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Network Plus 2005

Network Plus 2005

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Sections

  • About Specialized Solutions
  • Introduction
  • CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+
  • Study Plan Strategies
  • Your Video Instructor
  • How to Take the Test
  • Who may take the test?
  • How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success
  • About This Course
  • Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals
  • Introduction to Networking
  • Benefits of Networking Computers
  • Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN)
  • The Client/Server Relationship
  • Client/Server Networking
  • Peer-to-Peer Networking
  • Basic Network Structure (Topology)
  • Star Topology
  • Ring Topology
  • Special Topologies
  • esh Topology
  • Hybrid Topologies
  • Wireless Topology
  • Network Access
  • Token Passing
  • Ethernet
  • Fast Ethernet
  • Passive Hubs
  • Hubs and Concentrators
  • Active Hubs
  • Active Hub
  • Hub-Based Networks
  • Summary
  • KEYWORDS Exercise
  • Review Questions - Chapter 1
  • Chapter 2 - Network Operating Syst
  • What is an Operating System?
  • hat is a Network Operating System (NOS)?
  • Server/Client Software
  • NOS Packages
  • Novell NetWare
  • Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System
  • UNIX Operating Systems
  • Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service)
  • Summar
  • eview Questions
  • Seven Layers of the OSI Model
  • Application Layer
  • Presentation Layer
  • Session Layer
  • Transport Layer
  • Data Link Layer
  • Network Layer
  • Logical Link Control (LLC)
  • Media Access Control (MAC)
  • Physical Layer
  • Communication Between Peer Layers
  • Protocol Stacks
  • OSI and the Real World
  • Devices and the OSI Model
  • Repeaters
  • Routers
  • Bridges
  • Brouters
  • Gateways
  • IEEE 802 Standards
  • etwork Drivers and the OSI Model
  • NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)
  • ODI (Open Data Link Interface)
  • Protocol Binding
  • Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless
  • Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols
  • AppleTalk
  • DECnet
  • IPX/ SPX
  • SMB (Server Message Block)
  • SNA (Systems Network Architecture)
  • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
  • IP (Internet Protocol)
  • UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
  • FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
  • Telnet
  • NFS (Network File System)
  • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
  • RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
  • NTP (Network Time Protocol)
  • OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
  • ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
  • XNS (Xerox Network System)
  • Non-Routable Protocols
  • DLC (Data Link Control)
  • LAT (Local Area Transport)
  • X.25
  • NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)
  • Other Protocols
  • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
  • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
  • XDR (External Data Representation)
  • PC (Remote Procedure Call)
  • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)
  • Review Questions – Chapter 3
  • Chapter 4 - Hardware Media and Peripherals
  • Network Cabling
  • Coaxial Connectors
  • Twisted-Pair Cable
  • Fiber-Optic Cable
  • IBM Cabling
  • Summary of Cabling
  • Cabling Terms
  • Bandwidth
  • Selecting Cables
  • Signals and Clocking
  • Preparing the Data
  • Network Addressing/MAC Address
  • Configurable Options
  • DMA (Direct Memory Channel)
  • Controlling the Data Flow
  • Wireless NICs
  • Fiber-Optic NICs
  • Data Bus Architecture
  • Standard Bus Types
  • Laptops
  • Network Performance
  • Wireless Networks
  • Why Wireless?
  • • Satellite Station Networking
  • Satellite Station Networking
  • Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Stand
  • Access Methods
  • CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance)
  • Demand Priority
  • Network Communications (Frames and Packets)
  • Packet Structure
  • Packet Components
  • Network Standards
  • Logical Link Control (802.2)
  • ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)
  • Review Questions Chapter 5
  • Chapter 6 – Network Design
  • Starting a Network Proj
  • The Customer
  • The Network Goals
  • etermine Network Type
  • When to Choose Peer-to-Peer
  • When to Choose Client/Server
  • Making the Choice
  • Public and Private networks
  • Design the Network
  • Media Selection
  • NOS Selection
  • Protocol Selection
  • Environmental Concerns
  • Putting it all together
  • Cable to Computer
  • Cable to Hub
  • Network Adapter Cards
  • Adapter Card Compatibility
  • Media Compatibility
  • Computer Compatibility
  • Preventing Compatibility P
  • Standards
  • Resolving Compatibility Problems
  • Minimum Requirements
  • HCL and Windows 2000
  • Chapter 7 - Expanding a Network
  • Expanding a LAN with Hubs
  • When a LAN is Too Small
  • Repeater
  • Router
  • Gateway
  • Connection Services
  • Carriers
  • WAN Overview
  • Circuit-switched Network
  • VLAN
  • Advanced WAN Environments
  • Modems
  • Remote Access Computing (R
  • Connecting Two Computers
  • RAS Protocols
  • Installing and Configuring RAS
  • Troubleshooting a RAS setup
  • Limitations of RAS
  • YWORDS Exercise
  • Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials
  • Introduction to TCP/IP
  • RFC (Request For Comments)
  • TCP/IP Protocols
  • The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols
  • her TCP/IP Protocols
  • Naming Systems
  • WINS
  • NETBIOS
  • BOOT
  • HOSTS file
  • LMHOSTS file
  • IP Gateway
  • CP/IP Addressing
  • IPv4
  • Class A Addresses
  • Class B Addresses
  • Class D and Class E Addresses
  • IPv6 (IP Next Generation)
  • Subnetting
  • How to Subdivide a Network
  • TCP/IP Configuration Concept
  • Review Questions Chapter 8
  • Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities
  • Network Managers - SNMP
  • Management Software
  • Agent Software
  • Communities
  • Validation Tools
  • Event Viewer
  • ROUTE
  • NETSTAT
  • TRACERT
  • NBTSTAT
  • IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG
  • TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
  • RARP
  • PING
  • NSLOOKUP
  • Review Questions Chapter 9
  • User and Share Level
  • Share-level Security
  • Firewalls
  • Security Techniques
  • Firewall
  • Blocking Port Numbers
  • Backing up Data
  • Backup Options
  • Backup Software
  • Full, Differential, and Incremental Backups
  • Volumes
  • Fault Tolerance and RAID
  • Fault Tolerance and Power
  • Password Practices and Procedures
  • Encryption
  • Disaster Recovery
  • Viruses
  • Review Questions Chapter 10
  • Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Ne
  • Basic Troubleshooting
  • Networking and Troubleshooting Tools
  • Hardware Troubleshooting Tools
  • aintaining and Troubleshooting Networks
  • Troubleshooting Scenarios
  • Cable Problems
  • IC Indicator Lights
  • Performance
  • Conclusion
  • Appendix A – Tech Summary
  • -4-3 Rule
  • Coaxial Cable Types
  • Ethernet Cabling
  • UTP Cable Categories
  • IBM Cable Types (Token Ring)
  • IEEE 802.x Standards
  • IRQ Assignments
  • Subnet Masking
  • TCP/IP Ports
  • TCP/IP Utilities
  • Topology Review
  • Troubleshooting Tools
  • Appendix B – Useful Web Sites
  • Microsoft:
  • Novell
  • Other Helpful Sites
  • Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations
  • CCITT
  • IEEE
  • Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam
  • To Register for the Network+ Exams
  • Appendix E – Glossary
  • Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers
  • Review Questions Chapter 1
  • Review Questions Chapter 2
  • Review Questions Chapter 3
  • Review Questions Chapter 4
  • Review Questions Chapter 6
  • Review Questions Chapter 7
  • Review Questions Chapter 11
  • Index

Network+ 2005 Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network+

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Copyright© 2004 by Specialized Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 338 East Tarpon Street, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. Publisher: Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Contributing Writers: Bill Ferguson Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Editor: Bill Ferguson

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Suggestions/Comments Please forward all comments or suggestions to: Specialized Solutions, Inc. 338 East Tarpon St. Tarpon Springs, FL 34689

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... I

ABOUT SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS ...........................................................IX
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+ .............................................................2005 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ..................................................................................................9 YOUR VIDEO INSTRUCTOR .................................................................................................9 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST ..................................................................................................10 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................10 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................10 ABOUT THIS COURSE .......................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS ..................................................17 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING ....................................................................................17 Benefits of Networking Computers .............................................................................17 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) .................................18 The Client/Server Relationship ...................................................................................19 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................19 Peer-to-Peer Networking ............................................................................................20 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).....................................................................21 Bus Topology ..............................................................................................................21 Star Topology..............................................................................................................22 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................22 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES ......................................................................................................23 Hybrid Topologies ......................................................................................................23 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................23 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................24 NETWORK ACCESS ...........................................................................................................26 Token Passing .............................................................................................................26 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................26 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................27 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS ...........................................................................................28 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................28 Active Hubs .................................................................................................................29 Hub-Based Networks ..................................................................................................29 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................30 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................31 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1 ....................................................................................33 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS) ....................................35 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? ..................................................................................35 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking .............................................................36 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)? ........................................................37 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................37 Server/Client Software ................................................................................................39 NOS PACKAGES...............................................................................................................42 Specialized Solutions, Inc. i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Novell NetWare .......................................................................................................... 42 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System................................................... 45 Windows NT Minimum Requirements ...........................Error! Bookmark not defined. UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................ 47 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service)................................................ 48 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 50 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................. 51 REVIEW QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................ 52 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS.......... 55 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION ..................................................... 55 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL ................................................................................ 56 Application Layer ....................................................................................................... 56 Presentation Layer ..................................................................................................... 57 Session Layer.............................................................................................................. 57 Transport Layer.......................................................................................................... 57 Network Layer ............................................................................................................ 58 Data Link Layer.......................................................................................................... 58 Logical Link Control (LLC) ....................................................................................... 59 Media Access Control (MAC) .................................................................................... 59 Physical Layer............................................................................................................ 60 PROTOCOL STACKS ......................................................................................................... 62 Communication Between Peer Layers ....................................................................... 62 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD ............................................................................................ 64 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL ....................................................................................... 66 Repeaters .................................................................................................................... 66 Bridges........................................................................................................................ 66 Routers........................................................................................................................ 66 Brouters ...................................................................................................................... 67 Gateways .................................................................................................................... 67 IEEE 802 STANDARDS .................................................................................................... 68 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL ...................................................................... 70 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)......................................................... 70 ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ................................................................................ 70 PROTOCOLS AND OSI ...................................................................................................... 70 Protocol Binding ........................................................................................................ 71 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless ................................................................... 71 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols ........................................................................ 71 Networking Protocols and Stacks............................................................................... 72 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................... 73 DECnet ....................................................................................................................... 73 IPX/ SPX..................................................................................................................... 73 SMB (Server Message Block) ..................................................................................... 74 SNA (Systems Network Architecture) ......................................................................... 74 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ....................................................................... 74 IP (Internet Protocol)................................................................................................. 74 UDP (User Datagram Protocol)................................................................................ 74 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) ..................................................................................... 74 ii Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Table of Contents Telnet...........................................................................................................................75 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................75 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................75 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................75 NTP (Network Time Protocol) ....................................................................................75 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) ...............................................................................75 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................75 X.25 .............................................................................................................................76 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................76 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................76 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................76 LAT (Local Area Transport) .......................................................................................76 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................77 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................78 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................78 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) ...................................................................................78 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) ................................................................78 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) ........................................................78 ISO/OSI Standard .......................................................................................................78 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ...............................................................78 DNS (Domain Name System) ......................................................................................78 XDR (External Data Representation) .........................................................................78 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................78 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................80 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................81 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................82 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................85 NETWORK CABLING .........................................................................................................85 Coaxial Cable .............................................................................................................85 Coaxial Connectors ....................................................................................................86 Twisted-Pair Cable .....................................................................................................88 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................91 Summary of Cabling ...................................................................................................93 CABLING TERMS ..............................................................................................................94 AWG (American Wire Gauge) ....................................................................................94 Bandwidth ...................................................................................................................94 Plenum Grade Cabling ...............................................................................................94 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................95 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)..............................................................................97 Preparing the Data .....................................................................................................97 Signals and Clocking ..................................................................................................97 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel) .................................................................................98 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................98 Configurable Options..................................................................................................98 Wireless NICs............................................................................................................100 Specialized Solutions, Inc. iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Fiber-Optic NICs...................................................................................................... 100 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................ 101 Standard Bus Types .................................................................................................. 101 Laptops ..................................................................................................................... 101 NETWORK PERFORMANCE ............................................................................................. 102 WIRELESS NETWORKS ................................................................................................... 103 Why Wireless? .......................................................................................................... 103 Wireless Transmission Methods............................................................................... 104 Radio Transmission.................................................................................................. 105 Satellite Station Networking..................................................................................... 106 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 108 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 109 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.................................................................................... 112 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS .................................. 115 ACCESS METHODS......................................................................................................... 116 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) .................... 116 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) ................... 117 Token Passing........................................................................................................... 117 Demand Priority....................................................................................................... 117 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS) ............................................... 119 Packet Structure ....................................................................................................... 119 Packet Components .................................................................................................. 120 NETWORK STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 122 Logical Link Control (802.2).................................................................................... 122 Ethernet (802.3)........................................................................................................ 122 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................. 129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)................................................... 131 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 133 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 134 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.................................................................................... 136 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.......................................................................... 139 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT ................................................................................... 139 The Customer ........................................................................................................... 139 The Network Goals................................................................................................... 140 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE ......................................................................................... 142 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer.................................................................................. 142 When to Choose Client/Server ................................................................................. 143 Making the Choice.................................................................................................... 144 Public and Private networks .................................................................................... 144 DESIGN THE NETWORK.................................................................................................. 150 Media Selection ........................................................................................................ 151 Environmental Concerns.......................................................................................... 152 NOS Selection........................................................................................................... 152 Protocol Selection .................................................................................................... 152 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER ............................................................................................ 154 Cable to Computer ................................................................................................... 154 iv Specialized Solutions, Inc.

............................................192 Other TCP/IP Protocols ...................................................................................172 VLAN...............................................197 DNS ......................................................................................168 Carriers..............167 CONNECTION SERVICES ............................................................................Table of Contents Cable to Hub .............................................................................................................................................161 Minimum Requirements ..............................................................................................................157 Media Compatibility ....................................174 MODEMS ............................................................................................................................................186 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS .........176 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS) .....................197 Specialized Solutions.........................................................172 Packet Switching Networks..............................................165 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS...............................................................................................................................................................................EXPANDING A NETWORK ...................................................................182 Troubleshooting a RAS setup...........................................................................170 Circuit-switched Networks.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................159 PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ...........................173 Advanced WAN Environments .................................................................................179 Installing and Configuring RAS............................................166 Bridges ................................183 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ..........................................................................................................................................................................165 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL ........................154 Network Adapter Cards ...............................................................................168 WAN Overview.............................................................................................................................................................................................................192 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols .........................................................................................................................................................................................178 Connecting Two Computers..................................160 Standards .......................160 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ..........................................................................................159 Computer Compatibility..................................................................................................................178 RAS Protocols ...................................................157 Adapter Card Compatibility ...............................................................................................................................................189 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................161 HCL and Windows 2000 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................189 RFC (Request For Comments)...........................................................................................................................................................................167 Gateway ........................155 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY ..........182 Limitations of RAS .....................................................................................................184 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 ....... v ...........................189 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP.....................................................................................................................166 Routers ...............................194 NAMING SYSTEMS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................164 CHAPTER 7 ..169 Digital Connectivity ....................................162 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 ..160 Hard Work .......................................................................................166 Repeaters.......................................................................................... Inc.................169 Analog Connectivity.......................................

................................................... 225 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 202 IPv4 ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 225 NSLOOKUP........................................................................................................................... 222 Communities................................................ 227 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9......... 199 DHCP ................... 199 BOOTP .............................................. 203 Class B Addresses .................................................... 225 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 202 IP Addresses ..................................................................................................................... .................................................... 198 NETBIOS ..................................................................... 223 NBTSTAT ......... 229 USER AND SHARE LEVEL ........... 223 ROUTE............................................................................................................................................................ 203 Class D and Class E Addresses...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Inc......................................................................................................................................................... 199 IP Gateway ...Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS...................... 200 ICS ................ 199 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES ................................... 200 NAT................ 217 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8...................................... 225 ARP .. 225 IFCONFIG................................................................................................................................................................. 225 PING........................ 203 Class C Addresses ...................................................................................... 223 NETSTAT ........................................ 219 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES............................... 209 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS ............................................................... 225 RARP..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 200 IP Proxy Servers....................................................................................... 200 TCP/IP ADDRESSING.............................................. 223 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ................................................ 229 vi Specialized Solutions...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................SNMP ........................................ 203 Class A Addresses ....................... 205 SUBNETTING ......................................................................................................... 223 TRACERT................................................................................................................................................... 199 LMHOSTS file .................................................................................. 203 IPv6 (IP Next Generation) ............................................................................................... 221 Management Software.................................................................. 221 NETWORK MANAGERS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 207 How to Subdivide a Network ............................................................ 198 HOSTS file.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 228 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY . 215 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 222 EVENT VIEWER ............................................................................................................................ 221 Agent Software .................................................................................................................................................. 222 VALIDATION TOOLS ...................................................................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................263 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11 .....................236 PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES ........233 Backup Software ......................................243 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK ....274 TCP/IP PORTS ....................................................................275 Specialized Solutions..................................................234 Fault Tolerance and Power ..............................267 5-4-3 RULE .....................260 Name Resolution ..............................................................................232 Backup Options............................................................................................................250 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools.................245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .......................269 IEEE 802..................................................................................................................................................251 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS .............................................................................................................................................229 Share-level Security ......................264 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................239 Viruses................................................................................................270 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS .....................242 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10 ...................................................X STANDARDS........................................................................................ Differential........257 Cable Problems...................................250 Hardware Networking Tools........................275 TCP/IP UTILITIES ......................................................................260 Performance...................234 Fault Tolerance and RAID..............................................................267 ETHERNET CABLING ................................................................................................. vii ..............................................................................................237 Encryption..........................................................................................................................................232 Blocking Port Numbers.......................................... Inc...................................................268 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES ..........................................................................................................................232 Backing up Data .................................................................................................255 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS ..............................................................................264 CONCLUSION ...........................................................232 Firewalls ...................................................................................................................269 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING) ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................245 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING..................................................................................................................................................234 Volumes..........................................................................273 SUBNET MASKING ........239 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .......................................................................................................Table of Contents User-level Security..................234 Full..........................267 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES ..................................................................................................................................................................................... and Incremental Backups .....................................230 SECURITY TECHNIQUES ....271 OSI MODEL .................................................................................................................................................................................257 Misbehaving Protocols ...........................................................................................................................................................260 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ..................................................................................................................................................................259 NIC Indicator Lights ...................................................................................................................................238 Disaster Recovery .......................................................

................................................................... 281 MICROSOFT: ....... 306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4................................................................................... 284 ISO................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TOPOLOGY REVIEW ............................ 311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 283 ANSI.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 320 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11................ 281 NOVELL ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Inc.............................................................................................. 281 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS ................................................. OTHER HELPFUL SITES ......................................................................................... 283 EIA .............................. ....................................................... 284 SAG ............................................................................................... 281 COMPUSERVE ............................................................ 309 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5..................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2........ 276 TRANSMISSION MEDIA ..................................................................................................................................... 321 INDEX ............ 278 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ........................... 316 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 283 IEEE ............................................................................................................. 284 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM.............................. 323 viii Specialized Solutions.... 278 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES ............................................................................................................ 287 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS .................................................................................... 285 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS ......................................................... 319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10...................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED............................................... 304 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3....................................... 315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7................................................................ 285 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY.......................................... 318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9............................................... 283 CCITT .......................

Inc. ix .’s Network+ training and certification course. Inc. To see other Specialized Solutions. We thank you for choosing our company as your resource for Information Technology SelfStudy Training. cost-effective programs that are customized to suit your needs. Our highly skilled staff of computer and educational professionals are dedicated to delivering high quality.com Specialized Solutions. course offerings.specializedsolutions. We will always provide a quality product to customers at a price that is within reach of most computer professionals. We are committed to always be on the leading edge of new computer environment training products. is dedicated to providing the computer professional the highest level of self-study training and certification materials the industry has to offer. We strive to provide training programs that far exceed the expectations of our customers.About Specialized Solutions About Specialized Solutions Welcome to Specialized Solutions. please visit us at: www. Specialized Solutions. Inc. One hundred percent customer satisfaction and unmatched customer service is always our commitment to the computer professional. Inc.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide x Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

at Specialized Solutions. We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! Specialized Solutions.Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives. We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program. our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. as a stand-alone textbook. easy to follow format. Remember. and Digital Video Studio Professionals. Inc. Inc. Network+ video training series. 1 . or as a textbook in a classroom environment. Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals. Technical Writers. It can be used in conjunction with the Specialized Solutions. Computer Graphics Experts. We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical. Technical Editors.

0 Network Implementation 4. .” “This examination includes blueprint weighting.0 Media & Topologies 2.” The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1. Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination. test objectives and example content.0 Network Support Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 25% 35% 100% 2 Specialized Solutions. Inc.0 Protocols & Standards 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey. The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content.

and cable type) of the following cable standards: • 10BASE-T and 10BASE-FL • 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX • 1000BASE-T.6 Identify the purposes. length.3 Specify the characteristics (For example: speed.0 .1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a diagram. and 6 • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) • STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) • Coaxial cable • SMF (Single Mode Fiber) optic cable • MMF (Multimode Fiber) optic cable 1.2 Specify the main features of 802. including: • Speed • Access method (CSMA / CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) and CSMA / CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection)) • Topology • Media 1.Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: Domain 1. 5. 10 GBASE-LR and 10 GBASE-ER 1.5 (token ring). features and functions of the following network components: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • Gateways • CSU / DSU (Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit) Specialized Solutions.3 (Ethernet).Media and Topologies – 20% 1.11 (wireless). schematic or description: • Star • Bus • Mesh • Ring 1.5 Recognize the following media types and describe their uses: • Category 3. 802. 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX • 10 GBASE-SR.2 (Logical Link Control). 1000BASE-CX. 5e. topology. 3 . 802. and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) networking technologies. 802.4 Recognize the following media connectors and describe their uses: • RJ-11 (Registered Jack) • RJ-45 (Registered Jack) • F-Type • ST (Straight Tip) • SC (Subscriber Connector or Standard Connector) • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) • Fiber LC (Local Connector) • MT-RJ (Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack) • USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1. Inc.

IPv6) and the required setting for connections across the Internet. 2.11x (Direct sequence spread spectrum) • Infrared • Bluetooth 1.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • NICs (Network Interface Card) • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) adapters • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) • Modems • Transceivers (media converters) • Firewalls 1. function and use of the following protocols used in the TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) suite: • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) 4 Specialized Solutions.7 Identify the purpose of subnetting.6 Identify classful IP (Internet Protocol) ranges and their subnet masks (For example: Class A. 2. addressing schemes.0 – Protocols and Standards – 20% 2.8 Identify factors which affect the range and speed of wireless service (For example: interference.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model and their functions.11 (Frequency hopping spread spectrum) • 802. transmission type and topology) of the following wireless technologies: • 802. Inc. 2.8 Identify the differences between private and public network addressing schemes.7 Specify the general characteristics (For example: carrier speed. Domain 2.10 Define the purpose. interoperability and naming conventions: • IPX / SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange / Sequence Packet Exchange) • NetBEUI (Network Basic Input / Output System Extended User Interface) • AppleTalk / AppleTalk over IP (Internet Protocol) • TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) 2. B and C). frequency.5 Identify the components and structure of IP (Internet Protocol) addresses (IPv4. .4 Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing. 2. 2. 2. antenna type and environmental factors).9 Identify and differentiate between the following IP (Internet Protocol) addressing methods: • Static • Dynamic • Self-assigned (APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing)) 2.3 Identify the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) layers at which the following network components operate: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • NICs (Network Interface Card) • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) 2.1 Identify a MAC (Media Access Control) address and its parts.

5 . NAT (Network Address Translation).Introduction • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) • POP3 / IMAP4 (Post Office Protocol version 3 / Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • Telnet • SSH (Secure Shell) • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) • ARP / RARP (Address Resolution Protocol / Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) • NTP (Network Time Protocol) • NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) • IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) • LPR (Line Printer Remote) 2. NFS (Network File System). 2.25 2.13 Identify the purpose of network services and protocols (For example: DNS (Domain Name Service).14 Identify the basic characteristics (For example: speed. SMB (Server Message Block). LPD (Line Printer Daemon) and Samba). ICS (Internet Connection Sharing). AFP (Apple File Protocol). capacity and media) of the following WAN (Wide Area Networks) technologies: • Packet switching • Circuit switching • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) • T1 (T Carrier level 1) / E1 / J1 • T3 (T Carrier level 3) / E3 / J3 • OCx (Optical Carrier) • X. Inc. WINS (Windows Internet Name Service). Zeroconf (Zero configuration).12 Identify the well-known ports associated with the following commonly used services and protocols: • 20 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 21 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 22 SSH (Secure Shell) • 23 Telnet • 25 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • 53 DNS (Domain Name Service) • 69 TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • 80 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • 110 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) • 119 NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • 123 NTP (Network Time Protocol) • 143 IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • 443 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) 2.15 Identify the basic characteristics of the following internet access technologies: • xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) • Broadband Cable (Cable modem) • POTS / PSTN (Plain Old Telephone Service / Public Switched Telephone Network) • Satellite • Wireless Specialized Solutions.11 Define the function of TCP / UDP (Transmission Control Protocol / User Datagram Protocol) ports. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). 2.

1x 2. 3. 3. interoperability. 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2.5 Identify the purpose. and physical connectivity.17 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function: • IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Continued on the next page… Continued from the previous page… • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) • 802. 6 Specialized Solutions. Domain 3. MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol).8 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks). Inc.4 Given a remote connectivity scenario comprised of a protocol. PAP (Password Authentication Protocol). .1 Identify the basic capabilities (For example: client support.18 Identify authentication protocols (For example: CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). 3. configure the connection. media tester / certifier. authentication and encryption). network protocols and peer and server services). authentication. determine the impact on network functionality of a particular security implementation (For example: port blocking / filtering. RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service).7 Given a connectivity scenario.0 Network Implementation – 25% 3. an authentication scheme. benefits and characteristics of using a firewall.2 Identify the basic capabilities needed for client workstations to connect to and use network resources (For example: media. file and print services. 3. punch down tool or tone generator).16 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services: • RAS (Remote Access Service) • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) • PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) • VPN (Virtual Private Network) • RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) 2. benefits and characteristics of using a proxy service.3 Identify the appropriate tool for a given wiring task (For example: wire crimper. 3. Kerberos and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)).9 Identify the main characteristics and purpose of extranets and intranets. application support and security) of the following server operating systems to access network resources: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3.6 Identify the purpose. Includes connection to the following servers: • UNIX / Linux / MAC OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3.

warm and cold sites Domain 4. Specialized Solutions.1). DNS (Domain Name Service) and WINS (Windows Internet Name Service)) for network resources and users. 4.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario. adding or removing network services (For example: DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).6 Given a scenario.4 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a client accessing remote network services. 4. protocol configuration.7 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology (For example: bus. star. identify the cause of a stated problem: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 4. identify the network area affected and the cause of the stated failure. interference.2 Given output from a network diagnostic utility (For example: those utilities listed in objective 4. authentication failure.8 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving an infrastructure (For example: wired or wireless) problem.Introduction 3. 3. identify the utility and interpret the output.0 Network Support – 35% 4. physical connectivity and SOHO (Small Office / Home Office) router).11 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance: • Power • Link redundancy • Storage • Services 3. 4.10 Identify the purpose. determine the impact of modifying. 4. select the appropriate network utility from the following: • Tracert / traceroute • ping • arp • netstat • nbtstat • ipconfig / ifconfig • winipcfg • nslookup / dig 4. benefits and characteristics of using antivirus software. 7 . identify the cause of the problem (For example: file services. Inc.3 Given a network scenario. mesh or ring) and including a network diagram. print services. 4.12 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery: • Backup / restore • Offsite storage • Hot and cold spares • Hot. interpret visual indicators (For example: link LEDs (Light Emitting Diode) and collision LEDs (Light Emitting Diode)) to determine the nature of a stated problem. identify the cause of a stated problem (For example: bad media.5 Given a troubleshooting scenario between a client and the following server environments. network hardware or environment).

select an appropriate course of action based on a logical troubleshooting strategy.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. Inc. Identify the symptoms and potential causes 2. Document the solution and process 8 Specialized Solutions. Establish what has changed 4. Implement an action plan and solution including potential effects 6. Select the most probable cause 5. Identify the affected area 3.9 Given a network problem scenario. . Test the result 7. This strategy can include the following steps: 1. Identify the results and effects of the solution 8.

Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge. Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding. teaching classes for most of the national training companies and some regional training companies. MCDST. Practice the function on your computer. Bill now runs his own company as an independent contractor in Birmingham. Inc. Bill has written the “MCDST Study Guide” for Sybex Inc. and Security+.Introduction Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not extremely complicated. To get the best results from your training. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary. Use the “Help” button where available.” Specialized Solutions. He is certified as an MCT. as well as “Designing Security for Windows Server 2003 Network” for Exam Cram2. Alabama. MCSA. Bill says. and CCNA. MCP+I. Server+. In addition. “My job is to understand the material so well that I can make it easier for my students to learn than it was for me to learn. 9 . results oriented computer specialist who has extensive knowledge of Microsoft networks. CCSI. Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand. Hands-on experience is best. Bill is an enthusiastic. Bill has been in the computer industry for over 15 years. Bill made his transition to Certified Technical Trainer in 1997 with ExecuTrain. Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. use a study plan. Originally in technical sales and sales management with Sprint. Network+. it may seem so. Your Video Instructor Your video instructor is Bill Ferguson. MCSE. However. not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented. if this is your first exposure to networking. such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. In addition he holds the CompTIA certifications of A+.

but A+ certification is not required. How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam. You can take the test at any Virtual University Enterprises testing center (vue. You can locate a testing center and schedule the test on the web. • • • How do you learn best (reading. 1999. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find. watching. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive. This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. except payment of the test fee. The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry. Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English. Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book.com) or any Thomson Prometric testing center (2test.com). hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 10 Specialized Solutions. A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge. There are no specific requirements. Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test. there is no one method that will work for everyone. . The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. German. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills. CONGRATULATIONS. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. French and Japanese. YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Schedule the test for a few weeks from now so that you will have a guidepost that is constantly reminding you that you need to study the material. Since most of us learn in different ways. You may be surprised at how near you are to a testing center! Evaluate your learning aptitudes. You can also call VUE at 877-551-7587 or Thomson Prometric at 888-8956116. Inc.

Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). Based on your time to learn (and your schedule). set aside the time to learn. Make an appointment with yourself. Re-read the test and review the video presentation. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. At this time. Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read. Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises. You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through. 11 . Review the video presentation one more time if necessary.Introduction Make a plan to learn. Inc. you want to begin to understand. If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course. This workbook will make this task much easier. It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point. Use the rewind button as often as necessary. Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. Specialized Solutions. • Complete the course a second time. just get a feel for it. If you need to. You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time. Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time. What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through. go though the entire course again.

including one photo ID. it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature. Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam. Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam As you prepare for your certification exam it will be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure. (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam. If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams. You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in. The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test. You will be asked to sign the form. Inc. You will be required to show two forms of identification. . which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test. Evaluate the questions you missed. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted. It is a closed book exam. • • • • 12 Specialized Solutions. All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam.

The course contains five instructor led CD-ROMs. Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. If you don’t know the answer. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. answer the question. skip it. Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers. At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered. Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! About This Course This Specialized Solutions Network+ course is a multi-media.Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials. but be sure to read it in its entirety. a Network+ Training & Test Preparation Guide and a practice exam simulator. you can see which questions are not answered. marked or skipped. If the administrator does not do this. you are given the ability to skip a question. Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system. (You don’t need to send them the score report. If you positively don’t know the answer. You will have plenty of time as long as you use it wisely. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you. guess. 13 . Inc. you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score. It lists your score by objective. (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. Usually. Do not read too much into the question. (such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test. put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam. Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions. which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass.) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. Before retaking the exam. mark it and come back to it. You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. self-study training system.Introduction HINT . mark a question or answer a question. Specialized Solutions. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides. or if you are unclear about what you should do. Keep track of the time and pace yourself. If you’re not quite sure. ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam. Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam. If you know the answer.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Video Chapters Include: CD 1: Introduction and Overview Network Topologies Network Technologies Cable Standards Media Connectors CD 2: Media Types Network Components Wireless Technologies Protocols and Standards The OSI Model IP Addressing CD 3: Ports Services WAN Internet Access Remote Access Security Protocols CD 4: Server Operating Systems Client Connectivity Tools for Networking Firewalls Proxy Service Network Connectivity Virtual Local Area Networks Antivirus Software Fault Tolerance Disaster Recovery CD 5: Troubleshooting Network Utilities Troubleshooting Network Services Troubleshooting Topologies Troubleshooting Strategy Preparation for a Certification Test 14 Specialized Solutions.

15 . It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course.Introduction This study guide is divided into 11 chapters. Specialized Solutions. Inc.

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Additionally. Through networking. peripherals. It is very important that.) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking. you understand exactly what a network is. files. After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment. Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage.” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service. It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than to purchase a printer for every user. Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking. This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment. But for our purposes. A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented.” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do. 17 . Inc. and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net. Specialized Solutions. a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files. An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?). You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN. as a networking professional. a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data. Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need. and applications (resources). Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources. users can access programs. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents.

The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits. Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information. Inc. When LANs are connected they create a WAN. 18 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function. A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network. or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. Also. The Internet is the world’s largest WAN. . the speed of communication between the computers is typically much faster in a LAN. A WAN can connect networks from building to building or across the world. it is still considered a LAN.

that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals There is actually a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). network security. it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. but they are not common. when the user is getting information from the server. it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer. The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation. 19 . one for applications (application server). A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or county. also known as clients. including applications. These terms are not interchangeable. configuration and management may be more challenging. Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. and expandability. A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. The Internet has replaced most MANs today. Also. Users. or a mail server (E-mail). A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. A large network may have more than one server. Inc. A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network. one for printing (print server). and is a client. log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. A mainframe will handle all the functions. Specialized Solutions. efficiency in backing up the data. there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client). The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. The advantages of this type of network are central administration. if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access. Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. that access would cause the workstation to become a server. For example. including hard disk space and RAM. However. It is important to know what a MAN is. Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity.

A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install. and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e. network security is unreliable. Inc. Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network. All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user. This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved. .g. The computers are simply cabled together.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers. A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security. In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal. Also. a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand. Peer-to-Peer Network 20 Specialized Solutions.

the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce. design. scheme. However. you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network. In a Bus network. a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together. To stop signal bounce. Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. or segment. how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). or topology. The Bus topology is a passive topology. or diagram. if the cable breaks. they do not move the transmissions along. The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used. Devices only listen for data being transmitted. backbone. map. are all determined by the topology used. This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. and even how the cabling is run through a building. An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. future growth needs. 21 . The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable. connectors. it prevents other devices from sending data.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. This cable is called a trunk. the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other. As a network professional. also called Network Adapter Cards). Inc. NICs. The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other. refers to its physical layout. (Network Interface Cards. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address). If not prevented. and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. While the signal is bouncing back and forth. Specialized Solutions. Different topologies have different cabling requirements. There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal.

It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Star Topology In a Star topology. 22 Specialized Solutions. however. The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network. the entire network will go down. Star Topology Ring Topology In a Ring topology. but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down. . A disadvantage is that if one computer fails. There are no ends to terminate. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable. Inc. The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. the rest of the network will still continue to function. all devices are connected to a central point called a hub. The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network. If the hub fails. it can affect the entire network.

For example. Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies. Inc. Specialized Solutions. Token Ring networks are physical stars and logical rings. These are the methods in which a network is actually wired. 23 . Before you can understand some of these special topologies. However. Also.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals With IBM Token Ring networks. is how the network actually works. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations. you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology. we have been discussing physical topologies. These are known as Hybrid topologies. but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. the ring is actually in a special type of hub called a Multistation Access Unit (MSAU). It consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. This gives us a physical star topology. You will be able to see a physical topology. they operate between the hubs like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus. Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies. So far. Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. some Ethernet networks today are wired using a using multiple hubs. In these networks. A logical topology. on the other hand. a computer can fail and not prevent the network from functioning.

Since each computer has its own connection to the wireless access point (WAP).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points. The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter 4 of this book. the topology of a wireless network is that of an “invisible star”. 24 Specialized Solutions. Inc. . .

Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Specialized Solutions. 25 . Inc.

The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message. Inc. they are called Token Ring and Ethernet. and the message is delivered. This is based on the media or wiring of the network. . Multiple Access means that more than one computer 26 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected. Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages. The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices. only one device at a time can communicate on the network. Since there is only one token.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. we create kind of a “party line”. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods. The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network. We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards. With several devices connected to one media. It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token. Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit.

Inc. Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original. 27 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals can be connected to the same cable. Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks. Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted). Specialized Solutions. Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps.

Inc. Just remember. With a Token Ring. . Essentially.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks. they are all the same. Hubs can be classified as either passive or active. hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function. The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified. Today. Passive hubs do not require any electrical power to function. Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only. not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network. Passive Hub – Patch Panel 28 Specialized Solutions. they are called MSAUs (Multiple Station Access Units). since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network.

4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs. This type type of hub requires electrical power to function. They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected. Specialized Solutions. 3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated. 29 . Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs. 2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available. An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. Inc.

A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks. Topology is a term we use to describe the logical shape of the connection of computers in a network. The three main types of topology are bus. and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN. and ring. . Inc. go back and review the chapter again. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. star. It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources. 30 Specialized Solutions. The two types of networks are LANs and WANs. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network. A WAN is not geographically limited and typically has greater speed of communication than a WAN.

31 . Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition Specialized Solutions.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 32 Specialized Solutions.

10. What is the main reason for networking computers? 3. Specialized Solutions. 7. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6. 9. Name the three basic topologies. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12.Chapter 1 1. What are the key differences between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2. 8. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Review Questions . 5. What is a “sneaker net”? 4. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. 11. Name two media access methods. Inc. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. 33 .

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Most of today’s client and server operating systems have a built-in network operating system.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 . Inc. but without an operating system. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment. we are referencing the built-in network operating system component. if you don’t have the software to run it. word-processing. and database programs). What is an Operating System? Not that long ago. Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment. The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other. most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions. it will just sit there. We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities.Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking. spreadsheet. The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e. network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system. processor time.g. Today. as well as the operating system. 35 . what we are really talking about are network operating systems. When we refer to the operating system in this chapter. Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe. and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). Hardware resources such as RAM. This chapter is all about the various operating systems with which a networking professional needs to be familiar. When we are talking about operating systems. Specialized Solutions. hard disk space. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well. You can get it all set up and turn on the power. it is just a pile of metal and plastic. In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems.

the processor is never taken away from a task. In non-preemptive multitasking. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor. 36 Specialized Solutions. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. put simply. Preemptive multitasking began with Windows 95 and the Intel Pentium processor. Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed. means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs. . A true multitasking (multi-processing) operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors. It is used on all of the latest operating systems.

Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs. to communicate with other computers over a network. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network. 37 . all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network. Novell NetWare. All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood. moving photos to the Web. Windows 95/98 Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems that include a network operating system. turning on the computer and answering questions. It is well-suited for editing home movies. or a similar program. Inc. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. Instead. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems. Microsoft Client. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices. and you have a working network. It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system. Their new graphical interface and networking capabilities make them a vast improvement over their predecessors. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. Specialized Solutions. Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. and archiving music. such as BSD UNIX. Windows 95/98 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card. They use an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. Then.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration.

which allows for safety when installing additional software or making changes to the computer’s configuration. multilingual support. It allows for faster user switching. like ME. EFS (Encrypting File System). It. It features file protection. Inc. peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT. is equipped to be networked easily. . Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across in real life but are unlikely to be on the test: 38 Specialized Solutions. remote OS installation. a simplified visual design. It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies. driver certification.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server. It also uses System Restore. Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is the newest edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users. like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here. IPsec and Kerberos support.

39 . However.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. Inc. Inc. the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability. Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (uses resources locally). Specialized Solutions. In a Serverbased network. This can also provide accessibility and security for all devices on a network. Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network. the computers act as both a client and a server. it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment.

Unlike most client software. Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. Inc. out onto the network. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task. This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location. the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. and to the server. However. They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. The component that handles these requests is called the redirector. Data Protection As we already discussed. the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed. Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords. At the very least. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus. Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server. Some networks even cluster server so that more that one server can share a database of information. Server Software As their name implies. Servers exist to serve. most of the data is stored on the server. This 40 Specialized Solutions. if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. .

or if they need to be redirected to the server. The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server. Basically. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs. It does not need to know anything about networks. etc. If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server. it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests. which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer. to resources. If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus. called drive designators. It does this by assigning drive letters. Inc. This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) provides for load balancing of the server resources as well as fault tolerance if one server were to fail. Specialized Solutions. 41 .

routing. login security provides authentication and verification of user name. it was the most popular server operating system. shared.11 is called IntranetWare. Trustee rights regulate which directories and files a user can access. It is Novell’s push to gain market share and is a way of creating an Intranet. . Version 4. but it is losing market share to Microsoft servers every year. which is a Windows-based utility. non-shareable. and volumes is also handled with NDS. which is a DOS-based utility. and account restrictions. NetWare File Services The NetWare file server hard drive may be mapped to a client and the client machine will recognize the drive as a logical drive and be able to access it as it would any other drive in the computer. NetWare is based upon the industry standard X500 directory architecture. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. deleted. In the past. In this section. as well as what kind of access they have. Novell NetWare The NetWare operating system has been around for a long time. First. With NDS’ single point logon. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. or changed. It may be installed in either the client or server format.EXE. or Pentium machines. Inc. Version 6. It is a reliable operating system that provides performance and security. groups. NetWare Directory Services (NDS) NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. 42 Specialized Solutions. • NetWare’s popularity is due largely to its ability to provide services across multioperating system environments. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. copied. name service. NetWare is administered through NetADMIN. management. but there will always be data in any network to which access must be restricted. messaging.11 operate on 386. servers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use. Directory and file attributes are used to set the types of access for a file or directory such as viewed. or through NWADMIN. password. 486.2) was designed to operate on 286 machines. which is like the Internet but within a network or company. NetWare provides more than adequate network security by using a combination of approaches.12 and 4. The earliest version (2. and file and print services.5 is now on the market. we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. Versions 3. a user may logon from anywhere on the network and gain access with all of their assigned rights and privileges intact. web-publishing. NetWare Security The purpose of a network may be to share resources. time. Organization of network resources such as users.

Printers may be attached to the server. next to the print server. The file server and the print server can be the same computer. and finally to the printer. It is compatible with E-mail programs such as Novell’s GroupWise and Microsoft Mail. 43 . You can even send messages to everyone in a group. NetWare also provides a method of using simple commands to send messages to other users on the network. You can send messages to individuals or to groups very easily. NetWare Minimum Requirements The following are the minimum installation requirements as specified by Novell for installing their server software: Specialized Solutions.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Print Services NetWare Print Services can support up to 256 printers. a workstation. Print requests are first routed to the file server. as well as others. NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS) MHS may be installed on any server and configured to be a network wide E-mail system. Inc. except an individual workstation. or directly to the network.

Inc.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 5: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Pentium Class or higher 64 MB 550 MB 386 or higher 16 MB 105 MB 386 or higher 6 MB 30 MB 286 or higher 2.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for Macintosh OS Specialized Solutions.1 or later (Standard or Extended Edition) and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 OS/2 2. .5 MB 20 MB Client Software The client software may be installed on any computer running any of the following: • • • • • 44 DOS 3.1 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS MS Windows 3.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 4.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS OS/2 1.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Version 2.11 or OS/2 Warp and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 Macintosh 6.

Files in Windows may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network. offer even more advantages and stronger security than their predecessors. but Windows NT contains services such as NWLink and Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW) that allow them to work together effectively. The advanced security features of Windows are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT . The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of Windows security features. another security method must be utilized. NetWare is extremely efficient at operating with other systems. Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version. With this method. This type is performed by each workstation or server publicly sharing a directory on the network. Windows File Services Like NetWare. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories. Full Control.File Allocation Table) during installation. 45 . Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software). Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems. Change. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. The newest of these server operating systems. Today. You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows network. The attributes such as Read. the Windows servers may be configured to store each workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups. Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of Microsoft’s server/workstation technology. This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Interoperability As the word implies. Inc. Specialized Solutions. The NT Kernel. Windows combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. As we’ve already discussed. Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management. Problems do occur when trying to operate within the Windows NT domain. or No Access may be set on the directory. and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier. Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. interoperability simply means the ability of an operating system to operate with other systems. its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows Servers. you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data. but it does have several advantages. In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows . Unlike NetWare. which as at the base of all Microsoft’s servers. The NetWare client can be installed with almost any other operating system. actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2).

and user rights. especially with the latest Windows Server 2003 family. and resources with a shared security database. 46 Specialized Solutions. (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource. Windows Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in a Windows network. permissions. you are given the option to share it to the network. Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service. Workstation Service is the redirector service. Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene. more than one printer can be installed to any machine. computers.) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer. Microsoft uses domains to control access and authenticate users and computers. Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions). Remember. A domain controller is a server that maintains and manages all accounts. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer. Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers. Even if you are installing a local printer. . At least one domain controller is assigned to each domain. Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in the domain. A domain is simply a group of users. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network. Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible.. This trend continued with the latest Windows server operating systems (Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003.. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. The following is a list of services included with Windows Server software to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between Microsoft and NetWare. Server Service provides access to network resources.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows Server Security Security was a major concern in the development of Windows Servers. Windows Network Services There are many services available in Windows to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user. Inc.

It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network. which govern what users can see and do on the network. Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to Windows. Installing GSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. It provides all of the advantages of Windows 2000 Server. Windows Server 2003 offers a more secure Web Server (IIS 6.0) than the previous version in Windows 2000 (IIS 5. when using Windows Server 2003 you typically must remove or configure security boundaries in order to get the server to. In fact. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases. UNIX is a Specialized Solutions. In addition. FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access Microsoft file and print services. Windows Server 2003 is the first Windows server that was built primarily with security in mind. It allows Novell NDS computers to be managed just as Microsoft domain controllers. Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be. used as such. it has more “locked down” security templates that make it less likely that users will try to go around the security. Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 is the latest in the line of Microsoft server operating systems. Installing CSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. Previous Microsoft server operating systems were built to serve and then had security features to protect them.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an Microsoft domain and the NetWare server. It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives. This is necessary because all Microsoft client workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point. 47 . It can be installed on the Microsoft client to allow it to connect the Netware server directly. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System. Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory.. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional.well serve. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the Microsoft service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server.. Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. but it adds many features that are designed exclusively for security. In contrast. Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to Microsoft’s domain controller. This software is not included with Netware but can be purchased separately. and is. Inc.0). DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators.

and messaging services. multi-user. TCP/IP. It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows. to convert the UNIX host into a file server. Software is available. OS/2. StreetTalk provides directory. Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. it was an extremely popular network operating system. 48 Specialized Solutions. in fact the software is available for a free download. but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. security. UNIX is a multi-tasking. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources. general-purpose operating system. Linux is open source. A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide bulky operating system. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. . and many other features associated with an OS. VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments. as well as file and printer sharing. UNIX. The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system. Inc. Because of its open source nature. as well as others. however. Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system. Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX. A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. These terminals are not stand-alone computers. At its inception. The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. which means that it can be changed by a software programmer. Like Novell NetWare. At one time. It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms. many variations of Linux have been created over the years such as Caldera and Red Hat. VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top.

both at home and on the go. they developed what later became known as the mouse and the first GUI display. but users also use them personally. and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC. Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production. 49 . In conjunction with Xerox. The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction with the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book). Specialized Solutions.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984. Inc.

an application is unaware that it is working from a network. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. 50 Specialized Solutions. The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly. the client computers rely on the server for their resources. A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare). such as Novell NetWare and Windows server operating systems. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems. In a server-based network. (UNIX. and at least be familiar with others. the most popular network operating systems also function as the network operating system.). Study through the chapter again if you need to. The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security. The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely). Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic. centralization of administration.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer. etc. Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems. Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. . There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system. Today. Banyan VINES. and data backups. the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network). In a peer-to-peer network. With the redirector. Inc. Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today.

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS)

KEYWORDS Exercise
Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition

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Review Questions
1. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system?

2.

What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking?

3.

What is the purpose of the redirector?

4.

NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments.

5.

What is NDS?

6.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5?

7.

Define interoperability.

8.

Unlike NetWare, Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one.

9.

What is NTFS?

10.

What is a domain?

11.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server?

52

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Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) 12. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.

13.

What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system?

14.

What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984?

15.

What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system?

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Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards

Chapter 3- The OSI Model and Communication Standards
In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, what it is and its primary function. You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles each function, and which devices function at each layer. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam.

The Seven Layers of Network Communication
The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. As a result, some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other, and how they will communicate if they are using different languages. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit; when not to transmit; and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected; how the data will flow (at what speed); and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications.

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The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you should notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers, depending upon their functions.

Seven Layers of the OSI Model
The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network. These services include file, print, and messaging services. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer. The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. This is not the actual application or program, simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail, transfer files across the network, or access a

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This layer is responsible for establishing. The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging.) character set conversion. half-duplex. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer. As its name implies. These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. bit ordering. It provides a logical connection between the two devices. For example. The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them. protocol conversion. 57 . they will be combined. Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. In short. managing. and when. and error free. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. and data encryption. add any addressing information and error correction information. Sessions may be established using simplex. and ending connections. The network redirector operates at this layer. If Specialized Solutions. Inc. without duplication. it will break the data into packets. The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards network database. Each connection is called a session. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local. or full-duplex communication. etc. it presents data to the application layer. or receive. This layer is also responsible for data compression. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh. if the packets are too small. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network. The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer. and prepare it for its journey. and un-packaging the data for transport. interpreting graphics commands. Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure.

all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly. the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets. When the data is received. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination. Should an error occur. When you are using a connectionless protocol. checked for errors. segmentation information and routing information. This controls network congestion. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide they are too large. Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. Once the data is reassembled.) It also includes control information such as frame type. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. UDP is a connectionless protocol. 58 Specialized Solutions. Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side. Routers and NICs function on this layer. For example.518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. It receives a packet from the Network layer and packages it into what is called a frame. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. When you are using a connection-oriented protocol. error free manner. they will be broken into smaller packets. This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link. Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. Connectionless protocols are faster. however. delivery of packets is not guaranteed. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols. the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission. stripped of its addressing information. . it will be un-packed. In an ideal world. Inc. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. it will retransmit after a specified amount of time. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses. This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks.

Token Passing. It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link. Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel. Inc. it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. the data is sent out on the wire to all computers.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards In addition. (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host). 59 . If it is. such as SDLC. TCP/IP is somewhat “self healing”. The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame. The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. In a broadcast network such as Ethernet. It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards. It identifies a line protocol. The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer. it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium. MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized. They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers. The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). In this way. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers. and Demand Priority. Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers. it will automatically resend the packet. then it discards the data. When the sending computer does not receive and acknowledgement. If it is not. This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not.2 standard defines how this takes place. The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions. The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address. NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements. it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer. If the calculation does not check out. The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame. the destination computer will not send an acknowledgement. The following is an example of a MAC address: Specialized Solutions. Although quite rare. The IEEE 802. The way that a network shares the channel is called its carrier access method.

It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets. The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames. Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model. The last 3 bytes (35FD-AB) are the Device ID that is unique to the associated Vendor ID. Point-topoint communication is the process of one device communicating with one other device .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 00-00-13-35-FD-AB The first 3 bytes (00-00-13) identify the manufacturer of the card. . It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer. Multipoint communication is the process of one device communicating with multiple devices on a network. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses. It identifies the NIC. Inc. Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer. visit www. Switches. hubs and transceivers. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer. all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model. The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer. and determines when and how data may be transmitted.ch/. For example. it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals. 60 Specialized Solutions. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium. Repeaters. data work at the Data Link layer of the OSI model.iso. an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable. Point to point communication is often used between switches and routers on a network. and what each one will do. synchronizes the data. Note: For more information on the OSI Model.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. 61 . Inc.

These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task. each layer reads and performs the tasks specified in its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer. each layer is also responsible for adding or removing headers so that the data is ready to be interpreted by the next layer. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer. and provides services to the layer directly above it. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. In addition to reading the headers and performing the instructions. the process of moving through the layers is reversed. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. over the network medium. The Physical layer does not add a header. (Remember. When the destination computer receives the data. You are communicating directly with the Application layer. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted by you and the request is considered processed. The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions. Inc. 62 Specialized Solutions. This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. As the packet travels up through the layers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task. . in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers. the Application layer is not the actual application.) The request is in the form of a packet. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer. or suite. Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture. This is called a protocol stack. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack. In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. Headers contain instructions for tasks that need to be performed at that level. For example: You send a request for services to the server. The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers. The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers. but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Signals or Bits or Data Stream into Frames Frames into Packets Frames or Datagrams into Segments Segments into data Data Data Data into Data Files or Messages Specialized Solutions. Because of this. Inc. they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers. 63 .

you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. By relating various protocols to the OSI model. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model. The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 64 Specialized Solutions. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program. Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers. In fact. Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer. This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model. we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. the OSI Model is not a protocol. as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol. Also. Inc. . you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed. it would not match. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections.

Without them we would not have as many software or hardware packages available to us. etc. 65 . you do need to remember the different layers and the tasks for which each layer is responsible. it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work. These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments. Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task. The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer. Inc. because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers. This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate. The specifications describe how components are supposed to function. Specialized Solutions.

They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination. routers. Data Link layer and the Network layer. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT 66 Specialized Solutions. This weakening is known as attenuation. As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself. Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols. you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer. These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change. Routers are responsible for using logical addresses to move packets from one network to another and deliver them to a host. A repeater amplifies these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs. . as well as where in the OSI model they operate. It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs. Repeaters. etc. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. bridges. The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices. Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model. are going to be used when they write a program. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network.

The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate. Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers. If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols or even different technologies. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. 67 . Router tables can be entered manually by a network administrator or they can be dynamically updated using routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Each router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it. However. which can be used to connect an IBM mainframe computer to a Microsoft network. the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing. It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router. Specialized Solutions. if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI. A popular example is an SNA Gateway. Inc. but usually in the Application layer).

standards. (IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs. a little surfing might be in order.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards.8 802. This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started. 68 Specialized Solutions. Inc.4 802.ieee. visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www. but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible.12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN.6 802.10 802. These standards were prepared before the OSI standards.1 802.3 802.7 802.2 802.11 802. and if you would like more information on them.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. . The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802. 100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards.5 802. February 1980).9 802. Inc.

69 . Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions.

and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. Network 70 Specialized Solutions. The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC. the NIC also needs a device driver to function. which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver. Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers. The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. and hence. It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. the network. This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another). However. which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols. This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. . ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks. Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp. NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another. This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC. Inc.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network. For example. You have no confirmation (unless he calls you back) that he received the message. Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable. Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable. If that fails. Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model. the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. and in full. Specialized Solutions. In today’s LANs however. It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function. 71 . This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver.) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. Connection-Oriented vs. it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol. It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. Connectionless communication is faster. Routable vs. but connection-oriented is more reliable. if TCP/IP is bound first. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. In a connectionless scenario. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. In connection-oriented communication. Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received. They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. There is no guarantee that the message was delivered. This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions. Inc. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on his answering machine. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent. it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected using a router. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. In a connectionless communication. Protocol Binding In order to function. Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party.

you should be familiar with these protocol stacks and you should know the OSI layer in which their components function. 72 Specialized Solutions. Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks. As a networking professional.25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet). Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X. It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable.

NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. It uses the MAC address and is non-routable. This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – Provides Application layer services for Macintosh.) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol. regardless of speed. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination. and handles file and print services. (If data must cross a router SPX is used. This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment. At the Presentation Specialized Solutions. AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – Manages file sharing at the Application layer AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – Provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer. NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer. In addition to hop count. It has been modified over the years and now contains the following components: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – Provides transmission of packets across a network. DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack. IPX/ SPX This protocol is the proprietary protocol that was developed by Novell for Netware servers and clients. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces. It resides in the Network layer. It is a routable protocol. this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. It resides in the Network layer. LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers. 73 • • • • • • . Inc.

It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with. while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections. . At the Transport layer it handles sequencing. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network. We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. It is also layered on IP like TCP. SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems. Novell Netware 5. Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent. APPC supports Transport and Session layer services. No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed. flow control.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide layer it handles data translation. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols. TCP and IP. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead. The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking). At the Session layer it establishes and controls sessions. • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server. Inc. SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP. It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol. FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system. and connection-oriented error control services. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network.1 and later installs TCP/IP by default. • Many companies use Netware with the TCP/IP protocol stack. 74 Specialized Solutions. so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary.

It resides in the Network layer. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP is responsible for resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Specialized Solutions. RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function. The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond to the broadcast by sending its MAC address. It is an Application layer protocol. then TFTP would be advisable over FTP. NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system. it will broadcast on the local subnet to determine the MAC address of the computer with the associated IP address. Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. ARP will first check its table and if a matching address is not found. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. If you do not need to use passwords. It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources. Telnet can also be used for remote configuration of servers and network devices such as routers and switches. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server. this is also a Network layer protocol. making it connectionless. ARP keeps a table of corresponding IP and MAC addresses that have been resolved in the previous 10 minutes. instead of only the number of hops. without regard to speed. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP. OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP. It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability. ARP will add the information to its table for future use. Inc. but in reverse. but in addition. 75 . It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond.

It is a DEC protocol used for interactive. packets are re-examined to determine whether they are damaged. Instead. it is out of the administrator’s control. . At each stop. Data is routed via the best connection at a given time. This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use. XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs. the X. only printing functions.25 a very slow but very reliable protocol. This means that routes change as conditions change. This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits.25 X. X. but in between. LAT (Local Area Transport) LAT does not have a Network layer. It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer. The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide X. Because of this.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced). This protocol is not used for data communication. asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN. This is the host on an X.25 is also an equipment specification. It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers.25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud. 76 Specialized Solutions. making X. which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet. This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions. This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. In addition. X. Data goes in and comes out.25 network. which is the main reason that it is non-routable. it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable. The second part of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment). It uses standard telephone lines and switches. DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs. Inc. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end. It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP.25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization.

which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems. It may be used with bridges. 77 . It is fast. Specialized Solutions. easy to configure and small. Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model. but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks.

It also supports data encryption. NetBEUI.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Other Protocols The following are other protocols with which you should be familiar: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. It handles session establishment. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications. It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. Inc. DHCP. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely over the Internet. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures. Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes. or DHCP. It does not support IPX. NWLink and NetBEUI. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations. SLIP is not used as much as PPP. This database is typically dynamic in today’s modern networks. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. PPP supports IPX. SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. Like a traffic report on your radio. . RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model. ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. It maintains a database and provides hostname to IP address resolution. NetBEUI. but it can also be modified manually by the network administrator. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. it detects congested areas and links that are down. RPC is used by the redirector to 78 Specialized Solutions. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. and other protocols as well as TCP/IP. administration. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol. and notifies upper layers to route around them. and connection release. file transfers. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards determine if a resource is local or on the network. Specialized Solutions. Inc. Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text. 79 . It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer.

It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test. . For example. we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. if you can get to the server through a router. you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three. Inc. 80 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other. The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional. but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network.

x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc. Keyword 802. 81 .

7. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. What is a MAC address? 13. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. Which OSI layer is responsible for the MAC address? 8. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11. 3. Inc. Who developed the OSI model? 2. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. What is the function of the Application Layer? 9. 6. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions – Chapter 3 1. 4. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? 00-01-A5-D3-B4-01 82 Specialized Solutions. and ending connections? 12. managing. . 10. 5. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 14. What is the function of a Gateway? 18. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. 23. What are NDIS and ODI? 20. 21. Inc. Will this work? Why or Why not? Specialized Solutions. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 22. 83 . Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 15. Which is faster. What are they? 17. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 19. without duplication and error free? 16. Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. Describe protocol binding.

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It is not often used in today’s networks. Because it is shielded.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 . It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC. Intel. It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable. but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand. Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential. along with connectors. and how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter. it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter). network adapter cards. There are numerous kinds of cable. The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. Specialized Solutions. Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist. but may still be used in some temporary installations such as a construction trailer (although wireless would be a much more likely alternative). It can transmit voice. which we will address here. video. or DIX (Digital. There are several cabling options. and other hardware and peripherals. The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. Inc. Xerox). Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install. 85 . and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector. It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation. Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology.Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid. Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet). How to properly configure and use network adapter cards. and the hardware aspect of network operations. a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover.

In today’s networks. Thicknet was used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks. it has been replaced by twisted-pair cable and fiber optic cable. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers. it is not as easy to install. It is attached directly to the NIC but allows network signal to flow straight through it as well as to the NIC. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. It is expressed in ohms. They are specified based on their impedance. Inc. 86 Specialized Solutions. . BNC Cable Connectors BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses. as well as how they are attached to the cables. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. In the past.

and is used to connect the device to the network. BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on. and an AUI cable. Inc. 87 . BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. Specialized Solutions. It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection. This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable. Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver. N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet. One of the terminators must be grounded. The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function. A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together. It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver. The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors).

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver. These clamp-on transceivers were often referred to as vampire taps because they utilized sharp teeth that punctured the cable to make the connection. this was time-consuming and it absorbed signal so it was not the common approach. Inc. Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today. This cable type consists of insulated pair strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another. It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types. Instead. most networking professionals used a clamp-on transceiver. This types of connections have been largely replaced by newer cable methods such as twisted-pair and fiber optic cable. There are four pair strands in most twisted-pair cables. The twist helps 88 Specialized Solutions.

Currently. Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 1000 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM and Gigabit Ethernet Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling. Since it is unshielded. UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs. The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per meter in each pair of wires. UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular. 89 . The tighter the twist. There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP). the faster the signal can be sent through the wires without crosstalk. It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters. there are six categories. Inc. Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. The following is a summary of UTP cables. it is more sensitive to EMI. Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. Twisted Pair Cabling Specialized Solutions.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. This results in less sensitivity to EMI.

Wall Plates for RJ-45 90 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors. This gives the network administrator a greater degree of flexibility and provides fault tolerance for the network cabling system. The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a special tool punch down tool to make the proper connection by stripping the insulation from the wire without breaking the wire. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations. These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium. An RJ-11 jack has four connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight. RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector. This is an excellent way to organize network cables. Inc. The front of the patch panel contains RJ-45 ports (a port is a female counterpart for the RJ-45 jack). The RJ-45 jack’s position can therefore be changed from patch panel to patch panel to use a different set of cables for the same connection. They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 10 Gbps . The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location. Wall plates are typically used to make the connection to the computers themselves. An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger. .

SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses. (The core can also be made up of plastic. IBM cabling is based on its Type. which reduces signal loss. Because of this feature.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking. it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength. which is easier to install.. Inc. The following is a summary of IBM Types: Specialized Solutions. One strand transmits and one receives. 91 . fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances. the data cannot be tapped or stolen. They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP. as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types. It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI. This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber. . but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. it is therefore not as common as UTP. IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks. It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). However.) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic).

. Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Six twisted pairs. The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors. Contains a shield for use under carpets. Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data. IBM Connector 92 Specialized Solutions. IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Plenum grade. These are very rarely used in today’s modern networks. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Inc. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Not Defined Two 62.5/125-micron multimode fibers.

93 . Inc. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter.

. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions. Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions. The signal flow is bidirectional. the wire thickness increases. Both you and the party you are talking to can talk and listen at the same time. PVC grade cable is less expensive than Plenum grade cable but it gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned. For example. Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways. • Simplex vs. Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge. Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps) or gigabits per second (Gbps). Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. but cannot send a message. Because this space does circulate air through a building. fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire. (send and receive) but only one at a time. these fumes would circulate throughout a building in the event of a fire. PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. a pager can receive a message.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cabling Terms The following are terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only.Baseband vs. It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing). If this type of cable were used in the plenum. For example. As the AWG wire number decreases. • Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above. Inc. This space is used to circulate air through a building. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). 94 Specialized Solutions. For example. An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time. The signal flow is uni-directional. Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel.

shielded cable or fiber optic cable might be more appropriate. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives. such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well. Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network. For example. 95 . the flexibility of the medium should be considered. Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes. how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners.) Specialized Solutions. It is therefore specifically designed to be used in these circulation areas. A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling.) Will the cable be installed in “noisy” areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting. Inc. local fire codes will need to be addressed.) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals In contrast.

there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small. cost are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network. Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance. Inc. Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 96 Specialized Solutions.) Transmission speeds and. attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor. last but not least. On the other hand. . fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping.) If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure.

(And of course to translate it back again. 97 . handles network addressing. Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses. We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later. Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side. data is moved along in groups.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs. Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). Analog data has an infinite number of possible states. or 0’s (off). It makes the physical connection to the network. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking. Specialized Solutions. and controls the flow of data on the network. which constantly vary in one or more values. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves. Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame. The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium. Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time. Because these paths are side-by-side. most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit. NICs are used to connect the computer to the network. Network cabling moves data in a single data stream. are also known as Network Adapter Cards. This is known as serial communication. This is known as parallel communication. Today. Inc.) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port.

The time intervals between data chunks. the two cards start sending and receiving data. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer. Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent. The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. the NIC may need to be configured. This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique MAC address. The amount of time between confirmations. The speed of the transmission. This makes transferring data much faster. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the 98 Specialized Solutions. If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. . Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC. DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium. When this occurs. Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed. Inc. How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting. DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC. they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer.

See Appendix A for common address assignments. and some are set using software. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that typically no two devices can use the same interrupt. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU. such as: IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU. certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments. these devices can access the memory that they need without interrupting the processor. Inc. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor. Specialized Solutions. The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. not all devices need one. Only devices like NIC cards that need this type of memory access are assigned DMA channels. This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. In practice. DMA Channel Configuration of Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels is similar to IRQs. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by a device. in this case the NIC. This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. Other cards will need to be configured manually. The device is constantly listening to this channel for commands from the processor. DMA channels are used by devices that frequently need access to large amounts of memory. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses. The good news is that unlike an IRQ. Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. With a DMA channel. 99 . The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available.

. Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. or you may have to configure it manually. Inc. Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC. The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. or both). They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable. Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter. RJ-45. they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required. Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards. 100 Specialized Solutions. Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC. If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers. The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus. including network connectivity. Specialized Solutions. The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus. but can be a 64-bit bus. Inc. Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus. 101 . Today most buses are either EISA or PCI. They are generally 32-bit buses. Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus. With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs. They are also called PC-Card Buses. Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much.

Without this feature. thereby improving network performance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Performance Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance. thereby bypassing the CPU. it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally. The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks. This type of card is expensive. . Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU. Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data. the NIC would be a bottleneck. This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus. but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. 102 Specialized Solutions. Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data. Inc. RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed. Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer. Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data.

a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings. Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly. – hubs). Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling. Extended Local Area Networks . Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations such as ocean dwelling oil platforms. With some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down. a user can access the network from anywhere in the building. Wireless networks use wireless access points (WAPs) to “connect” the network devices to each other. Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems. Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. They function just like other access points (i. This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. the office. Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created. or on the road.Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs.Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking. People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home. Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems. but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN. but through the use of an infrared or radio medium. • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective. For example. Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems.e. 103 . making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. Mobile Computing . With wireless systems. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks. They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. Specialized Solutions. This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components.

Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • 104 Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint Specialized Solutions. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared You use infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control. The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet. Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference. and because the transmissions are tightly focused. These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources. they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping. Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. Infrared networks typically broadcast at about 10 Mbps. such as windows. This involves using infrared (below Red) light to carry signals to a receiver. Inc.

Inc. which then routes the signal appropriately. which are then transmitted over separate frequencies. as the name implies. but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. It does. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint. until it reaches the receiver. the signal is beamed towards a central unit.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. uses broadband technology. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. the message is broken into parts (called chips). The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls. Specialized Solutions. In the direct sequence modulation method. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps. etc. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. however. or direct sequence modulation. Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems. In the hopping method. the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time. ceilings. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. 105 . require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping.

There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite. It is used for line-of-sight communication. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances. Inc. mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network. Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings. 106 Specialized Solutions. Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver. and only the destination device can receive and read the packet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally. The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication. . or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts. Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite. Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information.

107 . Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Specialized Solutions.

RJ-45.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet. we took a look at the future. In addition. Twisted Pair. You should know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks. Inc. etc. and Fiber-Optic. Laser. receives. you should know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type. As a networking professional. and controls data flow over the network. AUI. After discussing at network cabling we then took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself. 108 Specialized Solutions. Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial. Wireless networking is the trend of the future. it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. transmits. Finally. and Microwave. It prepares. As a network professional. . The four basic wireless types are: Infrared. Radio. This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network. Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 109 . Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Definition . Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair 110 Specialized Solutions.

Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword Vampire Tap Definition Specialized Solutions. 111 .

How is a vampire tap connected? 6. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12. What is the most popular of the cable types? 10. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3. What is the least expensive of the cable types? 112 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4. Inc. . What is the most expensive cable type? 13.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable.

15. What does AWG stand for and what is it?

16. Describe baseband.

17. Describe broadband.

18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication?

19. What is the function of a network adapter card?

20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available?

21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card?

22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network?

23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types?

24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network?

25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally?

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards
In previous chapters, we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed, along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets, or frames. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. In this chapter, we will discover how Ethernet works, as well as how Token-ring networks function. AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter. After completing this chapter, you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture, while not as popular as Ethernet, are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers, in this case, over a network. In Chapter 3, you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite, IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture, SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk

The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols; thus, they do not map directly to the OSI Model. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. Specialized Solutions, Inc. 115

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information, handle addressing, and check for errors. Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments.

A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card, also known as the network interface card (NIC), in order for it to be used with a network computer. In some instances, as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX, two protocols may be bound to one card. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC.

Access Methods
In a network, multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. If two or more computers were to send data at the same time, the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing

• Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free, it will send data. While there is data traveling on the cable, no computer will transmit data. Occasionally, however, two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. Naturally, the more users who are connected to a network, the denser network traffic becomes. Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method.

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. It is, however, the access method that works best with wireless connections; since the wireless channel can be verified before the data is sent. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. A token (a special type of packet) is circulated around the ring from computer to computer. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network, it must wait until it possesses the token. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. Data is transmitted in frames. The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. The trailer includes error control information. When the computer is ready, the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted, the frame would be resent. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. Because only one computer at a time may transmit, this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions. (Some more recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer, router, switch, or bridge. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes, addresses, and links are functioning. Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer, hub, and destination computer, instead of broadcasts over the entire network. Because of the cabling method used with this access method, (four pairs Specialized Solutions, Inc. 117

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of wires are used, which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time, but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously, the one with the highest priority is serviced first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests.

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) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. The destination address of the receiving computer. Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Network Communications (Frames and Packets) As we’ve discussed previously. All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. The data to be transmitted. Data files tend to be quite large. (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably. This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. 119 . data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium. Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection. only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). Computer control data such as service requests and commands. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. but we will use the term packets. and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. if there is a transmission error. information. The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. Specialized Solutions. Error checking information such as Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) information. or messages. Also. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files. Inc.

If the results are the same. Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. the calculation is run again. the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit. packets can be various sizes. Depending upon the network. Usually. The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted. and clocking information. . Inc. When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer. Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network. usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes. If there is a discrepancy. the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact. A Packet 120 Specialized Solutions. the source and destination addresses. CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet. Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission. the trailer contains the error checking information.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet.

Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Specialized Solutions. 121 .

It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802. The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements. For example. and typically transmits at 10 Mbps. It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2). in a railroad.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Standards Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network.2) The Logical Link Control layer. Ethernet (802. data (in this case passengers and freight) is moved in various cars. some are wide gauge. as addressed previously. is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium.3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. we are going to look at different standards for networks.94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable. and some are narrow gauge). Not all railroads are the same (some are electric. In this section. it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data). Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology). but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol. There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards. However. The standards define the means of communications. or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT). but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data). Thicknet coaxial (10Base5). Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication. It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method. Logical Link Control (802. . There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points. like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell). The original version was a 2. The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL 122 Specialized Solutions. some are diesel. These provide the standards for the railroads.3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs. Inc. Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model.

Inc. The maximum number of nodes per network 90. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps. and computer aided design. 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable. indicating its maximum segment length. is 185 meters. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system.5 meters. BNC connectors and a transceiver. it is most commonly created with UTP cable. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology. The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters. however. While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling. As its name implies. And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling. The minimum distance between nodes is 2. repeaters can be used for longer distances. and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated. These applications include video. it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology.5 meters. 10BaseT uses the star topology. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2. meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters. 123 . 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. document and image storage. The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters.) This is referred to as the “5-4-3 Rule”. (There may be five segments but only three may be populated. The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet Specialized Solutions. 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors. 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable. The minimum distance between nodes is . If the segment must exceed this limitation. The maximum number of nodes per network 100. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs. The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters.5 meters. The actual maximum segment length. to name a few.

This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps. The IEEE specification 802. Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable. 124 Specialized Solutions. When you see any of these terms. Inc. 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards. . (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment. 100BaseVG. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs). using the CSMA/CD access method. It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology. ATM competes.12 is the standard that defines this technology. VG. but that will be referred to later in this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet) 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon. Because of its intense speed. Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks. with Gigabit Ethernet.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard. It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. although copper can be used with much shorter distances. to some degree. It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets. and the longest cable length is 250 meters. It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN. the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable. and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). and AnyLAN. and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. they are referring to the same thing. There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know. the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology.

Inc. by joining with either a router or a bridge.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP. It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance. Specialized Solutions. 125 . Ethernet also works in the UNIX environment.

The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1. The Token Ring access method. A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token. and 3). The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802. It is not as popular as Ethernet. it is known as a data frame.5 standard. Inc. This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data. Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it. Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished). The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring. The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable. 126 Specialized Solutions. but is still used today. and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame. How it Works Basically. IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub. Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer. . is what sets Token Ring apart. Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. 2. The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame. While the token is in use by a computer to send data. Actually. Like Ethernet. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token. it uses the baseband technology. more than the cable design.5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data.

Or.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. The IEEE 802. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity.5 standards say it travels clockwise. the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring. This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network. the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted. The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring. This computer. Message This is the data or file to be transmitted. called the active monitor. if there were errors. while IBM says counter-clockwise. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal. After encoding the data frame. the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon. The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time. Beaconing In a Token Ring environment. 127 Specialized Solutions. The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing. Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention. To accomplish this task. Inc. . It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected. As each new computer comes online. Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful. as well as its own address. The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected.

The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters. Using STP. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. Using UTP. The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network. Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable.5 meters. The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2. it is only about 45 meters. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. IBM states that it is only 46 meters. Using STP. the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails. When a computer is connected. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another. Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. but types 1 and 2 may also be used. Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network. as there are no male and female ends. These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. This hub is known by a few names. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. In a pure token passing environment. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters. but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters. . Inc. Using UTP. just as in other networks that use a hub. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. The Type 128 Specialized Solutions. Each node is connected to the hub via a cable. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. each ring can connect up to 260 computers. the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters.

Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable. A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. Therefore. Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper. AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software. All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable. The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers. therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers. 129 . Inc. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible. Specialized Solutions. Using a pair of repeaters.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub. Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters. Patch panels are used to organize patch cables. Type 6 may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures. Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments.

EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. the device assigns itself an address. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address. . It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices. TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses. Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare. LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP. As such. mainframe computers. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer. A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it. If it is not being used by another computer. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network. Apple has always been open to third-party development. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings. EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable. When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. AppleShare also provides a print server. by using zones.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology. and even some UNIX computers. Inc. LocalTalk performance is rather limited. it is very inexpensive to initiate. This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. UTP.5 Standard) environment. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers. 130 Specialized Solutions. Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers. it will store it to use each time it goes online.

ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling. A later version. Instead of the token traveling around a ring. These packets contain the destination address. but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable. active. ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps. These hubs may be passive. the token is passed in numerical order.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology. this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order. a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data. If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors. If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other. Obviously. Inc. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors. the maximum cable distance is 244 meters.5 Mbps. Specialized Solutions. 131 . It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2. If using an active hub in a Star topology. Just like other token-passing access method architectures. called ARCNet Plus. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters. ARCNet utilizes hubs. but it can be adequately charted to the 802. ARCNet transmits data in packets. It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology. or smart. This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology. the token still passes in numerical order.4 standards (Token Bus LAN). the source address and up to 508 bytes of data.

. Speeds up to 54 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific). Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range. The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well. Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four.11) IEEE 802. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802. generally). 132 Specialized Solutions.11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology.

133 . 10Base5. Therefore. which is where the error checking calculation is located.3 standards. Inc. it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year. and the Trailer. and clocking information. Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames). it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. Packets will include information to identify the source address. As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances. go back and review the chapter again. Packets consist of three components: the Header. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. CSMA/CA. Managing network data is all about traffic control. If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data. the source and destination addresses. Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network. AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD. destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted. Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet. It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. etc. the Data. and 10BaseT. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method. Be sure that you understand how this architecture works. but as a networking professional you will encounter them. Specialized Solutions. which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting. It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures.

Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Definition 134 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc.

Inc. 135 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Token Ring TokenTalk Trailer Zones Definition Specialized Solutions.

What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10. 3. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6. What are the three primary access methods? 2. Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. 5. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12. . How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 136 Specialized Solutions. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11. Inc. CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1.

14. Inc. What is a SMAU? 21. What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20. What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25. 137 . Describe a MIC connector. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? Specialized Solutions. 22. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 19.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 138 Specialized Solutions.

The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. rather than a client’s. The size of the company and the portion of the network affected. Most importantly. you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows. this is a Macintosh-based company. There are two things that you will need to know. 139 . This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. etc. We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. (If not. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office. and goals. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation. Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. are there any printers or scanners. you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. Even if this network is your own. how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them. Finally. The customer’s likes. who has them. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. we will consider hardware compatibility. dislikes. for example. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network. address. Specialized Solutions. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. As a network professional. You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have. Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks. This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have. pay attention to details. etc? If. your design will not work for them. whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever indebted to you. in many cases. you are not designing for yourself. However. (demographics).

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. Once you collect this information. With this information in hand. This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components. files services. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. Remember. For example. . So. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network. Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources. or as large as 8 GB. you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility. the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB. The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later. you must get a clear definition of goals of the network. if the file is compressed. or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale). print services. etc. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps. Inc. Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. at this time. A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. you are not documenting your network. or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint. There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available. prepare a design document. or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files. 140 Specialized Solutions.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc. 141 .

The commitment of management and users. if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t. In a peer-to-peer network. Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. The most prominent are simplicity and cost. if you have a printer connected to your computer. may cause problems in the future. The first is the type of network you will be designing. Likewise. The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. you will need to start making some decisions. not all nodes may need the same level of security. you will have no problem. You may need to install the software. The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it. Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. If you do not have this information go back and get it. Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server. Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement. As long as you have the original software disk (CD). Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future). they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. . You may have to add network cards and cabling. This sharing is on a directory level. This can range from none to very high.” That is. Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. as generally it is not installed during a standard installation. This means that every 142 Specialized Solutions. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing. all computers are equal. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. Also. The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future. The level of security required. The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. For example. You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network. Skill level of the network users. The wrong choice now. Inc. First.

Also. etc. the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. You can connect more workstations. This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. Remember. This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added. if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. Since these computers are larger. have high-power processor. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. must less the workings of a network. slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations. The more sophisticated the network. In a peer-to-peer situation. This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server. such as your printer. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. 24-hours per day. Last but not least. a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network. Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off. server-based networks are scaleable. administration can be a Specialized Solutions. For these people. This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older. Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security. Before you can use any resource. all network resources are usually centralized. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. Also. and expand as your needs expand. instead of backing up individual workstations. if employees need remote access. is another advantage of a server-based network. While there are many advantages. they will also be using your processor to do their printing. In large networks. The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer). When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation. the network must operate transparent to them.Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. 143 . a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution. any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. In a server-based network. information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. As for size. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. In a strict peer-topeer network. you will also need to consider the disadvantages. and lots of memory. Inc. Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. In small networks.

with open access to the global community. If all else fails.168. Once you have made this decision.192. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified network professional. A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet.32. A public network would be the Internet. let us define the difference between the terms public and private network.0 192. For this reason.0 -172.255. there are specific addresses that are filtered by the routers at the backbone of the Internet. In some cases. you can use any address that you want to use inside of your own network and behind your firewalls.0.255 255. get more. The only problem is that if your firewall were to come down. For this reason.255. stick with it and move forward. Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each. then you might have an address conflict with another entity on the Internet. 10.0. which would limit its access to those outside of the company. Inc.255. it is highly recommended that you use these addresses for your private addressing.0 144 Specialized Solutions.16. since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN. Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult.0 255.0 -10.0. .255. Actually.0. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer). Public and Private networks In addition.255. If you are not sure you have enough information. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information. present each case to the client and let them make the final decision. The use of these addresses will completely prevent the address conflict issue.0. the answer will be very obvious.0.255.168.0.0 255.255 172.0. in others it could go either way. When you are sitting on the fence.0 .

145 . Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you. The following is an example of an inventory sheet. Remember. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation. The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has. Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form. if all or part of a network already exists. Inc. This form should identify the equipment and its specifications.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like. . whether hardware or software. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. you must add new hardware. this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks. Use it as a starting place to build your own. you can skip this section. When taking this inventory. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have. On the other hand. 146 Specialized Solutions. ask him or her to show you. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment. Also.

147 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: Computer Printer Telecommunication Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA. etc.) # of Free Slots Network Card Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Specialized Solutions. Inc. PCI.

148 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function. describe each program. . Software: If this device uses software.

Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 149 .

it will make future documentation easier. or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility. By assigning them a number now. This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. A Network Layout 150 Specialized Solutions. Inc. make a drawing of the facility and each network node. . Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment. It is time to get out that pencil and paper.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network. and collect all of the documentation you have been working on.

5-4-3 – If your installation is coaxial Ethernet. you might consider CAT 3. consider Thinnet coaxial cable. If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small temporary LAN. may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation. Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end). or just good common sense. but if this is a large facility. you will need to install CAT 5e or CAT 6 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 1000 Mbps speed. The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the performance criteria of the network. hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. For example. Realistically. In most environments this will be no problem. (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics. It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3. On the high end. repeaters and nodes. Cable lengths must be considered. These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. In addition. Inc. you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub. CAT 6 is the UTP of choice. if you are not sure if expansion is in your future. and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). However. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace. if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files. Therefore. such as in an imaging environment. 151 . However. Cable Grade – Local fire codes. you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. Specialized Solutions. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5e or CAT 6 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years. you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments. The 100 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 5 UTP cables.

Inc. such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment. and RFI. with a relative humidity of 30 percent. it doesn’t really matter. Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment. Fortunately. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source. on the surface.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise). such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. since they don’t use electricity to transmit a signal. you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. 152 Specialized Solutions. can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers. which can cause corrosion. The non-routable protocols. but are not limited. The equipment should be shielded from ESD. EMI. Therefore. NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference. Variable temperatures. Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment in which the computers will be operating. they are sensitive to temperature changes. low-humidity. . are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. high-humidity. or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). which requires the use of routers. and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. On the other hand. it will work. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. Fiber optics are also a good alternative when the manufacturing environment cannot allow for any possibility of even a small spark. Like us. which can generate damaging ESD. it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows 2000/2003. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. However.

Inc. 153 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room. To keep these organized. Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends. This way.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub. One advantage of using CAT 5 or CAT 6 cable in a star topology from a hub. if using CAT 5 or CAT 6. Inc. Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable. 154 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. All the cables will be brought to one location. it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet. One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable. There are a few more components that need to be installed. This way you can identify each location. In most cases. This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors. . you will most likely need to install a wall outlet. the cables are connected to a patch panel. The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable. The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding. The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it. Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables. These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network.

Therefore you must know the requirements of each. there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC Specialized Solutions.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network. 155 . This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media. there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed. Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. Inc. Once that is done. Actually. we must select a card that is compatible with both. That part is the network adapter card.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 156 Specialized Solutions.

These are little LEDs (one. Depending on the vintage of the computer. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus. you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots. For example. you must have Token Ring cards. also called PC Cards. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network. the speed of the card is important. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. but only at 10 Mbps. 157 . a Specialized Solutions. This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. Not all cards are the same. Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection. The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. the number of connectors. If you are installing a Token Ring network. EISA. Inc. a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. This section will look at compatibility issues. An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network. which can be a useful tool. the card must be compatible with the computer.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. administration. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus. two. Resolving these issues is actually quite simple. but only at 10 Mbps. Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple. Also. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look. The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. will change. In addition to being compatible with the network. and therefore the speed at which data can be moved. Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting. and expansion projects. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance. Therefore. Micro Channel. In general. or three) that indicate the status of the card. and PCI). Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture. There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA. Before purchasing a network card. Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards.

Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards. In most cases with a new card. . you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. Inc. be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches. If you must do this manually. If there are any conflicts. but you are not finished yet. Install the appropriate drivers for the card. The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using. In addition. Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course. it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. If your system is not Plug-n-Play.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light indicates that data is being transferred. if you upgrade your operating system. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer). Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card. Note: If you must remove the case. Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot. You need to configure the card to work with your network software. Finally. Each card must be configured for a different network. Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. Connect the network cabling. 158 Specialized Solutions. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use. Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer. Configure the IRQ and I/O address. Physically install the card. If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver. the computer may not boot or the conflicting devices might not be able to work simultaneously. you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. Now the network adapter card is installed. this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. Drivers are usually supplied with the network card.

as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network. Inc. If you encounter this type of situation. different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario. the card should have an RJ-45 connector. it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. Specialized Solutions. AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector. some manufacturers will provide two. In the case of UTP. For example. The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy. the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based. as well as possible solutions. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector. and possibly three. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines. These types of problems can be more personal in nature. For example. However.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. To increase marketability of their cards. 159 . Some STP cards require special connectors. For Thinnet or Thicknet. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it. the engineering department may be PC-based.

Standards Earlier in this training course. As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards. you will need to establish the standards for your network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network. . Inc. Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly. Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system. With this done. each component will work with the others. if installed. that were identically configured. and knowledge of the network operating system. hard work and standards. Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network. 160 Specialized Solutions. with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier. and detail both its hardware and software. By defining the standards to which the network must comply. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them. With this information in hand. This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card. You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots. you are going to have your work cut out for you. we learned about network protocols and standards. As the network designer or administrator. boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software.

Specialized Solutions. Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems. More than likely. the Internet is the answer. the system will not run. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind. but your proficiency will be very low. you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site. Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems. For example. Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. Also. You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device. you probably do not have the necessary drivers. In this case. This is a true statement. Inc. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system. have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. network card and/or printer no longer work. The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system. The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements. however. you find that your modem. you will need to upgrade. all you need to do is install the Windows XP drivers for the offending hardware. 161 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are. If drivers exist. there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. when upgrading from Windows 98 to Windows XP. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. A good example is Windows 95. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase.

If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary. 162 Specialized Solutions. or hardware compatibility lists. . You can also look for the corresponding logos on the boxes of hardware and software that you are considering purchasing for your network. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000 is hardware dependent. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with Windows 2000. This is part of the Windows Logo program.microsoft. especially with the newest operating systems such as Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. Here you will find the latest information about hardware and software that is Designed for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 or at least tested to be compatible with these operating systems.com/windows/catalog. This list will ship with the 2000 package (on the CD-ROM) and 2000 will make a check during installation. Microsoft Windows Catalog Still another web site to check for compatibility of hardware and software. If you want the latest list. It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware. is the Microsoft Windows Catalog at www. it most likely will not work with Windows 2000. you will need to check the HCL for that product.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists an example of the minimum requirements for three operating systems: HCL and Windows 2000 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. Inc.

Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 163 .

What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2. Inc. Was this a good purchase? 9. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? 164 Specialized Solutions. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. . but they are not all the same. he intends to expand the network in the future. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6. However. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5. 7.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 6 1. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP.

Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location. A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network. you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network. Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series. Expanding a LAN with Hubs A common method for expanding networks is to use a hub. 165 . to larger hubs that can connect many more computers. from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices. Specialized Solutions. In addition to being called “hubs.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network. it may be too small. Inc.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Chapter 7 . An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals). There are several different types of hubs. sooner or later.” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive. For example. This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network.

thus reducing the traffic for each segment. amplify the signal. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater. 166 Specialized Solutions. such as databases. Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. They do however. When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network. You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. but has one additional feature. have increased response times. the simple hub just won’t do the job. Depending on the objectives of the LAN. Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model. thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths. you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. . Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network. Traffic-generating applications. They do not translate or filter any information. Fortunately.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. Long waits to access a printer or file. Inc.

but it can switch packets across multiple networks. Inc. It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. the NetBEUI protocol is not routable. 167 . Not all network protocols will work with a router. Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment. Routers work at the Network layer of the OSI model. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. For example. Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge.

we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. 168 Specialized Solutions. When considering which connection service to use. microwave. lines. When thinking of telephone lines. When thinking of a carrier. Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs. and the cost of the service. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances. The first is public dial-up network lines. be sure to take into account your throughput. and satellite connections. Be careful when choosing a carrier. Just because the cost looks good. these connections are slow and not very reliable. . or dedicated. Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps. Inc. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates. does not mean that it is the best value. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection. An example of such a system is the telephone company. These are our standard telephone connections. The second choice is leased. With dial-up networking. Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps. but connecting at this rate is rare. there are two levels of service to consider.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway Connection Services When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries. it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system. Typically. the distance the data must travel. They are providing the cabling.

These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. Most WANs are a collection of LANs. 169 . There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines. WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs. and deals with timing issues. It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). Specialized Solutions. It can regenerate the signal.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded. The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. items such as bridges. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity. The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN. if necessary. A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN. routers and communications services are used to create a WAN. It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back. Inc. as well as those transmitted to it. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with.

Basic data. The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. Voice and data over trunks between computers. Voice and data over trunk circuits. Voice/radio with tone conditioning. more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection. Inc. Data applications below 1200 bps. 170 Specialized Solutions. Digital Connectivity When you need a faster. Dedicated analog lines provide an instant connection. The down-side of these lines is that you will have to pay for them 100% of the time instead of on an “as used” basis. you need DDS (Digital Data Service).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Basic voice. . they can be justified. Voice with some quality control. Voice and data over private lines. Voice and video. Application relays. Dedicated lines are far more expensive. This is because you lease the line 100% of the time and therefore do not have to dial-in. but if you have sufficient traffic.

data.080 (can reach 10 Gbps) OC-1 OC-3 ATM 1 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A The T1 and the T3 standard are American.52 Mbps Either 155. Inc.048 Mbps 34. and video signals.520 or 622. The following table lists the most common connection types: Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A Voice Channels DATA RATE (MBPS) 24 672 32 512 N/A 1.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP.8 Mbps 155.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line. 171 . faster download than upload 51. It is capable of 1. It can be used to transmit digital voice.736 Mbps 2. Specialized Solutions.544 Mbps 44. whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard.544 Mbps transmissions.

X. since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet. This made for a very reliable and very slow connection. . be used for somewhat secure remote access by employing the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) and tunneling protocols. a packet may be sent over multiple permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). however. These lines can. this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs. For this reason. 172 Specialized Solutions. Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast. and reliable network messaging. Frame Relay does not check the packet at each step in its route. each packet was examined at each step in the path to determine whether it was damaged. so it can be both reliable and fast. Obviously.25 based packet switched networks. all of which are considered reliable. Inc. Today’s networks use a different technology referred to as Frame Relay. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network. A packet switched network provides multiple paths that packets could travel from source to destination. convenient. In older. With Frame Relay.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. Standard PSTN lines have a very limited bandwidth of less than 56 Kbps.

” Specialized Solutions. or any other logical means. This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN. etc. 173 . without having to change the physical picture of the network.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment.) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically. which lays out hosts (computers. adding computers or adjusting resources. An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within his company. or by the specific use of the computers. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN. Inc. printers.

While not a good choice for WANs.Asynchronous transfer mode uses fixed length (53 byte) cells instead of packets. ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential. ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface). or fiber optic. while using copper telephone wires. These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1. has two 64 Kbps 174 Specialized Solutions. and focuses on the home and business market. in actuality. It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. As well as the common voice and data.2 Gbps. which is intended for use in the home or small business. FDDI . media limited.Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication. Because it is fiber optic-based. and imaging. . These cells can speed communication because the network always know exactly what to expect in regard the size of the next cell. However. ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN. audio. video. it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference. ATM can be used with FAX. It is. ATM . Inc. they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps. you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies. One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need. It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles). This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network. however. twisted pair. it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services.

It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx). To be more precise. much like E1 is to T1. It carries all the bits from say. data and video at rates ranging from 51.Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. SMDS SMDS . it is the European equivalent of SONET. The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps). Inc. This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802. It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM).84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768). Specialized Solutions. It is capable of transmitting voice. SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media. it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network. and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control.544 Mbps).Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps). within one transmission frame. SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices. has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1. like OCx with SONET. and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control.6). which is intended for use by large businesses. a call. Internationally. 175 . ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface).

times as fast as the Baud rate. However. Therefore. Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud. Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56.600 bps. there is a limit of 2400 Baud. or over long distances.32bis bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard. With this change. 8. As we have already learned. designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle. due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of transmitting signals over long distances. The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V. These speeds are measured as bits per second. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion. . network cards. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections. Modems are classified by a “V” rating. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. 4. Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions.400 High-speed version of the V. To increase our network beyond a few computers. Inc.32 V. Modems transmit data at various speeds. 14. The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems. Today.400 bps. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines. 176 Specialized Solutions. Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data. FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14. etc.22bis V. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56. and media. the term Baud has disappeared and been replaced with bps. With early modems.32 standard. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. the Baud rate was equal to the bps. connecting a few computers to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards. A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable.600 bps.

FastClass. 57. 56. Specialized Solutions. 177 .34 V.90 19. Backwards compatible with earlier V. modems. modems – error correction standard.42 V.32terbo.800 Improved V.200 Not officially a standard yet. Will only communicate with another V.600 Backwards compatible with earlier V. 28.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network V. Inc.32terbo V.

In addition. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client. This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem. A system running Windows XP or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection. Also.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. both of these terms mean the same thing. or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). For example. Any two computers can be connected. By running Network Connections Wizard and following the simple 178 Specialized Solutions. the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. The difference is how each computer is being utilized. Let’s first look at connecting two computers. . With RAS. Inc. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building). Since the two computers are directly connected. You must use a Null-Modem cable. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors. when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. On the other hand. so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection. The difference between a simple computer (Windows XP or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows Server 2003) is the number of inbound connections. all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer. Actually. either via modems and telephone lines. A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication. or directly via COM ports and a cable. Windows XP has an feature called a direct cable connection. there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number. RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. while a true server like Windows Server 2003 will allow 256 inbound connections.

RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security. This is a relatively old standard (1984). the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software. you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number. Normally. but is still in use with some systems. Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but. From this accessory. the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user. Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking. These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). in this case. With this in place. RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work. Inc. you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection. While this was the protocol of choice for a Specialized Solutions. your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server. On the server side. On the client side. both computers must be using the same protocol. the RAS software must be installed and running.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network instructions provided. you will use a modem to establish the connection. The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network. 179 .

in today’s networks it has several disadvantages. It cannot encrypt logon information. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today. It provides security. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) provides for a secure encrypted tunnel for communication through the Internet. VPN (Virtual Private Networks). • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the Network layer of the OSI model. the limits of SLIP caused many problems. as a less explensive alternative to costly leased lines. It supports only TCP/IP. It provides data compression and error control. such that only the sender and the receiver can accurately interpret the data that is being sent. It supports encrypted passwords. This is accomplished by encapsulating one protocol with another protocol.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide long time. It transmits in text only. Many organizations are using tunnels. created by PPTP and other tunneling protocols. It can be used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private 180 Specialized Solutions. NetBEUI. and DECnet. It’s only supported by RAS clients. Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks. . RAS and Security. Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. Encrypted Connections. Inc. Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP. AppleTalk. IPX. It enables highly private network links over the public Internet.

and Macintosh computers. It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs. usually a user’s credit card number. most relating to higher security.. UNIX. as does Novell Directory Services (NDS). a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE).509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec. which is the highest security method. . certificates (like X. it only establishes the user’s identity. Kerberos V5. ICA can be used with Windows. It does not provide authorization. meaning that the computers. SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server. It is transparent to the user. it does not require IP connectivity. limited RAM.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket. L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the latest version of the tunneling protocol. It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP. Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 Active Directory use this type of security by default. It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). It is based on an end-to-end security model. L2TP offers many advantages over PPTP. discussed here in the next chapter. and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header). Specialized Solutions. It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS. Inc. authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well. TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL. ESP. or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. Linux. It uses a key to encrypt the data. Thin clients are computers with no hard drive. Unlike PPTP. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission. both sending and receiving. 181 . AH only authenticates the user.

Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. Inc. This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on. In addition. This provides for additional authentication. 182 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to providing remote sharing of information. you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. Security Host (Bastion Host) A security host or bastion host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. As with all security measures. Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller. and thus more security. If another software package has “control” of the modem. you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one. the modem configuration. . By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. The type of communication port you intend to configure. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary. This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. Before installation. you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call. installing RAS can be frustrating. If it does not work the first time. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. RAS provides several layers of security. and any other software that might use the modem. you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server.

183 . The latest Microsoft server operating systems such as Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 have wizards that make installing an RAS server much simpler. Specialized Solutions. As a networking professional. Inc. and you don’t need a fulltime connection. you want to keep the costs down. you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses. You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. it is not always the solution for every network.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH 184 Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc. Definition .

Inc.25 Definition Specialized Solutions. 185 .Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X.

544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6. What is analog communication? 5. Name three advanced WAN environments.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 7 1. 7. 9. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. a router. 186 Specialized Solutions. . 10. Inc. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. Name three RAS protocols. 4. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2. Define a repeater. and a gateway. a bridge. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. Name four forms of RAS security.

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intranets. the recognized standard for internetworking altogether.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is an internet (between network) protocol. are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board). and FTP. it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. which will be discussed later in the chapter. The four layers are: Application. It is important for the networking professional to know that TCP/IP is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. known as BSD UNIX. these protocols were available on UNIX early on. It is also used with Ethernet networks. as well as Internet standards. such as SMTP. From this beginning. Specialized Solutions. and the Internet. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard. and is usually seen in the combination. 189 . SNMP. Transport. and is in fact. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers. Also. This is the most common protocol suite with which a networking professional works. Inc. TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP. Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor. Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress). These standards. TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol). Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX. TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project. TCP/IP. Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. some are considered to be Internet standards. Internet and Network Interface.

These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP. There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections. .Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 190 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model. Inc.

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This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission. or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams. the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model. A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. called packets. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets. Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. Let’s take a look at them. and reassembles the data. TCP breaks data into tiny chunks. there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. However. . they can be retransmitted in a timely manner. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. and for the Network+ exam. The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 192 Specialized Solutions. Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others. Let’s take a look at how this works. The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier. Inc. Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine. Should lost or corrupted packets be detected. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP. On a TCP/IP network. It then routes the information to its destination.

and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. IP is connectionless. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type. HTTP.e. 193 . meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model. IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP. etc. The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023. Inc. UDP transports data. Although the terms. Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet. The port number identifies the application associated with the data. This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines.. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably. consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65. FTP. If the transmission has not been successful.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number.535. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned. Telnet. This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received. a port is different from a socket. UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session. but does not acknowledge delivery. The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535. and a Specialized Solutions. i. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer. The addresses. For each packet sent. TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination. The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses. IP merely routes the data. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. or port numbers. nor does it check for errors. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number. the protocol number. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. and specify a certain protocol. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. TCP will retransmit the data. When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide checksum. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer. To be more specific, the checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. When the data arrives at the destination computer, the receiving computer performs the calculation. If the checksum is the same, the data is assumed to have arrived intact. The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network, it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. Time to Live – provides TTL data. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. This cache contains a list of all the devices with which it is communicating. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five, TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server, run searches, or access multiple mail servers. 194 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet, which is what you use when you send out mail. SMTP is server to server, whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers, usually over the Internet. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People.” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files, by typing in a user name, or the word “anonymous.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents, such as web pages. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts, using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP, allowing access to a secure Web server. It uses port 443, the secure SSL port instead of port 80, the HTTP port. HTTPS, as well as SSL, allow for the use of X.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user.

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Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials

Naming Systems
Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. Remember, we are working in two worlds, the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names. Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking. DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates hostnames to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. DNS functions like a telephone directory. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers. For example, the domain bigcompany.com may have an IP address of 192.49.238.33. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose, such as government, education, commerce, or interest. Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC, also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. These domains require suffixes such as .com for businesses or .edu for educational institutions. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains:

.com .net .edu .org .gov .mil .biz .pro .info .xx

Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance, Big Company Inc. in Italy might be http://www.Bigcompany.com.it or in Australia www.Bigcompany.com.au. Also, .tv is gaining in popularity. Tuvalu is a small country, which receives financial benefit from the registration fees.

WINS In a Windows-based network, the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network. NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode, leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application. A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast), P-node (peer-peer), M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). 198 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. It predates DNS. It must be manually created and changed. LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. It must be manually created and changed. IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. For example, it could connect a LAN to the Internet. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet, it must be assigned a static IP address. This means that it is permanently assigned. It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers, sooner or later we will run out of numbers. In smaller isolated networks, IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. However, as the number of addresses required increases, you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. To resolve this, IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. That is, assigned on an “as needed” basis. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. When not needed, the address can be leased to another host. To accomplish this, you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address, subnet mask, and a default gateway if needed. Notice that the IP addresses are leased. This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. A lease can be renewed. When the term of the lease is at 50%, the client will send a request for renewal. If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available), the lease will be renewed without interruption. If not renewed, the client will attempt to contact the DHCP server that issued it the IP address directly about every 5 minutes until it reaches 87.5% of the lease, at which time the client will broadcast a request to obtain an address from any available DHCP server. If all addresses are being used or a DHCP server does not respond, the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user. In this case, the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

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e.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (public IP address). The proxy server is actually making a connection to another network or to the Internet on behalf of the client. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other. i. The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client. 200 Specialized Solutions. it serves many clients through only one connection. since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. and DNS. IP Proxy Servers Earlier. The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties. NAT. It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. In the case of a proxy server. Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network. who think they are communicating directly with one another. ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time. It contains DHCP. to share a single connection to the Internet. Actually. Inc. It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses. but it is most often used between a private network and the networks public address or addresses. like a LAN. . NAT also acts as a type of firewall. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers. depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time. the proxy server. a NAT is just a device or program that translates one set of IP addresses to another set of IP addresses.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions. Inc. 201 .

however. To simplify these addresses. they are broken down into four octets. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet. Inc. 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194. A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4.296 (4.967. it is not easy for us. Internet IP addresses.00001000. So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33. This IP address is a 32-bit binary number. are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8. . The result is called a dotted decimal number. Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them. An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets.8. Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address. the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique).11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------16 8 2 1 128 64 32 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet.194. 202 Specialized Solutions. A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001. let’s now take a look at IP address numbers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names.294.39.2 billion) different numbers. Although that is easy for a computer. Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256.00100111.

The class can be determined by the value of the first octet. The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223.194. The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33. An example of a Class B IP address would be 129. Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks. The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000).8.194 where the Network ID would be 193. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use. The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID). There are five common classes: A through E. Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large. only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID). Within classes. The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191.39. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000). The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000). the network is divided into classes. the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID.8.39.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components. 203 .39. The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID).39. you should pay special attention the Classes A. The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39. Inc. B and C. In this case 129.194 would be the Host ID.194 would be an example of a Class A address. Depending on the assignment. Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks.194. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID. An example of a Class C IP address would be 193. (A host may be any device on the network.39 would be the Network ID and 8.8 and the Host ID would be 194. The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID.8. For the Network+ exam.8. In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID.) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126. 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) Specialized Solutions.

Class B uses two octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID. the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic. Class C IP addresses are still available. specifically 127.223 In addition. and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses. if a network is going to be connected to the Internet. Also.used for medium-sized networks. with the least number of Network IDs. 204 Specialized Solutions. . you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address. so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts.126 128 . there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and for multicasting and are not available for normal host addresses. there are 16.777. This is the loopback address.0. Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A. Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 .1) Class A . All in use and no longer available.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. there are only 65.used by very large networks. As we mentioned earlier. B or C address. Class C .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID. Likewise.214 possible Host ID numbers. Class B . Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available. Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs. (For example. You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts.534 possible Host ID numbers. Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID. Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time.0.191 192 . Inc. This organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center).

then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme. Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Specialized Solutions. Unicast is an address for a single host. to define the address type. You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot. IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology. The address types are Unicast. however. The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers (0 to 9. which only uses 32-bit addressing.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP). as compared to IPv4. Anycast. demand high bandwidth. Rather than having “classes” like IPv4. It would make it unclear as to what was represented. which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits. A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. It does. It uses 128-bit addressing. This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. For example. and Multicast. An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4. as well as ease of configuration and security built right in. Inc. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field.net. VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic. use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address. however. 205 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address. Inc. Multicast. Site-local address. Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address. just like 127. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one.0.1 with IPv4. which replaces broadcast. 206 Specialized Solutions. An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. All in all. IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking. is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix. Finally. since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain. A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses. .0. The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1.

534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s.255. Inc.255. This is done with binary addition (anding).0.0. have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right. A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) in which all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address.255. The number of 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network. You must however.0 (Class C).255. or 225. 207 . For example: 11111111. the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class).255. You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet.255. a router can determine which addresses are local and which addresses are for other subnets within the network. Before looking at anding. a large university may have a network spread over several buildings and perhaps remote campuses.0. all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet. only the traffic that is not local will pass through. The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address.0. Since a router connects each subnet. 255.216 hosts) Class B (65. Specialized Solutions. Anding is the binary addition that the router uses to make this determination.0 255. In this example.255.0 Class A (16. which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address. By using a concept called anding.00000000.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of creating more than one private network from one public network address by customizing your subnet mask.0.0 255.777.00000000 or 255.0 (Class A). a subnet mask can be 255. If you “and” the IP address to the subnet mask.0. separating it from the host portion of the address. Default Subnet Masks 255.0 (Class B). Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask. By using subnets.0 In regard to classful addressing . lets look at subnet masks. For example.0.11111111. you can reduce the overall network traffic.

00000000.8. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7. it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address. Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33.8.00000000.0.224.0.0.0. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet. 00100001.0) equals 00100001.32.7.8.11000010 (33. while the Host ID 0. let’s and it to the subnet mask of 255.11100000. Any local addresses will not pass through.32 and the Host ID is 7. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remember. thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID. By using this method.39. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet.00100000.194.32.8.8.194) 11111111.00000000 (33.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones. .194. using our previous example of 33.0. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 208 Specialized Solutions. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment.194.00001000.0. and through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33.32. Inc.00000000 (255.00100111.39.194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask.224.

a.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking.0 255.a.c 128.a.0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001. Specialized Solutions.384 2.0.b.0. Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate.c to 191. A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network.a. If a router is connected to two subnets. 209 . Be sure to include some room for growth of the network.b.255.255. A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card.0.c to 223.0 255.097.a.255.c 192.255.0 255. There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required.216 65.0.0 255.0. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner. • • • • Connect physically remote local networks.0.152 Number of Hosts 16.777. Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet.b. Inc.b.c Default Subnet Mask 255. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet.0 Number of Networks 126 16. Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment.255.a. it will require an address for each subnet.b. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring).255.c to 126.b.

As we begin to subnet.000 hosts.240 255. we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255.255.255.255.192.255. We will use an InterNIC ID of 191.248.248 255.255.255.255.0 255.255.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16.0 255. First.128 255.254.224 255.255.255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet.0 255.255.255. We use this formula to determine the number of subnets that will be created by borrowing bits from the hosts. You should remember the formula 2n-2 where n is the number of bits borrowed. To begin this process.0 255.0 255.0. The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network.0.255.255.255. you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC. With this number. Inc. we have one network with approximately 65.240.255.382 Hosts N/A 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 210 Specialized Solutions.36.0 255.252. .255.192 255.255.255.255.0 255.224. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign.255. Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255.

lets keep our network ID of 191.255.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 Hosts N/A 30 14 6 2 To make this easy.255.36 as assigned to us by InterNIC.255.255.255. Inc. 1. Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator).255.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255. 2. giving us a total requirement of 18.255. The number 18 will now be in binary (10010). For this example.224 255. you can use the scientific calculator supplied with any Windows operating system.192 255. Enter the value of 18. Specialized Solutions. let’s add 4 more for future expansions. Change the mode to binary (Bin). 3.255. Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected. Just to be on the safe side.240 255.248 255.255. the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements.255. 211 . Now we get out our Windows calculator. We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID. we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs.

we would have had to reconfigure the entire network. Count the number of binary digits (5).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4.255. This will be the number of bits required for the third octet.000 hosts each.255. The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 212 Specialized Solutions. Had we needed to add a new subnet. For this example. let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255. This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2. our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets.0 and the network address of 192.224. instead of selecting the next subnet on our list. To keep things simple.0. Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask. .248. Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth). the subnet mask would be 255. you can determine the available Network IDs.36. Inc.

36.36.36. In dotted-decimal format.128 192.36.160 192. this means that the number starts with . the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery. The only restrictions are that you cannot use . up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID. and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet.0.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192.0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255.000 or .255. these are reserved for broadcast addresses.36.36 (overall network address) 192.255.64 192.0.32 192. If it is different.255.001 in the last octet. indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively.0. Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network. on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255.36. The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID. they are on the same network. (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask.0. or one that is located on a remote network. The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network.) Specialized Solutions.192 Determine the Host IDs The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001). For example. 213 .0.96 192. A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255. This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address.255. Inc.

0 255.255.255. Inc.0 CLASS ID 1 . .223 214 Specialized Solutions.255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255.126 128 .0.191 192 .0.0 255.0.

DNS You can enable or disable DNS. and enter the information in the appropriate fields. Next. Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information. Specialized Solutions. you will need to type in the specified default gateway. Click the radio button to enable DNS.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically. other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window. Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor. right-click on TCP/IP Protocol. However. you may specify a particular IP address. 215 . The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using. and click Properties. Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways. Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. IP Address Here. On some screens. Inc.” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server. in addition to other hardware and software configurations. click the Protocols tab.

WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses. It also includes the DNS configuration. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology. default gateway. Inc. 216 Specialized Solutions. This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration. and subnet mask configuration. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc. 217 . Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet Definition Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword POP3 Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 218 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. 12. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups. Inc. 4.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Review Questions Chapter 8 1. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9. What is the purpose of DNS? 5. What is an FQDN and give an example? 6. 10. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Specialized Solutions. What is a domain? 7. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. 219 . Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 220 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

In addition.SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks. the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network. Inc. The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator. 221 . Using one of these products. you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network. you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device. Specialized Solutions. The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base). It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data. Network Managers .Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network. From the database and the software interface.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device. It will respond to commands issued by the management software. An additional SNMP command is the trap. These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt. therefore providing a level of security. Get-next: request the next value in a sequence. The three commands are: Get: request data from the device. Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network. Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager). Set: sends a configuration value to a device. 222 Specialized Solutions. A community can also restrict access. . This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager. The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents. Inc.

TRACERT. Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis. Inc.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. and TCP/IP events and errors. serious (!). Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names. TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. Specialized Solutions. shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination. Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics. and normal (i). Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table. Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses. ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it. Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred). This includes critical system errors. but did not cause a stop. Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. 223 . Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports. Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table.

and typing in either cmd or command. clicking Run. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar. 224 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address. IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain. For example. NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain.1. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host. the IP of a host might be 192. PING The lowest level test to find out if you have connectivity to a remote host. Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client.12. Specialized Solutions. NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified.168.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer. Inc. NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address. and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address. and will display the current configuration of a computer. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter. Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once. Ping works at the IP level. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain. IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration. 225 .

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 226 Specialized Solutions.

227 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc. Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition Specialized Solutions.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

3. . You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2. List as many as you can.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 9 1. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. Inc. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network. each device will need to be _________ compliant. 228 Specialized Solutions.

Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user. before you set up the network. User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access. creating chaos and costing thousands. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. data encryption. Inc. Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company. you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems. is right up front. Very few users will have access to administrative features. from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files. can deliberately damage your network. Therefore. Most users will also be able to access shared files. Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change. As you might have already deduced. unless safeguards are built in. motivated by curiosity. Whether the sabotage is malicious. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. or an irresponsible prank. A disgruntled employee. 229 . of dollars. anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. or anyone who has access to your network for that matter. Specialized Solutions. or even millions. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. The best time to set up your network security. Users should be held accountable for the security of their individual workstations. A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords. depending on the roles they play in your company. or at least have your plan intact. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created).Chapter 10 – Network Security Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network. she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of her particular network. Password practices and procedures. the results can be devastating.

should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system. It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality. In a manner similar to the signature on a document. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place. authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source. The user can edit the file as necessary. Inc. . passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users. Users can access a shared resource. such as a template or another type of file. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file. However. the user will be inclined to be less attentive to personal security. where the administrator can easily retrieve it. among other things. Password protection is.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process. while the original file remains intact. 230 Specialized Solutions. a gesture of respect for the user and the system. and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security.

Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Security Specialized Solutions. 231 . Inc.

Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. It is an important part of a network security plan. or auditing. but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. you would block port 80. or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. and work at the application level. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network. and even more often on larger networks. if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. at the very least. 232 Specialized Solutions. you will most likely be using E-mail. Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network. they can be host-based. For example. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter. As the system administrator. This needs to be handled in such a way that production will not be interrupted. you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs. and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. Inc. Files need to be backed up daily. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system. by forwarding application traffic through the firewall. If you are accessing the Internet from your network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs. .

offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other. for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity. Inc. it is still a viable option. 233 . the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk. Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. Floppy disk capacities today. which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available. This backup medium is suitable for small companies. If anything happens to one. range from 1. those who fail to plan. In addition. so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security. As you might guess. you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups. While planning your backup strategy. plan to fail. Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today. These multiple disks are called disk arrays. It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. and the procedure to follow for recovery. Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. Ideally. called the backup medium. the second server should serve as a backup to the first. Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. and are more commonly known as RAID. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. you must answer important questions about what to backup. Remember.44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. There are several options available. the other can take over without compromising network operations. As a computer professional. Although slower than RAID.Chapter 10 – Network Security It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. Specialized Solutions. so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations. rather than one larger server. and how often backups will be performed. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). how the backup information will be tested.

Differential.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient. 234 Specialized Solutions. This usually involves some degree of redundancy. When recovering from a failure. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server. . Inc. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups. This method will take the largest amount of storage media. and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full. as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. will backup all selected data on the network. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. as its name implies. To restore. is called fault tolerance.. This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed. Full. This type of backup is usually performed weekly. the last full backup and all of the incremental backup tapes will be needed. Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations. despite the presence of hardware or software failures. Differential and Incremental. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space. A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk. Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk. The Full backup. but will be the easiest to restore. but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. both the last differential backup tape copy and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used.

including Novell NetWare. this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent.Chapter 10 – Network Security The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 . Inc. administrators are alerted when one disk fails so that they can “regenerate” the RAID set before another disk has a chance to fail. which provides for even more fault tolerance. If more than one disk is lost. Typically. such as a single file. The same data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure. However. RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme. 235 .Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 . If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up. is not being used commercially at the moment to an Specialized Solutions. This technique may be applied in either software or hardware.Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 . if anything happens to one of the drives. Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies. then the data in the entire array is also lost.Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 .Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks.Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 . (Provides no fault tolerance. and is a standard feature of RAID systems. With this method. so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping. the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved. however. This. this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful. a copy of the data is spread across all of the disks based on a mathematical formula such that any one disk in the set can be lost and the other disks will have a copy of all of the information that it contained. support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing.” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data. Several operating systems.Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 .) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide large degree. is like RAID-10. which allows for better performance. also called surge suppressors. the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. These types of RAID are not as commonly used and are not as likely to be on the test. as you might guess. . Cost. It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests. Inc. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array). In this case. it offers better performance. A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. and sags in the power supply. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power. It functions faster. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI). There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. Like RAID-10. Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached. surges. An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. since it is not dependent on another computer. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity. but at a greater cost. The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. There are different types of UPS devices. SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. such as battery time remaining. is an issue. allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. 236 Specialized Solutions. RAID-53. and each type provides power for a different length of time. but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized.

personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. no matter who they are. an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis. and numbers. and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas. Passwords should be changed more frequently in high-security networks. In order for this policy to be effective. Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed. include characters. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being applied. 237 . No one. he or she will know how to accomplish the task.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network. but are easy enough that users can remember them. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them. The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters and use a combination of letters. Specialized Solutions. should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there. This holds users accountable for their actions on the network. If the network administrator needs to use the workstation. numbers and symbols. Inc. symbols. So. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. etc. Some “classified” networks require password changes every day. This is known as a security audit. Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others.” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days. and troubleshoot before the trouble starts. away. Users working with sensitive information such as budgets. There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). can understand the message. DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data. and is used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking. other than the person for whom the message was intended. Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient. Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. the Internet is not the most secure of environments. This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem. These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. . 238 Specialized Solutions. Even with encryption. DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used. This method uses a 56-bit private key. Inc. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. The name comes from their first initials. and Leonard Adleman. The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon. Adi Shamir. It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest.

Chapter 10 – Network Security Extra data appended to a message. which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption. There are over 60. Symmetric Keys can also be used. It is similar to DES. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed. much less a day. Many viruses are simple annoyances. 239 . It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. both on location and at backup sites. The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. software from unknown origins. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method. it is not a completely secure encryption method. Specialized Solutions. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. will ensure a much quicker recovery. There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex. As the name implies. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. With this method of encryption both parties have the same key. If the receiver wishes to respond. the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. and bulletin boards.000 known viruses. They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. Viruses can be spread by various sources including: shareware. Inc. Prevention should also be addressed in the plan. The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. which is used to encrypt data and to decrypt it. is called a digital signature. but they are less secure. Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip. Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters. The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key. but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. files downloaded from the Internet. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages.

Make sure it is compatible with all of the operating systems that you use. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site. they mean that when you open a document you are running a program. there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market. Macro Virus: These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened. The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files). they will go to work on the system. If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes. Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks. but when loaded. . With this in mind. Hundreds of viruses are written each month. many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet. Use extreme caution when you download files. Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. These days. (prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk). 240 Specialized Solutions. just from running a program. Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs. (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail). Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines. Keep your anti-virus program updated. enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing a new operating system. It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document. Inc. Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world.

Inc.Chapter 10 – Network Security Specialized Solutions. 241 .

. Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 242 Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc.

What are the three common levels of RAID? 6. 243 . In a share level model. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Specialized Solutions. 3. 5. What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2. The acronym RAID stands for __________. Inc.Chapter 10 – Network Security Review Questions Chapter 10 1. What is the function of a firewall? 4. passwords are assigned to __________.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks. Remember. “as reported. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. For those who must endure the struggle. identify the affected area. The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now. It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier. What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. not the symptom. computers never fail at a convenient time. you will most likely be called when there is a problem. a pen (or pencil). not when all is well. 245 . Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned. As a troubleshooter. In order to do this. The eight parts are as follows: establish the symptoms.Conclusion Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. establish what has changed. In most cases. a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you. This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems. After all.” is really just the symptom and not the true cause. if you are the expert. but they often hold the keys to the problem. If fact. Specialized Solutions. Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause. The user of the computer or network is your best source of information. while for others it is a struggle. Inc. Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. To make matters worse. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution. it seems well defined by the person who calls and complains! But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. you are looking for the cause. Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. you must be organized. test the result. and progress with some specific tools that you can employ to simplify the process. you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. implement a solution. They always fail in the middle of a job. and good listening skills. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. Remember. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software. troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. select the most probable cause.

The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work toward the more complex. Sometimes. If possible. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience. and most importantly. Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know. have someone demonstrate the failure to you. but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure. The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. and so forth). One thing that might 246 Specialized Solutions. This will take time and patience. have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory. the process of elimination is all that you can do.) Show me how to create the error. Be sure to observe the failure yourself. You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. With a little experience. and when. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever. For example. screen changes. If it is an operatorinduced problem. Describe any changes in the computer (noise. the failure occurs. however. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before. These never seem to occur when you are present. or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of the failure. recent software upgrade. The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that caused the failure. network or computer moved. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation. Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works. . Inc. as well as the results. do not intimidate the user. Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure. it is important to observe how it is created. lights. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones. Do not make the questions too technical. You will need to create your own list based on the situation. You may.

Once a plan is created. but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration.Conclusion help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. and move forward. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. make a plan and follow it. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up. create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. but you cannot receive any E-mail. If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be). is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly. Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. write them down. Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems. Starting from the top. For example. It requires two simple steps. If you must make any assumptions. Document every action and its results. Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made. 247 . then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. If for example. isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user Specialized Solutions. you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood. it is important to follow it through. Do not make any assumptions. Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. Inc. That way the “evidence” is not disturbed. but to call you. then you know for sure that the network is physically working. You may have to refer back to them later. The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. In the case of a network problem.

the problem may be caused by the operator. To resolve these types of problems. It is important to use another operator. 248 Specialized Solutions. Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. if the problem is software or configuration related. Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities. Inc. and not the hardware or the system. With hardware. if an operator is afraid of computers in general. be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Once the search has been narrowed. Implement the solution. Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures. no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed. However. In these situations. it may require some additional effort. you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem). you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. Note: If the problem is software-oriented. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work). This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome. Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems. as well as the one that is causing problems. either repair or replace the defect. repair or replacement is usually all that is needed. you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. In these cases. This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how. For example. start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not.

Inc. Specialized Solutions. and the repair. This is one way to build. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle. The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem. and share experience. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction. Document the solution Finally. You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms. In troubleshooting. there is no substitute for experience. Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists. maintain. Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again. The basis for this policy is that once the system is running. document the problem and the repair. 249 . Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user. You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience.Conclusion Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. or a follow up call just to make sure all is well. the problem.

Inc. let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling. Punch Down Tool 250 Specialized Solutions. Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals. They secure the connection between the wires and the block. Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network. . Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools. The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician. Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack. a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier.

Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. very easy to troubleshoot. Network cabling is. If the wire is broken. a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red). you can have only one of two problems. in principle. We will start by looking at a multimeter. Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. In a wire for example. which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other. the circuit is broken.Conclusion Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires. 251 . a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete. An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other. we will have to know how to test for continuity. If your meter does not have a continuity setting. whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. it is still possible to test for continuity. If the test is negative (no light or noise). When working with network cabling. For example. All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device. These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. as well as the electrical power in the computer. it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. resistance. You can test for AC and DC voltage. Inc. The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters. These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted). Specialized Solutions. With it you can test various electronic components. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps). Some meters will let you test for current as well. which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured. Since it is made up of wires. and continuity. The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe. the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing. Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician should have one. However. The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator. Inc. this is not a problem. thus locating the wires. to find pairs of wires in a bundle. You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end. and test at the other end. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. there are more often than not. it will emit a tone. testing for continuity will require an additional wire. If both ends are in the same location. Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. . The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky. The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). 252 Specialized Solutions. several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel). The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. these tools are often called a fox and a hound. However. This applies a signal on the wires. When used together. if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building. called tone generators and tone locators.

It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. Be careful when using a crossover cable. Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters. are usually a PC with a special network card. because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable. there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment.Conclusion Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. 253 . but is double-ended. These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. It has the transmit and receive wires connected. the location of any break or short can be determined. The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions. By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. Specialized Solutions. and therefore back to the network card. If you are able to send a signal and have it return. Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic. capture packets and generate reports. A crossover cable is similar to a loopback. Inc. A loopback cable is just what the name implies. Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable. you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning. They will monitor network traffic. also called packet sniffers. Software analyzers. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa). Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire.

254 Specialized Solutions. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR. but used for fiber optic cabling. OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back. .

If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate. you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. the network. For some reason.Conclusion Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors. Some passwords are case-sensitive. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail. A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. 255 . You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so. Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam. It could be the processor. This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network. or a disk resource. and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors. but can be caused by a disconnected cable. The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network. Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords. the traffic is not moving. due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck. Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. Inc. Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security. Therefore. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact.

tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night. You must defragment the drive. and moves information. As networks grow. the network slows down. If slow loading persists even after defragmenting. . deletes. When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it. Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 256 Specialized Solutions. For example.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves. check for memory bottlenecks. You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives. These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours. so does the traffic. Inc.

On a Windows 95/98 computer. This will test the protocol stack in the computer. but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities. The first step is to PING the loopback address. It also lets you know the time that it takes. The loopback address is 127. you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu. PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG.0. Specialized Solutions.0. you will use it often. If you are using TCP/IP. Inc.Conclusion Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network. Remember this address. On a Macintosh system. PING. This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on your intranet or on the Internet your packet is going. TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination. because as a network professional. and TRACERT commands to test the network.1. 257 . These commands work from a command prompt.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195. or 2003 system. Inc. WINIPCFG. . This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT. your dialog box will look like the following.55. WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly.48. If you are using Windows.6. XP. 258 Specialized Solutions. 2000.

you receive a message like the following. you will be testing a larger portion of the network.Conclusion PING 195. 259 . Usually this means you have the wrong IP address.55. It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network. Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol. With each step. then there is a problem with the protocol.6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation. Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems. For the IPX/SPX networks. they must be okay.48. and so on. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday. PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer. Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: Specialized Solutions. use the ipxping command. Inc. If at any stage. you have encountered a problem. the server.

Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector. we learned that workstations. Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory. How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution. One is the IP address number. you can be sure that the network is not being detected. (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). If no lights are on. Beyond that. suspect a loose or disconnected cable. You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address. If present.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer. have two names. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name.” With nslookup. The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS. If there is a sudden change in performance. respectively. To resolve this problem. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. while green lights indicate that all is well. Earlier. we need to look at four limiting factors on performance. Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. or hosts. That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. the first thing to do is find out what has changed. The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details. but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow. you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup. If these files are being used. Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. 260 Specialized Solutions. In general. Inc. . These are text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses. they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network.

are negligible. it can send data at a faster than rated speed. 261 . For example. Specialized Solutions. Resolving performance problems can be easy. Just like our highway. but are interrelated. Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory. or maximum speed that traffic can move. Therefore. and average time to print the document. you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. To create a baseline. if any one component is performing poorly. is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. for the most part. everything slows down. if you are experiencing slow printing. Inc. Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays. but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. it will affect the entire network. The speed limit. adding to the network load. A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache. From this information. you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed. the more packets that can be moved). The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps).Conclusion Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing. You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information. at a later date. Then. you will know the high. after you identify the problem. For example. This means that for a small amount of time. This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. Latency Small delays in packet movement that are caused by devices is called latency. Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. if the traffic gets too congested. slow. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. Latency delays. This can slow down data transfer. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation. The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now. The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system. Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. The answer lies in creating a performance baseline.

Windows has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools. percent of network utilization. you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself. With this activated. Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. available memory. Windows Performance Monitor 262 Specialized Solutions. With this tool. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events. you will be able to monitor such events as processor time. Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. etc. To collect these statistics. Inc. . etc.

Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition Specialized Solutions. 263 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Conclusion KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc.

. After repairing a problem. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Conclusion 264 Specialized Solutions. Inc. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10. and think it might be shorted. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slowly. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3. What is the loopback IP address? 7. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4. You have just connected a workstation to the network. You have located the cable in question #3. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8. What tool would you need to find the short? 5.

We love to hear from our students. start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course. we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. Remember. our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range. be sure to review any areas that need improvement. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material. 265 . Specialized Solutions. and don’t forget to use the Glossary. as you like. you are ready to sit for your certification exam. To measure your retention of these materials. or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. and as often. After taking a practice exam. so if you have any questions. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. When you are ready to schedule your exam.Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. at Specialized Solutions. be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site. the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. Inc. Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs.

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• • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Specialized Solutions. Inc. It is expressed in ohms. Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same.Appendix A – Tech Summary Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing coaxial Ethernet cabling. They are specified based on their impedance. you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. 267 . Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. Only 3 segments can contain nodes. Maximum of 4 repeaters.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core. Length (meters) Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment Max Segments Max. such as cable television. but also used for broadband transmissions. Broadband transmission. Military specification of RG-58 A/U. Description Stranded wire core. RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max. Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59. . ArcNet networks. Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 10Base5 Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Bus 500 10 100 5 4 10Base2 Bus 185 10 30 5 4 3 268 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Two STP –26 AWG wire. 269 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Voice-grade cable.5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Plenum grade. IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks. Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG. Data grade up to 100 Mbps. Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet).Appendix A – Tech Summary UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps. Same as type 1. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Specialized Solutions. Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch. Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch. Six twisted pairs. Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps. but adds voice capability along with data. Not Defined Two 62. Two STP – 26 AWG wire. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Contains a shield for use under carpets. Inc. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet).

.4 802.5 802. Inc.11 802.7 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802.12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 270 Specialized Solutions.10 802.x Standard 802.1 802.6 802.9 802.3 802. 802.2 802.8 802. They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model.

Inc. No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually Specialized Solutions. COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs. COM4 COM1. 271 . there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed. The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2. however.Appendix A – Tech Summary IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer.

LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 272 Specialized Solutions.LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F . . Inc. The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address.

273 .Appendix A – Tech Summary 3A0 to 3AF 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Repeaters Computers Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address. .x to 223. Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001.534 254 274 Specialized Solutions.0.0 255. x.x.x 192.214 65.0.x.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Gateways Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Brouter Bridges Switches NICs.777.152 Number of Host 16.255.0.x. Hubs.x. Inc.x.0 255.384 2.255.255.x to 191.x 128.097.x.x.x to 126. x.x Default Subnet Mask 255.x.x.x.0 Number of Networks 126 16.

Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks. the subnet address.0. Inc. Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses). If all is well.Appendix A – Tech Summary TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the Linux user’s network interface configuration. PING ARP RARP Specialized Solutions.0. Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. it will return. 275 . the subnet mask.1) to test the IP architecture and configuration. and default gateway. Use the loopback address (127. Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address. Sends a test packet to a specified address.

Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents. all computers are connected in a series. 276 Specialized Solutions. ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it. Used to check the status of current IP connections. In a star topology. . Used to verify the route to a remote host. Used to check the resolution of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses. NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology. all computers are connected to a hub.) Used to verify entries on a DNS server. (Pronounced Trace Route.

In a mesh topology. Specialized Solutions. all computers are logically connected in a circle. all computers are connected to each other. 277 .Appendix A – Tech Summary In a ring topology. Inc.

Protocol Analyzer 278 Specialized Solutions. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks. Inc. resistance. Also called a network analyzer. and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry. TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. Can also be used for precise voltage measurements.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages. Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. . An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals.

Event Viewer SNMP Specialized Solutions. servers. hubs. and networks. Displays or prints a list of events. and bridges). Inc. 279 .Appendix A – Tech Summary Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations. Used to provide information for network baselines. routers. Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers. interface cards.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 280 Specialized Solutions.

microsoft.com Other Helpful Sites http://www.com Specialized Solutions. Inc.novell.cnet. 281 .com Novell http://www.Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 282 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

For additional information. ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below). Specialized Solutions. Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector. This is a common code for basic characters and numbers. it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set.Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. As its name implies. CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. Inc. 283 . In the computing industry. It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. let alone the networking industry. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry. search for these organizations on the Internet. EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. it is responsible for establishing standards for communication. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards. This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry. Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes.

Inc. Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused. the IEEE is subdivided into committees.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. . its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language. As long as both are SQL compliant. 284 Specialized Solutions.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment. As you may guess from its name. See Appendix A for a summary of the 802. This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards. These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model.x committee. the data can be smoothly transferred.x sub-committees. Inc. ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product. Since they cover a wide variety of equipment. The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802.

Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers. go to www. or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer. and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE.com for Prometric or www. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like. Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test. credit card or voucher. Method of payment. Prices subject to change without notice. 285 . Inc. either by credit card.com for VUE.vue. please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number.2test. To register via the Internet. Payment is made at the time of registration. When you call. Specialized Solutions. Date you wish to take the test. Payment must be made each time you take the test.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 286 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. or computers on the network (nodes). A dedicated server for applications. Inc. or bits per second (bps). Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. it supplies functions to applications. opposite of digital.Appendix E – Glossary Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. The highest layer of the OSI Model. The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies. usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). A continuously variable signal. these three terms are often used interchangeably. The file server on an AppleTalk network. American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. Software. The Apple networking protocol. Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. program. so they can communicate with other applications or nodes. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. 287 . Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. Hardware that connects one network with another. GM. A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems. Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances. A bus driver. A form of mobile computing. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address 288 Specialized Solutions. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals). British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. IP Address used by very large networks. or DEC. . IP Address used by medium-sized networks. these are all in use at the present time. The signal flow is uni-directional. such as Microsoft. An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC. such as IBM.

called a server. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media. itself. 289 . or Cyclic redundancy Code. The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable. at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level. Software used by the client. Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption Specialized Solutions. from computer or network to another. Same as a hub. The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. Cyclic Redundancy Check. using a specific protocol.Appendix E – Glossary Client Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable User computer “being served” by another computer. or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. is a number derived from. to allow other tasks to run. A form of multitasking. or language. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. Data that is encoded for security reasons. stored. which is. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. Inc. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor.

this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data. for sending on the Physical layer.A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients. It also receives acknowledgement frames. DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. such as an individual file. which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 290 Specialized Solutions.) Being able to recover data from a disaster. so that one can take over for the other if it fails. This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. in a round-robin fashion. It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one. When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. Also called data striping. Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency. the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk. so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives. Inc. . (Simple “on” or “off” signal. A limited form of bus mastering. The Data Link layer splits data into frames.

Appendix E – Glossary DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. 291 DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex . and other control information. File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network. A group of bits containing address information. An improved version of X. Inc.25 packet switching technology. Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits. File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once. error detection. A network’s central computer. A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received. A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard. Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. sent over a communications channel. Specialized Solutions. with a very large amount of storage space for shared files.

HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. using different protocols.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway A computer that acts as a translator. GSNW Half-Duplex Header HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address 292 Specialized Solutions. Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). to communicate with each other. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol. RFC 792. even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. star. . A network topology that combines bus. Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture. is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages. It precedes the actual data. defined in STD 5. Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. and informational messages related to IP. Inc. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5. but only one at a time. and other information. The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses. test packets. that enables two networks. is usually represented in dotted decimal notation. or ring topologies. RFC 791.

Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC. data. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer. a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology. Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator. Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice. it’s “hardware address. and video data sources. across a network connection. Specialized Solutions. Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer.Appendix E – Glossary IPCONFIG IPsec IRQ DOS command that tells you the IP address for your computer. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network. 293 ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU . A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring.” Server used for E-mail. Inc. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver. A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data. Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk.

a 32-bit bus. A method of data transmission. A type of hub. among others. Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS. Provides the physical connection to the network cable. MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems. and is used by CompuServe. Also known as a network interface card. protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide MCA Bus Micro Channel Architecture. Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card 294 Specialized Solutions. .400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS). totally incompatible with the original PC bus. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. Performing multiple tasks simultaneously. Much like your local radio station. introduced by IBM for its PS/2 computer line. Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X. Single Frequency Radio. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission.

The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network. A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards. A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. including network connectivity. The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. Specialized Solutions. Acts as a connection point only. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). Inc. A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources. A generic term used to describe a unit of data. Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet. They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network. 295 Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card . Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network. A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. depending on the protocol. Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model.Appendix E – Glossary Network Administrator Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network.

Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 296 Specialized Solutions. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network. used to circulate air through a building. The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack. . Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model. and even if a process takes full control.1. such as a printer or scanner. which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server. The space between the ceiling and the floor above. other processes will still run. The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Peer-to-Peer Performance Monitor All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server. Dedicated server for printing. this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking. many third-party applications are available. A hardware device. The Presentation layer formats data exchange. depending upon the needs of the user. Defines a channel between a device and the processor.5 of Windows 3. Although included as part of Windows NT. converting character sets and encrypting data. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning. and running on TCP/IP. Inc.

the devices are connected in a continuous loop. In a Ring topology.Appendix E – Glossary Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection. i. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. 297 . The signal is beamed towards a central unit. A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network. Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. Connector used with UTP and STP network cables. For example. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network. which then routes the signal appropriately. to be accessed via a modem. the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. A device that forwards packets between networks. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN Specialized Solutions. For example. the proxy server. The services or peripherals that are shared over the network. In Token-Ring networks. including support for dialup and logon. Redirects a call from one port to another. Inc. Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors.e. Used to increase cable distances in network environments. Connector used with standard telephone wire.

SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. Inc. as opposed to duplex. is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP). Software that resides on a server. Transmission rates are slower with this type. Simple Network Management Protocol. A uni-directional data channel. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use. RFC 1157. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol. until it reaches the receiver. usually over Ethernet. normally used on Ethernet. was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. A computer on a network that provides services to other computers. etc. SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP 298 Specialized Solutions. The Session layer handles such things as security authentication. acknowledgments (ACK). Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. ceilings. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. . A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. defined in RFC 1055. as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. data transfer. the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15. to be used over a serial link.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. connection establishment and release. Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another.

that uses a large diameter. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings. Using binary addition.5 Standard) environment. A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing. or across large flat open areas. the entire network goes down. so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms. measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). 299 SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk . Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5. Specialized Solutions. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. such as bodies of water or deserts. The maximum speed that “traffic” can move. An access method used in a Token Ring topology. Maximum segment length is 500 meters. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters. Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol. A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. If the hub fails. the official protocol of the Internet. The process of subdividing a network into logical units.Appendix E – Glossary SONET Spread-Spectrum Radio Synchronous Optical Network Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. Inc.

Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments. RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer. thus locating the wires. defined in STD 6. Used on transceivers. and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. Inc.” A receiver set to the frequency of the generator. it will emit a tone. like TCP. which. The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information. The “fox. this applies a signal on the wires. A device that transmits and receives data. A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. The “hound. . Tool for stripping and cutting wire Tone Locator TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 300 Specialized Solutions. User Datagram Protocol. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet).” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface. The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport. Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding. is layered on top of IP.

AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks. resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address.Appendix E – Glossary WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves. such as Token Ring. Inc. A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. 301 . using zones Zones Specialized Solutions.

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7. Simple to install. and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less). 2. Specialized Solutions. Review Questions Chapter 1 1. A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. 4. Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area. What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources. loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations. 6. Inc. such as data. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. 5. 303 . It is confined to a limited area. applications. data backups can be more easily and routinely performed. and peripheral devices. Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security). configure. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Files are easily accessed by all users. What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use. LANs typically also have much faster communication speed than WANs. No security. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server). like one office). 3. A WAN is not geographically limited. Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers.

Inc. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see. Name the three basic topologies. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. Centralized location of resources (server). The three basic topologies are: Bus. Increased performance on large networks. 2. and Ring. More difficult to install and configure. They represent what the topology looks like. File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. 12.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 8. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. Centralized administration. Ease of data backups. Some NOSs function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. 304 Specialized Solutions. Can be expanded as network grows. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment. 10. Star. Token Passing. Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. . What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. 9. 11. Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). and Demand Priority. Review Questions Chapter 2 1.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. and file and print services. 305 . web-publishing. redirecting them to the server. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. servers. Inc. 4. 5. NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. 64 MB RAM. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. 6. and volumes is also handled with NDS. 8. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. Define interoperability. It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments. messaging. 7. Organization of network resources such as users. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. management. groups. routing. 9. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. 550 MB of free hard drive space. What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. name service. Specialized Solutions. Unlike NetWare. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one.

2. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 10. FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. 13. 125 MB free hard drive space.What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems. Session. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. and Physical 3. Review Questions Chapter 3 1. 11. Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). . Name the seven layers of the OSI model. Inc. Data Link. Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 306 Specialized Solutions. Network. Transport. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. Presentation. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 14. 12.1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network. Application. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU. What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals. What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 15. 16 MB RAM.

simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. It is a computer’s physical address. 11. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? D3-B4-01 14. 13. managing. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. Inc. 9. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. Network Layer 6. What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer Specialized Solutions. 307 . Data Link layer 5. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 4. Physical 10. and ending connections? The Session layer 12. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. This is not the actual application or program. Presentation layer 7. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Which OSI layer is responsible the MAC address? The Data Link layer 8.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 15. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence, without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 16. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 17. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. 18. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802.2 19. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. They are incompatible with each other. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com, while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. 20. Describe protocol binding. In order to function, a protocol must be bound to the NIC. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 21. Which is faster, connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster, but connection-oriented communication is more reliable. 22. . Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. AppleTalk, DECnet, IPX/SPX, PPP, PPTP, SLIP, SMB, SNA, TCP/IP, UDP, X.25, XNS 23.. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Will this work? Why or Why not? 308

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol.

Review Questions Chapter 4

1. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. 5. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. 6. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above, which is used to circulate air in a building). Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned, which would end up being circulated throughout the building. 7. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 10. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs, which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. 11. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. However, it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. 13. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths, segment lengths of up to several miles, and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. 15. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. 16. Describe baseband. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. 17. Describe broadband. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable, making the signal flow unidirectional. 18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way, can receive but not send. For example, a pager. Half-duplex communication can send or receive, but not at the same time. For example, a CB radio. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. For example, the telephone. 310 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 19. What is the function of a network adapter card? Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network. (They make the physical connection to the network.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. 20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers, including network connectivity. 22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network, to backup a cable-based network, to provide a mobile network environment, for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly, outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform. 23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared, Laser, Radio, and Microwave 24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. 25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally; Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances.

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority Specialized Solutions, Inc. 311

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). Specialized Solutions, Inc. 313

Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. data collisions are avoided. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist. 21. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data. 314 Specialized Solutions. 18. IEEE 802. It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds. Inc.5 says it travels clockwise. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network.3 standard 15. 19. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. It can be either depending upon how it is set up. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17. however. They are also called hermaphrodite connectors. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802. . Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. Describe a MIC connector. while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise.5 standard 16. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? The IEEE 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14. It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise. 20.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 22. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. It also provides a print server. If no other computer is using the address. it stores it to use each time it connects to the network. 4. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper. Inc. 5. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. 24. 25. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2. 315 . Specialized Solutions. 3. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it. etc. 23. 2. Review Questions Chapter 6 1. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers.

he intends to expand the network in the future. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. It will be less costly to install CAT 6 now than to replace the CAT 5 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps to handle the higher traffic. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. 316 Specialized Solutions. 9. However. but not enough to run it efficiently. Also. 2.com/windows/catalog. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. 8. but they are not all the same. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 6. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths. having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS. 7. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? Check the Windows Catalog on the web at www. Passive hubs are used only to make connections. An active hub requires some input power. Review Questions Chapter 7 1.microsoft. Why should you refuse this offer? First. .

Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model.A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. Callback Security. PPTP and L2TP 9. NetBEUI is not routable. Router . Frame Relay.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. a bridge. PPP. Name three advanced WAN environments. and a gateway. Auditing. 5.A router has all the features of a bridge. What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network. For example. 8. BAUD and bps were the same thing.A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment.Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. In older modems. 317 . Name three RAS protocols. 10. They do not translate or filter any information. Inc. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. Repeater . ISDN. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking). but it can switch packets across multiple networks.544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. Bridge . and SONET 7. amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables. They do however. Name four forms of RAS security. Security host. A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem. Define a repeater. Specialized Solutions. SLIP. BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem. and PPTP filtering. Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. Gateway . Not all network protocols will work with a router. 4. a router.

Internet and Network Interface. An example is http://www. IP. 7. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9. . 4. UDP. and ARP. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP. 8. SNMP. 2.microsoft. 32 10. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. 3. HTU UTH 6. FTP. SMTP. What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names. ICMP. Transport.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1.com. and HTTP. What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 318 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11) Specialized Solutions. Inc. 5.

ROUTE. U U U U 12. Specialized Solutions. each device will need to be _________ compliant. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3. NETSTAT and TRACERT. 319 . You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. 2. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment Review Questions Chapter 9 1. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status. Event Viewer. NBTSTAT. List as many as you can. Inc. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network.

What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password. What are the three most common levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 5 Striped array with parity 6. Inc. 320 Specialized Solutions. passwords are assigned to __________. 4. . What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. The acronym RAID stands for____________? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. In a share level model. Resources 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1. What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet. It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. 2. 5.

You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. You have located the cable in question #3.1 7. Isolate the Problem. Inc.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 11 1. 3. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. 8. After repairing a problem. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution. you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows. and think it might be shorted. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. Specialized Solutions. and Repair the Problem. 5. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables. The fox and hound. You have just connected a workstation to the network. WINIPCFG from the RUN command. 4. What is the loopback IP address? 127.0. 321 .0. 6. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. 2. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation.

What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slow. Inc. . 10. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 322 Specialized Solutions. Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted.

60 Broadband. 121 Application Layer. 116 100VG-AnyLAN. 16. 166 attenuation. 42 base memory address. 13 ARCNet. 50 application server.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Index 1 100BaseX. 114 10BaseFL. 196 Class B. 21 Carriers. 86 Beaconing. 67. 226 Digital. 78. 24 Address Resolution Protocol. 230 Differential backup. 226 Bandwidth. 114 10BaseT. 70 coaxial cable. 61 C Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD. 116 10Base2. 114 A access method. 109 CSNW. 161 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC). 96 brouter. 34 clients. 164 Class A. 89 Direct Memory Access (DMA). 189 domain controller. 70 DMA. 86 Broadband Optical Telepoint. 89 AppleShare. 119 binding. 39 AUI connector. 39 Circuit-switched. 79 AWG. 38 Client Software. 90 DLC. 78 Boot Prom’s. 67 demand priority. 108 Active Directory. Inc. 167 bridge. 231 BOOTP. 41 CSU/DSU. 65 BNC. 323 . 69. 217 ATM. 122 AppleTalk. 123 ARP. 91 Baseband. 42 active hubs. 77 Computer compatibility. 109 DES (Data Encryption Standard). 86 B backbone. 196 client software. 65 continuity. 52 Data Protection. 91 domain. 60 attributes. 196 Class C. 253 Banyan VINES. 160 Category 3. 40 Specialized Solutions. 78. 13 Clocking. 98 Change. 186 Analog. 108. 79 backup utility. 92 Boot Sector. 114 10Base5. 151 connection-oriented. 81 Category 5. 40. 111 D Data Link Layer. 191 BRI. 81 Cellular Networking. 89 cloud. 243 CSMA/CD. 34 DECnet.

71 ICS. 41 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). 61 Gateways. 194 IPCONFIG.Fiber Distributed Data. 56 324 Specialized Solutions. 231 EISA. 68. 231 fire codes. 192 IFCONFIG. 217 IMAP4. 96 Linux. 174 IPv6. 93 ISDN. 112 HOSTS file. 174 ICMP. 86 headers. 39 IP. 187 hubs. 249 IPsec. Inc. (IEEE). 67 IRQ. 185 IP address. 21. 96 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 42 Headers. 116 ground probe.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Domain Name Service (DNS). 215 F Fast Ethernet. 159 Gigabit Ethernet. 161 . 122 Event Viewer. 96 LAT. 197 IPX. 68. 62 Internet Control Message Protocol. 224 FPNW. 22 FAT. 18 I I/O port number. 41 Frame Relay. 83 File Infectors. 217. 166 fiber-optic. 186 Incremental backup. 174 L L2TP. K Kerberos. 114 EtherTalk. 167 ISDN adapters. 81 environment. 187 Full backup. 189 Domain Reflectometer (TDR). 39 Full-Duplex. 243 Group policies. 12 Laser. 86 firewall. 174 Line-of-Sight Infrared. 185 interoperability. 144 Ethernet. 191 HTTP. 226 Full Control. Inc. 60 E EES. 86 G gateway. 174 LAN. 167 FTP. 83 IBM Type 3 UTP. 191 gateways. 120 ICA. 39 fault tolerance. 41 H Half-Duplex. 70 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol. 93 EMI. 187 HTTPS. 186 Internet Protocol (IP). 191 dynamic routers. 42 GSNW. 91 IBM cabling. 157 hybrid topologies. 226 Infrared. 245 DSMN.. 226 FDDI . 91 ISA.

64 proxy server. . 89 Network Layer. 122 logical topology. 93 PCMCIA. 120 Microwave. 68 O ODI.Primary Domain Controller. 120 Multimeter. 67 NDIS. 37 NetWare Print Services. 242 325 Specialized Solutions. 157 PCI. 49 operating system. 86 PPP. 215 NetWare. 36 NetWare Client32 for OS/2. 39 NOS – Network Operating System. 217 PING. 114 LMHOSTS. 89 passive hub. 64 NDS (NetWare Directory Services). 172 Preemptive multitasking. 36 NetBEUI. 36 NetWare file server. 229 Patch Panel. 232 Managing User Accounts. 13 peer-to-peer. 107 protocols. 243 multitasking. 98 packets. 18 Ping. 37 MIB (Management Information Base).Multiple Access Units. 69 NLSP. 14 Peer-to-peer LANs. 36 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh. 23 media access methods. 49. 228 NFS. 167 protocol. 71. 171 NWLink. 190 NETSTAT. 39 Null-Modem. 151 Media Tester. 111 parallel communication. 243 mesh topology. 18 MHS. 30 N NAT. 18 LSL. 231 physical topologies. 120. 249 plenum. 32 P Packet switching. 43 Macro Virus. 215 NCP. 67 M Macintosh. 168 MSAU. 64 Open Systems Interface (OSI). 52 Network Neighborhood. 71. 36 NetWare Client32 for DOS. 41. 114 Network Time Protocol (NTP). 34 MAU. 191 LocalTalk. 213 MIC (Media Interface Connectors). 164 Packet-Radio Networking. 31 Network standards. 29 OS/2. 37 NetWare security. 67 No Access. 96 MLID. 31 PGP. 70 NETBIOS. 191 NBTSTAT. 21 Media Compatibility. 23 Passwords. 69 Network-attached storage (NAS). 29 NSLOOKUP. 172 PPTP. 157 MAUs . 36 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95. 93 PDC . 30 PRI. Inc. 192 Punch Down Tool. 37 Network Adapter Cards. 67 modem. 217 NTFS.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers LLC.

184 Telnet. 144 Remote Access Server or RAS. 232 troubleshooting. 68 Trojan Horses. 158 requester. 253 TLS. 58 . 228 STP. 237 trunk. 144 Server Software. 175 Security. 16. 33 servers. 65 RPC. 174 Standards. 225 repeater. 213 Simplex. 11 signal bounce. 69 ROUTE. 215. 118 topology. 69 terminator. Inc. 96 SDH. 68 SMDS. 96 RAID. 187 SNA.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide R Radio. 67. 225 TCP. 77 throughput. 159 routers. 79 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 17 static routers. 152 star topology. 34. 174 token passing. 13 Server-based network. 69. 16 serial communication. 79 thicknet. 21. 167 SPX. 167 security. 71. 167 SMTP. 182 UNIX. 80 virtual connections. 35 ring topology. 35 Reflective Infrared. 80 U UDP. 71 RSA. 68 326 Specialized Solutions. 77 Thinnet. 80 V vampire taps. 172 SMAU. 11 SNMP. 16 TRACERT. 60 Storage Area Network (SAN). 60. 79 Transport Layer. sneaker net. 67 SSL. 68. 42 User Datagram Protocol (UDP). 39 redirector. 96 relative humidity. 227 RARP. 86 SLIP. 109 token ring. 171 removable disks. 245 SONET. 34 server-based network. 68 Satellite Station Networking. 112 transceiver. 230 S SAP. 215 router. 89 Server room. 225 removable optical disk. 51 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 185 UTP. 16. 120 SMB. 221 segment. 17 RIP. 98 Scatter Infrared. 249 Trailer. 13 sharing applications. 71. 187 Software analyzers. 81 Subnetting. 60. 68. 16 twisted-pair. 217 Read. 199 T tape backup.

190 Wire Crimper. 92 workstation. 327 . 95 Wireless NICs.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Viruses. 19. 242 Wireless. Inc. 124 wireless network. 230 W WAN. 13 X X. 32 Windows 2000. 31 Windows NT Print Servers. 69. 71 XNS. 31 Windows for Workgroups. 40 U U WINS. 154 Windows 95/98. 166 XDR.25. 231 VLAN. 70 Specialized Solutions. 165 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks). 12 Warp Connect.

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