... 67 IEEE 802 STANDARDS .................................................................................................... 68 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL ...................................................................... 70 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)......................................................... 70 ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ................................................................................ 70 PROTOCOLS AND OSI ...................................................................................................... 70 Protocol Binding ........................................................................................................ 71 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless ................................................................... 71 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols ........................................................................ 71 Networking Protocols and Stacks............................................................................... 72 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................... 73 DECnet ....................................................................................................................... 73 IPX/ SPX..................................................................................................................... 73 SMB (Server Message Block) ..................................................................................... 74 SNA (Systems Network Architecture) ......................................................................... 74 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ....................................................................... 74 IP (Internet Protocol)................................................................................................. 74 UDP (User Datagram Protocol)................................................................................ 74 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) ..................................................................................... 74 ii Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Table of Contents Telnet...........................................................................................................................75 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................75 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................75 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................75 NTP (Network Time Protocol) ....................................................................................75 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) ...............................................................................75 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................75 X.25 .............................................................................................................................76 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................76 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................76 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................76 LAT (Local Area Transport) .......................................................................................76 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................77 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................78 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................78 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) ...................................................................................78 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) ................................................................78 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) ........................................................78 ISO/OSI Standard .......................................................................................................78 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ...............................................................78 DNS (Domain Name System) ......................................................................................78 XDR (External Data Representation) .........................................................................78 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................78 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................80 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................81 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................82 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................85 NETWORK CABLING .........................................................................................................85 Coaxial Cable .............................................................................................................85 Coaxial Connectors ....................................................................................................86 Twisted-Pair Cable .....................................................................................................88 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................91 Summary of Cabling ...................................................................................................93 CABLING TERMS ..............................................................................................................94 AWG (American Wire Gauge) ....................................................................................94 Bandwidth ...................................................................................................................94 Plenum Grade Cabling ...............................................................................................94 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................95 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)..............................................................................97 Preparing the Data .....................................................................................................97 Signals and Clocking ..................................................................................................97 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel) .................................................................................98 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................98 Configurable Options..................................................................................................98 Wireless NICs............................................................................................................100 Specialized Solutions, Inc. iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Fiber-Optic NICs...................................................................................................... 100 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................ 101 Standard Bus Types .................................................................................................. 101 Laptops ..................................................................................................................... 101 NETWORK PERFORMANCE ............................................................................................. 102 WIRELESS NETWORKS ................................................................................................... 103 Why Wireless? .......................................................................................................... 103 Wireless Transmission Methods............................................................................... 104 Radio Transmission.................................................................................................. 105 Satellite Station Networking..................................................................................... 106 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 108 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 109 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.................................................................................... 112 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS .................................. 115 ACCESS METHODS......................................................................................................... 116 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) .................... 116 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) ................... 117 Token Passing........................................................................................................... 117 Demand Priority....................................................................................................... 117 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS) ............................................... 119 Packet Structure ....................................................................................................... 119 Packet Components .................................................................................................. 120 NETWORK STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 122 Logical Link Control (802.2).................................................................................... 122 Ethernet (802.3)........................................................................................................ 122 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................. 129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)................................................... 131 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 133 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 134 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.................................................................................... 136 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.......................................................................... 139 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT ................................................................................... 139 The Customer ........................................................................................................... 139 The Network Goals................................................................................................... 140 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE ......................................................................................... 142 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer.................................................................................. 142 When to Choose Client/Server ................................................................................. 143 Making the Choice.................................................................................................... 144 Public and Private networks .................................................................................... 144 DESIGN THE NETWORK.................................................................................................. 150 Media Selection ........................................................................................................ 151 Environmental Concerns.......................................................................................... 152 NOS Selection........................................................................................................... 152 Protocol Selection .................................................................................................... 152 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER ............................................................................................ 154 Cable to Computer ................................................................................................... 154 iv Specialized Solutions, Inc.

...........................................................................................................161 Minimum Requirements ................................................166 Routers .194 NAMING SYSTEMS ..................................................160 Hard Work ......................................................................162 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 ...........................................186 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS .................................................164 CHAPTER 7 ................................................................178 Connecting Two Computers........................................................................................................................................160 Standards ......................................................................................................................................................183 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ..................................................................................................................................................................................159 Computer Compatibility........157 Media Compatibility .......................................................................................................................................................................192 Other TCP/IP Protocols ..............................................................166 Bridges .....................................166 Repeaters........................................165 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL ..................................................................................................167 CONNECTION SERVICES .....................................................................................................................178 RAS Protocols .......................................................................................................................................182 Troubleshooting a RAS setup.......................................................167 Gateway ......................... v ..............................169 Analog Connectivity.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................197 DNS .......................................182 Limitations of RAS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................179 Installing and Configuring RAS......................................................................................................................................184 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 ..................168 Carriers................168 WAN Overview...................................................................................................165 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS.......................................174 MODEMS ...................................197 Specialized Solutions.........................................................................................................155 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY ...................Table of Contents Cable to Hub ........170 Circuit-switched Networks.......................................................................160 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS .........................159 PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ...........157 Adapter Card Compatibility .............................................................................154 Network Adapter Cards ........176 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS) .....................................................................................................189 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................173 Advanced WAN Environments ................................................................................................................................................................................................189 RFC (Request For Comments)...............................................172 Packet Switching Networks........................172 VLAN........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................169 Digital Connectivity ....................................161 HCL and Windows 2000 ..........192 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols ..........................................................................................189 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................EXPANDING A NETWORK ............................................................................................................................... Inc............................

................................ 203 Class D and Class E Addresses.............. 227 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9...................................................................... 205 SUBNETTING ................................ 222 Communities....................... 225 IFCONFIG............... 217 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8..................................................................................... 229 USER AND SHARE LEVEL ....... 225 NSLOOKUP.......................................................................................................... 207 How to Subdivide a Network .................................................. 203 Class A Addresses ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 199 IP Gateway ... 203 IPv6 (IP Next Generation) ............. 221 NETWORK MANAGERS ................................................................................................................. 203 Class B Addresses ............. 225 ARP .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 200 IP Proxy Servers............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 229 vi Specialized Solutions........................................................................................................................................ 222 VALIDATION TOOLS . 199 LMHOSTS file ................................................................................................SNMP .............................. 200 NAT. 202 IPv4 ................... 223 TRACERT................ 223 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ........................................................................................................................................................................ 215 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ......................................................................... 223 NETSTAT ......... 228 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY .......................... 223 NBTSTAT . 225 RARP......... 221 Agent Software ............................................................................................. 198 NETBIOS .......................................................................................................... 199 BOOTP .................................................................................................................................................................... 219 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES.................................... 198 HOSTS file.......................................................................................................................................... 222 EVENT VIEWER ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 225 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 203 Class C Addresses ......................................................................................................................... 221 Management Software....................................................... 199 DHCP ........................................................................................................ Inc...................................... 200 TCP/IP ADDRESSING...................................................................... 200 ICS ..................................................................................................................................................................... 209 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS .............. ...... 199 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES ...........................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS........ 223 ROUTE............................................................................................................................................................. 225 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG ................. 225 PING........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 202 IP Addresses ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.....................233 Backup Software ..................................................................232 Firewalls ....................................................................................................................................................................................234 Fault Tolerance and RAID.........255 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS ..........................................................................................................................................................................................274 TCP/IP PORTS ..................263 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11 ...........................................................................................260 Name Resolution .............................................................................................................245 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING..............................................................................................................................................257 Misbehaving Protocols ......................................................................................................................273 SUBNET MASKING .....................................................................245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ......................................................................242 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10 ..................................................................................264 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................................................................................... vii ...........................................................275 TCP/IP UTILITIES ...............................................................................................................................................269 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING) .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................259 NIC Indicator Lights ...............................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents User-level Security....................................................................260 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................232 Blocking Port Numbers...................................................238 Disaster Recovery .......................................................250 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools....................................................................271 OSI MODEL .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................239 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .....................................236 PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES ....X STANDARDS.................................................................................................275 Specialized Solutions........................................270 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS ............................234 Full................................. Inc....257 Cable Problems............................................................................................. and Incremental Backups .........................................................................................250 Hardware Networking Tools......................................................................234 Volumes.267 ETHERNET CABLING ..................269 IEEE 802............................268 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES ..............................................................267 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES .................................243 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK .............................................................................................................251 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS ...260 Performance......229 Share-level Security .................................. Differential..............................................................................................................267 5-4-3 RULE ..............................................................................................................239 Viruses.........................................234 Fault Tolerance and Power ..................................232 Backing up Data ......................................................................................230 SECURITY TECHNIQUES ............................................................................232 Backup Options.....................................................................................................264 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY ..........................237 Encryption.....................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................... 284 SAG ........................................ 306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4... 285 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 304 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3.................................... 311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6.... ............................................................................................. 281 COMPUSERVE ...................... 284 ISO...................................................................................... 283 CCITT ................................ 283 IEEE .................................................................................................................................................................... 285 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY................................................................................................................................................................................... OTHER HELPFUL SITES ......................................................................................................... 318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9....................................................................................................................................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2.................... 315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7................................................................................................................................................... 321 INDEX .... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED............. 276 TRANSMISSION MEDIA ....... 281 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS ......................................... 309 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5...........................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TOPOLOGY REVIEW ............................................................................................................................. 316 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8................................................ 283 ANSI.......................................................... 284 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Inc........................... 287 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ......................................... 281 MICROSOFT: ............................................................................... 283 EIA .............................................................................................................. 323 viii Specialized Solutions......................................................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1............................ 278 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .............. 319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10......................................................................................... 281 NOVELL ..................................... 278 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES ......................................................................... 320 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11.......................................................................................................................

Inc. course offerings. Our highly skilled staff of computer and educational professionals are dedicated to delivering high quality. Inc.com Specialized Solutions. Specialized Solutions. We thank you for choosing our company as your resource for Information Technology SelfStudy Training.About Specialized Solutions About Specialized Solutions Welcome to Specialized Solutions. One hundred percent customer satisfaction and unmatched customer service is always our commitment to the computer professional. is dedicated to providing the computer professional the highest level of self-study training and certification materials the industry has to offer. We strive to provide training programs that far exceed the expectations of our customers. To see other Specialized Solutions.specializedsolutions. ix . cost-effective programs that are customized to suit your needs. We will always provide a quality product to customers at a price that is within reach of most computer professionals. Inc. We are committed to always be on the leading edge of new computer environment training products.’s Network+ training and certification course. please visit us at: www. Inc.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide x Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives. as a stand-alone textbook. or as a textbook in a classroom environment. Network+ video training series. and Digital Video Studio Professionals. Remember. Inc. Technical Writers. It can be used in conjunction with the Specialized Solutions. our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program. 1 . easy to follow format. at Specialized Solutions. We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical. Inc. We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! Specialized Solutions. Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals. Computer Graphics Experts. Technical Editors.

Inc.0 Network Implementation 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey.0 Protocols & Standards 3.0 Media & Topologies 2. . test objectives and example content.” The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1.” “This examination includes blueprint weighting. The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content. Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination.0 Network Support Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 25% 35% 100% 2 Specialized Solutions.

0 . including: • Speed • Access method (CSMA / CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) and CSMA / CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection)) • Topology • Media 1.2 (Logical Link Control).4 Recognize the following media connectors and describe their uses: • RJ-11 (Registered Jack) • RJ-45 (Registered Jack) • F-Type • ST (Straight Tip) • SC (Subscriber Connector or Standard Connector) • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) • Fiber LC (Local Connector) • MT-RJ (Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack) • USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1.5 Recognize the following media types and describe their uses: • Category 3.Media and Topologies – 20% 1. schematic or description: • Star • Bus • Mesh • Ring 1. 802. 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX • 10 GBASE-SR. Inc. features and functions of the following network components: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • Gateways • CSU / DSU (Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit) Specialized Solutions. 10 GBASE-LR and 10 GBASE-ER 1.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a diagram. 5e. 802.2 Specify the main features of 802. topology.5 (token ring).3 (Ethernet).3 Specify the characteristics (For example: speed. 1000BASE-CX. 3 . 802.Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: Domain 1. 5. and 6 • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) • STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) • Coaxial cable • SMF (Single Mode Fiber) optic cable • MMF (Multimode Fiber) optic cable 1. length.11 (wireless). and cable type) of the following cable standards: • 10BASE-T and 10BASE-FL • 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX • 1000BASE-T.6 Identify the purposes. and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) networking technologies.

7 Identify the purpose of subnetting.8 Identify the differences between private and public network addressing schemes. 2.3 Identify the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) layers at which the following network components operate: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • NICs (Network Interface Card) • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) 2.11x (Direct sequence spread spectrum) • Infrared • Bluetooth 1. 2.4 Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing.0 – Protocols and Standards – 20% 2. 2. IPv6) and the required setting for connections across the Internet. frequency. 2. Domain 2.11 (Frequency hopping spread spectrum) • 802.6 Identify classful IP (Internet Protocol) ranges and their subnet masks (For example: Class A.10 Define the purpose. interoperability and naming conventions: • IPX / SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange / Sequence Packet Exchange) • NetBEUI (Network Basic Input / Output System Extended User Interface) • AppleTalk / AppleTalk over IP (Internet Protocol) • TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) 2. antenna type and environmental factors). B and C).5 Identify the components and structure of IP (Internet Protocol) addresses (IPv4.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model and their functions. function and use of the following protocols used in the TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) suite: • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) 4 Specialized Solutions. addressing schemes.7 Specify the general characteristics (For example: carrier speed. 2.9 Identify and differentiate between the following IP (Internet Protocol) addressing methods: • Static • Dynamic • Self-assigned (APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing)) 2.8 Identify factors which affect the range and speed of wireless service (For example: interference. . Inc. transmission type and topology) of the following wireless technologies: • 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • NICs (Network Interface Card) • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) adapters • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) • Modems • Transceivers (media converters) • Firewalls 1.1 Identify a MAC (Media Access Control) address and its parts. 2.

Zeroconf (Zero configuration). NFS (Network File System).11 Define the function of TCP / UDP (Transmission Control Protocol / User Datagram Protocol) ports.14 Identify the basic characteristics (For example: speed. ICS (Internet Connection Sharing). capacity and media) of the following WAN (Wide Area Networks) technologies: • Packet switching • Circuit switching • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) • T1 (T Carrier level 1) / E1 / J1 • T3 (T Carrier level 3) / E3 / J3 • OCx (Optical Carrier) • X. AFP (Apple File Protocol). 2. SMB (Server Message Block). LPD (Line Printer Daemon) and Samba). 5 . 2.13 Identify the purpose of network services and protocols (For example: DNS (Domain Name Service).Introduction • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) • POP3 / IMAP4 (Post Office Protocol version 3 / Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • Telnet • SSH (Secure Shell) • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) • ARP / RARP (Address Resolution Protocol / Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) • NTP (Network Time Protocol) • NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) • IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) • LPR (Line Printer Remote) 2. Inc. WINS (Windows Internet Name Service).25 2. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). NAT (Network Address Translation).12 Identify the well-known ports associated with the following commonly used services and protocols: • 20 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 21 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 22 SSH (Secure Shell) • 23 Telnet • 25 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • 53 DNS (Domain Name Service) • 69 TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • 80 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • 110 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) • 119 NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • 123 NTP (Network Time Protocol) • 143 IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • 443 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) 2.15 Identify the basic characteristics of the following internet access technologies: • xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) • Broadband Cable (Cable modem) • POTS / PSTN (Plain Old Telephone Service / Public Switched Telephone Network) • Satellite • Wireless Specialized Solutions.

RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service). media tester / certifier.6 Identify the purpose. interoperability. Inc. and physical connectivity. an authentication scheme. benefits and characteristics of using a firewall. 6 Specialized Solutions. punch down tool or tone generator). Includes connection to the following servers: • UNIX / Linux / MAC OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3.8 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks). Domain 3. PAP (Password Authentication Protocol). Kerberos and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)). determine the impact on network functionality of a particular security implementation (For example: port blocking / filtering.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. configure the connection.1 Identify the basic capabilities (For example: client support.4 Given a remote connectivity scenario comprised of a protocol. network protocols and peer and server services).3 Identify the appropriate tool for a given wiring task (For example: wire crimper. 3. authentication.0 Network Implementation – 25% 3. 3. file and print services.2 Identify the basic capabilities needed for client workstations to connect to and use network resources (For example: media.16 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services: • RAS (Remote Access Service) • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) • PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) • VPN (Virtual Private Network) • RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) 2. 3. MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol).5 Identify the purpose.1x 2. 3. benefits and characteristics of using a proxy service.17 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function: • IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Continued on the next page… Continued from the previous page… • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) • 802. authentication and encryption).7 Given a connectivity scenario. .18 Identify authentication protocols (For example: CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). 3. application support and security) of the following server operating systems to access network resources: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. 3.9 Identify the main characteristics and purpose of extranets and intranets.

select the appropriate network utility from the following: • Tracert / traceroute • ping • arp • netstat • nbtstat • ipconfig / ifconfig • winipcfg • nslookup / dig 4. physical connectivity and SOHO (Small Office / Home Office) router). protocol configuration. identify the cause of a stated problem (For example: bad media. 4. 4. Inc.1). 4. star.4 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a client accessing remote network services. Specialized Solutions.0 Network Support – 35% 4. 4. DNS (Domain Name Service) and WINS (Windows Internet Name Service)) for network resources and users. identify the cause of the problem (For example: file services. identify the cause of a stated problem: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 4. interference. interpret visual indicators (For example: link LEDs (Light Emitting Diode) and collision LEDs (Light Emitting Diode)) to determine the nature of a stated problem. determine the impact of modifying. identify the utility and interpret the output.3 Given a network scenario. network hardware or environment).12 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery: • Backup / restore • Offsite storage • Hot and cold spares • Hot.10 Identify the purpose. mesh or ring) and including a network diagram.5 Given a troubleshooting scenario between a client and the following server environments.6 Given a scenario. print services.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario. adding or removing network services (For example: DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). warm and cold sites Domain 4.Introduction 3. 4.7 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology (For example: bus.8 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving an infrastructure (For example: wired or wireless) problem.11 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance: • Power • Link redundancy • Storage • Services 3. 3. benefits and characteristics of using antivirus software. identify the network area affected and the cause of the stated failure.2 Given output from a network diagnostic utility (For example: those utilities listed in objective 4. authentication failure. 7 .

Select the most probable cause 5. Identify the results and effects of the solution 8. . Implement an action plan and solution including potential effects 6. Identify the symptoms and potential causes 2. Identify the affected area 3. Establish what has changed 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. Inc. select an appropriate course of action based on a logical troubleshooting strategy. Document the solution and process 8 Specialized Solutions.9 Given a network problem scenario. Test the result 7. This strategy can include the following steps: 1.

Introduction Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not extremely complicated. as well as “Designing Security for Windows Server 2003 Network” for Exam Cram2. Network+. To get the best results from your training. However. Bill has written the “MCDST Study Guide” for Sybex Inc. In addition he holds the CompTIA certifications of A+. Bill has been in the computer industry for over 15 years. Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. Alabama. Server+. MCSA.” Specialized Solutions. 9 . it may seem so. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented. if this is your first exposure to networking. He is certified as an MCT. In addition. MCSE. Bill now runs his own company as an independent contractor in Birmingham. Inc. Bill says. use a study plan. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary. MCDST. Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge. and Security+. and CCNA. not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation. “My job is to understand the material so well that I can make it easier for my students to learn than it was for me to learn. teaching classes for most of the national training companies and some regional training companies. Use the “Help” button where available. Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding. Originally in technical sales and sales management with Sprint. CCSI. Bill is an enthusiastic. Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand. Hands-on experience is best. Practice the function on your computer. such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. Bill made his transition to Certified Technical Trainer in 1997 with ExecuTrain. results oriented computer specialist who has extensive knowledge of Microsoft networks. Your Video Instructor Your video instructor is Bill Ferguson. MCP+I.

Since most of us learn in different ways. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. there is no one method that will work for everyone. Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs. You can locate a testing center and schedule the test on the web.com) or any Thomson Prometric testing center (2test. German. A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge. • • • How do you learn best (reading.com). . How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam. You can take the test at any Virtual University Enterprises testing center (vue.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book. Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam. except payment of the test fee. You may be surprised at how near you are to a testing center! Evaluate your learning aptitudes. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find. This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. CONGRATULATIONS. The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. There are no specific requirements. You can also call VUE at 877-551-7587 or Thomson Prometric at 888-8956116. French and Japanese. but A+ certification is not required. The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry. YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Schedule the test for a few weeks from now so that you will have a guidepost that is constantly reminding you that you need to study the material. Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive. Inc. watching. 1999. hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 10 Specialized Solutions.

Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). This workbook will make this task much easier. Use the rewind button as often as necessary. If you need to. just get a feel for it. 11 . You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time. If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course. Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. Make an appointment with yourself. Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). Based on your time to learn (and your schedule). Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises. Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time. go though the entire course again. you want to begin to understand. set aside the time to learn. Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. Review the video presentation one more time if necessary. What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through.Introduction Make a plan to learn. It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point. Specialized Solutions. Inc. Re-read the test and review the video presentation. At this time. • Complete the course a second time. You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through.

Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam As you prepare for your certification exam it will be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted. Inc. You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature. • • • • 12 Specialized Solutions. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in. If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams. . The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them. (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam. You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. You will be asked to sign the form. The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer. Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam. All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam. including one photo ID. which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test. Evaluate the questions you missed. You will be required to show two forms of identification. It is a closed book exam.

but be sure to read it in its entirety. (You don’t need to send them the score report. which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass. Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! About This Course This Specialized Solutions Network+ course is a multi-media. If you’re not quite sure. or if you are unclear about what you should do. Do not read too much into the question. (such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test. Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system. you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score.) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. If you don’t know the answer. guess. Before retaking the exam. marked or skipped. Specialized Solutions. skip it. answer the question. Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you. Keep track of the time and pace yourself. The course contains five instructor led CD-ROMs. put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. If you know the answer. 13 . Inc. (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. Usually. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides. It lists your score by objective. Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. If you positively don’t know the answer. mark it and come back to it. You will have plenty of time as long as you use it wisely. If the administrator does not do this. You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. mark a question or answer a question. Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers. ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam.Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials. a Network+ Training & Test Preparation Guide and a practice exam simulator. Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam. you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam. At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered. self-study training system. you can see which questions are not answered. you are given the ability to skip a question.Introduction HINT .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Video Chapters Include: CD 1: Introduction and Overview Network Topologies Network Technologies Cable Standards Media Connectors CD 2: Media Types Network Components Wireless Technologies Protocols and Standards The OSI Model IP Addressing CD 3: Ports Services WAN Internet Access Remote Access Security Protocols CD 4: Server Operating Systems Client Connectivity Tools for Networking Firewalls Proxy Service Network Connectivity Virtual Local Area Networks Antivirus Software Fault Tolerance Disaster Recovery CD 5: Troubleshooting Network Utilities Troubleshooting Network Services Troubleshooting Topologies Troubleshooting Strategy Preparation for a Certification Test 14 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

15 . Specialized Solutions. Inc. It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course.Introduction This study guide is divided into 11 chapters.

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Inc. After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment.” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do. Additionally. You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN. Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources. files. It is very important that. users can access programs. Through networking. and applications (resources).) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics. Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking. Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage.” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service. you understand exactly what a network is. It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than to purchase a printer for every user. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents. 17 . An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?). But for our purposes. as a networking professional. Specialized Solutions. peripherals. Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking. and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net. A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented. This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment. a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files. a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data.

or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. A WAN can connect networks from building to building or across the world. the speed of communication between the computers is typically much faster in a LAN. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function. The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits. A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network. 18 Specialized Solutions. it is still considered a LAN. Also. Inc. Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information. The Internet is the world’s largest WAN. When LANs are connected they create a WAN.

It is important to know what a MAN is. it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. when the user is getting information from the server. one for applications (application server). A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or county. Also. that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files. Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals There is actually a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). 19 . Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. The advantages of this type of network are central administration. efficiency in backing up the data. including applications. there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). including hard disk space and RAM. The Internet has replaced most MANs today. it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer. A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. but they are not common. A large network may have more than one server. A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client). However. Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity. configuration and management may be more challenging. or a mail server (E-mail). log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. also known as clients. These terms are not interchangeable. and expandability. The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation. network security. The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. Specialized Solutions. For example. if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access. and is a client. A mainframe will handle all the functions. Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. one for printing (print server). Users. A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network. that access would cause the workstation to become a server.

Inc. Also.g. All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user. A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security. . Peer-to-Peer Network 20 Specialized Solutions. network security is unreliable. The computers are simply cabled together. This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved. and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e. A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install. Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network. a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand. In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers.

map. or topology. a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). 21 . future growth needs. refers to its physical layout. Devices only listen for data being transmitted. A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. scheme. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address). the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce. or diagram. if the cable breaks. The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other. The Bus topology is a passive topology. the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other. connectors. However. If not prevented. Different topologies have different cabling requirements. In a Bus network. While the signal is bouncing back and forth. This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. (Network Interface Cards. and even how the cabling is run through a building. An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. are all determined by the topology used. There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). As a network professional. only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal. The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used. Inc. NICs. backbone. To stop signal bounce. Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. Specialized Solutions. you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network. or segment. This cable is called a trunk. design. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together. The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable. also called Network Adapter Cards). it prevents other devices from sending data. they do not move the transmissions along.

The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network. however. If the hub fails. it can affect the entire network. There are no ends to terminate. the entire network will go down.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Star Topology In a Star topology. A disadvantage is that if one computer fails. The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable. but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down. . Inc. the rest of the network will still continue to function. Star Topology Ring Topology In a Ring topology. 22 Specialized Solutions. all devices are connected to a central point called a hub. The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology.

23 . you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology. This gives us a physical star topology. Inc. For example. Token Ring networks are physical stars and logical rings. but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. In these networks. A logical topology. the ring is actually in a special type of hub called a Multistation Access Unit (MSAU). It consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. is how the network actually works.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals With IBM Token Ring networks. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations. we have been discussing physical topologies. The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies. Specialized Solutions. This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. a computer can fail and not prevent the network from functioning. Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. Before you can understand some of these special topologies. However. These are known as Hybrid topologies. These are the methods in which a network is actually wired. Also. they operate between the hubs like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus. So far. some Ethernet networks today are wired using a using multiple hubs. Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies. You will be able to see a physical topology. on the other hand.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points. . The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter 4 of this book. the topology of a wireless network is that of an “invisible star”. . Since each computer has its own connection to the wireless access point (WAP). Inc. 24 Specialized Solutions.

25 . Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Specialized Solutions.

The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network. The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message. Inc. Since there is only one token.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected. Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages. . The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. This is based on the media or wiring of the network. We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards. Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices. they are called Token Ring and Ethernet. we create kind of a “party line”. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods. Multiple Access means that more than one computer 26 Specialized Solutions. With several devices connected to one media. The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). and the message is delivered.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token. only one device at a time can communicate on the network. A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit.

Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps. Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted). Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks. Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals can be connected to the same cable. 27 . Specialized Solutions. Inc.

hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function. they are called MSAUs (Multiple Station Access Units). Just remember. Inc. Today. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified. Essentially. With a Token Ring. Passive hubs do not require any electrical power to function. The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator. Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only. Hubs can be classified as either passive or active. not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network. since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network. . Passive Hub – Patch Panel 28 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks. they are all the same.

3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated. 29 . Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity. 2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available. An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. Specialized Solutions. Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs. They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected. 4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs. This type type of hub requires electrical power to function.

It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The three main types of topology are bus. The two types of networks are LANs and WANs. A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks. Topology is a term we use to describe the logical shape of the connection of computers in a network. and ring. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources. . Inc. A WAN is not geographically limited and typically has greater speed of communication than a WAN. 30 Specialized Solutions. go back and review the chapter again. star. and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 31 . Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition Specialized Solutions.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 32 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Review Questions . What is the main reason for networking computers? 3. 11. What is a “sneaker net”? 4. 7. Name some advantages of a Server-based network.Chapter 1 1. 5. 10. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. What are the key differences between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2. Specialized Solutions. 9. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. Name two media access methods. Name the three basic topologies. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12. 33 . Inc. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. 8. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network.

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When we refer to the operating system in this chapter. network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system. Most of today’s client and server operating systems have a built-in network operating system. We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities. Today. Inc. but without an operating system. Hardware resources such as RAM. You can get it all set up and turn on the power. Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment. spreadsheet. When we are talking about operating systems.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 .Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking. if you don’t have the software to run it. The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e. word-processing. as well as the operating system.g. This chapter is all about the various operating systems with which a networking professional needs to be familiar. we are referencing the built-in network operating system component. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment. most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions. it will just sit there. hard disk space. What is an Operating System? Not that long ago. In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well. Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe. The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other. it is just a pile of metal and plastic. 35 . and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). Specialized Solutions. and database programs). processor time. what we are really talking about are network operating systems.

Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. It is used on all of the latest operating systems. the processor is never taken away from a task. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor. . means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs. put simply. Preemptive multitasking began with Windows 95 and the Intel Pentium processor. A true multitasking (multi-processing) operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors. Inc. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed. In non-preemptive multitasking. 36 Specialized Solutions.

Inc. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network. Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration. Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. moving photos to the Web. or a similar program. It is well-suited for editing home movies. Then. They use an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. such as BSD UNIX. Novell NetWare. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). Instead. and archiving music. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. 37 . all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. Microsoft Client. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network. It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. Windows 95/98 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. turning on the computer and answering questions. Windows 95/98 Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems that include a network operating system. All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood. Their new graphical interface and networking capabilities make them a vast improvement over their predecessors. Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems. and you have a working network. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card. to communicate with other computers over a network.

a simplified visual design. like ME. IPsec and Kerberos support. It allows for faster user switching. It. It also uses System Restore.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server. Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is the newest edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users. which allows for safety when installing additional software or making changes to the computer’s configuration. It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies. is equipped to be networked easily. Inc. Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across in real life but are unlikely to be on the test: 38 Specialized Solutions. like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here. driver certification. . EFS (Encrypting File System). It features file protection. multilingual support. remote OS installation. peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT.

the computers act as both a client and a server. However. Inc. the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability. 39 . Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. Inc. Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (uses resources locally). it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment. This can also provide accessibility and security for all devices on a network. Specialized Solutions. In a Serverbased network.

Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server. Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access. At the very least. Data Protection As we already discussed.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task. They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location. The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. and to the server. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. most of the data is stored on the server. out onto the network. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus. Servers exist to serve. Inc. if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. . This 40 Specialized Solutions. Some networks even cluster server so that more that one server can share a database of information. Unlike most client software. Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords. However. Server Software As their name implies. the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. The component that handles these requests is called the redirector. Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access).

If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus. Inc. called drive designators. etc. to resources. it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests. 41 . It does not need to know anything about networks. Basically. Specialized Solutions. which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) provides for load balancing of the server resources as well as fault tolerance if one server were to fail. If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server. It does this by assigning drive letters. The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server. This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer. or if they need to be redirected to the server. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs.

or Pentium machines. servers. 486. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security.11 is called IntranetWare. or through NWADMIN.11 operate on 386. login security provides authentication and verification of user name. NetWare provides more than adequate network security by using a combination of approaches. and account restrictions. messaging. Organization of network resources such as users. . Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. non-shareable. and file and print services.5 is now on the market. we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. NetWare Security The purpose of a network may be to share resources. deleted.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use. copied. but it is losing market share to Microsoft servers every year. 42 Specialized Solutions. shared. First. web-publishing. which is like the Internet but within a network or company. routing. password. time. Version 4. In this section. Directory and file attributes are used to set the types of access for a file or directory such as viewed. groups. NetWare Directory Services (NDS) NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. In the past. which is a Windows-based utility.12 and 4. a user may logon from anywhere on the network and gain access with all of their assigned rights and privileges intact. and volumes is also handled with NDS. Versions 3. but there will always be data in any network to which access must be restricted. management. It may be installed in either the client or server format. Trustee rights regulate which directories and files a user can access. which is a DOS-based utility. NetWare is administered through NetADMIN. With NDS’ single point logon.2) was designed to operate on 286 machines. Novell NetWare The NetWare operating system has been around for a long time.EXE. NetWare is based upon the industry standard X500 directory architecture. Inc. Version 6. NetWare File Services The NetWare file server hard drive may be mapped to a client and the client machine will recognize the drive as a logical drive and be able to access it as it would any other drive in the computer. it was the most popular server operating system. as well as what kind of access they have. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. or changed. The earliest version (2. name service. It is a reliable operating system that provides performance and security. • NetWare’s popularity is due largely to its ability to provide services across multioperating system environments. It is Novell’s push to gain market share and is a way of creating an Intranet.

Printers may be attached to the server. NetWare also provides a method of using simple commands to send messages to other users on the network. a workstation. NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS) MHS may be installed on any server and configured to be a network wide E-mail system. and finally to the printer. 43 . Print requests are first routed to the file server. next to the print server. You can send messages to individuals or to groups very easily. Inc. or directly to the network.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Print Services NetWare Print Services can support up to 256 printers. as well as others. It is compatible with E-mail programs such as Novell’s GroupWise and Microsoft Mail. You can even send messages to everyone in a group. except an individual workstation. NetWare Minimum Requirements The following are the minimum installation requirements as specified by Novell for installing their server software: Specialized Solutions. The file server and the print server can be the same computer.

0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for Macintosh OS Specialized Solutions. Inc.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS OS/2 1.11 or OS/2 Warp and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 Macintosh 6.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Version 2. .1 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS MS Windows 3.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 4.1 or later (Standard or Extended Edition) and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 OS/2 2.5 MB 20 MB Client Software The client software may be installed on any computer running any of the following: • • • • • 44 DOS 3.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 3.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 5: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Pentium Class or higher 64 MB 550 MB 386 or higher 16 MB 105 MB 386 or higher 6 MB 30 MB 286 or higher 2.

actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2). The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of Microsoft’s server/workstation technology. The NetWare client can be installed with almost any other operating system. The advanced security features of Windows are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT . Windows File Services Like NetWare. This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments.File Allocation Table) during installation. Inc. The NT Kernel. Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows network. In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows . Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software). another security method must be utilized. The newest of these server operating systems. or No Access may be set on the directory. Windows combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier. which as at the base of all Microsoft’s servers. It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows Servers. Change. Today. The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of Windows security features. Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems. Problems do occur when trying to operate within the Windows NT domain. offer even more advantages and stronger security than their predecessors. interoperability simply means the ability of an operating system to operate with other systems. Specialized Solutions. The attributes such as Read. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories. Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Interoperability As the word implies. Full Control. This type is performed by each workstation or server publicly sharing a directory on the network. Files in Windows may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network. Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management. but it does have several advantages. 45 . With this method. Unlike NetWare. you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data. the Windows servers may be configured to store each workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups. As we’ve already discussed. NetWare is extremely efficient at operating with other systems. but Windows NT contains services such as NWLink and Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW) that allow them to work together effectively.

Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions). See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene. Windows Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in a Windows network. Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers. Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible. This trend continued with the latest Windows server operating systems (Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service. Remember. you are given the option to share it to the network. . Windows Network Services There are many services available in Windows to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user. A domain is simply a group of users. computers. A domain controller is a server that maintains and manages all accounts. Microsoft uses domains to control access and authenticate users and computers. At least one domain controller is assigned to each domain. Inc. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network.. Workstation Service is the redirector service.. Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in the domain. and user rights.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows Server Security Security was a major concern in the development of Windows Servers. permissions. and resources with a shared security database. especially with the latest Windows Server 2003 family. (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource. more than one printer can be installed to any machine. The following is a list of services included with Windows Server software to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between Microsoft and NetWare. 46 Specialized Solutions.) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer. Server Service provides access to network resources. Even if you are installing a local printer. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer.

0). Windows Server 2003 offers a more secure Web Server (IIS 6. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. used as such. It can be installed on the Microsoft client to allow it to connect the Netware server directly.well serve. Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be. Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to Microsoft’s domain controller. In contrast. FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access Microsoft file and print services. Installing GSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. UNIX is a Specialized Solutions. Installing CSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory. which govern what users can see and do on the network.. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the Microsoft service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 is the latest in the line of Microsoft server operating systems. In fact. Inc. 47 . it has more “locked down” security templates that make it less likely that users will try to go around the security. In addition. It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an Microsoft domain and the NetWare server. This is necessary because all Microsoft client workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point. It provides all of the advantages of Windows 2000 Server. Previous Microsoft server operating systems were built to serve and then had security features to protect them. and is. This software is not included with Netware but can be purchased separately.0) than the previous version in Windows 2000 (IIS 5.. Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System. It allows Novell NDS computers to be managed just as Microsoft domain controllers. Windows Server 2003 is the first Windows server that was built primarily with security in mind. but it adds many features that are designed exclusively for security. It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives. when using Windows Server 2003 you typically must remove or configure security boundaries in order to get the server to. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators. Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to Windows. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional.

Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX. but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. 48 Specialized Solutions. Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system. A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users. A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. At its inception. These terminals are not stand-alone computers. Inc. Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. in fact the software is available for a free download. Like Novell NetWare. and many other features associated with an OS. as well as file and printer sharing. StreetTalk provides directory. TCP/IP. . however. many variations of Linux have been created over the years such as Caldera and Red Hat. to convert the UNIX host into a file server. UNIX is a multi-tasking. which means that it can be changed by a software programmer. The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS. Software is available. Linux is open source. At one time. It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms. it was an extremely popular network operating system. It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. and messaging services. Because of its open source nature. general-purpose operating system. security. It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). as well as others. Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide bulky operating system. OS/2. multi-user. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources. VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top. VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments. UNIX.

and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC. The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction with the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book). both at home and on the go. Inc. In conjunction with Xerox. Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production. Specialized Solutions. they developed what later became known as the mouse and the first GUI display.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984. but users also use them personally. 49 .

50 Specialized Solutions. the most popular network operating systems also function as the network operating system. etc. The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems. and data backups. Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly. A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare). centralization of administration. With the redirector. Banyan VINES. and at least be familiar with others. an application is unaware that it is working from a network. It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today. the client computers rely on the server for their resources. Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems. (UNIX.). the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network). In a peer-to-peer network. In a server-based network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer. Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely). Inc. Today. Study through the chapter again if you need to. . such as Novell NetWare and Windows server operating systems. Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system.

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS)

KEYWORDS Exercise
Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition

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Review Questions
1. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system?

2.

What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking?

3.

What is the purpose of the redirector?

4.

NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments.

5.

What is NDS?

6.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5?

7.

Define interoperability.

8.

Unlike NetWare, Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one.

9.

What is NTFS?

10.

What is a domain?

11.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server?

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Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) 12. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.

13.

What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system?

14.

What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984?

15.

What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system?

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Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards

Chapter 3- The OSI Model and Communication Standards
In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, what it is and its primary function. You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles each function, and which devices function at each layer. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam.

The Seven Layers of Network Communication
The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. As a result, some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other, and how they will communicate if they are using different languages. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit; when not to transmit; and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected; how the data will flow (at what speed); and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications.

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The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you should notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers, depending upon their functions.

Seven Layers of the OSI Model
The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network. These services include file, print, and messaging services. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer. The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. This is not the actual application or program, simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail, transfer files across the network, or access a

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managing. they will be combined. and un-packaging the data for transport. The network redirector operates at this layer. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local. if the packets are too small. it will break the data into packets. and data encryption. This layer is also responsible for data compression. and prepare it for its journey. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer. and ending connections. interpreting graphics commands. This layer is responsible for establishing. etc. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network. protocol conversion. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards network database. These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. For example. The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer. Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. Sessions may be established using simplex. without duplication. Inc. The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit. bit ordering. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network. and when. The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them. It provides a logical connection between the two devices. As its name implies. Each connection is called a session. If Specialized Solutions. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh. The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. it presents data to the application layer. and error free.) character set conversion. add any addressing information and error correction information. 57 . The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence. half-duplex. Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. or receive. or full-duplex communication. In short.

UDP is a connectionless protocol. 58 Specialized Solutions. This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side. but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. For example. Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. Inc. all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols. it will retransmit after a specified amount of time.) It also includes control information such as frame type. segmentation information and routing information. they will be broken into smaller packets. It receives a packet from the Network layer and packages it into what is called a frame. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. checked for errors. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. error free manner. This controls network congestion. . however. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer. the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide they are too large. Routers and NICs function on this layer. stripped of its addressing information. This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks. Once the data is reassembled. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. Connectionless protocols are faster. When you are using a connection-oriented protocol. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link. Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. When you are using a connectionless protocol. Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model.518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination. The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission. Should an error occur. In an ideal world. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. it will be un-packed. delivery of packets is not guaranteed. When the data is received.

then it discards the data. Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel. (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host). When the sending computer does not receive and acknowledgement. such as SDLC. it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. If the calculation does not check out. In a broadcast network such as Ethernet. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers. The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame. If it is not. The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards In addition.2 standard defines how this takes place. It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions. The IEEE 802. TCP/IP is somewhat “self healing”. the destination computer will not send an acknowledgement. It identifies a line protocol. Although quite rare. NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements. The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame. it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer. It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not. Token Passing. it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer. They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers. Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium. In this way. The way that a network shares the channel is called its carrier access method. It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link. The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address. and Demand Priority. Inc. MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized. the data is sent out on the wire to all computers. If it is. The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer. The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. The following is an example of a MAC address: Specialized Solutions. 59 . it will automatically resend the packet.

hubs and transceivers. It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network.ch/. and determines when and how data may be transmitted. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. For example. Note: For more information on the OSI Model. The last 3 bytes (35FD-AB) are the Device ID that is unique to the associated Vendor ID.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 00-00-13-35-FD-AB The first 3 bytes (00-00-13) identify the manufacturer of the card. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer. . Switches. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets. Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer. data work at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable. 60 Specialized Solutions. The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses. it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium. The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets. It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer. Inc. Multipoint communication is the process of one device communicating with multiple devices on a network. Point-topoint communication is the process of one device communicating with one other device .iso. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer. visit www. and what each one will do. It identifies the NIC. synchronizes the data. Point to point communication is often used between switches and routers on a network. Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model. all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model. Repeaters.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. Inc. 61 .

in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers.) The request is in the form of a packet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer. When the destination computer receives the data. In addition to reading the headers and performing the instructions. This is called a protocol stack. and provides services to the layer directly above it. You are communicating directly with the Application layer. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. (Remember. These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task. The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message. As the packet travels up through the layers. In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. Headers contain instructions for tasks that need to be performed at that level. each layer reads and performs the tasks specified in its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. each layer is also responsible for adding or removing headers so that the data is ready to be interpreted by the next layer. or suite. the Application layer is not the actual application. over the network medium. This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer. In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate. it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers. For example: You send a request for services to the server. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted by you and the request is considered processed. 62 Specialized Solutions. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. The Physical layer does not add a header. Inc. . Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture. The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack. the process of moving through the layers is reversed. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer.

Inc. they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers. Because of this. The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers. 63 . but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Signals or Bits or Data Stream into Frames Frames into Packets Frames or Datagrams into Segments Segments into data Data Data Data into Data Files or Messages Specialized Solutions.

Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model. Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers. This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. By relating various protocols to the OSI model. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections. . In fact. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program. The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 64 Specialized Solutions. the OSI Model is not a protocol. as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol. Inc. you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. Also. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model. This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model. it would not match.

This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate. Specialized Solutions. The specifications describe how components are supposed to function. you do need to remember the different layers and the tasks for which each layer is responsible. it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work. etc. The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer. These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments. because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system. 65 . Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task. Without them we would not have as many software or hardware packages available to us.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers. Inc.

The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT 66 Specialized Solutions. . Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols. Routers are responsible for using logical addresses to move packets from one network to another and deliver them to a host. are going to be used when they write a program. Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. routers. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. as well as where in the OSI model they operate. Data Link layer and the Network layer. As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself. bridges. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. This weakening is known as attenuation. Repeaters. A repeater amplifies these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs. These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change. etc. and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network. It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X. Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model. They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer.

if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI. The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate. which can be used to connect an IBM mainframe computer to a Microsoft network. Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers. A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols or even different technologies. 67 . Specialized Solutions. the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing. A popular example is an SNA Gateway. If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Each router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it. However. It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router. Router tables can be entered manually by a network administrator or they can be dynamically updated using routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF. but usually in the Application layer). Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks.

February 1980).10 802.ieee. Inc. (IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs.1 802.6 802. These standards were prepared before the OSI standards.3 802.9 802. a little surfing might be in order. 100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards.11 802.4 802. This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started. . The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802. and if you would like more information on them.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers.standards. visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www. Inc.5 802.2 802.8 802. 68 Specialized Solutions.7 802. but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible.12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN.

Inc. 69 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions.

This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks. and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers. This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. and hence. This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another). which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols. However. . The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp. ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. Inc. the network. NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another. the NIC also needs a device driver to function. Network 70 Specialized Solutions. Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments. It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver.

Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable. the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. In a connectionless communication. It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function. In connection-oriented communication. They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication. For example. This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. In a connectionless scenario. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. and in full. 71 . Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party.) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network. Specialized Solutions. if TCP/IP is bound first. it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol. it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected using a router. but connection-oriented is more reliable. You have no confirmation (unless he calls you back) that he received the message. Protocol Binding In order to function. Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions. There is no guarantee that the message was delivered. Inc. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless. Connectionless communication is faster. If that fails. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. Connection-Oriented vs. Routable vs. In today’s LANs however. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on his answering machine. Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model.

Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks. As a networking professional. Inc. It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable.25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet). 72 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X. . you should be familiar with these protocol stacks and you should know the OSI layer in which their components function.

) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol. It has been modified over the years and now contains the following components: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. It uses the MAC address and is non-routable. NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol. LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers. this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP. AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – Manages file sharing at the Application layer AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – Provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer. This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – Provides Application layer services for Macintosh. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack. In addition to hop count. It is a routable protocol. This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite. regardless of speed. (If data must cross a router SPX is used. Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – Provides transmission of packets across a network. At the Presentation Specialized Solutions. 73 • • • • • • . IPX/ SPX This protocol is the proprietary protocol that was developed by Novell for Netware servers and clients. and handles file and print services. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces. It resides in the Network layer. Inc. It resides in the Network layer.

The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking). flow control. . while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names. • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server. SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. 74 Specialized Solutions. At the Transport layer it handles sequencing. We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network. It is also layered on IP like TCP. It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. and connection-oriented error control services. SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide layer it handles data translation. TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol. Novell Netware 5. • Many companies use Netware with the TCP/IP protocol stack. Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent. FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system. so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol. Inc.1 and later installs TCP/IP by default. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers. TCP and IP. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. APPC supports Transport and Session layer services. At the Session layer it establishes and controls sessions. It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with.

without regard to speed. instead of only the number of hops. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server. It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability. RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely. this is also a Network layer protocol. 75 . OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. it will broadcast on the local subnet to determine the MAC address of the computer with the associated IP address. Specialized Solutions. ARP will first check its table and if a matching address is not found. ARP keeps a table of corresponding IP and MAC addresses that have been resolved in the previous 10 minutes. then TFTP would be advisable over FTP. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond to the broadcast by sending its MAC address. but in addition. NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system. making it connectionless. Inc. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP is responsible for resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses. If you do not need to use passwords. ARP will add the information to its table for future use. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. It is an Application layer protocol. Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. It resides in the Network layer. Telnet can also be used for remote configuration of servers and network devices such as routers and switches. It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP. but in reverse. It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP. It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources.

This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. 76 Specialized Solutions. This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions. In addition.25 a very slow but very reliable protocol. it is out of the administrator’s control. Instead. X.25 X. The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment). This is the host on an X.25 is also an equipment specification. It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers. This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use. LAT (Local Area Transport) LAT does not have a Network layer. This protocol is not used for data communication.25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization. This means that routes change as conditions change. It is a DEC protocol used for interactive. It uses standard telephone lines and switches. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable.25 network. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet. making X. it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide X. packets are re-examined to determine whether they are damaged. only printing functions. The second part of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment). Inc. XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced). which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines. Because of this. DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end. Data goes in and comes out. It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer. Data is routed via the best connection at a given time. X. asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN. . At each stop. This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits. the X. but in between. The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs. which is the main reason that it is non-routable.25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud. It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP.

which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems. easy to configure and small. but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks. Specialized Solutions. Inc. 77 . It is fast. It may be used with bridges.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model.

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications. It handles session establishment. Inc. and connection release. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol. file transfers. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Other Protocols The following are other protocols with which you should be familiar: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. NetBEUI. and notifies upper layers to route around them. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer. NWLink and NetBEUI. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. SLIP is not used as much as PPP. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. administration. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. or DHCP. This database is typically dynamic in today’s modern networks. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands. NetBEUI. and other protocols as well as TCP/IP. PPP supports IPX. It does not support IPX. It also supports data encryption. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely over the Internet. ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it. it detects congested areas and links that are down. but it can also be modified manually by the network administrator. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. It maintains a database and provides hostname to IP address resolution. Like a traffic report on your radio. It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. RPC is used by the redirector to 78 Specialized Solutions. DHCP. Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes.

79 . Inc. It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards determine if a resource is local or on the network. Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text. Specialized Solutions.

Inc. It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter. you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three. The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional. For example. but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other. we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. 80 Specialized Solutions. if you can get to the server through a router.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc. 81 .x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition Specialized Solutions. Keyword 802.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

and ending connections? 12. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. What is the function of the Application Layer? 9. What is a MAC address? 13. 10. Inc. 3. 4. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? 00-01-A5-D3-B4-01 82 Specialized Solutions. Which OSI layer is responsible for the MAC address? 8. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11. Who developed the OSI model? 2. . 6. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model. 7. managing. Name the seven layers of the OSI model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions – Chapter 3 1. 5. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network.

Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 19. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 15. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. 83 . Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. 21. Inc. Describe protocol binding. 23. Will this work? Why or Why not? Specialized Solutions. What are NDIS and ODI? 20. What are they? 17. without duplication and error free? 16. Which is faster.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 14. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 22. What is the function of a Gateway? 18.

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Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector. and how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter. Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand. Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 . It is not often used in today’s networks. It can transmit voice. 85 . There are several cabling options. There are numerous kinds of cable. network adapter cards. which we will address here. Inc. along with connectors. The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. Xerox). It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. Specialized Solutions. Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential. it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. Because it is shielded. Intel. video. (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter). 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology. and the hardware aspect of network operations. How to properly configure and use network adapter cards. a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover. It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC. The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. or DIX (Digital. most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. and other hardware and peripherals. Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist. Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet). Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation. It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable. but may still be used in some temporary installations such as a construction trailer (although wireless would be a much more likely alternative).

It is attached directly to the NIC but allows network signal to flow straight through it as well as to the NIC. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. as well as how they are attached to the cables. Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. BNC Cable Connectors BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable. Inc. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers. 86 Specialized Solutions. it has been replaced by twisted-pair cable and fiber optic cable. it is not as easy to install. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. Thicknet was used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks. . As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses. They are specified based on their impedance. In the past. It is expressed in ohms. In today’s networks.

This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable. BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. Inc. One of the terminators must be grounded. Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver. 87 . It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection. Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors). It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver. Specialized Solutions. N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together. BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on. The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function. A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium. and an AUI cable. and is used to connect the device to the network.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver. Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today. . The twist helps 88 Specialized Solutions. Instead. There are four pair strands in most twisted-pair cables. This types of connections have been largely replaced by newer cable methods such as twisted-pair and fiber optic cable. This cable type consists of insulated pair strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another. this was time-consuming and it absorbed signal so it was not the common approach. Inc. It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types. most networking professionals used a clamp-on transceiver. These clamp-on transceivers were often referred to as vampire taps because they utilized sharp teeth that punctured the cable to make the connection.

Currently. The tighter the twist. 89 . There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP). UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs. Since it is unshielded. It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters. there are six categories. UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular. the faster the signal can be sent through the wires without crosstalk. it is more sensitive to EMI. Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per meter in each pair of wires. Inc. This results in less sensitivity to EMI. Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 1000 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM and Gigabit Ethernet Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling. Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. The following is a summary of UTP cables. Twisted Pair Cabling Specialized Solutions.

This gives the network administrator a greater degree of flexibility and provides fault tolerance for the network cabling system. Inc. RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors. Wall Plates for RJ-45 90 Specialized Solutions. The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a special tool punch down tool to make the proper connection by stripping the insulation from the wire without breaking the wire. They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 10 Gbps . An RJ-11 jack has four connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight. The RJ-45 jack’s position can therefore be changed from patch panel to patch panel to use a different set of cables for the same connection. These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. Wall plates are typically used to make the connection to the computers themselves. The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location. An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger. The front of the patch panel contains RJ-45 ports (a port is a female counterpart for the RJ-45 jack). This is an excellent way to organize network cables. . Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium.

.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking. which reduces signal loss. which is easier to install. fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances. 91 . (The core can also be made up of plastic. it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength. Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic). One strand transmits and one receives. as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types. Inc. They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP. Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks. The following is a summary of IBM Types: Specialized Solutions. . It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). However. but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI. it is therefore not as common as UTP. This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber.) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable. IBM cabling is based on its Type. the data cannot be tapped or stolen. Because of this feature. SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses.

An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite. Plenum grade. Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Six twisted pairs. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Contains a shield for use under carpets. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. IBM Connector 92 Specialized Solutions. Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data.5/125-micron multimode fibers. IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications. The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors. Inc. . Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Not Defined Two 62. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). These are very rarely used in today’s modern networks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter. Specialized Solutions. Inc. 93 .

This space is used to circulate air through a building. Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cabling Terms The following are terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). For example. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire. If this type of cable were used in the plenum. but cannot send a message. Inc. 94 Specialized Solutions. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. The signal flow is bidirectional. fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions. Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only. It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing). (send and receive) but only one at a time. Because this space does circulate air through a building. Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time. Both you and the party you are talking to can talk and listen at the same time. • Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above. As the AWG wire number decreases. PVC grade cable is less expensive than Plenum grade cable but it gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned. Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge.Baseband vs. For example. • Simplex vs. The signal flow is uni-directional. For example. the wire thickness increases. PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. a pager can receive a message. . Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways. these fumes would circulate throughout a building in the event of a fire. Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps) or gigabits per second (Gbps).

For example.) Specialized Solutions. Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes. A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling. such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well.) Will the cable be installed in “noisy” areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting. Inc. Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network. how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners. It is therefore specifically designed to be used in these circulation areas. 95 .Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals In contrast. shielded cable or fiber optic cable might be more appropriate. the flexibility of the medium should be considered. local fire codes will need to be addressed. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives.) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum.

attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor. fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping. Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 96 Specialized Solutions.) Transmission speeds and.) If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure. last but not least. Inc. On the other hand.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small. . cost are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network. there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective. Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance.

Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves. Network cabling moves data in a single data stream. Because these paths are side-by-side. and controls the flow of data on the network. Analog data has an infinite number of possible states. Specialized Solutions. or 0’s (off). Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses. Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time. Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame. We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later. The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium. It makes the physical connection to the network. handles network addressing. Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit. Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). data is moved along in groups. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. Today.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs. This is known as serial communication. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. are also known as Network Adapter Cards. Inc. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking. 97 . This is known as parallel communication. (And of course to translate it back again. which constantly vary in one or more values. Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side.) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port. NICs are used to connect the computer to the network.

DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium. The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. Inc. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer. This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters. Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer. Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it. Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC. the two cards start sending and receiving data. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting. the NIC may need to be configured. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the 98 Specialized Solutions. The amount of time between confirmations. When this occurs. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs. The time intervals between data chunks. This makes transferring data much faster. Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique MAC address. Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. The speed of the transmission. If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed. they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU. . Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC.

Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. The device is constantly listening to this channel for commands from the processor. Only devices like NIC cards that need this type of memory access are assigned DMA channels. Specialized Solutions. such as: IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU. This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. and some are set using software. Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings. 99 . These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems. certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available. The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that typically no two devices can use the same interrupt. these devices can access the memory that they need without interrupting the processor. in this case the NIC.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. Inc. With a DMA channel. In practice. DMA Channel Configuration of Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels is similar to IRQs. DMA channels are used by devices that frequently need access to large amounts of memory. See Appendix A for common address assignments. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. The good news is that unlike an IRQ. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by a device. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line. not all devices need one. Other cards will need to be configured manually. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned.

Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC. Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC. . If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail. They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable. RJ-45. Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards. or you may have to configure it manually. Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. or both). 100 Specialized Solutions. Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer. they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required. Inc.

but can be a 64-bit bus. Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much. With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs. including network connectivity. They are generally 32-bit buses. The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus. Specialized Solutions. 101 . Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus. The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus. Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers. They are also called PC-Card Buses. Inc. Today most buses are either EISA or PCI.

but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. the NIC would be a bottleneck. Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer. RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Performance Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance. . Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data. This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus. This type of card is expensive. thereby bypassing the CPU. Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU. Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data. 102 Specialized Solutions. The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks. Without this feature. Inc. Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data. thereby improving network performance. it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally.

a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings. A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks. This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components. 103 .Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling. Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly. Extended Local Area Networks . Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. Inc. Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations such as ocean dwelling oil platforms. Wireless networks use wireless access points (WAPs) to “connect” the network devices to each other. or on the road.e. Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems. but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN. They function just like other access points (i.Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking. Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems. This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. – hubs). With wireless systems. Specialized Solutions.Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs. the office. People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home. a user can access the network from anywhere in the building. Mobile Computing . Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems. but through the use of an infrared or radio medium. For example. • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective. making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. With some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down.

and because the transmissions are tightly focused. Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • 104 Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint Specialized Solutions. Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources. Infrared networks typically broadcast at about 10 Mbps. Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference. such as windows. Inc. . The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared You use infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control. they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping. This involves using infrared (below Red) light to carry signals to a receiver.

uses broadband technology. which then routes the signal appropriately. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps. Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems. It does. as the name implies. the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. which are then transmitted over separate frequencies. 105 . until it reaches the receiver. In the hopping method. require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. or direct sequence modulation. In the direct sequence modulation method. The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station. however. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. Inc. but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls. etc. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint. the message is broken into parts (called chips). ceilings. the signal is beamed towards a central unit. Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. Specialized Solutions.

Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite. Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. and only the destination device can receive and read the packet. or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities. . It is used for line-of-sight communication. Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. Inc. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances. Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver. The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication. There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite. 106 Specialized Solutions. These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information. mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Specialized Solutions. Inc. 107 .

You should know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. As a networking professional. Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). Inc. Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals. and Fiber-Optic. Laser. Radio. . transmits. Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet. Finally. receives. The four basic wireless types are: Infrared. RJ-45.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. 108 Specialized Solutions. and Microwave. we took a look at the future. AUI. you should know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type. It prepares. As a network professional. After discussing at network cabling we then took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself. and controls data flow over the network. There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial. Twisted Pair. it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. etc. In addition. This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network. it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks. Wireless networking is the trend of the future.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 109 .Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair 110 Specialized Solutions. Definition . Inc.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword Vampire Tap Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. 111 .

What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3. What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. What is the most popular of the cable types? 10. What is the least expensive of the cable types? 112 Specialized Solutions. What is the most expensive cable type? 13. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. Inc. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4. How is a vampire tap connected? 6. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable.

15. What does AWG stand for and what is it?

16. Describe baseband.

17. Describe broadband.

18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication?

19. What is the function of a network adapter card?

20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available?

21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card?

22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network?

23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types?

24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network?

25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally?

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards
In previous chapters, we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed, along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets, or frames. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. In this chapter, we will discover how Ethernet works, as well as how Token-ring networks function. AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter. After completing this chapter, you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture, while not as popular as Ethernet, are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers, in this case, over a network. In Chapter 3, you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite, IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture, SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk

The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols; thus, they do not map directly to the OSI Model. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. Specialized Solutions, Inc. 115

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information, handle addressing, and check for errors. Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments.

A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card, also known as the network interface card (NIC), in order for it to be used with a network computer. In some instances, as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX, two protocols may be bound to one card. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC.

Access Methods
In a network, multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. If two or more computers were to send data at the same time, the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing

• Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free, it will send data. While there is data traveling on the cable, no computer will transmit data. Occasionally, however, two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. Naturally, the more users who are connected to a network, the denser network traffic becomes. Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method.

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. It is, however, the access method that works best with wireless connections; since the wireless channel can be verified before the data is sent. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. A token (a special type of packet) is circulated around the ring from computer to computer. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network, it must wait until it possesses the token. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. Data is transmitted in frames. The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. The trailer includes error control information. When the computer is ready, the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted, the frame would be resent. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. Because only one computer at a time may transmit, this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions. (Some more recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer, router, switch, or bridge. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes, addresses, and links are functioning. Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer, hub, and destination computer, instead of broadcasts over the entire network. Because of the cabling method used with this access method, (four pairs Specialized Solutions, Inc. 117

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of wires are used, which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time, but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously, the one with the highest priority is serviced first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests.

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Also.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Network Communications (Frames and Packets) As we’ve discussed previously. Computer control data such as service requests and commands. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files. but we will use the term packets. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. Error checking information such as Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) information. data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium. only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). 119 . The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably. The data to be transmitted. if there is a transmission error. Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission. Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection.) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. or messages. Inc. and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. The destination address of the receiving computer. Specialized Solutions. All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. information. Data files tend to be quite large. Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data.

. the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact. If the results are the same. and clocking information. If there is a discrepancy. The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted. Usually. When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer. Depending upon the network. Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet. packets can be various sizes. usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes. Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission. Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet. the source and destination addresses. the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit. Inc. the trailer contains the error checking information. the calculation is run again. A Packet 120 Specialized Solutions.

Inc. 121 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Specialized Solutions.

but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol. data (in this case passengers and freight) is moved in various cars. The standards define the means of communications. In this section. Inc.3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT).94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable. we are going to look at different standards for networks. The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements. For example. Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. Logical Link Control (802. However. and some are narrow gauge).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Standards Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network. There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards. It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method. These provide the standards for the railroads. but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data). some are diesel. in a railroad. Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology). Ethernet (802.3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs. It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. Not all railroads are the same (some are electric. Thicknet coaxial (10Base5). It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2). The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL 122 Specialized Solutions. The original version was a 2. as addressed previously. like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell). some are wide gauge. it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data). . Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802. is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. and typically transmits at 10 Mbps.2) The Logical Link Control layer. There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points.

10BaseT uses the star topology. As its name implies. The maximum number of nodes per network 90. repeaters can be used for longer distances. While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling. If the segment must exceed this limitation. 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable. 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications.5 meters. The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). it is most commonly created with UTP cable. meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system. and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated. and computer aided design. These applications include video. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs. The actual maximum segment length. The minimum distance between nodes is 2. The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters. 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. however. Inc. The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet Specialized Solutions.) This is referred to as the “5-4-3 Rule”.5 meters. document and image storage. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30. is 185 meters. to name a few. And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling. 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable. 123 . It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology. indicating its maximum segment length. The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters.5 meters. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2. The maximum number of nodes per network 100. BNC connectors and a transceiver. it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters. The minimum distance between nodes is . 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors. (There may be five segments but only three may be populated. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology.

. VG. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs). Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks. 124 Specialized Solutions. (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment. Because of its intense speed. to some degree. It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN. with Gigabit Ethernet. the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable. the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology. Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable. 100BaseVG. but that will be referred to later in this book. When you see any of these terms.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet) 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade.12 is the standard that defines this technology. This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps. they are referring to the same thing. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable. It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. although copper can be used with much shorter distances. Inc. and AnyLAN. There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon. and the longest cable length is 250 meters. and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards. and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). using the CSMA/CD access method. The IEEE specification 802. ATM competes. It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard. It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology.

125 . Inc. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP. by joining with either a router or a bridge. Ethernet also works in the UNIX environment. It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance.

IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984. Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer. The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems. This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data. Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it. Like Ethernet. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub. A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token. 126 Specialized Solutions. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token. The Token Ring access method. It is not as popular as Ethernet. The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes. but is still used today.5 standard. Actually. Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished). it uses the baseband technology. The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token. and 3). Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. Inc.5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. it is known as a data frame. 2. and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data. The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame. While the token is in use by a computer to send data. The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring. . is what sets Token Ring apart. more than the cable design. The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1. How it Works Basically.

the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address. Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. Or. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network.5 standards say it travels clockwise. Beaconing In a Token Ring environment. as well as its own address. Message This is the data or file to be transmitted.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time. if there were errors. The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring. the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity. The IEEE 802. called the active monitor. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention. After encoding the data frame. . This computer. while IBM says counter-clockwise. The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. Inc. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon. Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful. This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor. the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring. the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing. As each new computer comes online. To accomplish this task. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted. The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. 127 Specialized Solutions.

The Type 128 Specialized Solutions. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters.5 meters. This hub is known by a few names. the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. Inc. Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters. IBM states that it is only 46 meters. each ring can connect up to 260 computers. Using STP. Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network. but types 1 and 2 may also be used. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2. . Using STP. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. Using UTP. just as in other networks that use a hub. Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. as there are no male and female ends. Using UTP. In a pure token passing environment. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another. When a computer is connected. The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network. Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable. Each node is connected to the hub via a cable. Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters. it is only about 45 meters. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs.

129 . Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper. hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub. Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters. Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments. Using a pair of repeaters. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers. Therefore. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable. All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed. Patch panels are used to organize patch cables. care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software. therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers. A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. Type 6 may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub. Specialized Solutions. The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. Inc.

This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. Inc. by using zones. and even some UNIX computers. When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. it is very inexpensive to initiate. mainframe computers. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer. Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones. 130 Specialized Solutions. If it is not being used by another computer. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings. or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology. it will store it to use each time it goes online. It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices. This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses. LocalTalk performance is rather limited. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare.5 Standard) environment. UTP. . AppleShare also provides a print server. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address. TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system. EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable. the device assigns itself an address. A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it. EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers. Apple has always been open to third-party development. As such.

active. the source address and up to 508 bytes of data. ARCNet utilizes hubs. Inc. 131 . or smart.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors. ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling. but it can be adequately charted to the 802. It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2. Specialized Solutions.4 standards (Token Bus LAN). a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data. the token is passed in numerical order. ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. A later version. the token still passes in numerical order. Instead of the token traveling around a ring. Just like other token-passing access method architectures. has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps. If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters. This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology. but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable. These hubs may be passive. ARCNet transmits data in packets. It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology. called ARCNet Plus. Obviously.5 Mbps. the maximum cable distance is 244 meters. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data. this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order. If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors. If using an active hub in a Star topology. These packets contain the destination address.

Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four. Speeds up to 54 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific). 132 Specialized Solutions. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802. Inc.11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology.11) IEEE 802. Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range. generally). The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well.

Therefore. it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year. which is where the error checking calculation is located. Be sure that you understand how this architecture works. As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. and 10BaseT. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future. It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures. If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data. go back and review the chapter again.3 standards. Packets will include information to identify the source address. CSMA/CA. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. and clocking information. but as a networking professional you will encounter them. The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network. the source and destination addresses. the Data. destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. 133 . Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames). AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring. Inc. Managing network data is all about traffic control. etc. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD. Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet. it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting. Specialized Solutions. It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. and the Trailer. Packets consist of three components: the Header. 10Base5. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method.

Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Definition 134 Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. . Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Token Ring TokenTalk Trailer Zones Definition Specialized Solutions. 135 . Inc.

3. Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. What are the three primary access methods? 2. CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1. . Inc. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 136 Specialized Solutions. 5. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11.

What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25. Inc. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20. What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17. Describe a MIC connector. 22. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? Specialized Solutions. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 19. What is a SMAU? 21. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18. 137 . 14. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 138 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have. this is a Macintosh-based company. you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows. The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have. Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks. As a network professional. We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. are there any printers or scanners. Specialized Solutions. for example. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office. This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network. (If not. we will consider hardware compatibility. rather than a client’s. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. However. There are two things that you will need to know. Finally. your design will not work for them. etc. in many cases. Most importantly. Inc. who has them. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. and goals. whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever indebted to you. you are not designing for yourself. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. etc? If. The size of the company and the portion of the network affected. The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. 139 . The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. The customer’s likes. This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. pay attention to details. address. dislikes. Even if this network is your own. (demographics). You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them.

you are not documenting your network. or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files. etc. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. Inc. For example. This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components. Remember. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps. A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale). you must get a clear definition of goals of the network. Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources. prepare a design document. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint. . files services. only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. or as large as 8 GB. Once you collect this information. print services. The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later. you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. at this time. There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available. Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. So. the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB. 140 Specialized Solutions. or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD. if the file is compressed. You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. With this information in hand.

141 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc.

The level of security required. if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t. if you have a printer connected to your computer. The commitment of management and users. Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. The wrong choice now. In a peer-to-peer network. You may need to install the software. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network). you will have no problem. Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future). This can range from none to very high. Likewise. You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement. The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. . Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server. not all nodes may need the same level of security. Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. The most prominent are simplicity and cost. but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. all computers are equal.” That is. you will need to start making some decisions. If you do not have this information go back and get it. This means that every 142 Specialized Solutions. This sharing is on a directory level. The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. Inc. They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. You may have to add network cards and cabling. The first is the type of network you will be designing. Skill level of the network users. they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. as generally it is not installed during a standard installation. As long as you have the original software disk (CD). For example. may cause problems in the future. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. First. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network. The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future. Also. you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it.

As for size. information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. they will also be using your processor to do their printing. a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network.Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. instead of backing up individual workstations. Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. you will also need to consider the disadvantages. the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). is another advantage of a server-based network. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer). For these people. Remember. any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. etc. This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. the network must operate transparent to them. Since these computers are larger. This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations. must less the workings of a network. this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts. Inc. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. all network resources are usually centralized. While there are many advantages. a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution. have high-power processor. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network. if employees need remote access. 24-hours per day. In small networks. and expand as your needs expand. Last but not least. and lots of memory. Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added. This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. In a peer-to-peer situation. The more sophisticated the network. server-based networks are scaleable. if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. You can connect more workstations. slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server. the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older. In large networks. administration can be a Specialized Solutions. Also. Before you can use any resource. such as your printer. In a strict peer-topeer network. 143 . In a server-based network. Also. Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security.

Inc.0. present each case to the client and let them make the final decision. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design. which would limit its access to those outside of the company.16.0. In some cases. The only problem is that if your firewall were to come down.0 144 Specialized Solutions.0 192. For this reason.255. in others it could go either way. The use of these addresses will completely prevent the address conflict issue. stick with it and move forward. get more. . the answer will be very obvious. let us define the difference between the terms public and private network. Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each. 10. Actually. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified network professional. A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet. there are specific addresses that are filtered by the routers at the backbone of the Internet. If you are not sure you have enough information.255. Public and Private networks In addition.255 255.0.0.0. When you are sitting on the fence. If all else fails.168.0.255. it is highly recommended that you use these addresses for your private addressing. with open access to the global community.255.192.255.168.0 -172. then you might have an address conflict with another entity on the Internet. Once you have made this decision.0 255.255 172. Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer). For this reason.0.0 . A public network would be the Internet.0 255.255.32. you can use any address that you want to use inside of your own network and behind your firewalls.0 -10. since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN.0.

Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 145 .

When taking this inventory. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software. if all or part of a network already exists. Inc. On the other hand. Use it as a starting place to build your own.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. This form should identify the equipment and its specifications. The following is an example of an inventory sheet. you can skip this section. ask him or her to show you. this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks. you must add new hardware. if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment. 146 Specialized Solutions. Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form. whether hardware or software. Remember. The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have. . That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you. The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like. Also.

PCI. etc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: Computer Printer Telecommunication Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA. 147 .) # of Free Slots Network Card Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function. Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary. . describe each program. 148 Specialized Solutions. Software: If this device uses software. Inc.

Inc. 149 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility. it will make future documentation easier. . make a drawing of the facility and each network node. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment. and collect all of the documentation you have been working on. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network. This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. It is time to get out that pencil and paper. Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network. A Network Layout 150 Specialized Solutions. By assigning them a number now.

you might consider CAT 3. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. Specialized Solutions. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. 151 . if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files. The 100 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. consider Thinnet coaxial cable. repeaters and nodes. you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments. CAT 6 is the UTP of choice. if you are not sure if expansion is in your future. In most environments this will be no problem. you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small temporary LAN. you will need to install CAT 5e or CAT 6 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 1000 Mbps speed. These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). but if this is a large facility. However. (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics. Cable lengths must be considered. or just good common sense. 5-4-3 – If your installation is coaxial Ethernet. a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 5 UTP cables. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. Realistically. The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the performance criteria of the network. may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation. However. It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace. hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end). it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5e or CAT 6 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years. Inc. For example. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. In addition. or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). Therefore. Cable Grade – Local fire codes. such as in an imaging environment.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. On the high end. the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3. Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network.

with a relative humidity of 30 percent. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference. Fortunately. since they don’t use electricity to transmit a signal. and RFI. As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network. and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. but are not limited. the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers. which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment. you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. which can cause corrosion. such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically. which requires the use of routers. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). it will work. EMI. on the surface. Inc. Like us. low-humidity. Fiber optics are also a good alternative when the manufacturing environment cannot allow for any possibility of even a small spark. it doesn’t really matter. The non-routable protocols. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. which can generate damaging ESD. Variable temperatures. or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows 2000/2003. Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. The equipment should be shielded from ESD. 152 Specialized Solutions. Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment in which the computers will be operating. . and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source. they are sensitive to temperature changes. On the other hand. are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment. you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. high-humidity. and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. Therefore. Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. However.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise).

153 . Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

Inc. it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet. The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding. The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable. So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables. you will most likely need to install a wall outlet. Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends. In most cases. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room. All the cables will be brought to one location. if using CAT 5 or CAT 6. The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it. . is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors. This way you can identify each location. Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. 154 Specialized Solutions. This way.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub. One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable. To keep these organized. These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network. There are a few more components that need to be installed.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable. One advantage of using CAT 5 or CAT 6 cable in a star topology from a hub. the cables are connected to a patch panel.

Actually.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network. Once that is done. there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed. there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC Specialized Solutions. That part is the network adapter card. Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. we must select a card that is compatible with both. This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media. Therefore you must know the requirements of each. Inc. 155 .

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 156 Specialized Solutions.

Inc. a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). EISA. If you are installing a Token Ring network. which can be a useful tool. This section will look at compatibility issues. These are little LEDs (one. or three) that indicate the status of the card. you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots. administration. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look. The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. the speed of the card is important. two. Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting. Resolving these issues is actually quite simple. Depending on the vintage of the computer. but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. but only at 10 Mbps. Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards. In addition to being compatible with the network. you must have Token Ring cards. The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. and PCI). Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple. but only at 10 Mbps.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. Also. and expansion projects. Before purchasing a network card. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. the card must be compatible with the computer. There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA. An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network. also called PC Cards. Therefore. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus. Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network. there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. Not all cards are the same. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus. and therefore the speed at which data can be moved. Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network. Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture. a Specialized Solutions. In general. For example. 157 . the number of connectors. will change. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. Micro Channel.

Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer). Now the network adapter card is installed. In most cases with a new card. you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. the computer may not boot or the conflicting devices might not be able to work simultaneously. If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver. If your system is not Plug-n-Play.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light indicates that data is being transferred. if you upgrade your operating system. Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using. Connect the network cabling. Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer. Inc. Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot. Each card must be configured for a different network. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use. Drivers are usually supplied with the network card. Physically install the card. You need to configure the card to work with your network software. In addition. this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. but you are not finished yet. Configure the IRQ and I/O address. Note: If you must remove the case. 158 Specialized Solutions. If you must do this manually. If there are any conflicts. Install the appropriate drivers for the card. be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course. . it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. Finally. the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches.

In the case of UTP. These types of problems can be more personal in nature. For example. as well as possible solutions. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector. the card should have an RJ-45 connector. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector. If you encounter this type of situation. as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network. it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario. the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based. some manufacturers will provide two. Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. However. the engineering department may be PC-based. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy. 159 . For Thinnet or Thicknet. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. Specialized Solutions. Some STP cards require special connectors. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on. For example. and possibly three. Inc. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines. different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. To increase marketability of their cards.

160 Specialized Solutions. you will need to establish the standards for your network. By defining the standards to which the network must comply. with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier. You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots. you are going to have your work cut out for you. Inc. that were identically configured. boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software. This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card. Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly. As the network designer or administrator. Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network. Standards Earlier in this training course. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them. if installed. and knowledge of the network operating system. Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system. we learned about network protocols and standards. . With this done. and detail both its hardware and software. each component will work with the others. With this information in hand. hard work and standards.

The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements. Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. 161 . the Internet is the answer. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. you probably do not have the necessary drivers. all you need to do is install the Windows XP drivers for the offending hardware. These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system. For example. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. however. The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. This is a true statement. there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. network card and/or printer no longer work. Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems. In this case. The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system. you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site. you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. you will need to upgrade. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers. You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device. More than likely. Inc. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase. when upgrading from Windows 98 to Windows XP. If drivers exist. Also. Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. Specialized Solutions. you find that your modem. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. but your proficiency will be very low. have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. A good example is Windows 95. the system will not run.Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are.

162 Specialized Solutions. or hardware compatibility lists. . This list will ship with the 2000 package (on the CD-ROM) and 2000 will make a check during installation.com/windows/catalog. If you want the latest list. Inc. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with Windows 2000. Microsoft Windows Catalog Still another web site to check for compatibility of hardware and software. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision. It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000 is hardware dependent. This is part of the Windows Logo program. is the Microsoft Windows Catalog at www. You can also look for the corresponding logos on the boxes of hardware and software that you are considering purchasing for your network. you will need to check the HCL for that product. it most likely will not work with Windows 2000.microsoft.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists an example of the minimum requirements for three operating systems: HCL and Windows 2000 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. especially with the newest operating systems such as Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary. Here you will find the latest information about hardware and software that is Designed for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 or at least tested to be compatible with these operating systems.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 163 . Inc.

What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 6 1. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? 164 Specialized Solutions. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. but they are not all the same. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. he intends to expand the network in the future. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4. Inc. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5. Was this a good purchase? 9. However. . 7. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2.

In addition to being called “hubs.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network. Specialized Solutions. Inc. Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location. This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network. sooner or later. A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network. 165 . you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network. There are several different types of hubs.” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive. it may be too small.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Chapter 7 . Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series. from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices. An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals). Expanding a LAN with Hubs A common method for expanding networks is to use a hub. to larger hubs that can connect many more computers. For example.

. Fortunately. 166 Specialized Solutions. Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. They do however. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network. but has one additional feature. Traffic-generating applications. Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. Inc. such as databases. have increased response times. Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network. Long waits to access a printer or file. the simple hub just won’t do the job. You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. amplify the signal. you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. They do not translate or filter any information. Depending on the objectives of the LAN. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths.

but it can switch packets across multiple networks. Not all network protocols will work with a router. 167 . Inc. Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment. For example. Specialized Solutions. Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. the NetBEUI protocol is not routable. It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. Routers work at the Network layer of the OSI model.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language.

Be careful when choosing a carrier. When thinking of a carrier. When thinking of telephone lines. With dial-up networking. 168 Specialized Solutions. it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system. these connections are slow and not very reliable. or dedicated. Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps. These are our standard telephone connections. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates. lines. the distance the data must travel. and satellite connections. there are two levels of service to consider. An example of such a system is the telephone company. we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances. When considering which connection service to use.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway Connection Services When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries. The second choice is leased. The first is public dial-up network lines. Just because the cost looks good. and the cost of the service. Typically. but connecting at this rate is rare. They are providing the cabling. . Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps. each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. does not mean that it is the best value. be sure to take into account your throughput. microwave. Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs. Inc. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection.

It can regenerate the signal. A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN. 169 . The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines. Most WANs are a collection of LANs.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded. The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN. It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with. Inc. if necessary. and deals with timing issues. as well as those transmitted to it. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity. items such as bridges. These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs. Specialized Solutions. It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). routers and communications services are used to create a WAN.

but if you have sufficient traffic. Dedicated lines are far more expensive.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Basic voice. you need DDS (Digital Data Service). Voice/radio with tone conditioning. more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection. . 170 Specialized Solutions. Voice and data over trunk circuits. Basic data. Voice and data over trunks between computers. Voice and data over private lines. Inc. Voice and video. Voice with some quality control. Digital Connectivity When you need a faster. Application relays. Data applications below 1200 bps. they can be justified. The down-side of these lines is that you will have to pay for them 100% of the time instead of on an “as used” basis. The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. This is because you lease the line 100% of the time and therefore do not have to dial-in. Dedicated analog lines provide an instant connection.

544 Mbps transmissions.520 or 622.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP.048 Mbps 34.736 Mbps 2.52 Mbps Either 155. Specialized Solutions.544 Mbps 44. The following table lists the most common connection types: Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A Voice Channels DATA RATE (MBPS) 24 672 32 512 N/A 1. whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard. 171 .8 Mbps 155.080 (can reach 10 Gbps) OC-1 OC-3 ATM 1 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A The T1 and the T3 standard are American. and video signals. It is capable of 1. Inc. data. faster download than upload 51. It can be used to transmit digital voice.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line.

be used for somewhat secure remote access by employing the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) and tunneling protocols. a packet may be sent over multiple permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast. Frame Relay does not check the packet at each step in its route. These lines can. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network. 172 Specialized Solutions. all of which are considered reliable. A packet switched network provides multiple paths that packets could travel from source to destination. This made for a very reliable and very slow connection. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. For this reason. convenient. each packet was examined at each step in the path to determine whether it was damaged. With Frame Relay. Standard PSTN lines have a very limited bandwidth of less than 56 Kbps. X. In older. and reliable network messaging.25 based packet switched networks. so it can be both reliable and fast. since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet. . Today’s networks use a different technology referred to as Frame Relay. however. Obviously. this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs.

adding computers or adjusting resources. or any other logical means. without having to change the physical picture of the network.” Specialized Solutions. 173 . Inc.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment. This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN. etc. or by the specific use of the computers. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN. printers. An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within his company.) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically. which lays out hosts (computers.

Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication. it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference. It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles). ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential. while using copper telephone wires. however. While not a good choice for WANs. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services. These cells can speed communication because the network always know exactly what to expect in regard the size of the next cell. One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need. As well as the common voice and data.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN. ATM . has two 64 Kbps 174 Specialized Solutions. This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network. and focuses on the home and business market. FDDI .Asynchronous transfer mode uses fixed length (53 byte) cells instead of packets. Because it is fiber optic-based. ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial. video.2 Gbps. audio. It is. It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1. ATM can be used with FAX. or fiber optic. you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies. . twisted pair. which is intended for use in the home or small business. they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps. Inc. in actuality. However. it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds. and imaging. media limited. ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface).

Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. it is the European equivalent of SONET.544 Mbps). Specialized Solutions. and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control. within one transmission frame. data and video at rates ranging from 51. like OCx with SONET. To be more precise. It is capable of transmitting voice. has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps). SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media. The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps).6). which is intended for use by large businesses. it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network. It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx). ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface).84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768). much like E1 is to T1. and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control. Internationally. Inc. This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802. 175 . SMDS SMDS . It carries all the bits from say. SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices. It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM). a call.

designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle. a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2. and media. or over long distances. network cards. A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable. times as fast as the Baud rate. 4. However.32 V. Modems transmit data at various speeds. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. As we have already learned. . Therefore. 14. The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. Inc. 8. Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data. With early modems. Modems are classified by a “V” rating.32bis bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard.400 High-speed version of the V. due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of transmitting signals over long distances. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate.400 bps. Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines.600 bps. Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions.600 bps. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines. The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V.32 standard. etc. These speeds are measured as bits per second. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56. With this change. there is a limit of 2400 Baud. Today. Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion. connecting a few computers to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards. 176 Specialized Solutions. To increase our network beyond a few computers. the term Baud has disappeared and been replaced with bps.22bis V. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems. the Baud rate was equal to the bps.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections. FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14.

28.32terbo. 57.FastClass.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards. 56. modems. Inc.90 19.42 V.34 V.800 Improved V.600 Backwards compatible with earlier V. Will only communicate with another V. Backwards compatible with earlier V.200 Not officially a standard yet.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network V. modems – error correction standard. Specialized Solutions.32terbo V. 177 .

Since the two computers are directly connected. Windows XP has an feature called a direct cable connection. either via modems and telephone lines. Also. . By running Network Connections Wizard and following the simple 178 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. Let’s first look at connecting two computers. the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. or directly via COM ports and a cable. For example. or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. A system running Windows XP or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection. Actually. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication. when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building). With RAS. On the other hand. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. while a true server like Windows Server 2003 will allow 256 inbound connections. You must use a Null-Modem cable. RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection. all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer. there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors. The difference between a simple computer (Windows XP or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows Server 2003) is the number of inbound connections. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client. The difference is how each computer is being utilized. A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem. In addition. Any two computers can be connected. both of these terms mean the same thing. the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. Inc.

your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server. RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security. The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network. This is a relatively old standard (1984). Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but. Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking. 179 . Normally. With this in place. the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user. the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software. but is still in use with some systems. On the client side. RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work. in this case. you will use a modem to establish the connection. you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection. On the server side. From this accessory. the RAS software must be installed and running. you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number. While this was the protocol of choice for a Specialized Solutions.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network instructions provided. Inc. These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). both computers must be using the same protocol.

. NetBEUI. It can be used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private 180 Specialized Solutions. This is accomplished by encapsulating one protocol with another protocol. With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications. Inc. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) provides for a secure encrypted tunnel for communication through the Internet. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. RAS and Security. in today’s networks it has several disadvantages. Many organizations are using tunnels. Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP. the limits of SLIP caused many problems. IPX. VPN (Virtual Private Networks). such that only the sender and the receiver can accurately interpret the data that is being sent. It transmits in text only. created by PPTP and other tunneling protocols. It enables highly private network links over the public Internet. It cannot encrypt logon information. It provides security. It supports only TCP/IP. PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today. It supports encrypted passwords. It’s only supported by RAS clients. and DECnet. Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide long time. as a less explensive alternative to costly leased lines. It provides data compression and error control. AppleTalk. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. Encrypted Connections. • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the Network layer of the OSI model.

discussed here in the next chapter.509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec. L2TP offers many advantages over PPTP. UNIX. It does not provide authorization. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. . It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server. Thin clients are computers with no hard drive. Inc. authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well. TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL. Kerberos V5. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket. It is based on an end-to-end security model. ESP. usually a user’s credit card number. meaning that the computers. It is transparent to the user. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission. Unlike PPTP. limited RAM. certificates (like X. Linux. It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS. It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network.. most relating to higher security. both sending and receiving. which is the highest security method. a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE). Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 Active Directory use this type of security by default. It uses a key to encrypt the data. it only establishes the user’s identity. as does Novell Directory Services (NDS). AH only authenticates the user. and Macintosh computers. Specialized Solutions. or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server. it does not require IP connectivity. ICA can be used with Windows. and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the latest version of the tunneling protocol. 181 . It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP. IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header). Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network.

Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server. This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller. 182 Specialized Solutions. you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration. Security Host (Bastion Host) A security host or bastion host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. Before installation. At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system. RAS provides several layers of security. The type of communication port you intend to configure. If another software package has “control” of the modem. If it does not work the first time. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. the modem configuration.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to providing remote sharing of information. and thus more security. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. . you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. and any other software that might use the modem. you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server. This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on. Inc. you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly. As with all security measures. This provides for additional authentication. In addition. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary. installing RAS can be frustrating. Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection.

it is not always the solution for every network.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. Inc. you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses. The latest Microsoft server operating systems such as Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 have wizards that make installing an RAS server much simpler. You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps. 183 . As a networking professional. you want to keep the costs down. and you don’t need a fulltime connection. Specialized Solutions.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Definition . Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH 184 Specialized Solutions.

Inc.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X.25 Definition Specialized Solutions. 185 .

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 7 1. What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. . 9. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. and a gateway. Name three advanced WAN environments. Name three RAS protocols. 186 Specialized Solutions.544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6. a router. 7. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. What is analog communication? 5. 10. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2. 4. a bridge. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. Define a repeater. Name four forms of RAS security.

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such as SMTP. TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. SNMP. some are considered to be Internet standards. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. and FTP. and is usually seen in the combination. intranets. Transport. These standards. the recognized standard for internetworking altogether. Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board). Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project. The four layers are: Application. Specialized Solutions. and the Internet. and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. 189 . TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is an internet (between network) protocol. Also. TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard. Inc. TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol). This is the most common protocol suite with which a networking professional works. Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor. From this beginning. RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP. It is important for the networking professional to know that TCP/IP is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. It is also used with Ethernet networks. Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. known as BSD UNIX. which will be discussed later in the chapter. and is in fact. Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress). as well as Internet standards. these protocols were available on UNIX early on. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers. it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. TCP/IP. Internet and Network Interface.

There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections. .Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 190 Specialized Solutions. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model. These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP.

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Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. However. It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. Let’s take a look at them. Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others. It then routes the information to its destination. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model. On a TCP/IP network. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP. and reassembles the data. Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine. the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports. or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams. and for the Network+ exam. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. Let’s take a look at how this works. they can be retransmitted in a timely manner. A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets. TCP breaks data into tiny chunks. The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 192 Specialized Solutions. called packets. Should lost or corrupted packets be detected. there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. . Inc. This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier.

This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines. Although the terms.535. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type. Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet. consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65. IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP. IP merely routes the data. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point. UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. a port is different from a socket. The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535. and a Specialized Solutions.e. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model.. For each packet sent. This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received. FTP. TCP will retransmit the data. The addresses. the protocol number. If the transmission has not been successful. TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number. UDP transports data. The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted. Telnet. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. i. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. HTTP. meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information. and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number. The port number identifies the application associated with the data. 193 . Inc. and specify a certain protocol. IP is connectionless. nor does it check for errors. When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent. The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023. or port numbers. etc. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. but does not acknowledge delivery. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide checksum. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer. To be more specific, the checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. When the data arrives at the destination computer, the receiving computer performs the calculation. If the checksum is the same, the data is assumed to have arrived intact. The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network, it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. Time to Live – provides TTL data. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. This cache contains a list of all the devices with which it is communicating. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five, TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server, run searches, or access multiple mail servers. 194 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet, which is what you use when you send out mail. SMTP is server to server, whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers, usually over the Internet. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People.” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files, by typing in a user name, or the word “anonymous.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents, such as web pages. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts, using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP, allowing access to a secure Web server. It uses port 443, the secure SSL port instead of port 80, the HTTP port. HTTPS, as well as SSL, allow for the use of X.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user.

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Naming Systems
Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. Remember, we are working in two worlds, the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names. Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking. DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates hostnames to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. DNS functions like a telephone directory. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers. For example, the domain bigcompany.com may have an IP address of 192.49.238.33. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose, such as government, education, commerce, or interest. Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC, also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. These domains require suffixes such as .com for businesses or .edu for educational institutions. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains:

.com .net .edu .org .gov .mil .biz .pro .info .xx

Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance, Big Company Inc. in Italy might be http://www.Bigcompany.com.it or in Australia www.Bigcompany.com.au. Also, .tv is gaining in popularity. Tuvalu is a small country, which receives financial benefit from the registration fees.

WINS In a Windows-based network, the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network. NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode, leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application. A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast), P-node (peer-peer), M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). 198 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. It predates DNS. It must be manually created and changed. LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. It must be manually created and changed. IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. For example, it could connect a LAN to the Internet. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet, it must be assigned a static IP address. This means that it is permanently assigned. It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers, sooner or later we will run out of numbers. In smaller isolated networks, IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. However, as the number of addresses required increases, you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. To resolve this, IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. That is, assigned on an “as needed” basis. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. When not needed, the address can be leased to another host. To accomplish this, you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address, subnet mask, and a default gateway if needed. Notice that the IP addresses are leased. This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. A lease can be renewed. When the term of the lease is at 50%, the client will send a request for renewal. If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available), the lease will be renewed without interruption. If not renewed, the client will attempt to contact the DHCP server that issued it the IP address directly about every 5 minutes until it reaches 87.5% of the lease, at which time the client will broadcast a request to obtain an address from any available DHCP server. If all addresses are being used or a DHCP server does not respond, the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user. In this case, the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

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and DNS. since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. NAT also acts as a type of firewall. In the case of a proxy server.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (public IP address). . to share a single connection to the Internet. 200 Specialized Solutions. It contains DHCP.e. The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. the proxy server. It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties. who think they are communicating directly with one another. a NAT is just a device or program that translates one set of IP addresses to another set of IP addresses. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers. Inc. It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses. NAT. The proxy server is actually making a connection to another network or to the Internet on behalf of the client. but it is most often used between a private network and the networks public address or addresses. IP Proxy Servers Earlier. ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time. i. Actually. like a LAN. it serves many clients through only one connection. The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other. depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time. Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions. Inc. 201 .

A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4. An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets. however. A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39. Inc. Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them.11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------16 8 2 1 128 64 32 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet. The result is called a dotted decimal number. Although that is easy for a computer.194.00001000.8.294. This IP address is a 32-bit binary number.967. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet. So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33. let’s now take a look at IP address numbers. . Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256. it is not easy for us.2 billion) different numbers. the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique). To simplify these addresses. are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes.00100111.296 (4. Internet IP addresses. 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194. 202 Specialized Solutions.39. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8. they are broken down into four octets. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes. Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address.

The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000). Depending on the assignment.194 would be the Host ID. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000). the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components. The class can be determined by the value of the first octet.39.194 where the Network ID would be 193. you should pay special attention the Classes A. Inc. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID.194 would be an example of a Class A address.8 and the Host ID would be 194.39 would be the Network ID and 8.8.) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126. The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID). 203 . In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID.8. There are five common classes: A through E.8. The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223. The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID. For the Network+ exam. 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) Specialized Solutions. only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID). (A host may be any device on the network. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000). The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use. An example of a Class B IP address would be 129.194.39.194.8. The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191. An example of a Class C IP address would be 193. Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large. In this case 129.39. the network is divided into classes. Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks. Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks. The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39. The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID).39. B and C. Within classes.

specifically 127. B or C address.126 128 . the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic. Class B . you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address.used by very large networks. there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and for multicasting and are not available for normal host addresses. Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A. .534 possible Host ID numbers. As we mentioned earlier. so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts.0.0.used for medium-sized networks.223 In addition.1) Class A . Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 . (For example. Also. Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available. Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs. Class C . Inc. there are only 65. Likewise. Class B uses two octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID.214 possible Host ID numbers.777. This is the loopback address.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time.191 192 . 204 Specialized Solutions. if a network is going to be connected to the Internet. with the least number of Network IDs. You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts. Class C IP addresses are still available. This organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center). there are 16.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID. All in use and no longer available. Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID. and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses.

VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic. IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology. The address types are Unicast. Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Specialized Solutions.net. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot. as compared to IPv4. The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits. use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address. It does. 205 . This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme. Unicast is an address for a single host. For example. An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. It uses 128-bit addressing. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field. A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4. which only uses 32-bit addressing. Anycast. however. Inc. You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example. It would make it unclear as to what was represented. Rather than having “classes” like IPv4. and Multicast. IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP). as well as ease of configuration and security built right in.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. demand high bandwidth. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers (0 to 9. to define the address type. however.

Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link. just like 127. IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking. Inc. The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one. is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix.0.1 with IPv4. since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain. . which replaces broadcast. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address. A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses. Finally. Site-local address. 206 Specialized Solutions.0. An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. Multicast. All in all.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address.

or 225.0.216 hosts) Class B (65. The number of 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network. a large university may have a network spread over several buildings and perhaps remote campuses. which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address.00000000 or 255.255. Before looking at anding.0. For example. By using subnets.0. a router can determine which addresses are local and which addresses are for other subnets within the network. If you “and” the IP address to the subnet mask. 255. For example: 11111111. 207 .0.0 255. the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class).00000000.534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s.0.255.0 (Class B).11111111. This is done with binary addition (anding). You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet. In this example. all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet.777.0. Specialized Solutions.0.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of creating more than one private network from one public network address by customizing your subnet mask. You must however.0 (Class C).0 255.255.0 In regard to classful addressing . A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) in which all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address. Default Subnet Masks 255. The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address. Since a router connects each subnet. By using a concept called anding.255.255. separating it from the host portion of the address. lets look at subnet masks. you can reduce the overall network traffic. only the traffic that is not local will pass through. Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask. Anding is the binary addition that the router uses to make this determination. have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right.0 Class A (16.255.0 (Class A). a subnet mask can be 255. Inc.255.

224.194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask.32.8.194. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 208 Specialized Solutions.8. Any local addresses will not pass through. thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network. while the Host ID 0. By using this method. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet.00100000.0) equals 00100001.00000000.00100111. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment. using our previous example of 33.8. and through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33.194) 11111111. let’s and it to the subnet mask of 255.194.0. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now.00000000 (33. Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33. Inc.0.39. .32. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet. 00100001.224.0.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones.00001000.8.39.32. it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address.32 and the Host ID is 7.00000000.7.11100000.8.00000000 (255.194. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33.0.11000010 (33.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remember.0.0. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7.

a.0.b.b.a.216 65.0.c 128.0 Number of Networks 126 16.a.c to 191. • • • • Connect physically remote local networks.0 255.0.255.c 192. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring).152 Number of Hosts 16.0 255.c to 223.255. Inc.0.255. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet. If a router is connected to two subnets.0 255.0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255.777. Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet.b.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001.c to 126. Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate.0.384 2.0 255.255.097.b. Specialized Solutions.b.a.255.a. A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card. it will require an address for each subnet. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking.a. There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required.0.c Default Subnet Mask 255. Be sure to include some room for growth of the network. 209 .255. A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network.b. Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment.

128 255.252.255.0 255.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16.255. We use this formula to determine the number of subnets that will be created by borrowing bits from the hosts.255. Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255.382 Hosts N/A 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 210 Specialized Solutions. We will use an InterNIC ID of 191.255.0 255. you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC.255. The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network.248 255.255.000 hosts.36.224.255.192 255. You should remember the formula 2n-2 where n is the number of bits borrowed.0 255. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255.255.254.0. we have one network with approximately 65.0. First.255.255.255. .0 255.255.248.192. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign.255.255.255.240 255.255. As we begin to subnet.255. Inc.240.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet.255.0 255. To begin this process. we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host.255.0 255.255.224 255.0 255. With this number.255.

240 255.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255.255.255.192 255. The number 18 will now be in binary (10010). 211 . Change the mode to binary (Bin). Now we get out our Windows calculator.255. lets keep our network ID of 191. Specialized Solutions.36 as assigned to us by InterNIC. Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected. Enter the value of 18. We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID.255. Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator). you can use the scientific calculator supplied with any Windows operating system. giving us a total requirement of 18.255.224 255. Inc.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 Hosts N/A 30 14 6 2 To make this easy. let’s add 4 more for future expansions. 1. 3. Just to be on the safe side.255. the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements.255. we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs.248 255.255.255. 2. For this example.255.

Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask. we would have had to reconfigure the entire network.248. Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth).255. This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2. Inc.36.0 and the network address of 192. our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets. let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255. The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 212 Specialized Solutions. Had we needed to add a new subnet. Count the number of binary digits (5). This will be the number of bits required for the third octet. For this example. you can determine the available Network IDs.000 hosts each. instead of selecting the next subnet on our list. To keep things simple. .0.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4.224. the subnet mask would be 255.255.

36. Inc.) Specialized Solutions.36 (overall network address) 192. This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address. these are reserved for broadcast addresses. In dotted-decimal format. they are on the same network.36. 213 .255.192 Determine the Host IDs The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001).160 192.36.64 192. indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively. this means that the number starts with .001 in the last octet.0. If it is different. A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255. The only restrictions are that you cannot use .128 192. Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network. up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID.255. on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255.0.255.0.255.0.32 192.0. The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network. (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask.36. The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID. or one that is located on a remote network.96 192.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192.0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255. the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery.000 or .36. For example. and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet.36.

223 214 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255.255.255.0 255. Inc.0 CLASS ID 1 . .0.0 255.0.191 192 .126 128 .0.255.

click the Protocols tab. DNS You can enable or disable DNS.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. However. IP Address Here. Next. Specialized Solutions. you may specify a particular IP address. Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor.” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server. This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information. Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways. and click Properties. in addition to other hardware and software configurations. 215 . Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. On some screens. Inc. Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically. The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using. right-click on TCP/IP Protocol. Click the radio button to enable DNS. and enter the information in the appropriate fields. other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window. you will need to type in the specified default gateway.

It also includes the DNS configuration. WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses. This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration. 216 Specialized Solutions. Inc. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients. and subnet mask configuration. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology. default gateway.

217 . Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet Definition Specialized Solutions.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword POP3 Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 218 Specialized Solutions.

Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9. What is the purpose of DNS? 5. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3. 12. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. 10. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8. What is a domain? 7. What is an FQDN and give an example? 6. 219 . 4. Inc. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Specialized Solutions. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Review Questions Chapter 8 1.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 220 Specialized Solutions.

you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device. you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network. Inc. In addition. It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data. 221 .Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network. From the database and the software interface. The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator. Network Managers . the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network. Using one of these products.SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks. The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base). Specialized Solutions.

. therefore providing a level of security. Inc. It will respond to commands issued by the management software. This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager. Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager). The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents. The three commands are: Get: request data from the device. Get-next: request the next value in a sequence. An additional SNMP command is the trap. These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt. 222 Specialized Solutions. Set: sends a configuration value to a device. Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network. A community can also restrict access.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device.

223 . and normal (i). serious (!). This includes critical system errors. but did not cause a stop. Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports. Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table. NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. and TCP/IP events and errors. Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis. shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination. Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names. Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. Specialized Solutions. Inc. TRACERT. NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred). Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics. Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses. ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar. . clicking Run. 224 Specialized Solutions. and typing in either cmd or command. Inc.

For example. PING The lowest level test to find out if you have connectivity to a remote host. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same. NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain.1. NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host. and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot.168. and will display the current configuration of a computer. Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once. IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration. NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified. IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu. RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address. Ping works at the IP level. Inc.12. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device. the IP of a host might be 192. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain. Specialized Solutions. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter. NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address. 225 . Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 226 Specialized Solutions.

Inc.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 227 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition Specialized Solutions.

You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2. List as many as you can. 228 Specialized Solutions. . each device will need to be _________ compliant. Inc. 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 9 1. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network.

data encryption. Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change. the results can be devastating. A disgruntled employee. is right up front. Most users will also be able to access shared files. 229 . There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created). of dollars. the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network.Chapter 10 – Network Security Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of her particular network. unless safeguards are built in. As you might have already deduced. depending on the roles they play in your company. creating chaos and costing thousands. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems. you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent. Specialized Solutions. Password practices and procedures. can deliberately damage your network. Whether the sabotage is malicious. or an irresponsible prank. anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files. or anyone who has access to your network for that matter. before you set up the network. or at least have your plan intact. Inc. Users should be held accountable for the security of their individual workstations. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. motivated by curiosity. The best time to set up your network security. or even millions. Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user. Therefore. Very few users will have access to administrative features. A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords. Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company.

Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file. a gesture of respect for the user and the system. It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality. the user will be inclined to be less attentive to personal security. should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. In a manner similar to the signature on a document. Password protection is. The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. Inc. and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security. authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source. such as a template or another type of file. among other things. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model. . The user can edit the file as necessary. 230 Specialized Solutions. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. while the original file remains intact. A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process. passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users. Users can access a shared resource. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place. where the administrator can easily retrieve it. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. However.

Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Security Specialized Solutions. 231 . Inc.

Files need to be backed up daily. if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet. Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. by forwarding application traffic through the firewall. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. Inc. This needs to be handled in such a way that production will not be interrupted. 232 Specialized Solutions. For example. If you are accessing the Internet from your network. you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs. or auditing. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. at the very least. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network. or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. As the system administrator. . you would block port 80. and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. and even more often on larger networks. It is an important part of a network security plan. Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs. you will most likely be using E-mail. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information. Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter. Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. and work at the application level. they can be host-based.

you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data. Specialized Solutions. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk. called the backup medium. plan to fail. Ideally. it is still a viable option. so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security.Chapter 10 – Network Security It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers. how the backup information will be tested.44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. 233 . so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations. While planning your backup strategy. If anything happens to one. you must answer important questions about what to backup. There are several options available. Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. In addition. Floppy disk capacities today. Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. the second server should serve as a backup to the first. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. Remember. and are more commonly known as RAID. for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity. the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk. offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other. the other can take over without compromising network operations. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups. Inc. As a computer professional. and the procedure to follow for recovery. rather than one larger server. Although slower than RAID. those who fail to plan. range from 1. These multiple disks are called disk arrays. and how often backups will be performed. As you might guess. This backup medium is suitable for small companies. Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available.

as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. will backup all selected data on the network. Inc. Differential and Incremental. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups. as its name implies. . but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level. Differential. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. is called fault tolerance. Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations. both the last differential backup tape copy and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used. This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed. and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup. A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk. To restore.. despite the presence of hardware or software failures. the last full backup and all of the incremental backup tapes will be needed. This method will take the largest amount of storage media. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server. This type of backup is usually performed weekly. The Full backup. Full. This usually involves some degree of redundancy. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient. 234 Specialized Solutions. but will be the easiest to restore. When recovering from a failure.

support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing. With this method. If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up. administrators are alerted when one disk fails so that they can “regenerate” the RAID set before another disk has a chance to fail. so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping. however. The same data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure. Typically. (Provides no fault tolerance. However. and is a standard feature of RAID systems.Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 . is not being used commercially at the moment to an Specialized Solutions.Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 . This technique may be applied in either software or hardware. RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme. which provides for even more fault tolerance. This.Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 . this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent. if anything happens to one of the drives.” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data. this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful.Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. Inc.Chapter 10 – Network Security The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 . Several operating systems. 235 .) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk. including Novell NetWare. Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies. such as a single file. If more than one disk is lost. then the data in the entire array is also lost. a copy of the data is spread across all of the disks based on a mathematical formula such that any one disk in the set can be lost and the other disks will have a copy of all of the information that it contained.Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 .Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 . the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved.

It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN. and each type provides power for a different length of time. also called surge suppressors. since it is not dependent on another computer. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. Cost. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. Inc. A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. is like RAID-10. There are different types of UPS devices. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. RAID-53. it offers better performance. and sags in the power supply. which allows for better performance. RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array). but at a greater cost.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide large degree. In this case. RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power. Like RAID-10. are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes. such as battery time remaining. Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. . It functions faster. is an issue. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests. surges. but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI). These types of RAID are not as commonly used and are not as likely to be on the test. An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity. the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. as you might guess. 236 Specialized Solutions.

No one. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being applied. etc. Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others. personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them. Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed. This holds users accountable for their actions on the network. Inc. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. Some “classified” networks require password changes every day. and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas. and numbers. If the network administrator needs to use the workstation. an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days. include characters. So. In order for this policy to be effective. There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files. 237 . he or she will know how to accomplish the task. should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there. away. symbols. no matter who they are. Users working with sensitive information such as budgets.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network. Passwords should be changed more frequently in high-security networks. The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters and use a combination of letters. numbers and symbols. Specialized Solutions. and troubleshoot before the trouble starts.” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents. This is known as a security audit. but are easy enough that users can remember them. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy.

The name comes from their first initials. . can understand the message. This method uses a 56-bit private key. RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. 238 Specialized Solutions. and Leonard Adleman. the Internet is not the most secure of environments. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. other than the person for whom the message was intended. DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used. It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest. The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient. This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem. Inc. and is used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. Even with encryption. Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data. Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon. Adi Shamir.

software from unknown origins. it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed.Chapter 10 – Network Security Extra data appended to a message. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex. It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. It is similar to DES. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities. Symmetric Keys can also be used. which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). much less a day. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. and bulletin boards. it is not a completely secure encryption method. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability. The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. Specialized Solutions. The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key. Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters. There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run. Many viruses are simple annoyances. the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. files downloaded from the Internet. 239 . Viruses can be spread by various sources including: shareware. Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. but they are less secure. is called a digital signature. As the name implies. They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. which is used to encrypt data and to decrypt it.000 known viruses. will ensure a much quicker recovery. With this method of encryption both parties have the same key. Prevention should also be addressed in the plan. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. There are over 60. If the receiver wishes to respond. The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip. Inc. both on location and at backup sites.

they will go to work on the system. Hundreds of viruses are written each month. Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines. Make sure it is compatible with all of the operating systems that you use. there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market. These days. . Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. (prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk). Macro Virus: These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened. With this in mind. Use extreme caution when you download files. enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing a new operating system. many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site. Keep your anti-virus program updated. Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine. just from running a program. but when loaded. Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world. The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files). (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail). Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks. Inc. they mean that when you open a document you are running a program. 240 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs. It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document. If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes.

Inc. 241 .Chapter 10 – Network Security Specialized Solutions.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. . Inc. Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 242 Specialized Solutions.

What is the function of a firewall? 4. In a share level model.Chapter 10 – Network Security Review Questions Chapter 10 1. What are the three common levels of RAID? 6. 3. passwords are assigned to __________. 243 . The acronym RAID stands for __________. 5. Inc. What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Specialized Solutions.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 Specialized Solutions. .

This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. Specialized Solutions. If fact. Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned. test the result. a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. select the most probable cause.” is really just the symptom and not the true cause. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. while for others it is a struggle. a pen (or pencil). Remember. After all. “as reported. you must be organized. not when all is well.Conclusion Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. Inc. They always fail in the middle of a job. you are looking for the cause. For those who must endure the struggle. you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. but they often hold the keys to the problem. To make matters worse. implement a solution. identify the affected area. and good listening skills. Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. it seems well defined by the person who calls and complains! But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. 245 . troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. computers never fail at a convenient time. In order to do this. not the symptom. Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause. Remember. The eight parts are as follows: establish the symptoms. In most cases. Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). As a troubleshooter. Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software. The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper. if you are the expert. The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks. Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. The user of the computer or network is your best source of information. and progress with some specific tools that you can employ to simplify the process. It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier. establish what has changed. so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. you will most likely be called when there is a problem. What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems. or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now.

do not intimidate the user. it is important to observe how it is created.) Show me how to create the error. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works. Be sure to observe the failure yourself. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever. One thing that might 246 Specialized Solutions. and when. Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem. however. and so forth). The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work toward the more complex. Do not make the questions too technical. You may. If it is an operatorinduced problem. but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure. If possible. the process of elimination is all that you can do. Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones. This will take time and patience. The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that caused the failure. You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. network or computer moved. the failure occurs. and most importantly. . The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. For example. have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory. as well as the results. have someone demonstrate the failure to you. lights. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. recent software upgrade. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before. Sometimes.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of the failure. You will need to create your own list based on the situation. With a little experience. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation. or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred. Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure. Describe any changes in the computer (noise. screen changes. Inc. Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know. These never seem to occur when you are present.

Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems. but to call you. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. Document every action and its results. If for example. but you cannot receive any E-mail. it is important to follow it through. Inc. Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made. Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. then you know for sure that the network is physically working. Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. and move forward. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood. is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly. 247 . That way the “evidence” is not disturbed. For example. The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally. isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user Specialized Solutions. but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration. Do not make any assumptions. If you must make any assumptions. In the case of a network problem. write them down. create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. You may have to refer back to them later. make a plan and follow it. If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be).Conclusion help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. Starting from the top. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up. It requires two simple steps. Once a plan is created.

no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work). start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not. either repair or replace the defect. Implement the solution. This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how. Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures. It is important to use another operator. In these situations. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures. Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes. With hardware. as well as the one that is causing problems. However. if an operator is afraid of computers in general. Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems. the problem may be caused by the operator. 248 Specialized Solutions. you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. For example. repair or replacement is usually all that is needed. . To resolve these types of problems. In these cases. Inc. Note: If the problem is software-oriented. Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities. you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. if the problem is software or configuration related. and not the hardware or the system. it may require some additional effort. This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Once the search has been narrowed. you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem).

you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem. The basis for this policy is that once the system is running. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. and the repair. Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again.Conclusion Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user. there is no substitute for experience. Specialized Solutions. The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle. Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists. Inc. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms. maintain. You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience. 249 . or a follow up call just to make sure all is well. document the problem and the repair. In troubleshooting. the problem. and share experience. Document the solution Finally. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems. This is one way to build.

Inc. a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier. Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network. The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire. Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician. Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals. They secure the connection between the wires and the block. let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling. Punch Down Tool 250 Specialized Solutions. . Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack.

An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other. If the wire is broken. resistance. The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters. very easy to troubleshoot. These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted). The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe. If the test is negative (no light or noise). Network cabling is. the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. With it you can test various electronic components. These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. You can test for AC and DC voltage. A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up.Conclusion Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. For example. a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red). Some meters will let you test for current as well. Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. When working with network cabling. we will have to know how to test for continuity. Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. you can have only one of two problems. When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing. If your meter does not have a continuity setting. A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device. which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound. Specialized Solutions. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured. it is still possible to test for continuity. Inc. it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps). 251 . The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. in principle. as well as the electrical power in the computer. In a wire for example. the circuit is broken. and continuity. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. Since it is made up of wires. which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. We will start by looking at a multimeter. Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete. There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires.

it will emit a tone. The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky. this is not a problem. The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). testing for continuity will require an additional wire. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. . This applies a signal on the wires. The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator. Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. these tools are often called a fox and a hound. thus locating the wires. there are more often than not. Inc. if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building. You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end. 252 Specialized Solutions. When used together. called tone generators and tone locators.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician should have one. However. The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. to find pairs of wires in a bundle. several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel). and test at the other end. If both ends are in the same location. However.

Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable.Conclusion Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment. By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. They will monitor network traffic. These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire. Be careful when using a crossover cable. A loopback cable is just what the name implies. Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic. 253 . because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable. The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling. Software analyzers. Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters. It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. capture packets and generate reports. and therefore back to the network card. the location of any break or short can be determined. If you are able to send a signal and have it return. you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning. also called packet sniffers. are usually a PC with a special network card. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa). A crossover cable is similar to a loopback. It has the transmit and receive wires connected. Inc. Specialized Solutions. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions. but is double-ended.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR. but used for fiber optic cabling. . OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back. Inc. 254 Specialized Solutions.

the network. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors. due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck.Conclusion Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam. you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network. 255 . This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security. Inc. A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. It could be the processor. or a disk resource. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact. Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network. If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate. Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords. and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors. For some reason. You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so. but can be caused by a disconnected cable. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. the traffic is not moving. Therefore. Some passwords are case-sensitive.

If slow loading persists even after defragmenting. As networks grow. You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives. These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours. tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night. the network slows down. You must defragment the drive. so does the traffic. For example.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves. When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it. deletes. Inc. . and moves information. check for memory bottlenecks. Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 256 Specialized Solutions.

The loopback address is 127. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG. Inc. It also lets you know the time that it takes. TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on your intranet or on the Internet your packet is going. Specialized Solutions.Conclusion Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network. If you are using TCP/IP.0. you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu. These commands work from a command prompt. This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS. PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities. On a Windows 95/98 computer. 257 . Remember this address. On a Macintosh system. because as a network professional. PING. This will test the protocol stack in the computer.1.0. The first step is to PING the loopback address. you will use it often. but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card. and TRACERT commands to test the network.

your dialog box will look like the following. If you are using Windows. WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly. WINIPCFG. 258 Specialized Solutions.6. or 2003 system. XP.55. This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195. . 2000.48. Inc.

Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems. It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network.6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation. Inc. If at any stage. For the IPX/SPX networks. and so on. you receive a message like the following. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday.48. Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t. use the ipxping command.Conclusion PING 195. you have encountered a problem. they must be okay.55. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol. Usually this means you have the wrong IP address. PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer. 259 . With each step. then there is a problem with the protocol. you will be testing a larger portion of the network. the server. Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: Specialized Solutions.

One is the IP address number. To resolve this problem. How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause. Beyond that. have two names.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name. If there is a sudden change in performance. Inc. In general. you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup. If present. The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details. . (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). 260 Specialized Solutions. they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network. These are text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses.” With nslookup. suspect a loose or disconnected cable. respectively. they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. you can be sure that the network is not being detected. the first thing to do is find out what has changed. That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server). we need to look at four limiting factors on performance. Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. while green lights indicate that all is well. we learned that workstations. Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. If these files are being used. Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files. you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory. but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow. Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address. Earlier. or hosts. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector. If no lights are on. The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS.

is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). This means that for a small amount of time. Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. This can slow down data transfer. 261 . For example. The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now. To create a baseline. The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps). after you identify the problem. the more packets that can be moved). you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed. if you are experiencing slow printing. at a later date. you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. From this information. Resolving performance problems can be easy.Conclusion Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing. Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. everything slows down. and average time to print the document. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation. For example. The speed limit. The answer lies in creating a performance baseline. Then. you will know the high. it will affect the entire network. adding to the network load. are negligible. slow. This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. Latency delays. An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. Therefore. but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks. Latency Small delays in packet movement that are caused by devices is called latency. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. Inc. you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. or maximum speed that traffic can move. Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. but are interrelated. Just like our highway. for the most part. it can send data at a faster than rated speed. Specialized Solutions. You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request. if any one component is performing poorly. A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache. The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system. if the traffic gets too congested. Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays.

you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself. you will be able to monitor such events as processor time. Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. Windows Performance Monitor 262 Specialized Solutions. etc. available memory. Windows has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools. Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network. percent of network utilization. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events. To collect these statistics.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. With this tool. Inc. . With this activated. etc.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition Specialized Solutions. 263 . Inc.Conclusion KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

You need to know the IP address of a workstation. What tool would you need to find the short? 5. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4. and think it might be shorted.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1. Inc. After repairing a problem. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. . What is the loopback IP address? 7. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slowly. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Conclusion 264 Specialized Solutions. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6. You have located the cable in question #3. You have just connected a workstation to the network. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10.

When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range. be sure to review any areas that need improvement. and as often. After taking a practice exam. We love to hear from our students. the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course. 265 . our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. When you are ready to schedule your exam. as you like. at Specialized Solutions. Inc. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material.Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs. be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site. you are ready to sit for your certification exam. Specialized Solutions. To measure your retention of these materials. so if you have any questions. Remember. and don’t forget to use the Glossary.

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Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule. It is expressed in ohms. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. They are specified based on their impedance. Maximum of 4 repeaters. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Specialized Solutions. Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same.Appendix A – Tech Summary Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing coaxial Ethernet cabling. Only 3 segments can contain nodes. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. Inc. • • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series. 267 .

such as cable television. Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 10Base5 Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Bus 500 10 100 5 4 10Base2 Bus 185 10 30 5 4 3 268 Specialized Solutions. Military specification of RG-58 A/U. but also used for broadband transmissions. ArcNet networks. Inc. Length (meters) Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment Max Segments Max. Description Stranded wire core. Broadband transmission. . Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core. RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max.

Inc. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2.5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Voice-grade cable. 269 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Six twisted pairs. Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG. Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch. Two STP – 26 AWG wire. Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch. Not Defined Two 62. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). Two STP –26 AWG wire. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Data grade up to 100 Mbps.Appendix A – Tech Summary UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps. Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps. Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Contains a shield for use under carpets. Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Same as type 1. IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks. Specialized Solutions. Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch. Plenum grade. but adds voice capability along with data.

4 802.2 802.1 802.7 802. 802.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model.6 802. Inc.12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 270 Specialized Solutions.11 802.8 802.3 802.5 802.x Standard 802.10 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802. They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls. .9 802.

Inc. No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually Specialized Solutions. however. 271 . The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2. COM4 COM1.Appendix A – Tech Summary IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer. there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed. COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs.

The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F .LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 272 Specialized Solutions. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address. .LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F .

Inc.Appendix A – Tech Summary 3A0 to 3AF 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model Specialized Solutions. 273 .

Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001.0.x.0 255.x.x 128. x.097. x.0. .x Default Subnet Mask 255. Repeaters Computers Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address.534 254 274 Specialized Solutions.255.x.0 Number of Networks 126 16.255.0.x to 191.x.0 255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Gateways Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Brouter Bridges Switches NICs.x.x.152 Number of Host 16.x. Hubs.x.214 65.x.x to 126.384 2. Inc.777.255.x.x 192.x to 223.

PING ARP RARP Specialized Solutions. Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses).1) to test the IP architecture and configuration. the subnet address. and default gateway.0. Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the Linux user’s network interface configuration. Use the loopback address (127. it will return. Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks.0. Inc. Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address. If all is well.Appendix A – Tech Summary TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. the subnet mask. 275 . Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. Sends a test packet to a specified address.

all computers are connected in a series. In a star topology. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it. (Pronounced Trace Route. Used to verify the route to a remote host. Used to check the resolution of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses. Used to check the status of current IP connections. ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries.) Used to verify entries on a DNS server. NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology. Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents. 276 Specialized Solutions. . all computers are connected to a hub.

all computers are connected to each other. Specialized Solutions.Appendix A – Tech Summary In a ring topology. In a mesh topology. all computers are logically connected in a circle. Inc. 277 .

An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals. Can also be used for precise voltage measurements. Also called a network analyzer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages. Protocol Analyzer 278 Specialized Solutions. TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks. and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry. . Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. resistance. Inc.

Displays or prints a list of events. Inc. and networks. servers. routers. Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers. interface cards. and bridges). Used to provide information for network baselines. Event Viewer SNMP Specialized Solutions. 279 .Appendix A – Tech Summary Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations. hubs.

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microsoft. Inc.Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www.com Specialized Solutions.com Novell http://www.com Other Helpful Sites http://www. 281 .cnet.novell.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 282 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below). EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. let alone the networking industry. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards. Specialized Solutions. For additional information.Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector. it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set. search for these organizations on the Internet. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry. This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry. it is responsible for establishing standards for communication. This is a common code for basic characters and numbers. 283 . Inc. As its name implies. Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes. In the computing industry.

its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language. Inc. As long as both are SQL compliant.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards. the data can be smoothly transferred. Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused. This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another. See Appendix A for a summary of the 802. The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802. 284 Specialized Solutions.x committee. Inc. ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product. the IEEE is subdivided into committees. These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model. . Since they cover a wide variety of equipment. As you may guess from its name. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model.x sub-committees.

or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer. either by credit card. and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test.com for VUE.vue. please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number. Prices subject to change without notice. Date you wish to take the test. Specialized Solutions. Method of payment. 285 . When you call. To register via the Internet.com for Prometric or www. go to www. Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like.2test. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers.Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE. Payment must be made each time you take the test. Payment is made at the time of registration. credit card or voucher. Inc.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 286 Specialized Solutions. .

these three terms are often used interchangeably. Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. or computers on the network (nodes). usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). The highest layer of the OSI Model. program. The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies.Appendix E – Glossary Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. A continuously variable signal. or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. A dedicated server for applications. Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. it supplies functions to applications. Software. 287 . American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. Inc. or bits per second (bps). The file server on an AppleTalk network. opposite of digital. The Apple networking protocol. so they can communicate with other applications or nodes.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. such as IBM. British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. A form of mobile computing. GM. The signal flow is uni-directional. IP Address used by medium-sized networks. IP Address used by very large networks. A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems. . Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals). Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. such as Microsoft. Inc. or DEC. An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. Hardware that connects one network with another. Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address 288 Specialized Solutions. Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. these are all in use at the present time. A bus driver. A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC.

to allow other tasks to run. Inc. Same as a hub. A form of multitasking. from computer or network to another. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media.Appendix E – Glossary Client Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable User computer “being served” by another computer. 289 . Software used by the client. is a number derived from. or Cyclic redundancy Code. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. or language. using a specific protocol. at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level. Data that is encoded for security reasons. which is. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. stored. Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption Specialized Solutions. called a server. itself. The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor. The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable. Cyclic Redundancy Check.

this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data. such as an individual file. It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly. A limited form of bus mastering. When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks. This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . Inc. . It also receives acknowledgement frames. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk. Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency. (Simple “on” or “off” signal. so that one can take over for the other if it fails. in a round-robin fashion.) Being able to recover data from a disaster. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. Also called data striping. If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 290 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. for sending on the Physical layer. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one.A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients. DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. The Data Link layer splits data into frames. so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives.

File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network. An improved version of X.25 packet switching technology. A network’s central computer. with a very large amount of storage space for shared files. A group of bits containing address information. A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard. A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received. File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once. and other control information. A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits. error detection. sent over a communications channel.Appendix E – Glossary DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. Specialized Solutions. Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. 291 DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex . Inc. A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors.

star.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway A computer that acts as a translator. Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture. defined in STD 5. GSNW Half-Duplex Header HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address 292 Specialized Solutions. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. is usually represented in dotted decimal notation. It precedes the actual data. Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses. to communicate with each other. or ring topologies. using different protocols. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5. test packets. RFC 791. that enables two networks. and informational messages related to IP. HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol. but only one at a time. A network topology that combines bus. RFC 792. Inc. and other information. even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages. .

it’s “hardware address. Specialized Solutions. internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring. A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data. Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice.” Server used for E-mail. a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology. across a network connection. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver. Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer. 293 ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU . Inc. data. Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network. and video data sources. Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk.Appendix E – Glossary IPCONFIG IPsec IRQ DOS command that tells you the IP address for your computer. Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC. A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine.

A method of data transmission. protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources.400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS). Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X. a 32-bit bus. Single Frequency Radio. The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card 294 Specialized Solutions. among others. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. Much like your local radio station. Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS. Also known as a network interface card. Provides the physical connection to the network cable. A type of hub. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission. MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems. and is used by CompuServe.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide MCA Bus Micro Channel Architecture. One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. Performing multiple tasks simultaneously. introduced by IBM for its PS/2 computer line. . Inc. totally incompatible with the original PC bus.

Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model. An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network. A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network. depending on the protocol. Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet. A generic term used to describe a unit of data. Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network. A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources. 295 Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card . A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards. They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. Acts as a connection point only. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. Inc.Appendix E – Glossary Network Administrator Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network. A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. Specialized Solutions. including network connectivity.

and running on TCP/IP. converting character sets and encrypting data. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer. Defines a channel between a device and the processor. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model. other processes will still run. A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server.5 of Windows 3. The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time. The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Peer-to-Peer Performance Monitor All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server. this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking. Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer.1. which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. such as a printer or scanner. and even if a process takes full control. many third-party applications are available. Inc. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network. The space between the ceiling and the floor above. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning. Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 296 Specialized Solutions. A hardware device. used to circulate air through a building. Dedicated server for printing. depending upon the needs of the user. Although included as part of Windows NT. The Presentation layer formats data exchange.

e. the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. Connector used with UTP and STP network cables. 297 . A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network. In Token-Ring networks. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. For example. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN Specialized Solutions. The services or peripherals that are shared over the network. i. which then routes the signal appropriately. The signal is beamed towards a central unit.Appendix E – Glossary Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection. the proxy server. to be accessed via a modem. A device that forwards packets between networks. Inc. In a Ring topology. For example. Connector used with standard telephone wire. A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network. Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. Redirects a call from one port to another. including support for dialup and logon. Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors. Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. Used to increase cable distances in network environments. the devices are connected in a continuous loop.

A uni-directional data channel. until it reaches the receiver. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. Simple Network Management Protocol. is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP). ceilings. The Session layer handles such things as security authentication. as opposed to duplex. acknowledgments (ACK). as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. . normally used on Ethernet. A computer on a network that provides services to other computers. was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. RFC 1157. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol. Inc. defined in RFC 1055. A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another. Software that resides on a server. SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP 298 Specialized Solutions. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. usually over Ethernet. etc. the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15. connection establishment and release. Transmission rates are slower with this type. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use. Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. to be used over a serial link. data transfer.

or across large flat open areas. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters. Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. the official protocol of the Internet. measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5. 299 SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk . Using binary addition. Maximum segment length is 500 meters. Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol. such as bodies of water or deserts.Appendix E – Glossary SONET Spread-Spectrum Radio Synchronous Optical Network Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. The maximum speed that “traffic” can move. A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing. the entire network goes down. A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. The process of subdividing a network into logical units. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. Specialized Solutions. that uses a large diameter. An access method used in a Token Ring topology. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together.5 Standard) environment. Inc. so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms. If the hub fails.

When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport. A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments.” A receiver set to the frequency of the generator. Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments. it will emit a tone. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. The “hound. Inc. Tool for stripping and cutting wire Tone Locator TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 300 Specialized Solutions. defined in STD 6. this applies a signal on the wires. . Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer. thus locating the wires.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). User Datagram Protocol. and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information. A device that transmits and receives data.” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface. The “fox. RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol. is layered on top of IP. Used on transceivers. which. like TCP. Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding.

A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. using zones Zones Specialized Solutions. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks. such as Token Ring. Inc. resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address. 301 .Appendix E – Glossary WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 302 Specialized Solutions. .

A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. It is confined to a limited area. and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less). configure.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers. 7. applications. No security. 2. A WAN is not geographically limited. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Review Questions Chapter 1 1. Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security). Specialized Solutions. 4. data backups can be more easily and routinely performed. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet. Inc. Files are easily accessed by all users. like one office). 5. 3. loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations. such as data. What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. 303 . Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area. What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use. Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. LANs typically also have much faster communication speed than WANs. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server). and peripheral devices. Simple to install. What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources. 6.

Increased performance on large networks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 8. and Ring. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). More difficult to install and configure. 2. Some NOSs function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. Centralized administration. 304 Specialized Solutions. 9. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. Centralized location of resources (server). Star. and Demand Priority. Ease of data backups. They represent what the topology looks like. 10. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment. Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see. . Name the three basic topologies. 12. File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access. What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. Inc. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. The three basic topologies are: Bus. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. Can be expanded as network grows. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU. more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). Token Passing. 11. Review Questions Chapter 2 1.

9. 64 MB RAM. messaging. It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments. Specialized Solutions. 305 . 5. Organization of network resources such as users. servers. routing. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. Inc. name service. and file and print services. and volumes is also handled with NDS. redirecting them to the server. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. web-publishing. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. management. groups. 8. 7. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. Unlike NetWare. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security. 6. 550 MB of free hard drive space. Define interoperability. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. 4.

125 MB free hard drive space. Inc. Network. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. Review Questions Chapter 3 1. 16 MB RAM. 11. and Physical 3. What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server.1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network. Application.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 10. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 14. Session. . Transport. FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT. What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 15. Presentation. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU.What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. 12. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. 13. 2. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. Data Link. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 306 Specialized Solutions.

What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. 307 . 11. 13. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 4. and ending connections? The Session layer 12. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. Which OSI layer is responsible the MAC address? The Data Link layer 8. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. Presentation layer 7. Inc. Physical 10. It is a computer’s physical address. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer Specialized Solutions. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. This is not the actual application or program. Data Link layer 5. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? D3-B4-01 14. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer. managing. 9. Network Layer 6.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 15. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence, without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 16. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 17. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. 18. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802.2 19. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. They are incompatible with each other. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com, while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. 20. Describe protocol binding. In order to function, a protocol must be bound to the NIC. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 21. Which is faster, connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster, but connection-oriented communication is more reliable. 22. . Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. AppleTalk, DECnet, IPX/SPX, PPP, PPTP, SLIP, SMB, SNA, TCP/IP, UDP, X.25, XNS 23.. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Will this work? Why or Why not? 308

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol.

Review Questions Chapter 4

1. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. 5. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. 6. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above, which is used to circulate air in a building). Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned, which would end up being circulated throughout the building. 7. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 10. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs, which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. 11. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. However, it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. 13. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths, segment lengths of up to several miles, and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. 15. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. 16. Describe baseband. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. 17. Describe broadband. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable, making the signal flow unidirectional. 18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way, can receive but not send. For example, a pager. Half-duplex communication can send or receive, but not at the same time. For example, a CB radio. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. For example, the telephone. 310 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 19. What is the function of a network adapter card? Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network. (They make the physical connection to the network.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. 20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers, including network connectivity. 22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network, to backup a cable-based network, to provide a mobile network environment, for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly, outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform. 23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared, Laser, Radio, and Microwave 24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. 25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally; Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances.

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority Specialized Solutions, Inc. 311

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). Specialized Solutions, Inc. 313

21. while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise. 314 Specialized Solutions. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions. Inc. It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function. 19. They are also called hermaphrodite connectors. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data. Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. data collisions are avoided. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture.3 standard 15.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14. 20. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. It can be either depending upon how it is set up. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17. Describe a MIC connector. . The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist. IEEE 802. however. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? The IEEE 802. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. 18.5 standard 16. This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer.5 says it travels clockwise.

What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. Inc. 4. 5. Review Questions Chapter 6 1. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2. 25. It also provides a print server. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2. 3. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No. If no other computer is using the address. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. 24. etc. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it. Specialized Solutions. 315 .Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 22. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. 23. 2. it stores it to use each time it connects to the network. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers.

Review Questions Chapter 7 1. Inc.microsoft. 8. However. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. but not enough to run it efficiently. 9. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? Check the Windows Catalog on the web at www. Why should you refuse this offer? First. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS. but they are not all the same. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks. 2. you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network. having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 6. . What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths. It will be less costly to install CAT 6 now than to replace the CAT 5 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps to handle the higher traffic. he intends to expand the network in the future. An active hub requires some input power. Passive hubs are used only to make connections.com/windows/catalog. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. 316 Specialized Solutions. Also. 7. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP.

10. Security host. 4.A router has all the features of a bridge. 5. They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment. NetBEUI is not routable. PPP. Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model.544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking). Name three RAS protocols. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. Router . Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem. In older modems. Inc. Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. BAUD and bps were the same thing. BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. Gateway . and SONET 7. They do however. and a gateway. Specialized Solutions. Bridge . Callback Security. Define a repeater. A form of digital line that is capable of 1.A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature. Repeater . 8. and PPTP filtering. They do not translate or filter any information. Not all network protocols will work with a router. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. For example. PPTP and L2TP 9. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. Name four forms of RAS security. Name three advanced WAN environments. A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem. ISDN. a bridge. SLIP. 317 .Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. a router.A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment. Auditing. Frame Relay. What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network. amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables.

IP. 8. What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. and HTTP. Transport. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application. FTP. 5. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9. HTU UTH 6. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1.microsoft. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3. SNMP. Internet and Network Interface. 7. 3. Inc. 32 10. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. 4. What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses.com. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 318 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11) Specialized Solutions. SMTP. and ARP. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP. UDP. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names. ICMP. An example is http://www. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. 2.

TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network. 2. each device will need to be _________ compliant. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. ROUTE. Specialized Solutions. NBTSTAT. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status. U U U U 12. 319 . Inc. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment Review Questions Chapter 9 1. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. List as many as you can. NETSTAT and TRACERT. Event Viewer.

What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet. The acronym RAID stands for____________? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. . Resources 3. 2. 5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1. 4. Inc. In a share level model. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. passwords are assigned to __________. It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. What are the three most common levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 5 Striped array with parity 6. 320 Specialized Solutions. What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password.

The fox and hound. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows.0. What is the loopback IP address? 127. You have just connected a workstation to the network.1 7. After repairing a problem. WINIPCFG from the RUN command. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. and Repair the Problem. What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP. Isolate the Problem. 6.0. 4. and think it might be shorted. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. 321 . You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 11 1. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. You have located the cable in question #3. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. 5. Inc. 3. you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network. 2. 8. Specialized Solutions. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub.

10. Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted. . Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 322 Specialized Solutions. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slow.

111 D Data Link Layer. 91 domain. 79 AWG. 65 continuity. 61 C Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD. 79 backup utility. 108. 109 CSNW. 122 AppleTalk. 13 ARCNet. 34 DECnet. 114 10BaseFL. 91 Baseband. 50 application server. 230 Differential backup. 86 B backbone. 114 A access method. 67. 89 Direct Memory Access (DMA). 323 . 34 clients. 89 cloud. 226 Digital. 164 Class A. 78. 96 brouter. 41 CSU/DSU. 196 client software. 40. 114 10BaseT. 189 domain controller. Inc. 161 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC).Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Index 1 100BaseX. 226 Bandwidth. 186 Analog. 60 attributes. 81 Category 5. 123 ARP. 253 Banyan VINES. 196 Class B. 167 bridge. 109 DES (Data Encryption Standard). 86 Beaconing. 39 Circuit-switched. 42 active hubs. 24 Address Resolution Protocol. 21 Carriers. 121 Application Layer. 78 Boot Prom’s. 166 attenuation. 92 Boot Sector. 116 10Base2. 196 Class C. 191 BRI. 13 Clocking. 65 BNC. 86 Broadband Optical Telepoint. 217 ATM. 42 base memory address. 151 connection-oriented. 16. 160 Category 3. 39 AUI connector. 70 coaxial cable. 119 binding. 69. 116 100VG-AnyLAN. 98 Change. 52 Data Protection. 78. 60 Broadband. 114 10Base5. 67 demand priority. 108 Active Directory. 231 BOOTP. 38 Client Software. 243 CSMA/CD. 90 DLC. 70 DMA. 89 AppleShare. 40 Specialized Solutions. 77 Computer compatibility. 81 Cellular Networking.

39 IP. 243 Group policies. 39 Full-Duplex. 18 I I/O port number. 68. 112 HOSTS file. 21. 96 LAT. 68. 224 FPNW. 159 Gigabit Ethernet. 42 GSNW. 93 EMI. 197 IPX. 194 IPCONFIG.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Domain Name Service (DNS). 61 Gateways. 226 FDDI .. 42 Headers. Inc. 41 H Half-Duplex. 96 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 186 Incremental backup. 185 interoperability. 41 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). 157 hybrid topologies. 186 Internet Protocol (IP). 12 Laser. 187 hubs. 93 ISDN. 174 Line-of-Sight Infrared. 191 dynamic routers. 191 HTTP. 191 gateways. 62 Internet Control Message Protocol. 83 File Infectors. 91 ISA. 120 ICA. Inc. 96 Linux. 81 environment. (IEEE). 167 ISDN adapters. 167 FTP. 22 FAT. 70 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol. 86 firewall. 166 fiber-optic. 226 Infrared. 192 IFCONFIG. 187 Full backup. 174 ICMP. 83 IBM Type 3 UTP. 189 Domain Reflectometer (TDR).Fiber Distributed Data. 215 F Fast Ethernet. 86 headers. 91 IBM cabling. 114 EtherTalk. 245 DSMN. 71 ICS. 174 IPv6. 86 G gateway. 231 fire codes. 67 IRQ. 161 . 174 LAN. 144 Ethernet. 249 IPsec. 231 EISA. 187 HTTPS. 217. 60 E EES. 217 IMAP4. K Kerberos. 41 Frame Relay. 56 324 Specialized Solutions. 116 ground probe. 122 Event Viewer. 174 L L2TP. 226 Full Control. 39 fault tolerance. 185 IP address.

242 325 Specialized Solutions. 120 Microwave. 52 Network Neighborhood. 89 Network Layer. 21 Media Compatibility. 37 Network Adapter Cards. 215 NetWare. 114 LMHOSTS. 215 NCP. 18 LSL. 30 N NAT. 14 Peer-to-peer LANs. 172 PPTP. 120. 64 proxy server. 49 operating system. 36 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh. 31 Network standards. 49. 23 Passwords. 192 Punch Down Tool. 23 media access methods. 36 NetWare Client32 for OS/2. . 34 MAU. 171 NWLink. 93 PCMCIA. 36 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95. 191 LocalTalk. 36 NetBEUI. 93 PDC . 120 Multimeter. Inc. 217 PING. 30 PRI. 37 NetWare Print Services. 29 OS/2. 168 MSAU. 67 No Access. 232 Managing User Accounts. 190 NETSTAT. 217 NTFS. 37 MIB (Management Information Base).Multiple Access Units. 69 Network-attached storage (NAS). 167 protocol. 68 O ODI. 213 MIC (Media Interface Connectors). 164 Packet-Radio Networking. 29 NSLOOKUP. 151 Media Tester. 86 PPP. 18 MHS. 111 parallel communication. 249 plenum. 31 PGP. 243 multitasking. 64 Open Systems Interface (OSI). 71. 243 mesh topology. 67 NDIS. 191 NBTSTAT.Primary Domain Controller. 36 NetWare file server.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers LLC. 157 PCI. 39 NOS – Network Operating System. 37 NetWare security. 32 P Packet switching. 18 Ping. 231 physical topologies. 229 Patch Panel. 43 Macro Virus. 64 NDS (NetWare Directory Services). 122 logical topology. 71. 98 packets. 89 passive hub. 13 peer-to-peer. 70 NETBIOS. 67 M Macintosh. 69 NLSP. 41. 114 Network Time Protocol (NTP). 39 Null-Modem. 36 NetWare Client32 for DOS. 228 NFS. 157 MAUs . 96 MLID. 172 Preemptive multitasking. 67 modem. 107 protocols.

96 SDH. 253 TLS. 79 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 109 token ring. 68. 17 static routers. 81 Subnetting. 232 troubleshooting. 68. 69. 13 Server-based network. 11 SNMP. 67 SSL. 174 Standards. 69 terminator. 34 server-based network. 215. 86 SLIP. 80 V vampire taps. 159 routers. 225 removable optical disk. 237 trunk. 77 throughput. 68 326 Specialized Solutions. 227 RARP. 68 Satellite Station Networking. 34. 217 Read. 71. 230 S SAP. 187 Software analyzers. 228 STP. 51 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 96 relative humidity. 152 star topology. 17 RIP. 60. sneaker net. 16. 80 virtual connections. 215 router. 199 T tape backup. 60 Storage Area Network (SAN). 42 User Datagram Protocol (UDP). 167 SPX. 182 UNIX. 112 transceiver. 39 redirector. 171 removable disks. 80 U UDP. 158 requester. 184 Telnet. 33 servers. Inc. 249 Trailer. 16 serial communication. 16 twisted-pair.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide R Radio. 13 sharing applications. 71 RSA. 98 Scatter Infrared. 68 SMDS. 21. 118 topology. 68 Trojan Horses. 167 SMTP. 175 Security. 35 Reflective Infrared. 58 . 187 SNA. 35 ring topology. 89 Server room. 11 signal bounce. 69 ROUTE. 213 Simplex. 67. 144 Server Software. 144 Remote Access Server or RAS. 77 Thinnet. 167 security. 96 RAID. 16. 71. 79 thicknet. 221 segment. 65 RPC. 16 TRACERT. 120 SMB. 225 repeater. 79 Transport Layer. 172 SMAU. 225 TCP. 174 token passing. 245 SONET. 60. 185 UTP.

40 U U WINS. 70 Specialized Solutions. 154 Windows 95/98. 12 Warp Connect. 69. 92 workstation. 242 Wireless. 165 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks). 95 Wireless NICs. 13 X X. 19. 190 Wire Crimper. 231 VLAN. 327 . 32 Windows 2000. 230 W WAN. 31 Windows for Workgroups. 71 XNS.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Viruses. 124 wireless network. 166 XDR. Inc. 31 Windows NT Print Servers.25.

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