Network+ 2005 Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network+

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Copyright© 2004 by Specialized Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 338 East Tarpon Street, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. Publisher: Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Contributing Writers: Bill Ferguson Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Editor: Bill Ferguson

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Suggestions/Comments Please forward all comments or suggestions to: Specialized Solutions, Inc. 338 East Tarpon St. Tarpon Springs, FL 34689

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... I

ABOUT SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS ...........................................................IX
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+ .............................................................2005 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ..................................................................................................9 YOUR VIDEO INSTRUCTOR .................................................................................................9 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST ..................................................................................................10 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................10 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................10 ABOUT THIS COURSE .......................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS ..................................................17 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING ....................................................................................17 Benefits of Networking Computers .............................................................................17 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) .................................18 The Client/Server Relationship ...................................................................................19 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................19 Peer-to-Peer Networking ............................................................................................20 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).....................................................................21 Bus Topology ..............................................................................................................21 Star Topology..............................................................................................................22 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................22 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES ......................................................................................................23 Hybrid Topologies ......................................................................................................23 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................23 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................24 NETWORK ACCESS ...........................................................................................................26 Token Passing .............................................................................................................26 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................26 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................27 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS ...........................................................................................28 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................28 Active Hubs .................................................................................................................29 Hub-Based Networks ..................................................................................................29 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................30 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................31 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1 ....................................................................................33 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS) ....................................35 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? ..................................................................................35 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking .............................................................36 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)? ........................................................37 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................37 Server/Client Software ................................................................................................39 NOS PACKAGES...............................................................................................................42 Specialized Solutions, Inc. i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Novell NetWare .......................................................................................................... 42 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System................................................... 45 Windows NT Minimum Requirements ...........................Error! Bookmark not defined. UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................ 47 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service)................................................ 48 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 50 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................. 51 REVIEW QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................ 52 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS.......... 55 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION ..................................................... 55 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL ................................................................................ 56 Application Layer ....................................................................................................... 56 Presentation Layer ..................................................................................................... 57 Session Layer.............................................................................................................. 57 Transport Layer.......................................................................................................... 57 Network Layer ............................................................................................................ 58 Data Link Layer.......................................................................................................... 58 Logical Link Control (LLC) ....................................................................................... 59 Media Access Control (MAC) .................................................................................... 59 Physical Layer............................................................................................................ 60 PROTOCOL STACKS ......................................................................................................... 62 Communication Between Peer Layers ....................................................................... 62 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD ............................................................................................ 64 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL ....................................................................................... 66 Repeaters .................................................................................................................... 66 Bridges........................................................................................................................ 66 Routers........................................................................................................................ 66 Brouters ...................................................................................................................... 67 Gateways .................................................................................................................... 67 IEEE 802 STANDARDS .................................................................................................... 68 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL ...................................................................... 70 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)......................................................... 70 ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ................................................................................ 70 PROTOCOLS AND OSI ...................................................................................................... 70 Protocol Binding ........................................................................................................ 71 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless ................................................................... 71 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols ........................................................................ 71 Networking Protocols and Stacks............................................................................... 72 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................... 73 DECnet ....................................................................................................................... 73 IPX/ SPX..................................................................................................................... 73 SMB (Server Message Block) ..................................................................................... 74 SNA (Systems Network Architecture) ......................................................................... 74 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ....................................................................... 74 IP (Internet Protocol)................................................................................................. 74 UDP (User Datagram Protocol)................................................................................ 74 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) ..................................................................................... 74 ii Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Table of Contents Telnet...........................................................................................................................75 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................75 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................75 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................75 NTP (Network Time Protocol) ....................................................................................75 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) ...............................................................................75 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................75 X.25 .............................................................................................................................76 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................76 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................76 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................76 LAT (Local Area Transport) .......................................................................................76 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................77 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................78 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................78 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) ...................................................................................78 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) ................................................................78 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) ........................................................78 ISO/OSI Standard .......................................................................................................78 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ...............................................................78 DNS (Domain Name System) ......................................................................................78 XDR (External Data Representation) .........................................................................78 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................78 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................80 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................81 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................82 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................85 NETWORK CABLING .........................................................................................................85 Coaxial Cable .............................................................................................................85 Coaxial Connectors ....................................................................................................86 Twisted-Pair Cable .....................................................................................................88 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................91 Summary of Cabling ...................................................................................................93 CABLING TERMS ..............................................................................................................94 AWG (American Wire Gauge) ....................................................................................94 Bandwidth ...................................................................................................................94 Plenum Grade Cabling ...............................................................................................94 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................95 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)..............................................................................97 Preparing the Data .....................................................................................................97 Signals and Clocking ..................................................................................................97 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel) .................................................................................98 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................98 Configurable Options..................................................................................................98 Wireless NICs............................................................................................................100 Specialized Solutions, Inc. iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Fiber-Optic NICs...................................................................................................... 100 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................ 101 Standard Bus Types .................................................................................................. 101 Laptops ..................................................................................................................... 101 NETWORK PERFORMANCE ............................................................................................. 102 WIRELESS NETWORKS ................................................................................................... 103 Why Wireless? .......................................................................................................... 103 Wireless Transmission Methods............................................................................... 104 Radio Transmission.................................................................................................. 105 Satellite Station Networking..................................................................................... 106 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 108 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 109 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.................................................................................... 112 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS .................................. 115 ACCESS METHODS......................................................................................................... 116 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) .................... 116 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) ................... 117 Token Passing........................................................................................................... 117 Demand Priority....................................................................................................... 117 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS) ............................................... 119 Packet Structure ....................................................................................................... 119 Packet Components .................................................................................................. 120 NETWORK STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 122 Logical Link Control (802.2).................................................................................... 122 Ethernet (802.3)........................................................................................................ 122 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................. 129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)................................................... 131 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 133 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 134 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.................................................................................... 136 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.......................................................................... 139 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT ................................................................................... 139 The Customer ........................................................................................................... 139 The Network Goals................................................................................................... 140 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE ......................................................................................... 142 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer.................................................................................. 142 When to Choose Client/Server ................................................................................. 143 Making the Choice.................................................................................................... 144 Public and Private networks .................................................................................... 144 DESIGN THE NETWORK.................................................................................................. 150 Media Selection ........................................................................................................ 151 Environmental Concerns.......................................................................................... 152 NOS Selection........................................................................................................... 152 Protocol Selection .................................................................................................... 152 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER ............................................................................................ 154 Cable to Computer ................................................................................................... 154 iv Specialized Solutions, Inc.

.192 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols .................................172 VLAN.................................................................................................................166 Repeaters.............................................................................................................................................................186 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS ................182 Troubleshooting a RAS setup.165 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS....................178 Connecting Two Computers...................176 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS) ..............................................................................................................................................................189 RFC (Request For Comments)......................................................178 RAS Protocols ..................................159 PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ..............................................................................197 Specialized Solutions...............................................................................160 Standards ...............................................................................................................167 CONNECTION SERVICES ........................................159 Computer Compatibility.......................................................................................................................160 Hard Work ..............................................................................................................................................169 Analog Connectivity..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................184 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 .........................................172 Packet Switching Networks...........................................................................................................166 Routers .......................................Table of Contents Cable to Hub ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................164 CHAPTER 7 ......................................................................................................................167 Gateway ..........170 Circuit-switched Networks...........................194 NAMING SYSTEMS ..............................................................................................................155 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY .............................................................................197 DNS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................161 Minimum Requirements ........... v ...... Inc...................................................................................................................................................................................................EXPANDING A NETWORK ..........................................................................................................................179 Installing and Configuring RAS........................................................................................................................168 Carriers......................................................................169 Digital Connectivity ............................................................173 Advanced WAN Environments ..........168 WAN Overview....................................................................................183 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ..........................................182 Limitations of RAS ....................................165 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL .......................160 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS .................................................................................................................157 Adapter Card Compatibility ...............................................................................................174 MODEMS ...........................................................................................162 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 ...................................................................................................................................................................189 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS .......................................................................................................................................................................................166 Bridges .189 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP.....................................................................................................................................154 Network Adapter Cards .....................................................................161 HCL and Windows 2000 ........................................................................................................................................................................192 Other TCP/IP Protocols .............................................................157 Media Compatibility ...........................

................................................................................................ 229 vi Specialized Solutions.......................................................... 229 USER AND SHARE LEVEL ................. 203 Class A Addresses ............................................................................................................. 225 PING............................................................................................................................................. 227 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9....... 203 IPv6 (IP Next Generation) ................................................................................................................................... 223 ROUTE.. 203 Class D and Class E Addresses........................................................... 217 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8............. 202 IP Addresses ........ 199 BOOTP ........... 203 Class B Addresses ....................................................... 221 Agent Software ............................................. 222 Communities....... 223 NETSTAT ................................. 223 TRACERT.................................................................................................................................................................... 221 Management Software............................................................................................. ........... 199 IP Gateway .............................................................................................................................................................................SNMP ...... 223 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 199 LMHOSTS file .... 209 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 222 VALIDATION TOOLS ........................................................................................... 200 TCP/IP ADDRESSING.............. 199 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES ....................................................................................................................................... 225 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG .................................................................................. 228 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 223 NBTSTAT .. 225 ARP ............................ 219 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES.......................... 225 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 199 DHCP ........................................ 222 EVENT VIEWER ................................................................................... 215 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 225 NSLOOKUP.................................................................................................................................... 225 RARP............ 198 NETBIOS .......................................... Inc.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS. 202 IPv4 ............ 203 Class C Addresses .......... 205 SUBNETTING ................................................................................................................... 200 ICS ................................................................................................................................................ 207 How to Subdivide a Network ............................................................. 200 IP Proxy Servers................... 221 NETWORK MANAGERS ................................... 200 NAT.................... 198 HOSTS file................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 225 IFCONFIG.....................................................................

.............................................................................................................269 IEEE 802.........................................................264 CONCLUSION .232 Blocking Port Numbers...........275 TCP/IP UTILITIES ........................................................................260 Name Resolution .............................................................................................................................................................................................................260 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ...........................................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents User-level Security.............................................................................................245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .............................. and Incremental Backups ...........229 Share-level Security ............................................................234 Full................................................................................238 Disaster Recovery ...............................................269 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING) ................................................................................................273 SUBNET MASKING ...................232 Backing up Data .................................................................267 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES ..................................................................................................................................................................................232 Firewalls ...264 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY ............................236 PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES .............................................X STANDARDS...................................................................................... Inc.................................267 ETHERNET CABLING ..............................................................................275 Specialized Solutions....260 Performance..........................................................................................................................................................................234 Fault Tolerance and RAID..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................267 5-4-3 RULE .....................................270 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS ..........................................................232 Backup Options.................................................................................................................................................................................245 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING...................................................................................... Differential.....................................................................................................250 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools..................................................................................................................250 Hardware Networking Tools.255 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................274 TCP/IP PORTS ...........................................................................................................................251 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS .................................................................................................................................................................257 Cable Problems....................257 Misbehaving Protocols .........271 OSI MODEL .......................................................................................268 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES .....................................................................239 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .............233 Backup Software ..........................259 NIC Indicator Lights ............................................................................................................263 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11 ........................................................................................234 Volumes............................................................................242 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10 ....230 SECURITY TECHNIQUES ....................234 Fault Tolerance and Power ............................................................................. vii ......243 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK ...............................................................................................................................................................................................239 Viruses....................................................................................................................237 Encryption...........................................

.............................................................................................. 276 TRANSMISSION MEDIA ................................................................................. 319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10. 323 viii Specialized Solutions.................................... 281 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED................................................................................................................. 284 ISO....................................................................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2................................................ 284 SAG .............................. 284 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM.................................. 321 INDEX .................. 278 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ..................................................................... OTHER HELPFUL SITES ...................................................................... Inc........................................................... 311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6........................................................... 283 EIA .......................................................................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TOPOLOGY REVIEW .............................................. 318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9................................................................................................................ 283 CCITT ...................................................................................... 285 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS ........................................................................................................................................................ 309 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5...................................................................................................... 281 MICROSOFT: .................................... 287 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ...... 281 COMPUSERVE .......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1.............................................................. 278 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES ............................................... 320 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11.......................... 304 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3................. 281 NOVELL ...... 285 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY................................ 283 IEEE ........................... 283 ANSI.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7................................................................................................................. 316 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8....................................... 306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4..........

We strive to provide training programs that far exceed the expectations of our customers. We will always provide a quality product to customers at a price that is within reach of most computer professionals.specializedsolutions. Our highly skilled staff of computer and educational professionals are dedicated to delivering high quality. To see other Specialized Solutions. ix . We thank you for choosing our company as your resource for Information Technology SelfStudy Training. Inc. One hundred percent customer satisfaction and unmatched customer service is always our commitment to the computer professional. Inc. We are committed to always be on the leading edge of new computer environment training products.com Specialized Solutions.’s Network+ training and certification course. cost-effective programs that are customized to suit your needs.About Specialized Solutions About Specialized Solutions Welcome to Specialized Solutions. Specialized Solutions. course offerings. is dedicated to providing the computer professional the highest level of self-study training and certification materials the industry has to offer. please visit us at: www. Inc. Inc.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide x Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

Inc. Technical Editors. 1 . or as a textbook in a classroom environment. It can be used in conjunction with the Specialized Solutions. Network+ video training series.Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives. our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. Remember. We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! Specialized Solutions. We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program. as a stand-alone textbook. easy to follow format. at Specialized Solutions. Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals. and Digital Video Studio Professionals. Technical Writers. Computer Graphics Experts. We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical. Inc.

The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content. Inc.0 Network Support Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 25% 35% 100% 2 Specialized Solutions.0 Network Implementation 4.” The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1.0 Protocols & Standards 3. Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination.” “This examination includes blueprint weighting. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey. test objectives and example content.0 Media & Topologies 2.

and cable type) of the following cable standards: • 10BASE-T and 10BASE-FL • 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX • 1000BASE-T. 5. 1000BASE-CX. schematic or description: • Star • Bus • Mesh • Ring 1.5 Recognize the following media types and describe their uses: • Category 3.4 Recognize the following media connectors and describe their uses: • RJ-11 (Registered Jack) • RJ-45 (Registered Jack) • F-Type • ST (Straight Tip) • SC (Subscriber Connector or Standard Connector) • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) • Fiber LC (Local Connector) • MT-RJ (Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack) • USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1.0 .3 (Ethernet).Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: Domain 1. topology. 10 GBASE-LR and 10 GBASE-ER 1.Media and Topologies – 20% 1. and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) networking technologies.2 Specify the main features of 802. and 6 • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) • STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) • Coaxial cable • SMF (Single Mode Fiber) optic cable • MMF (Multimode Fiber) optic cable 1. including: • Speed • Access method (CSMA / CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) and CSMA / CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection)) • Topology • Media 1.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a diagram. 802.11 (wireless). 5e. 802. 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX • 10 GBASE-SR.2 (Logical Link Control). length. 3 .5 (token ring). features and functions of the following network components: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • Gateways • CSU / DSU (Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit) Specialized Solutions.6 Identify the purposes.3 Specify the characteristics (For example: speed. 802. Inc.

8 Identify the differences between private and public network addressing schemes.6 Identify classful IP (Internet Protocol) ranges and their subnet masks (For example: Class A. IPv6) and the required setting for connections across the Internet.0 – Protocols and Standards – 20% 2.10 Define the purpose. frequency. 2. antenna type and environmental factors).5 Identify the components and structure of IP (Internet Protocol) addresses (IPv4.1 Identify a MAC (Media Access Control) address and its parts. B and C).4 Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing. interoperability and naming conventions: • IPX / SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange / Sequence Packet Exchange) • NetBEUI (Network Basic Input / Output System Extended User Interface) • AppleTalk / AppleTalk over IP (Internet Protocol) • TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) 2. Domain 2. 2. Inc. transmission type and topology) of the following wireless technologies: • 802.7 Specify the general characteristics (For example: carrier speed.11x (Direct sequence spread spectrum) • Infrared • Bluetooth 1. . function and use of the following protocols used in the TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) suite: • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) 4 Specialized Solutions.7 Identify the purpose of subnetting.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model and their functions. addressing schemes.11 (Frequency hopping spread spectrum) • 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • NICs (Network Interface Card) • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) adapters • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) • Modems • Transceivers (media converters) • Firewalls 1. 2.8 Identify factors which affect the range and speed of wireless service (For example: interference. 2. 2. 2.9 Identify and differentiate between the following IP (Internet Protocol) addressing methods: • Static • Dynamic • Self-assigned (APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing)) 2.3 Identify the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) layers at which the following network components operate: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • NICs (Network Interface Card) • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) 2.

2. capacity and media) of the following WAN (Wide Area Networks) technologies: • Packet switching • Circuit switching • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) • T1 (T Carrier level 1) / E1 / J1 • T3 (T Carrier level 3) / E3 / J3 • OCx (Optical Carrier) • X.25 2. Zeroconf (Zero configuration). LPD (Line Printer Daemon) and Samba). 2. ICS (Internet Connection Sharing). Inc. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). AFP (Apple File Protocol). WINS (Windows Internet Name Service). NFS (Network File System).11 Define the function of TCP / UDP (Transmission Control Protocol / User Datagram Protocol) ports.13 Identify the purpose of network services and protocols (For example: DNS (Domain Name Service). NAT (Network Address Translation). SMB (Server Message Block).15 Identify the basic characteristics of the following internet access technologies: • xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) • Broadband Cable (Cable modem) • POTS / PSTN (Plain Old Telephone Service / Public Switched Telephone Network) • Satellite • Wireless Specialized Solutions.14 Identify the basic characteristics (For example: speed.12 Identify the well-known ports associated with the following commonly used services and protocols: • 20 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 21 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 22 SSH (Secure Shell) • 23 Telnet • 25 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • 53 DNS (Domain Name Service) • 69 TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • 80 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • 110 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) • 119 NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • 123 NTP (Network Time Protocol) • 143 IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • 443 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) 2. 5 .Introduction • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) • POP3 / IMAP4 (Post Office Protocol version 3 / Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • Telnet • SSH (Secure Shell) • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) • ARP / RARP (Address Resolution Protocol / Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) • NTP (Network Time Protocol) • NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) • IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) • LPR (Line Printer Remote) 2.

an authentication scheme.18 Identify authentication protocols (For example: CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). Inc. Domain 3.9 Identify the main characteristics and purpose of extranets and intranets.16 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services: • RAS (Remote Access Service) • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) • PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) • VPN (Virtual Private Network) • RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) 2. 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2.3 Identify the appropriate tool for a given wiring task (For example: wire crimper. configure the connection. 6 Specialized Solutions.1x 2. 3. authentication. benefits and characteristics of using a proxy service. punch down tool or tone generator).7 Given a connectivity scenario. network protocols and peer and server services). interoperability. 3. 3. and physical connectivity. PAP (Password Authentication Protocol).0 Network Implementation – 25% 3. Kerberos and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)).5 Identify the purpose. authentication and encryption).8 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks). .6 Identify the purpose.2 Identify the basic capabilities needed for client workstations to connect to and use network resources (For example: media.1 Identify the basic capabilities (For example: client support. application support and security) of the following server operating systems to access network resources: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. Includes connection to the following servers: • UNIX / Linux / MAC OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). media tester / certifier. 3. 3.4 Given a remote connectivity scenario comprised of a protocol. determine the impact on network functionality of a particular security implementation (For example: port blocking / filtering.17 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function: • IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Continued on the next page… Continued from the previous page… • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) • 802. RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service). file and print services. benefits and characteristics of using a firewall.

identify the utility and interpret the output. interference. Inc. protocol configuration. DNS (Domain Name Service) and WINS (Windows Internet Name Service)) for network resources and users.10 Identify the purpose. star.7 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology (For example: bus.12 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery: • Backup / restore • Offsite storage • Hot and cold spares • Hot. determine the impact of modifying. 4. 3.8 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving an infrastructure (For example: wired or wireless) problem. mesh or ring) and including a network diagram.3 Given a network scenario. identify the cause of the problem (For example: file services. authentication failure.0 Network Support – 35% 4. 7 . 4.1). Specialized Solutions. network hardware or environment). 4. identify the cause of a stated problem (For example: bad media. 4.4 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a client accessing remote network services. adding or removing network services (For example: DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).Introduction 3. 4. identify the cause of a stated problem: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 4.5 Given a troubleshooting scenario between a client and the following server environments. physical connectivity and SOHO (Small Office / Home Office) router). warm and cold sites Domain 4.6 Given a scenario. identify the network area affected and the cause of the stated failure.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario. print services.11 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance: • Power • Link redundancy • Storage • Services 3. benefits and characteristics of using antivirus software. select the appropriate network utility from the following: • Tracert / traceroute • ping • arp • netstat • nbtstat • ipconfig / ifconfig • winipcfg • nslookup / dig 4.2 Given output from a network diagnostic utility (For example: those utilities listed in objective 4. interpret visual indicators (For example: link LEDs (Light Emitting Diode) and collision LEDs (Light Emitting Diode)) to determine the nature of a stated problem.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. Select the most probable cause 5. . This strategy can include the following steps: 1. Establish what has changed 4. Test the result 7. Identify the affected area 3. select an appropriate course of action based on a logical troubleshooting strategy. Document the solution and process 8 Specialized Solutions.9 Given a network problem scenario. Implement an action plan and solution including potential effects 6. Identify the symptoms and potential causes 2. Inc. Identify the results and effects of the solution 8.

Hands-on experience is best. “My job is to understand the material so well that I can make it easier for my students to learn than it was for me to learn. and Security+. Alabama. Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge. Use the “Help” button where available. MCP+I. and CCNA. Your Video Instructor Your video instructor is Bill Ferguson. 9 . MCDST. Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. results oriented computer specialist who has extensive knowledge of Microsoft networks. Practice the function on your computer. Network+. if this is your first exposure to networking. Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary. In addition he holds the CompTIA certifications of A+. it may seem so.” Specialized Solutions. MCSE. Bill made his transition to Certified Technical Trainer in 1997 with ExecuTrain. such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. Bill has been in the computer industry for over 15 years.Introduction Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not extremely complicated. MCSA. He is certified as an MCT. Server+. Originally in technical sales and sales management with Sprint. Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding. not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation. CCSI. Bill says. teaching classes for most of the national training companies and some regional training companies. Bill now runs his own company as an independent contractor in Birmingham. Bill has written the “MCDST Study Guide” for Sybex Inc. In addition. To get the best results from your training. Inc. use a study plan. Bill is an enthusiastic. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented. However. as well as “Designing Security for Windows Server 2003 Network” for Exam Cram2.

YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Schedule the test for a few weeks from now so that you will have a guidepost that is constantly reminding you that you need to study the material. German. You can locate a testing center and schedule the test on the web. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find. How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam. The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book. CONGRATULATIONS. Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam. Inc. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive. except payment of the test fee. there is no one method that will work for everyone. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. There are no specific requirements. Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs.com) or any Thomson Prometric testing center (2test. 1999. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills. A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge. The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. You can also call VUE at 877-551-7587 or Thomson Prometric at 888-8956116. Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test. French and Japanese. • • • How do you learn best (reading. You can take the test at any Virtual University Enterprises testing center (vue. but A+ certification is not required.com). watching. Since most of us learn in different ways. hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 10 Specialized Solutions. You may be surprised at how near you are to a testing center! Evaluate your learning aptitudes. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English.

Introduction Make a plan to learn. This workbook will make this task much easier. If you need to. you want to begin to understand. It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point. Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time. Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course. Make an appointment with yourself. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. Review the video presentation one more time if necessary. set aside the time to learn. At this time. Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises. Inc. You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through. Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read. Use the rewind button as often as necessary. • Complete the course a second time. 11 . What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through. Re-read the test and review the video presentation. go though the entire course again. Based on your time to learn (and your schedule). just get a feel for it. Specialized Solutions. Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time.

The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them. Evaluate the questions you missed. All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam. You will be required to show two forms of identification. (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test. It is a closed book exam. If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in. You will be asked to sign the form. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted. You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. • • • • 12 Specialized Solutions. You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam. . Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam. Inc. including one photo ID.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature. The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer. which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test. Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam As you prepare for your certification exam it will be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure.

Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam. Keep track of the time and pace yourself. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you. self-study training system. skip it. At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered. It lists your score by objective. (such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. but be sure to read it in its entirety. The course contains five instructor led CD-ROMs. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides. you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam.Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials. mark it and come back to it. Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions.Introduction HINT . Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers. you can see which questions are not answered. Do not read too much into the question. ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam.) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system. (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. guess. Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. If you don’t know the answer. put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. Specialized Solutions. You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. or if you are unclear about what you should do. You will have plenty of time as long as you use it wisely. mark a question or answer a question. If you positively don’t know the answer. (You don’t need to send them the score report. Inc. which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass. you are given the ability to skip a question. Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! About This Course This Specialized Solutions Network+ course is a multi-media. you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score. If the administrator does not do this. answer the question. If you’re not quite sure. If you know the answer. marked or skipped. Usually. a Network+ Training & Test Preparation Guide and a practice exam simulator. Before retaking the exam. 13 .

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Video Chapters Include: CD 1: Introduction and Overview Network Topologies Network Technologies Cable Standards Media Connectors CD 2: Media Types Network Components Wireless Technologies Protocols and Standards The OSI Model IP Addressing CD 3: Ports Services WAN Internet Access Remote Access Security Protocols CD 4: Server Operating Systems Client Connectivity Tools for Networking Firewalls Proxy Service Network Connectivity Virtual Local Area Networks Antivirus Software Fault Tolerance Disaster Recovery CD 5: Troubleshooting Network Utilities Troubleshooting Network Services Troubleshooting Topologies Troubleshooting Strategy Preparation for a Certification Test 14 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Introduction This study guide is divided into 11 chapters. It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course. 15 . Inc. Specialized Solutions.

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files. a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files. peripherals. After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment. Through networking. a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data. and applications (resources). It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than to purchase a printer for every user. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents. Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking. You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN.” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service. Additionally. It is very important that. A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented. Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage.) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics.” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do. Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking. you understand exactly what a network is. Specialized Solutions. and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net. users can access programs. as a networking professional. Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources. Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need. 17 . This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment. An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?). But for our purposes.

it is still considered a LAN. or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. . A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network. The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits. 18 Specialized Solutions. When LANs are connected they create a WAN. A WAN can connect networks from building to building or across the world. the speed of communication between the computers is typically much faster in a LAN. Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function. Inc. The Internet is the world’s largest WAN. Also.

A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer. Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. A mainframe will handle all the functions. or a mail server (E-mail). It is important to know what a MAN is. These terms are not interchangeable. The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation. Inc. 19 . Users. A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. when the user is getting information from the server. The Internet has replaced most MANs today. that access would cause the workstation to become a server. it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals There is actually a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. and expandability. configuration and management may be more challenging. network security. if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access. but they are not common. including applications. since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client). Specialized Solutions. Also. However. there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity. For example. efficiency in backing up the data. including hard disk space and RAM. also known as clients. The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. one for applications (application server). A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or county. The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. one for printing (print server). that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files. The advantages of this type of network are central administration. A large network may have more than one server. A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network. it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. and is a client.

This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved. Inc. In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal. a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand. A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security. All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user. Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network. network security is unreliable. Also. A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install. and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e. The computers are simply cabled together.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers. Peer-to-Peer Network 20 Specialized Solutions.g. .

There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. future growth needs. connectors. To stop signal bounce. or segment. This cable is called a trunk. NICs. you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network. The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable. However. are all determined by the topology used. Devices only listen for data being transmitted. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address). (Network Interface Cards. Inc. While the signal is bouncing back and forth. or topology. Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. As a network professional. also called Network Adapter Cards). or diagram. and even how the cabling is run through a building. A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce. This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. backbone. 21 . if the cable breaks. Different topologies have different cabling requirements. The Bus topology is a passive topology. they do not move the transmissions along. Specialized Solutions. In a Bus network. refers to its physical layout.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used. a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable. only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal. If not prevented. how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). map. scheme. and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other. the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other. design. it prevents other devices from sending data. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together.

The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network. The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down. There are no ends to terminate. Star Topology Ring Topology In a Ring topology. . the rest of the network will still continue to function. If the hub fails. all devices are connected to a central point called a hub. 22 Specialized Solutions. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable. however.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Star Topology In a Star topology. the entire network will go down. It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology. it can affect the entire network. The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network. Inc. A disadvantage is that if one computer fails.

is how the network actually works. It consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. a computer can fail and not prevent the network from functioning. Specialized Solutions. Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. This gives us a physical star topology. we have been discussing physical topologies. they operate between the hubs like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus. This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology. Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies. Token Ring networks are physical stars and logical rings. A logical topology. The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. For example. the ring is actually in a special type of hub called a Multistation Access Unit (MSAU). In these networks. some Ethernet networks today are wired using a using multiple hubs. However. Also. You will be able to see a physical topology. on the other hand. These are the methods in which a network is actually wired.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals With IBM Token Ring networks. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations. but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. Inc. So far. 23 . Before you can understand some of these special topologies. Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies. These are known as Hybrid topologies.

. Inc. Since each computer has its own connection to the wireless access point (WAP). 24 Specialized Solutions. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points. The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter 4 of this book. the topology of a wireless network is that of an “invisible star”.

25 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Specialized Solutions. Inc.

The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. they are called Token Ring and Ethernet. . Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). we create kind of a “party line”.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. With several devices connected to one media. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods. The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit. The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected. Inc. Since there is only one token. only one device at a time can communicate on the network. It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token. Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices. and the message is delivered. Multiple Access means that more than one computer 26 Specialized Solutions. We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards. Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages. The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message. This is based on the media or wiring of the network.

Inc. 27 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals can be connected to the same cable. Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps. Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks. Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original. Specialized Solutions. Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted).

not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network. Inc. Just remember. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified. . since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network. The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator. Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only. Passive hubs do not require any electrical power to function. Essentially. Today. they are called MSAUs (Multiple Station Access Units). Passive Hub – Patch Panel 28 Specialized Solutions. With a Token Ring. Hubs can be classified as either passive or active. they are all the same. hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks.

29 . 4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs. Specialized Solutions. Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs. They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected. Inc. An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. This type type of hub requires electrical power to function. 2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available. 3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated.

The three main types of topology are bus. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. star. . A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks. It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Inc. A WAN is not geographically limited and typically has greater speed of communication than a WAN. and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN. and ring. We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network. go back and review the chapter again. The two types of networks are LANs and WANs. Topology is a term we use to describe the logical shape of the connection of computers in a network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. 30 Specialized Solutions.

Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition Specialized Solutions.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 31 . Inc.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 32 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12. 11. 8. What are the key differences between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. 10. 7. Inc. What is the main reason for networking computers? 3. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. 33 . Name two media access methods. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Review Questions . 9. Name the three basic topologies. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 1 1. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. What is a “sneaker net”? 4. 5. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6.

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network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well. The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e. if you don’t have the software to run it. Hardware resources such as RAM. Inc. Most of today’s client and server operating systems have a built-in network operating system. and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). This chapter is all about the various operating systems with which a networking professional needs to be familiar. 35 . what we are really talking about are network operating systems. most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions. The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment. we are referencing the built-in network operating system component. Specialized Solutions.g. and database programs). In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems. word-processing. You can get it all set up and turn on the power. it will just sit there.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 . as well as the operating system. We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities. processor time. it is just a pile of metal and plastic. spreadsheet. Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment. Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe. When we are talking about operating systems. What is an Operating System? Not that long ago. but without an operating system. hard disk space.Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking. When we refer to the operating system in this chapter. Today.

Preemptive multitasking began with Windows 95 and the Intel Pentium processor. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor. It is used on all of the latest operating systems. Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed. . Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. 36 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs. A true multitasking (multi-processing) operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors. In non-preemptive multitasking. Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. put simply. the processor is never taken away from a task. Inc.

Windows 95/98 Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems that include a network operating system. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card. moving photos to the Web. such as BSD UNIX. They use an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network. Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs. turning on the computer and answering questions. Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood. Inc. Then. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. Instead. 37 . and you have a working network. Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems. Their new graphical interface and networking capabilities make them a vast improvement over their predecessors. Novell NetWare. or a similar program. Windows 95/98 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems. to communicate with other computers over a network. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). Microsoft Client.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. Specialized Solutions. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. It is well-suited for editing home movies. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system. and archiving music. Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration.

is equipped to be networked easily. Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across in real life but are unlikely to be on the test: 38 Specialized Solutions. It also uses System Restore. . driver certification. Inc. remote OS installation. It. It features file protection. It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies. EFS (Encrypting File System).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server. like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here. It allows for faster user switching. like ME. a simplified visual design. peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT. multilingual support. which allows for safety when installing additional software or making changes to the computer’s configuration. IPsec and Kerberos support. Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is the newest edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users.

Inc. Inc.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (uses resources locally). the computers act as both a client and a server. Specialized Solutions. In a Serverbased network. Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network. This can also provide accessibility and security for all devices on a network. it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment. 39 . the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability. However.

if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server. Some networks even cluster server so that more that one server can share a database of information. the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access). Server Software As their name implies. Inc. Data Protection As we already discussed. The component that handles these requests is called the redirector. They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus. The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed. Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access. Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. At the very least. most of the data is stored on the server. However. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task. and to the server. Unlike most client software. out onto the network. . This 40 Specialized Solutions. the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. Servers exist to serve. server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location.

The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server. It does this by assigning drive letters. Inc.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) provides for load balancing of the server resources as well as fault tolerance if one server were to fail. which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer. to resources. 41 . It does not need to know anything about networks. If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs. Specialized Solutions. it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests. This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer. or if they need to be redirected to the server. Basically. called drive designators. etc. If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus.

Version 6. Novell NetWare The NetWare operating system has been around for a long time. shared. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. . In the past. password.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use.2) was designed to operate on 286 machines.11 operate on 386. login security provides authentication and verification of user name. NetWare Directory Services (NDS) NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. messaging. but there will always be data in any network to which access must be restricted. deleted. or through NWADMIN. copied. NetWare provides more than adequate network security by using a combination of approaches. It is Novell’s push to gain market share and is a way of creating an Intranet. NetWare is based upon the industry standard X500 directory architecture. time.5 is now on the market. but it is losing market share to Microsoft servers every year. Trustee rights regulate which directories and files a user can access. as well as what kind of access they have. It may be installed in either the client or server format. which is a Windows-based utility. web-publishing.11 is called IntranetWare. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. it was the most popular server operating system. Versions 3. or Pentium machines. a user may logon from anywhere on the network and gain access with all of their assigned rights and privileges intact. management. In this section. and file and print services. routing. NetWare is administered through NetADMIN. First. 486. It is a reliable operating system that provides performance and security. or changed. The earliest version (2. and volumes is also handled with NDS. Version 4. and account restrictions. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. 42 Specialized Solutions. NetWare Security The purpose of a network may be to share resources. Directory and file attributes are used to set the types of access for a file or directory such as viewed. • NetWare’s popularity is due largely to its ability to provide services across multioperating system environments. servers. which is like the Internet but within a network or company. Inc. name service. we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. NetWare File Services The NetWare file server hard drive may be mapped to a client and the client machine will recognize the drive as a logical drive and be able to access it as it would any other drive in the computer. With NDS’ single point logon. which is a DOS-based utility.EXE. groups. non-shareable. Organization of network resources such as users.12 and 4.

You can send messages to individuals or to groups very easily. NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS) MHS may be installed on any server and configured to be a network wide E-mail system. 43 . It is compatible with E-mail programs such as Novell’s GroupWise and Microsoft Mail. NetWare also provides a method of using simple commands to send messages to other users on the network. except an individual workstation. Inc. Printers may be attached to the server. The file server and the print server can be the same computer. Print requests are first routed to the file server. a workstation. and finally to the printer. as well as others. You can even send messages to everyone in a group.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Print Services NetWare Print Services can support up to 256 printers. NetWare Minimum Requirements The following are the minimum installation requirements as specified by Novell for installing their server software: Specialized Solutions. next to the print server. or directly to the network.

5 MB 20 MB Client Software The client software may be installed on any computer running any of the following: • • • • • 44 DOS 3.1 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS MS Windows 3.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 4.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for Macintosh OS Specialized Solutions.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS OS/2 1. .X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 5: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Pentium Class or higher 64 MB 550 MB 386 or higher 16 MB 105 MB 386 or higher 6 MB 30 MB 286 or higher 2.1 or later (Standard or Extended Edition) and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 OS/2 2. Inc.11 or OS/2 Warp and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 Macintosh 6.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Version 2.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 3.

Full Control. actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2).Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Interoperability As the word implies. Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version. and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier. The attributes such as Read. In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows . Windows File Services Like NetWare. This type is performed by each workstation or server publicly sharing a directory on the network. It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems. the Windows servers may be configured to store each workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups. or No Access may be set on the directory. Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. offer even more advantages and stronger security than their predecessors. Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software). you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data. Unlike NetWare. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. 45 . which as at the base of all Microsoft’s servers. Inc. The advanced security features of Windows are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT . Specialized Solutions. Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management. NetWare is extremely efficient at operating with other systems. Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. but Windows NT contains services such as NWLink and Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW) that allow them to work together effectively. Change. As we’ve already discussed. its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows Servers. This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments. another security method must be utilized. The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of Windows security features. Windows combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. Today. You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows network. The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of Microsoft’s server/workstation technology. Problems do occur when trying to operate within the Windows NT domain. The newest of these server operating systems. interoperability simply means the ability of an operating system to operate with other systems. With this method. The NetWare client can be installed with almost any other operating system. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories. but it does have several advantages. Files in Windows may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network. Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. The NT Kernel.File Allocation Table) during installation.

Workstation Service is the redirector service. you are given the option to share it to the network. Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in the domain. Remember. Even if you are installing a local printer. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. Microsoft uses domains to control access and authenticate users and computers. At least one domain controller is assigned to each domain. This trend continued with the latest Windows server operating systems (Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. A domain is simply a group of users. and resources with a shared security database. Windows Network Services There are many services available in Windows to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user. Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network.) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer.. Server Service provides access to network resources. computers. Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers. A domain controller is a server that maintains and manages all accounts. 46 Specialized Solutions. Windows Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in a Windows network. more than one printer can be installed to any machine. Inc. Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible. permissions. (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows Server Security Security was a major concern in the development of Windows Servers. Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene. and user rights. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer.. The following is a list of services included with Windows Server software to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between Microsoft and NetWare. especially with the latest Windows Server 2003 family. Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions).

and is. In addition. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the Microsoft service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server.well serve. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators.0) than the previous version in Windows 2000 (IIS 5. it has more “locked down” security templates that make it less likely that users will try to go around the security. when using Windows Server 2003 you typically must remove or configure security boundaries in order to get the server to. It allows Novell NDS computers to be managed just as Microsoft domain controllers. FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access Microsoft file and print services.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an Microsoft domain and the NetWare server. Windows Server 2003 offers a more secure Web Server (IIS 6. Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to Microsoft’s domain controller. Inc. Installing CSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well.. 47 . DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. Windows Server 2003 is the first Windows server that was built primarily with security in mind. This software is not included with Netware but can be purchased separately. Installing GSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases.. Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be. It can be installed on the Microsoft client to allow it to connect the Netware server directly. which govern what users can see and do on the network. Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 is the latest in the line of Microsoft server operating systems. It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network.0). It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives. used as such. In fact. Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to Windows. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System. but it adds many features that are designed exclusively for security. Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. UNIX is a Specialized Solutions. In contrast. Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory. This is necessary because all Microsoft client workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional. Previous Microsoft server operating systems were built to serve and then had security features to protect them. It provides all of the advantages of Windows 2000 Server.

48 Specialized Solutions. it was an extremely popular network operating system. and many other features associated with an OS. general-purpose operating system. Like Novell NetWare. Software is available. Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system. The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS. It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. however. to convert the UNIX host into a file server. but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. OS/2. It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). many variations of Linux have been created over the years such as Caldera and Red Hat. as well as file and printer sharing. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX. UNIX. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources. security. Linux is open source. . VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top. Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows. Inc. A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users. as well as others. TCP/IP. in fact the software is available for a free download. The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. At one time.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide bulky operating system. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system. VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments. Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. These terminals are not stand-alone computers. Because of its open source nature. It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms. UNIX is a multi-tasking. A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. At its inception. StreetTalk provides directory. multi-user. and messaging services. which means that it can be changed by a software programmer.

Inc. In conjunction with Xerox. but users also use them personally. Specialized Solutions. The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction with the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book). both at home and on the go.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984. and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC. they developed what later became known as the mouse and the first GUI display. Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production. 49 .

(UNIX. such as Novell NetWare and Windows server operating systems. There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system. Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems. Today. Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic. With the redirector. the most popular network operating systems also function as the network operating system.). In a peer-to-peer network. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer. A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare). Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. In a server-based network. Study through the chapter again if you need to. centralization of administration. an application is unaware that it is working from a network. The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly. Banyan VINES. The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely). It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today. and at least be familiar with others. and data backups. . Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. etc. the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network). Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. the client computers rely on the server for their resources. 50 Specialized Solutions. The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems.

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS)

KEYWORDS Exercise
Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition

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Review Questions
1. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system?

2.

What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking?

3.

What is the purpose of the redirector?

4.

NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments.

5.

What is NDS?

6.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5?

7.

Define interoperability.

8.

Unlike NetWare, Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one.

9.

What is NTFS?

10.

What is a domain?

11.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server?

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Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) 12. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.

13.

What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system?

14.

What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984?

15.

What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system?

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Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards

Chapter 3- The OSI Model and Communication Standards
In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, what it is and its primary function. You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles each function, and which devices function at each layer. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam.

The Seven Layers of Network Communication
The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. As a result, some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other, and how they will communicate if they are using different languages. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit; when not to transmit; and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected; how the data will flow (at what speed); and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications.

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The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you should notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers, depending upon their functions.

Seven Layers of the OSI Model
The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network. These services include file, print, and messaging services. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer. The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. This is not the actual application or program, simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail, transfer files across the network, or access a

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The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit. The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. it will break the data into packets. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. If Specialized Solutions. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer. This layer is responsible for establishing. managing. half-duplex.) character set conversion. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. it presents data to the application layer. bit ordering. they will be combined. and when.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards network database. and un-packaging the data for transport. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. and prepare it for its journey. without duplication. It provides a logical connection between the two devices. or receive. Each connection is called a session. The network redirector operates at this layer. In short. The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. Sessions may be established using simplex. and data encryption. Inc. This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local. Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. interpreting graphics commands. The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer. if the packets are too small. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh. and ending connections. The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them. The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging. For example. protocol conversion. add any addressing information and error correction information. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. etc. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network. Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure. As its name implies. 57 . This layer is also responsible for data compression. and error free. or full-duplex communication.

518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. For example. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. it will be un-packed. This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks. delivery of packets is not guaranteed. especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination. Routers and NICs function on this layer. This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link. 58 Specialized Solutions. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. they will be broken into smaller packets.) It also includes control information such as frame type. however. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. Connectionless protocols are faster. stripped of its addressing information. Inc. segmentation information and routing information. When you are using a connection-oriented protocol. Should an error occur. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. Once the data is reassembled. the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets. The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide they are too large. but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. checked for errors. the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. In an ideal world. Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. When you are using a connectionless protocol. it will retransmit after a specified amount of time. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. . error free manner. This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. It receives a packet from the Network layer and packages it into what is called a frame. Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols. When the data is received. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards. UDP is a connectionless protocol. This controls network congestion.

The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. When the sending computer does not receive and acknowledgement. NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements. The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame. MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized. 59 . and Demand Priority. such as SDLC. (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host). Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers. The IEEE 802. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium. They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers. it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer. If the calculation does not check out. it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer. The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer. It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame. This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. If it is. Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel. then it discards the data. it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. Inc. It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link. TCP/IP is somewhat “self healing”. It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions. The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). The way that a network shares the channel is called its carrier access method. Token Passing. the destination computer will not send an acknowledgement.2 standard defines how this takes place. In a broadcast network such as Ethernet. The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. it will automatically resend the packet. If it is not. The following is an example of a MAC address: Specialized Solutions. The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards. The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards In addition. Although quite rare. In this way. the data is sent out on the wire to all computers. It identifies a line protocol. The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer.

It identifies the NIC. data work at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. 60 Specialized Solutions.ch/. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses. Repeaters. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer. Point to point communication is often used between switches and routers on a network. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. For example. Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer. visit www. all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model. Point-topoint communication is the process of one device communicating with one other device . It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Switches. hubs and transceivers. The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames.iso. The last 3 bytes (35FD-AB) are the Device ID that is unique to the associated Vendor ID. Inc. synchronizes the data. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer. Note: For more information on the OSI Model. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets. It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer. and determines when and how data may be transmitted. it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 00-00-13-35-FD-AB The first 3 bytes (00-00-13) identify the manufacturer of the card. Multipoint communication is the process of one device communicating with multiple devices on a network. and what each one will do. The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets. . an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable. Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model.

61 . Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions.

As the packet travels up through the layers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task. and provides services to the layer directly above it. each layer is also responsible for adding or removing headers so that the data is ready to be interpreted by the next layer. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions. or suite. You are communicating directly with the Application layer. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer. the Application layer is not the actual application. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack. In addition to reading the headers and performing the instructions. In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers. The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. (Remember.) The request is in the form of a packet. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted by you and the request is considered processed. The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message. In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture. For example: You send a request for services to the server. 62 Specialized Solutions. The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers. each layer reads and performs the tasks specified in its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer. Inc. . the process of moving through the layers is reversed. protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. over the network medium. This is called a protocol stack. When the destination computer receives the data. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer. it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. The Physical layer does not add a header. Headers contain instructions for tasks that need to be performed at that level. This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task.

but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Signals or Bits or Data Stream into Frames Frames into Packets Frames or Datagrams into Segments Segments into data Data Data Data into Data Files or Messages Specialized Solutions. Inc. 63 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers. The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers. Because of this. they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers.

the OSI Model is not a protocol. you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model. as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol. The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 64 Specialized Solutions. In fact. By relating various protocols to the OSI model. Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer. This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed. Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers. . it would not match. Also. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections. This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program.

Specialized Solutions. it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work. Inc. Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task. etc. because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system. you do need to remember the different layers and the tasks for which each layer is responsible.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers. These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments. The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer. Without them we would not have as many software or hardware packages available to us. The specifications describe how components are supposed to function. This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate. 65 .

Data Link layer and the Network layer. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change. bridges. . Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. as well as where in the OSI model they operate. It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT 66 Specialized Solutions. The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices. Inc. As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself. Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model. routers. They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network. etc. This weakening is known as attenuation. Routers are responsible for using logical addresses to move packets from one network to another and deliver them to a host. are going to be used when they write a program.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols. Repeaters. A repeater amplifies these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs. you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X.

Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers. It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router. 67 . if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI. A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols or even different technologies.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Each router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it. However. If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). Specialized Solutions. Router tables can be entered manually by a network administrator or they can be dynamically updated using routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF. which can be used to connect an IBM mainframe computer to a Microsoft network. A popular example is an SNA Gateway. Inc. The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate. the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. but usually in the Application layer).

1 802. The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802.ieee.4 802. (IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs. This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible.2 802. visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www.9 802.6 802.10 802.8 802. Inc.5 802.12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN. . These standards were prepared before the OSI standards.3 802. a little surfing might be in order.7 802. Inc. February 1980).standards. 100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards.11 802. 68 Specialized Solutions. and if you would like more information on them.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards.

69 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. Inc.

the NIC also needs a device driver to function. which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols. which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver. However. the network. Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver. Inc. The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp. The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC. ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another. It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver. . This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments. Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer. Network 70 Specialized Solutions. and hence. This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another).

Connection-Oriented vs. Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party. Inc. if TCP/IP is bound first. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data. You have no confirmation (unless he calls you back) that he received the message. For example. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. In a connectionless communication. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. but connection-oriented is more reliable. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent. the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. If that fails. and in full. Routable vs. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on his answering machine. Protocol Binding In order to function. Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless. Connectionless communication is faster. In connection-oriented communication. In a connectionless scenario. Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function. 71 . Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model. Specialized Solutions. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. In today’s LANs however. it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected using a router.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network.) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication. Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable. There is no guarantee that the message was delivered. They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received. it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X.25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet). 72 Specialized Solutions. Inc. As a networking professional. . Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks. you should be familiar with these protocol stacks and you should know the OSI layer in which their components function. It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable.

It resides in the Network layer. At the Presentation Specialized Solutions. DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack. IPX/ SPX This protocol is the proprietary protocol that was developed by Novell for Netware servers and clients. In addition to hop count. LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers. regardless of speed.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination. NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces. Inc. It resides in the Network layer. 73 • • • • • • .) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol. (If data must cross a router SPX is used. It has been modified over the years and now contains the following components: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model. and handles file and print services. It is a routable protocol. This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer. AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – Manages file sharing at the Application layer AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – Provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. It uses the MAC address and is non-routable. Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – Provides transmission of packets across a network. This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – Provides Application layer services for Macintosh. this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide layer it handles data translation. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. At the Session layer it establishes and controls sessions. while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections. flow control. and connection-oriented error control services. It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network. Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent. Novell Netware 5. No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed. FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system. 74 Specialized Solutions. APPC supports Transport and Session layer services. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers. It is also layered on IP like TCP. • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server. Inc. • Many companies use Netware with the TCP/IP protocol stack. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP. . TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol. We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead. so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary. It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems. TCP and IP. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols. At the Transport layer it handles sequencing. The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking).1 and later installs TCP/IP by default. SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network.

then TFTP would be advisable over FTP. but in addition. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. it will broadcast on the local subnet to determine the MAC address of the computer with the associated IP address. It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability. 75 . Specialized Solutions. It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP. It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources. RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond to the broadcast by sending its MAC address. but in reverse. making it connectionless. NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system. It is an Application layer protocol. ARP will add the information to its table for future use. The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely. It resides in the Network layer. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP is responsible for resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP. instead of only the number of hops. this is also a Network layer protocol. Telnet can also be used for remote configuration of servers and network devices such as routers and switches. Inc. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond. OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely. If you do not need to use passwords. ARP will first check its table and if a matching address is not found. without regard to speed. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. ARP keeps a table of corresponding IP and MAC addresses that have been resolved in the previous 10 minutes.

At each stop. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet. making X. packets are re-examined to determine whether they are damaged. This is the host on an X. Inc. it is out of the administrator’s control. This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions.25 network. the X. which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines. In addition. X. It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers. This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits. Because of this.25 X. DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide X. 76 Specialized Solutions. It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer. but in between.25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization. Data is routed via the best connection at a given time.25 is also an equipment specification. It is a DEC protocol used for interactive. This means that routes change as conditions change.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced).25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud.25 a very slow but very reliable protocol. X. . This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. This protocol is not used for data communication. Data goes in and comes out. This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use. It uses standard telephone lines and switches. The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs. The second part of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment). It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP. which is the main reason that it is non-routable. asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end. Instead. it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer. The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment). LAT (Local Area Transport) LAT does not have a Network layer. only printing functions.

It may be used with bridges. Inc. easy to configure and small. which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems. 77 . It is fast. but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model.

NetBEUI. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely over the Internet. It also supports data encryption. RPC is used by the redirector to 78 Specialized Solutions. or DHCP. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Other Protocols The following are other protocols with which you should be familiar: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. administration. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands. It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. but it can also be modified manually by the network administrator. Like a traffic report on your radio. It handles session establishment. Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures. NetBEUI. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. DHCP. it detects congested areas and links that are down. ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. It maintains a database and provides hostname to IP address resolution. and connection release. and notifies upper layers to route around them. It does not support IPX. file transfers. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer. NWLink and NetBEUI. PPP supports IPX. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model. SLIP is not used as much as PPP. and other protocols as well as TCP/IP. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations. . SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications. This database is typically dynamic in today’s modern networks. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. Inc.

Inc. Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text. It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards determine if a resource is local or on the network. 79 . Specialized Solutions.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other. but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network. we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test. you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three. . The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional. For example. 80 Specialized Solutions. Inc. if you can get to the server through a router.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc.x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition Specialized Solutions. 81 . Keyword 802.

7. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. 5. 10. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11. Which OSI layer is responsible for the MAC address? 8. . Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? 00-01-A5-D3-B4-01 82 Specialized Solutions. managing. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. 3. 4. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model. Inc. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. 6. What is a MAC address? 13. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. Who developed the OSI model? 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions – Chapter 3 1. What is the function of the Application Layer? 9. and ending connections? 12.

The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. 21. Describe protocol binding. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 19. What are they? 17. What is the function of a Gateway? 18. Will this work? Why or Why not? Specialized Solutions.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 14. without duplication and error free? 16. 23. What are NDIS and ODI? 20. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 15. 83 . Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 22. Which is faster. Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Inc.

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There are numerous kinds of cable. network adapter cards. Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential. Inc. The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. which we will address here. and how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter. The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install. 85 . It is not often used in today’s networks. but may still be used in some temporary installations such as a construction trailer (although wireless would be a much more likely alternative). Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover.Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology. Xerox). How to properly configure and use network adapter cards. Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist. It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC. Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet). which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector. video. Because it is shielded. most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter). Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid. Specialized Solutions. but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand. it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. and other hardware and peripherals. It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. along with connectors. There are several cabling options. It can transmit voice. and the hardware aspect of network operations. or DIX (Digital. It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 . Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation. Intel.

BNC Cable Connectors BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable. In today’s networks. as well as how they are attached to the cables. Thicknet was used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks. . They are specified based on their impedance. Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. it is not as easy to install. it has been replaced by twisted-pair cable and fiber optic cable. Inc. It is attached directly to the NIC but allows network signal to flow straight through it as well as to the NIC. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. 86 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. In the past. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers. It is expressed in ohms. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance.

Specialized Solutions. A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium. N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet. and is used to connect the device to the network. BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection. BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on. Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function. Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver. and an AUI cable. Inc. It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together. This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable. One of the terminators must be grounded. 87 . The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors).

. It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types. The twist helps 88 Specialized Solutions. Instead. This cable type consists of insulated pair strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another. Inc. This types of connections have been largely replaced by newer cable methods such as twisted-pair and fiber optic cable. There are four pair strands in most twisted-pair cables.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver. most networking professionals used a clamp-on transceiver. this was time-consuming and it absorbed signal so it was not the common approach. Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today. These clamp-on transceivers were often referred to as vampire taps because they utilized sharp teeth that punctured the cable to make the connection.

89 . It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters. the faster the signal can be sent through the wires without crosstalk. Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. Twisted Pair Cabling Specialized Solutions. The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling. UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs. The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per meter in each pair of wires.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP). Inc. The tighter the twist. Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 1000 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM and Gigabit Ethernet Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular. Currently. The following is a summary of UTP cables. Since it is unshielded. it is more sensitive to EMI. This results in less sensitivity to EMI. there are six categories.

An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger. Inc. Wall plates are typically used to make the connection to the computers themselves. They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 10 Gbps . . These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. Wall Plates for RJ-45 90 Specialized Solutions. The RJ-45 jack’s position can therefore be changed from patch panel to patch panel to use a different set of cables for the same connection. The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location. The front of the patch panel contains RJ-45 ports (a port is a female counterpart for the RJ-45 jack). Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium. This gives the network administrator a greater degree of flexibility and provides fault tolerance for the network cabling system.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations. An RJ-11 jack has four connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight. RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector. The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a special tool punch down tool to make the proper connection by stripping the insulation from the wire without breaking the wire. This is an excellent way to organize network cables.

It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic). as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types. fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances. it is therefore not as common as UTP. IBM cabling is based on its Type. Because of this feature.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking. the data cannot be tapped or stolen. This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber. IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks. which reduces signal loss. 91 . They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP. which is easier to install. (The core can also be made up of plastic. It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI. However.. . SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses. The following is a summary of IBM Types: Specialized Solutions. One strand transmits and one receives. Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. Inc.) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable. it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Contains a shield for use under carpets. IBM Connector 92 Specialized Solutions. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data. These are very rarely used in today’s modern networks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Not Defined Two 62. The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors. . Six twisted pairs. Inc. Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications. Plenum grade.5/125-micron multimode fibers.

Specialized Solutions.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter. 93 . Inc.

Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only. Both you and the party you are talking to can talk and listen at the same time. • Simplex vs. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. For example. For example. fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. The signal flow is uni-directional. Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions. It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing). The signal flow is bidirectional. • Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps) or gigabits per second (Gbps). Inc. If this type of cable were used in the plenum. 94 Specialized Solutions. Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge. the wire thickness increases. This space is used to circulate air through a building. As the AWG wire number decreases. Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways. (send and receive) but only one at a time. For example.Baseband vs. PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time. these fumes would circulate throughout a building in the event of a fire. a pager can receive a message. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cabling Terms The following are terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. PVC grade cable is less expensive than Plenum grade cable but it gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions. Because this space does circulate air through a building. but cannot send a message. . Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum.

Inc. the flexibility of the medium should be considered.) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum. For example. how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners. Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network.) Will the cable be installed in “noisy” areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting. shielded cable or fiber optic cable might be more appropriate.) Specialized Solutions. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives. local fire codes will need to be addressed.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals In contrast. 95 . A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling. Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes. It is therefore specifically designed to be used in these circulation areas. such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small.) Transmission speeds and. . Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 96 Specialized Solutions. attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor. cost are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network. Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance. last but not least. fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping. there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective.) If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure. Inc. On the other hand.

are also known as Network Adapter Cards.) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port. Inc. It makes the physical connection to the network. NICs are used to connect the computer to the network.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs. 97 . Network cabling moves data in a single data stream. Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. data is moved along in groups. (And of course to translate it back again. Analog data has an infinite number of possible states. Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame. This is known as serial communication. Specialized Solutions. Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking. The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium. Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). Today. and controls the flow of data on the network. Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time. or 0’s (off). handles network addressing. Because these paths are side-by-side. The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses. This is known as parallel communication. which constantly vary in one or more values. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side. most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later.

Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent. The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. The speed of the transmission. This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters. The time intervals between data chunks. DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium. Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique MAC address. Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer. Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC. If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. The amount of time between confirmations. Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it. they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the 98 Specialized Solutions. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. This makes transferring data much faster. Inc. When this occurs. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed. Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. the NIC may need to be configured. the two cards start sending and receiving data. DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU. . How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor. Only devices like NIC cards that need this type of memory access are assigned DMA channels. The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by a device. In practice. This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. DMA channels are used by devices that frequently need access to large amounts of memory. This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. Specialized Solutions. these devices can access the memory that they need without interrupting the processor. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that typically no two devices can use the same interrupt. The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings. See Appendix A for common address assignments. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses. in this case the NIC. The device is constantly listening to this channel for commands from the processor. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. not all devices need one. Inc. 99 . Other cards will need to be configured manually. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned. DMA Channel Configuration of Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels is similar to IRQs. and some are set using software. The good news is that unlike an IRQ. With a DMA channel. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. such as: IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU.

or you may have to configure it manually. Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter. Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC. If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required. Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards. Inc. Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC. 100 Specialized Solutions. The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. or both). Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer. . RJ-45. They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable.

101 . including network connectivity. The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus. They are generally 32-bit buses. Inc. Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers. Specialized Solutions. They are also called PC-Card Buses. Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus. The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus. Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus. Today most buses are either EISA or PCI. With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs. but can be a 64-bit bus.

. thereby bypassing the CPU.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Performance Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance. Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data. RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed. Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data. Without this feature. Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU. the NIC would be a bottleneck. The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks. This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus. Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data. it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally. Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer. thereby improving network performance. but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. Inc. This type of card is expensive. 102 Specialized Solutions.

Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems. a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings. the office. – hubs). making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations such as ocean dwelling oil platforms. Mobile Computing . Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. They function just like other access points (i. Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created. but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN.Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling. Wireless networks use wireless access points (WAPs) to “connect” the network devices to each other. Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems. Extended Local Area Networks . a user can access the network from anywhere in the building. but through the use of an infrared or radio medium.Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking. With wireless systems. A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks. This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. For example. Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems. With some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down. Specialized Solutions. 103 . This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components.e. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. or on the road. Inc. Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly. People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home. • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective.

Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • 104 Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint Specialized Solutions. Infrared networks typically broadcast at about 10 Mbps.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared You use infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control. . Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference. The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet. and because the transmissions are tightly focused. This involves using infrared (below Red) light to carry signals to a receiver. Inc. Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources. such as windows. they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping.

the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time. ceilings. Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station. In the direct sequence modulation method. as the name implies. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. which then routes the signal appropriately. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. until it reaches the receiver. 105 . Specialized Solutions. etc. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. In the hopping method. the signal is beamed towards a central unit. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. which are then transmitted over separate frequencies. require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. Inc. The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. the message is broken into parts (called chips). uses broadband technology. however. or direct sequence modulation. It does. Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems.

Inc. or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts. There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite. Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite. and only the destination device can receive and read the packet. These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication. . mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally. Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities. 106 Specialized Solutions. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances. It is used for line-of-sight communication. Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Specialized Solutions. Inc. 107 .

AUI. After discussing at network cabling we then took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself. and Fiber-Optic. RJ-45. you should know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type. Finally. Twisted Pair. Laser. As a network professional. we took a look at the future. . Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals. it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. In addition.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. and controls data flow over the network. The four basic wireless types are: Infrared. and Microwave. Wireless networking is the trend of the future. Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). It prepares. transmits. You should know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. Inc. receives. There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial. etc. Radio. it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks. 108 Specialized Solutions. Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet. As a networking professional. This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc. Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions Definition Specialized Solutions. 109 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Definition . Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair 110 Specialized Solutions.

Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword Vampire Tap Definition Specialized Solutions. 111 .

What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. How is a vampire tap connected? 6. What is the most expensive cable type? 13. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. What is the most popular of the cable types? 10. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3. Inc. What is the least expensive of the cable types? 112 Specialized Solutions. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2. .

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable.

15. What does AWG stand for and what is it?

16. Describe baseband.

17. Describe broadband.

18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication?

19. What is the function of a network adapter card?

20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available?

21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card?

22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network?

23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types?

24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network?

25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally?

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards
In previous chapters, we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed, along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets, or frames. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. In this chapter, we will discover how Ethernet works, as well as how Token-ring networks function. AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter. After completing this chapter, you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture, while not as popular as Ethernet, are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers, in this case, over a network. In Chapter 3, you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite, IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture, SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk

The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols; thus, they do not map directly to the OSI Model. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. Specialized Solutions, Inc. 115

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information, handle addressing, and check for errors. Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments.

A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card, also known as the network interface card (NIC), in order for it to be used with a network computer. In some instances, as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX, two protocols may be bound to one card. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC.

Access Methods
In a network, multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. If two or more computers were to send data at the same time, the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing

• Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free, it will send data. While there is data traveling on the cable, no computer will transmit data. Occasionally, however, two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. Naturally, the more users who are connected to a network, the denser network traffic becomes. Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method.

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. It is, however, the access method that works best with wireless connections; since the wireless channel can be verified before the data is sent. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. A token (a special type of packet) is circulated around the ring from computer to computer. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network, it must wait until it possesses the token. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. Data is transmitted in frames. The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. The trailer includes error control information. When the computer is ready, the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted, the frame would be resent. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. Because only one computer at a time may transmit, this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions. (Some more recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer, router, switch, or bridge. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes, addresses, and links are functioning. Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer, hub, and destination computer, instead of broadcasts over the entire network. Because of the cabling method used with this access method, (four pairs Specialized Solutions, Inc. 117

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of wires are used, which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time, but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously, the one with the highest priority is serviced first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests.

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information. 119 . Error checking information such as Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) information. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium. Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission. Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. Data files tend to be quite large. Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data. or messages. The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. Specialized Solutions. Inc.) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files. and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). The destination address of the receiving computer. but we will use the term packets. Computer control data such as service requests and commands. Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. if there is a transmission error. The data to be transmitted. Also. (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Network Communications (Frames and Packets) As we’ve discussed previously.

If the results are the same. the trailer contains the error checking information. the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit. Depending upon the network. packets can be various sizes. Inc. the calculation is run again. . the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact. Usually. When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer. A Packet 120 Specialized Solutions. If there is a discrepancy. Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network. CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet. and clocking information. the source and destination addresses. Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes. Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission. The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted.

121 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Specialized Solutions. Inc.

. The standards define the means of communications. it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data). Thicknet coaxial (10Base5). as addressed previously. and some are narrow gauge). In this section. Inc. like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell). Logical Link Control (802. Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802.3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs. Ethernet (802.94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable. There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology). but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data). Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication. Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT). It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2). There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points. It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. in a railroad. The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL 122 Specialized Solutions. The original version was a 2.3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. some are diesel. These provide the standards for the railroads.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Standards Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network. It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method. but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol. Not all railroads are the same (some are electric.2) The Logical Link Control layer. some are wide gauge. The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements. we are going to look at different standards for networks. is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. For example. data (in this case passengers and freight) is moved in various cars. and typically transmits at 10 Mbps. However.

) This is referred to as the “5-4-3 Rule”. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology. The maximum number of nodes per network 90. The actual maximum segment length. If the segment must exceed this limitation. indicating its maximum segment length. Inc. The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters. and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated. however. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs. repeaters can be used for longer distances. 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable. The minimum distance between nodes is 2. These applications include video. The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet Specialized Solutions.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30. 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling. 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications. it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. and computer aided design. 123 . The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). it is most commonly created with UTP cable.5 meters. The minimum distance between nodes is .5 meters. The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters. BNC connectors and a transceiver. meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters. 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable. (There may be five segments but only three may be populated. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system. is 185 meters. to name a few. And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling.5 meters. The maximum number of nodes per network 100. 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors. As its name implies. document and image storage. 10BaseT uses the star topology. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2.

124 Specialized Solutions. and AnyLAN. to some degree. It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets. the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon. Inc. It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology. and the longest cable length is 250 meters. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs). When you see any of these terms. It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN. Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks.12 is the standard that defines this technology. they are referring to the same thing. The IEEE specification 802. (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment. . Because of its intense speed. VG. using the CSMA/CD access method. This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps. It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards. Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable. ATM competes.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet) 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade. and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. 100BaseVG. There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable. although copper can be used with much shorter distances. with Gigabit Ethernet.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard. the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable. but that will be referred to later in this book.

Ethernet also works in the UNIX environment.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP. by joining with either a router or a bridge. 125 . It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance. Inc. Specialized Solutions.

Inc. 2. it uses the baseband technology. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems. 126 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802. is what sets Token Ring apart. This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data.5 standard. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub. Actually. Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it. and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984. Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer. A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token.5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring. The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token. and 3). The Token Ring access method. Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. . The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1. Like Ethernet. While the token is in use by a computer to send data. This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data. The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame. it is known as a data frame. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame. How it Works Basically. The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes. Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished). more than the cable design. It is not as popular as Ethernet. The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token. but is still used today.

the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring. Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. if there were errors. the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. Message This is the data or file to be transmitted.5 standards say it travels clockwise. To accomplish this task. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected. This computer. Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention. the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity. Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful. The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network. called the active monitor. Or. The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time. the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address. . while IBM says counter-clockwise. as well as its own address. Beaconing In a Token Ring environment. As each new computer comes online. The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor. The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring. It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected. the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. The IEEE 802. After encoding the data frame. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. Inc. 127 Specialized Solutions. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon.

The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network. Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network. MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. as there are no male and female ends. Using UTP. it is only about 45 meters. Using UTP. each ring can connect up to 260 computers. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another. Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters. Each node is connected to the hub via a cable. Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. IBM states that it is only 46 meters. . These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2. When a computer is connected. but types 1 and 2 may also be used. In a pure token passing environment. just as in other networks that use a hub.5 meters. The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters. the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters. Inc. Using STP. The Type 128 Specialized Solutions. the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. Using STP. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs. This hub is known by a few names. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters.

Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. Specialized Solutions. care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub. Using a pair of repeaters. Therefore. Patch panels are used to organize patch cables. 129 . Inc. hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers. therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures. Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable. All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed. The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment. Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper. Type 6 may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub.

TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. UTP. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers. by using zones. This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses. Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system. it will store it to use each time it goes online. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer. Apple has always been open to third-party development. EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable. This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. the device assigns itself an address. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network.5 Standard) environment. it is very inexpensive to initiate. Inc. EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. AppleShare also provides a print server. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings. mainframe computers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring. and even some UNIX computers. LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP. It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices. 130 Specialized Solutions. Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers. . or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology. As such. LocalTalk performance is rather limited. A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address. When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. If it is not being used by another computer.

this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order. Inc. ARCNet transmits data in packets. active.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology. called ARCNet Plus.5 Mbps. If using an active hub in a Star topology. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data. ARCNet utilizes hubs. but it can be adequately charted to the 802. If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors. These hubs may be passive. but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable. These packets contain the destination address. It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology. This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology. ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. Specialized Solutions. the token is passed in numerical order. Just like other token-passing access method architectures. or smart. If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other. the token still passes in numerical order. 131 . has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors. ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling. It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2.4 standards (Token Bus LAN). the maximum cable distance is 244 meters. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters. the source address and up to 508 bytes of data. A later version. a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data. Obviously. Instead of the token traveling around a ring.

Speeds up to 54 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific). . Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four. Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802. Inc.11) IEEE 802. The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well.11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology. generally). 132 Specialized Solutions.

Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet. Packets will include information to identify the source address. Specialized Solutions. the source and destination addresses. If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method. Inc. Therefore. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. but as a networking professional you will encounter them. etc. Managing network data is all about traffic control.3 standards. and 10BaseT. 133 . and the Trailer. Packets consist of three components: the Header. Be sure that you understand how this architecture works. it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year. which is where the error checking calculation is located. Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames). it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future. 10Base5.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting. AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring. and clocking information. the Data. As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD. It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures. destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted. The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. go back and review the chapter again. CSMA/CA. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances. Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Definition 134 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

135 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Token Ring TokenTalk Trailer Zones Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc.

What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 136 Specialized Solutions. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods. 3. Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. . 5. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6. What are the three primary access methods? 2. Inc. How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7.

Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20. Describe a MIC connector.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. 19. Inc. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16. What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? Specialized Solutions. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18. 22. 137 . What is a SMAU? 21. 14. What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 138 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

we will consider hardware compatibility. etc? If. (demographics). who has them.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them. and goals. Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks. The customer’s likes. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. etc. dislikes. Specialized Solutions. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office. As a network professional. Even if this network is your own. The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever indebted to you. This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. in many cases. (If not. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. you are not designing for yourself. We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. your design will not work for them. for example. Most importantly. this is a Macintosh-based company. are there any printers or scanners. The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. 139 . you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows. The size of the company and the portion of the network affected. Finally. address. you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have. pay attention to details. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network. The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. There are two things that you will need to know. However. This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. rather than a client’s. Inc. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation.

you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. Remember. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps. if the file is compressed. This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components. There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available. you are not documenting your network. or as large as 8 GB. you must get a clear definition of goals of the network. A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. . Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint. Once you collect this information. You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility. For example. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files. files services. Inc. at this time. 140 Specialized Solutions. the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. So. prepare a design document. etc. only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network. With this information in hand. or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale). print services. The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 141 . Inc.

You may have to add network cards and cabling. they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. This means that every 142 Specialized Solutions. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network. The level of security required. Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future). The wrong choice now. The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future. You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. not all nodes may need the same level of security. Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server. First. you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it. . Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement. If you do not have this information go back and get it. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. For example. Also. Skill level of the network users. This sharing is on a directory level. The most prominent are simplicity and cost. Likewise. as generally it is not installed during a standard installation. Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. The commitment of management and users. you will have no problem. may cause problems in the future. Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. The first is the type of network you will be designing. they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. You may need to install the software. Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. you will need to start making some decisions. The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network). As long as you have the original software disk (CD). Inc. if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t.” That is. This can range from none to very high. The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. all computers are equal. In a peer-to-peer network. if you have a printer connected to your computer.

they will also be using your processor to do their printing. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer). server-based networks are scaleable. information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. 24-hours per day. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. you will also need to consider the disadvantages. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation. any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. In a peer-to-peer situation. This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server. Also. is another advantage of a server-based network. For these people.Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older. Before you can use any resource. have high-power processor. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. 143 . In large networks. instead of backing up individual workstations. Last but not least. Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. Remember. the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations. Since these computers are larger. and expand as your needs expand. As for size. if employees need remote access. Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security. Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution. The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network. only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off. such as your printer. slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). The more sophisticated the network. administration can be a Specialized Solutions. This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. You can connect more workstations. the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. In a server-based network. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added. Inc. This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. all network resources are usually centralized. and lots of memory. Also. the network must operate transparent to them. must less the workings of a network. etc. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. In small networks. While there are many advantages. the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. In a strict peer-topeer network. this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts.

it is highly recommended that you use these addresses for your private addressing.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified network professional.192. Inc. in others it could go either way.0.0 144 Specialized Solutions.0 255.168. the answer will be very obvious. Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each. since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN.255 172.0.255. Actually.168. For this reason. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design.255.255. A public network would be the Internet. . there are specific addresses that are filtered by the routers at the backbone of the Internet. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer). you can use any address that you want to use inside of your own network and behind your firewalls.0.0 255.0. A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet.255 255. which would limit its access to those outside of the company.0 192.0 .0 -172. Once you have made this decision. The use of these addresses will completely prevent the address conflict issue. When you are sitting on the fence. In some cases. with open access to the global community.255. present each case to the client and let them make the final decision. For this reason.255.0 -10. If you are not sure you have enough information.255.0. Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult. Public and Private networks In addition. 10.16.0. then you might have an address conflict with another entity on the Internet.0. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information.32. stick with it and move forward. The only problem is that if your firewall were to come down.0. If all else fails. let us define the difference between the terms public and private network. get more.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc. 145 .

The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like. Also. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. Inc. if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. When taking this inventory. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment. That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. you must add new hardware. ask him or her to show you. The following is an example of an inventory sheet. This form should identify the equipment and its specifications. this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has. Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software. . The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have. if all or part of a network already exists. you can skip this section. whether hardware or software. Use it as a starting place to build your own. Remember. 146 Specialized Solutions. On the other hand.

etc. Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: Computer Printer Telecommunication Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA.) # of Free Slots Network Card Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Specialized Solutions. PCI. 147 .

148 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function. Inc. . Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary. Software: If this device uses software. describe each program.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc. 149 .

Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network. By assigning them a number now. A Network Layout 150 Specialized Solutions. and collect all of the documentation you have been working on. Inc. . make a drawing of the facility and each network node. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network. This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility. it will make future documentation easier. It is time to get out that pencil and paper.

if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files. and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). In most environments this will be no problem. it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5e or CAT 6 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years. If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small temporary LAN. where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. repeaters and nodes. Therefore. or just good common sense. Cable lengths must be considered. or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). 5-4-3 – If your installation is coaxial Ethernet. On the high end. consider Thinnet coaxial cable. you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments. Specialized Solutions. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub. if you are not sure if expansion is in your future. However. The 100 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the performance criteria of the network. CAT 6 is the UTP of choice. you might consider CAT 3. you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. such as in an imaging environment. Inc. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. However. may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation. a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 5 UTP cables. hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. you will need to install CAT 5e or CAT 6 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 1000 Mbps speed. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end). It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. Cable Grade – Local fire codes. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3. In addition. but if this is a large facility. For example.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly. Realistically. It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace. 151 . Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network.

and RFI. and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. Fortunately. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network. you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. On the other hand. These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. which can cause corrosion. which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment. Inc. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. The equipment should be shielded from ESD. . the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers. It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. with a relative humidity of 30 percent. but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. Like us. it will work. such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. Fiber optics are also a good alternative when the manufacturing environment cannot allow for any possibility of even a small spark.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise). you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. Variable temperatures. NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference. they are sensitive to temperature changes. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment. However. on the surface. Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment in which the computers will be operating. or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically. EMI. and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. but are not limited. low-humidity. Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. Therefore. since they don’t use electricity to transmit a signal. Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. The non-routable protocols. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. which can generate damaging ESD. high-humidity. As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows 2000/2003. it doesn’t really matter. which requires the use of routers. 152 Specialized Solutions.

153 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc.

This way you can identify each location. if using CAT 5 or CAT 6. This way. it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet. These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network. the cables are connected to a patch panel.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. One advantage of using CAT 5 or CAT 6 cable in a star topology from a hub. Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends. . There are a few more components that need to be installed. Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable. Inc. To keep these organized. Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. 154 Specialized Solutions. So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables. In most cases. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room. you will most likely need to install a wall outlet. The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable. is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable. This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors. All the cables will be brought to one location. The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet. The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it.

Inc. This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media. Once that is done. Actually.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network. we must select a card that is compatible with both. Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC Specialized Solutions. Therefore you must know the requirements of each. 155 . there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed. That part is the network adapter card.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 156 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

Therefore. you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots. and expansion projects. The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. Not all cards are the same. EISA. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection. If you are installing a Token Ring network. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus. The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. This section will look at compatibility issues. administration. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus. you must have Token Ring cards. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. but only at 10 Mbps. but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA. Inc. For example. a Specialized Solutions. An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network. These are little LEDs (one. Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting. Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network. Depending on the vintage of the computer. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture. Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple. the card must be compatible with the computer. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance. two. and PCI). which can be a useful tool. Micro Channel. Also. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. also called PC Cards. 157 . but only at 10 Mbps. This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. the number of connectors. Resolving these issues is actually quite simple. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. or three) that indicate the status of the card. Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards. will change. Before purchasing a network card. and therefore the speed at which data can be moved. the speed of the card is important. In general. In addition to being compatible with the network. Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network.

Now the network adapter card is installed. Finally. If you must do this manually. you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using. Connect the network cabling. Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards. In addition. Each card must be configured for a different network. Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course. In most cases with a new card. You need to configure the card to work with your network software. you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. but you are not finished yet. Note: If you must remove the case. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. If your system is not Plug-n-Play. 158 Specialized Solutions. If there are any conflicts. Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot. Install the appropriate drivers for the card. it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. . If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver. you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer. be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light indicates that data is being transferred. the computer may not boot or the conflicting devices might not be able to work simultaneously. be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. Inc. if you upgrade your operating system. Configure the IRQ and I/O address. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches. Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use. the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card. Physically install the card. The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. Drivers are usually supplied with the network card.

Inc. AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. the engineering department may be PC-based. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it. Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. To increase marketability of their cards. However. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on. and possibly three. Some STP cards require special connectors. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines. it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. In the case of UTP. For example.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. For example. The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy. If you encounter this type of situation. as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day. Specialized Solutions. 159 . some manufacturers will provide two. These types of problems can be more personal in nature. the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based. as well as possible solutions. the card should have an RJ-45 connector. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. For Thinnet or Thicknet.

we learned about network protocols and standards. boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software. Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network. and detail both its hardware and software. Inc. . Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. With this done. you will need to establish the standards for your network. Standards Earlier in this training course. Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots. that were identically configured. This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card. With this information in hand. with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier. hard work and standards. As the network designer or administrator. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them. and knowledge of the network operating system. Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network. each component will work with the others. you are going to have your work cut out for you. 160 Specialized Solutions. By defining the standards to which the network must comply. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly. if installed. As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards.

A good example is Windows 95. the system will not run. The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind. you find that your modem. however. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system. network card and/or printer no longer work. Specialized Solutions. but your proficiency will be very low. Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. you probably do not have the necessary drivers. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems. You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. In this case. all you need to do is install the Windows XP drivers for the offending hardware. there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems. More than likely. Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system. the Internet is the answer. have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system. Inc. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase. 161 . when upgrading from Windows 98 to Windows XP. you will need to upgrade.Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are. Also. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers. For example. If drivers exist. This is a true statement.

.com/windows/catalog. If you want the latest list. If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary. You can also look for the corresponding logos on the boxes of hardware and software that you are considering purchasing for your network. it most likely will not work with Windows 2000. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with Windows 2000.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists an example of the minimum requirements for three operating systems: HCL and Windows 2000 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs.microsoft. especially with the newest operating systems such as Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. you will need to check the HCL for that product. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision. 162 Specialized Solutions. Here you will find the latest information about hardware and software that is Designed for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 or at least tested to be compatible with these operating systems. It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware. This is part of the Windows Logo program. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. Microsoft Windows Catalog Still another web site to check for compatibility of hardware and software. Inc. is the Microsoft Windows Catalog at www. or hardware compatibility lists. This list will ship with the 2000 package (on the CD-ROM) and 2000 will make a check during installation. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000 is hardware dependent.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc. 163 .

he intends to expand the network in the future. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? 164 Specialized Solutions. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 6 1. but they are not all the same. Inc. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4. . However. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6. Was this a good purchase? 9. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. 7.

165 . There are several different types of hubs. A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network. For example.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Chapter 7 . Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series. to larger hubs that can connect many more computers. sooner or later. from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices. Inc. Expanding a LAN with Hubs A common method for expanding networks is to use a hub. Specialized Solutions. In addition to being called “hubs. This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network. Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location.” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive. you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network. An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals). it may be too small.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. amplify the signal. Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model. you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. Depending on the objectives of the LAN. They do however. the simple hub just won’t do the job. have increased response times. Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. Long waits to access a printer or file. Inc. You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. They do not translate or filter any information. Traffic-generating applications. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network. such as databases. Fortunately. thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths. 166 Specialized Solutions. Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. but has one additional feature. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages.

Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. the NetBEUI protocol is not routable. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. Specialized Solutions. Not all network protocols will work with a router. Inc. 167 . Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge. Routers work at the Network layer of the OSI model. For example.

or dedicated. Be careful when choosing a carrier. the distance the data must travel. . and satellite connections. it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system. each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection. The second choice is leased. They are providing the cabling. These are our standard telephone connections. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances. When thinking of telephone lines. Inc. be sure to take into account your throughput. Just because the cost looks good. Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps. Typically. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates. When considering which connection service to use.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway Connection Services When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries. 168 Specialized Solutions. we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. With dial-up networking. and the cost of the service. these connections are slow and not very reliable. there are two levels of service to consider. Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs. but connecting at this rate is rare. does not mean that it is the best value. When thinking of a carrier. Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps. microwave. The first is public dial-up network lines. lines. An example of such a system is the telephone company.

A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity. if necessary.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded. It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. and deals with timing issues. items such as bridges. It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back. as well as those transmitted to it. There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines. These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. Specialized Solutions. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with. Inc. Most WANs are a collection of LANs. It can regenerate the signal. 169 . routers and communications services are used to create a WAN. WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs. The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN.

170 Specialized Solutions. Voice and data over trunk circuits. . you need DDS (Digital Data Service). Voice and data over private lines. more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Basic voice. The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. Voice with some quality control. Voice and video. they can be justified. Dedicated lines are far more expensive. Basic data. Application relays. Voice and data over trunks between computers. but if you have sufficient traffic. Dedicated analog lines provide an instant connection. Digital Connectivity When you need a faster. Data applications below 1200 bps. This is because you lease the line 100% of the time and therefore do not have to dial-in. Voice/radio with tone conditioning. Inc. The down-side of these lines is that you will have to pay for them 100% of the time instead of on an “as used” basis.

The following table lists the most common connection types: Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A Voice Channels DATA RATE (MBPS) 24 672 32 512 N/A 1. data.520 or 622. faster download than upload 51. It can be used to transmit digital voice.544 Mbps 44.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line.544 Mbps transmissions.048 Mbps 34.8 Mbps 155.736 Mbps 2. 171 .52 Mbps Either 155. Specialized Solutions. Inc. It is capable of 1.080 (can reach 10 Gbps) OC-1 OC-3 ATM 1 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A The T1 and the T3 standard are American. and video signals. whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard.

this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs. Standard PSTN lines have a very limited bandwidth of less than 56 Kbps. convenient. These lines can. In older. so it can be both reliable and fast. . all of which are considered reliable. be used for somewhat secure remote access by employing the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) and tunneling protocols. however. Frame Relay does not check the packet at each step in its route. For this reason. 172 Specialized Solutions. Today’s networks use a different technology referred to as Frame Relay.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network. each packet was examined at each step in the path to determine whether it was damaged. since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet. and reliable network messaging. Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast. This made for a very reliable and very slow connection.25 based packet switched networks. a packet may be sent over multiple permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). A packet switched network provides multiple paths that packets could travel from source to destination. X. With Frame Relay. Obviously. Inc.

etc. or by the specific use of the computers. This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN. Inc. without having to change the physical picture of the network. 173 . or any other logical means. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN.” Specialized Solutions. adding computers or adjusting resources. An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within his company. printers. which lays out hosts (computers.) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment.

Asynchronous transfer mode uses fixed length (53 byte) cells instead of packets. It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies. which is intended for use in the home or small business. it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds. it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference. ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN. media limited.Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication. ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface). audio. It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles). While not a good choice for WANs. These cells can speed communication because the network always know exactly what to expect in regard the size of the next cell. . has two 64 Kbps 174 Specialized Solutions. ATM can be used with FAX. and focuses on the home and business market. they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps. video. Because it is fiber optic-based. Inc. One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need. These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1. in actuality. It is. or fiber optic. As well as the common voice and data. twisted pair. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services. ATM . However. and imaging. FDDI . ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial. This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network. while using copper telephone wires. however.2 Gbps.

6). It carries all the bits from say. which is intended for use by large businesses. The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps). has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1. it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network. Inc.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps).Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. Internationally. SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices. Specialized Solutions. a call. This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802. and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control. within one transmission frame. data and video at rates ranging from 51. It is capable of transmitting voice. SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media.544 Mbps). It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM).84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768). it is the European equivalent of SONET. and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control. much like E1 is to T1. 175 . To be more precise. It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx). ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface). SMDS SMDS . like OCx with SONET.

times as fast as the Baud rate.600 bps.400 High-speed version of the V. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56. network cards. designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate.22bis V. 8. Modems transmit data at various speeds. Inc. Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion. Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions.400 bps. connecting a few computers to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards. or over long distances. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. and media. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines. 14. 176 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections. Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. With early modems. The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems. 4. due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of transmitting signals over long distances. As we have already learned. A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable. FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14. the Baud rate was equal to the bps. Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud. However. Therefore.32bis bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard. there is a limit of 2400 Baud. the term Baud has disappeared and been replaced with bps.32 V. These speeds are measured as bits per second.32 standard. . Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. Today.600 bps. To increase our network beyond a few computers. Modems are classified by a “V” rating. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines. With this change. etc. a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2. The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V.

32terbo.800 Improved V. modems.32terbo V. Specialized Solutions. modems – error correction standard.FastClass.200 Not officially a standard yet. 28.90 19.600 Backwards compatible with earlier V. 57.34 V. 177 . Will only communicate with another V.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network V. 56.42 V. Inc. Backwards compatible with earlier V.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards.

the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number. either via modems and telephone lines. Since the two computers are directly connected. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building). or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. Actually. This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem. both of these terms mean the same thing. while a true server like Windows Server 2003 will allow 256 inbound connections. The difference between a simple computer (Windows XP or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows Server 2003) is the number of inbound connections. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). Let’s first look at connecting two computers. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client. Windows XP has an feature called a direct cable connection. when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. Inc. RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. or directly via COM ports and a cable. By running Network Connections Wizard and following the simple 178 Specialized Solutions. so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection. In addition. Any two computers can be connected. the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication. Also. all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer. The difference is how each computer is being utilized. the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. On the other hand. You must use a Null-Modem cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors. With RAS. For example. . A system running Windows XP or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection.

in this case. These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). Inc. you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection. While this was the protocol of choice for a Specialized Solutions. both computers must be using the same protocol. From this accessory. Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but. the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user. you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number. you will use a modem to establish the connection.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network instructions provided. your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server. Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking. the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software. On the client side. the RAS software must be installed and running. The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network. 179 . Normally. With this in place. RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security. This is a relatively old standard (1984). On the server side. but is still in use with some systems. RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work.

created by PPTP and other tunneling protocols. With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications. • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the Network layer of the OSI model. PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today. It supports only TCP/IP. It cannot encrypt logon information. It’s only supported by RAS clients.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide long time. and DECnet. such that only the sender and the receiver can accurately interpret the data that is being sent. the limits of SLIP caused many problems. Inc. . as a less explensive alternative to costly leased lines. RAS and Security. Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. It transmits in text only. in today’s networks it has several disadvantages. IPX. It provides security. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. VPN (Virtual Private Networks). It can be used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private 180 Specialized Solutions. Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. This is accomplished by encapsulating one protocol with another protocol. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) provides for a secure encrypted tunnel for communication through the Internet. It supports encrypted passwords. It provides data compression and error control. It enables highly private network links over the public Internet. Many organizations are using tunnels. NetBEUI. AppleTalk. Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks. Encrypted Connections.

L2TP offers many advantages over PPTP. It is based on an end-to-end security model. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission. it does not require IP connectivity. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network. Linux. limited RAM. usually a user’s credit card number. and Macintosh computers. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header). it only establishes the user’s identity. ESP. certificates (like X. It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS. Kerberos V5. TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL. . Thin clients are computers with no hard drive. discussed here in the next chapter.. It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs. Inc. It is transparent to the user. It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). which is the highest security method. ICA can be used with Windows. It uses a key to encrypt the data. and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. UNIX. meaning that the computers. a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE). It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP. Specialized Solutions. or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server. SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server. Unlike PPTP. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 Active Directory use this type of security by default. AH only authenticates the user. both sending and receiving. It does not provide authorization. Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. 181 . L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the latest version of the tunneling protocol.509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec. most relating to higher security. authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well. as does Novell Directory Services (NDS).

RAS provides several layers of security. . This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on. Inc. Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. As with all security measures. This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system. The type of communication port you intend to configure. All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. the modem configuration. installing RAS can be frustrating. If it does not work the first time. This provides for additional authentication. you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call. 182 Specialized Solutions. If another software package has “control” of the modem. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. Before installation. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary. In addition. Security Host (Bastion Host) A security host or bastion host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. and thus more security. you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server. and any other software that might use the modem. you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller. Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to providing remote sharing of information.

you want to keep the costs down. you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses. 183 . The latest Microsoft server operating systems such as Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 have wizards that make installing an RAS server much simpler.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. it is not always the solution for every network. Specialized Solutions. You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps. Inc. As a networking professional. and you don’t need a fulltime connection.

Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH 184 Specialized Solutions. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Definition . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

185 . Inc.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X.25 Definition Specialized Solutions.

What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. Define a repeater. a router. a bridge. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. 10. and a gateway. . Name three RAS protocols. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. 7. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. 4. Name four forms of RAS security. 186 Specialized Solutions.544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6. 9. Name three advanced WAN environments.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 7 1. What is analog communication? 5. Inc.

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Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is an internet (between network) protocol. Inc. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). some are considered to be Internet standards. Internet and Network Interface. Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress). From this beginning. SNMP. the recognized standard for internetworking altogether. 189 . Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor. as well as Internet standards. TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard. which will be discussed later in the chapter. intranets. known as BSD UNIX. and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. It is important for the networking professional to know that TCP/IP is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. This is the most common protocol suite with which a networking professional works. Also. TCP/IP. and is usually seen in the combination. TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project. Transport. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. these protocols were available on UNIX early on. and the Internet. TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. It is also used with Ethernet networks. and FTP. These standards. such as SMTP. RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers. and is in fact. Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board). TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX. TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol). Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. Specialized Solutions. The four layers are: Application.

These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP. There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model. .Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 190 Specialized Solutions.

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Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine. and reassembles the data. Inc. It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission. TCP breaks data into tiny chunks. and for the Network+ exam. On a TCP/IP network. Let’s take a look at them. It then routes the information to its destination. Should lost or corrupted packets be detected.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. called packets. there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. Let’s take a look at how this works. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 192 Specialized Solutions. or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams. they can be retransmitted in a timely manner. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP. Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others. However. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model. A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier. . This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets.

nor does it check for errors. TCP will retransmit the data. FTP. Inc. The addresses. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned. IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP. When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet. The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535.. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. and a Specialized Solutions. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number.e. If the transmission has not been successful. etc. TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination. a port is different from a socket. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point. The port number identifies the application associated with the data. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent. IP merely routes the data. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. 193 . Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet. i. This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received. IP is connectionless. or port numbers. The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023. HTTP. Telnet. For each packet sent. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted. consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer. This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably. meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. but does not acknowledge delivery. and specify a certain protocol. the protocol number. and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number. Although the terms. UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session. UDP transports data.535.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide checksum. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer. To be more specific, the checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. When the data arrives at the destination computer, the receiving computer performs the calculation. If the checksum is the same, the data is assumed to have arrived intact. The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network, it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. Time to Live – provides TTL data. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. This cache contains a list of all the devices with which it is communicating. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five, TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server, run searches, or access multiple mail servers. 194 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet, which is what you use when you send out mail. SMTP is server to server, whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers, usually over the Internet. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People.” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files, by typing in a user name, or the word “anonymous.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents, such as web pages. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts, using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP, allowing access to a secure Web server. It uses port 443, the secure SSL port instead of port 80, the HTTP port. HTTPS, as well as SSL, allow for the use of X.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user.

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Naming Systems
Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. Remember, we are working in two worlds, the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names. Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking. DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates hostnames to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. DNS functions like a telephone directory. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers. For example, the domain bigcompany.com may have an IP address of 192.49.238.33. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose, such as government, education, commerce, or interest. Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC, also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. These domains require suffixes such as .com for businesses or .edu for educational institutions. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains:

.com .net .edu .org .gov .mil .biz .pro .info .xx

Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance, Big Company Inc. in Italy might be http://www.Bigcompany.com.it or in Australia www.Bigcompany.com.au. Also, .tv is gaining in popularity. Tuvalu is a small country, which receives financial benefit from the registration fees.

WINS In a Windows-based network, the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network. NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode, leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application. A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast), P-node (peer-peer), M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). 198 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. It predates DNS. It must be manually created and changed. LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. It must be manually created and changed. IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. For example, it could connect a LAN to the Internet. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet, it must be assigned a static IP address. This means that it is permanently assigned. It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers, sooner or later we will run out of numbers. In smaller isolated networks, IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. However, as the number of addresses required increases, you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. To resolve this, IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. That is, assigned on an “as needed” basis. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. When not needed, the address can be leased to another host. To accomplish this, you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address, subnet mask, and a default gateway if needed. Notice that the IP addresses are leased. This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. A lease can be renewed. When the term of the lease is at 50%, the client will send a request for renewal. If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available), the lease will be renewed without interruption. If not renewed, the client will attempt to contact the DHCP server that issued it the IP address directly about every 5 minutes until it reaches 87.5% of the lease, at which time the client will broadcast a request to obtain an address from any available DHCP server. If all addresses are being used or a DHCP server does not respond, the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user. In this case, the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

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The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. the proxy server. . It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. 200 Specialized Solutions. IP Proxy Servers Earlier. it serves many clients through only one connection. In the case of a proxy server. The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers. The proxy server is actually making a connection to another network or to the Internet on behalf of the client. Actually. ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time. since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. It contains DHCP. a NAT is just a device or program that translates one set of IP addresses to another set of IP addresses. Inc. depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time. NAT also acts as a type of firewall. but it is most often used between a private network and the networks public address or addresses. like a LAN. and DNS.e. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other. It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses. who think they are communicating directly with one another. i.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (public IP address). Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network. NAT. The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties. to share a single connection to the Internet.

Inc. 201 .Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions.

A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4.00001000. Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256. they are broken down into four octets.8. So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33. 202 Specialized Solutions. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet. are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes. The result is called a dotted decimal number. An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets. . This IP address is a 32-bit binary number. 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194. the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique). Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address.00100111.2 billion) different numbers.194. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names.11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------16 8 2 1 128 64 32 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet. Inc.294. Although that is easy for a computer. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8. it is not easy for us. however.39.296 (4. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39. Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them. A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001. Internet IP addresses.967. let’s now take a look at IP address numbers. To simplify these addresses.

8. The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID.194 would be the Host ID. For the Network+ exam.39.194 would be an example of a Class A address. The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000). In this case 129. An example of a Class C IP address would be 193. (A host may be any device on the network.194. The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID).) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126. The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID). Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks.8.39 would be the Network ID and 8. There are five common classes: A through E.8. Inc. only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID).194. The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000). Depending on the assignment. Within classes. Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large.39.39. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID. B and C.8.39. you should pay special attention the Classes A. The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33. Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks. The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223. The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191. the network is divided into classes. 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) Specialized Solutions. the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID. The class can be determined by the value of the first octet. An example of a Class B IP address would be 129.194 where the Network ID would be 193. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use.8 and the Host ID would be 194. 203 . In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000).

As we mentioned earlier. Likewise. All in use and no longer available. Class C . Class C IP addresses are still available. specifically 127. This is the loopback address.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. there are only 65.777.1) Class A . You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts.191 192 .used by very large networks.214 possible Host ID numbers. .223 In addition. 204 Specialized Solutions. Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available. Class B uses two octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID. B or C address. Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID. Class B .used for medium-sized networks. there are 16.534 possible Host ID numbers. Inc.0. you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address.0. (For example. if a network is going to be connected to the Internet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID. there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and for multicasting and are not available for normal host addresses. Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time. so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts. Also. with the least number of Network IDs. Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs. This organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center). and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses.126 128 . Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A. Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 . the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic.

A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. Unicast is an address for a single host. The address types are Unicast. It uses 128-bit addressing. then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme.net. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field. which only uses 32-bit addressing. It does. however. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot. Anycast. as well as ease of configuration and security built right in. and Multicast. demand high bandwidth. Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Specialized Solutions.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers (0 to 9. IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP). Rather than having “classes” like IPv4. as compared to IPv4. however. You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example. For example. The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. Inc. 205 . to define the address type. It would make it unclear as to what was represented. An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic. IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology. It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4. which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits.

An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link.0. which replaces broadcast.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address. Inc. is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix. The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1. since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain.1 with IPv4. Finally. Site-local address.0. IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one. 206 Specialized Solutions. All in all. just like 127. . A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses. Multicast.

In this example.0 (Class A). or 225.0 Class A (16. Since a router connects each subnet. 207 .0. Anding is the binary addition that the router uses to make this determination.0. This is done with binary addition (anding). a router can determine which addresses are local and which addresses are for other subnets within the network.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of creating more than one private network from one public network address by customizing your subnet mask. By using subnets.00000000 or 255. a subnet mask can be 255.0 255.255. You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet. Inc. lets look at subnet masks. a large university may have a network spread over several buildings and perhaps remote campuses. Before looking at anding. You must however. Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask. you can reduce the overall network traffic. have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right.0.255.0 In regard to classful addressing .255.00000000.777. For example. the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class).0.11111111. The number of 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network.0 (Class C). If you “and” the IP address to the subnet mask. only the traffic that is not local will pass through. For example: 11111111.255. The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address. Specialized Solutions.255.255. A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) in which all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address. all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet.0. separating it from the host portion of the address. which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address.0. Default Subnet Masks 255.0. 255.255.0 255.216 hosts) Class B (65.534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s.0 (Class B). By using a concept called anding.

194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now.224. and through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33.00000000 (33.194.00001000. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet.8.0.0. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33.8.8. Any local addresses will not pass through. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7. thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network.32.00000000. 00100001.194. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 208 Specialized Solutions. Inc.00000000 (255.194) 11111111. By using this method.00100111.0.8.0) equals 00100001.39. let’s and it to the subnet mask of 255.194.11100000. it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address. Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33.0.32 and the Host ID is 7.0.00000000. while the Host ID 0.32. using our previous example of 33.00100000.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remember. .0.224. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones.39.11000010 (33.8.32.7.

777. Specialized Solutions.152 Number of Hosts 16. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001.b.0.a.c to 191.b.255.c 192.0.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking. Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate.b. A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network.0.c Default Subnet Mask 255.a.255.216 65.c to 126.0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255.0 255.255.0 255.c 128. • • • • Connect physically remote local networks.255.255.a. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet. it will require an address for each subnet. Be sure to include some room for growth of the network.a.c to 223.a.255.0.097.b. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring). There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required.0 255. A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card.b. 209 . Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet.0.384 2.0.0 255.a.b. Inc.0 Number of Networks 126 16. If a router is connected to two subnets. Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment.

255.248. . you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC.255.255. We use this formula to determine the number of subnets that will be created by borrowing bits from the hosts. Inc. Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255.255.128 255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet.382 Hosts N/A 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 210 Specialized Solutions.255. we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host.0 255.0 255.254.255.255. With this number.0 255.0 255. You should remember the formula 2n-2 where n is the number of bits borrowed.255.255.255.0 255. As we begin to subnet.0.255.0 255.240 255.192 255. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255.0 255.255. The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network.36. To begin this process. We will use an InterNIC ID of 191.192.0.255.248 255.255.224.255.000 hosts.240. First.255.255.255.255.252.255.255. we have one network with approximately 65.224 255. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16.

the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements.255. Enter the value of 18. The number 18 will now be in binary (10010).255.224 255. Now we get out our Windows calculator.255. For this example.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255. lets keep our network ID of 191. We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID. Change the mode to binary (Bin).255. let’s add 4 more for future expansions. 2. 3.248 255.36 as assigned to us by InterNIC.240 255.255. Just to be on the safe side.255.255. 1. 211 . Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator). giving us a total requirement of 18.255.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 Hosts N/A 30 14 6 2 To make this easy. Specialized Solutions. Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected. Inc. we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs. you can use the scientific calculator supplied with any Windows operating system.255.255.192 255.

we would have had to reconfigure the entire network. our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4.000 hosts each. Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth).255. instead of selecting the next subnet on our list. This will be the number of bits required for the third octet.224. the subnet mask would be 255.36. let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255. For this example. This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2. Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask. To keep things simple. Count the number of binary digits (5). Inc.248. Had we needed to add a new subnet.0 and the network address of 192. The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 212 Specialized Solutions.0.255. . you can determine the available Network IDs.

this means that the number starts with .192 Determine the Host IDs The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001).0.0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255. For example.36. or one that is located on a remote network.36.255.36. these are reserved for broadcast addresses. they are on the same network.96 192.0.64 192.0.255.255.160 192. In dotted-decimal format. (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192.36. A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255.0. indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively.) Specialized Solutions. Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network. The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network. 213 .36.36.000 or .32 192.255. The only restrictions are that you cannot use . If it is different. Inc. on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255.0. The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID. This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address.128 192.36 (overall network address) 192. up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID.001 in the last octet. and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet. the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery.

0.0.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255.255.255.0 255.0 255.255.0 CLASS ID 1 .0.191 192 . . Inc.223 214 Specialized Solutions.126 128 .

” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server. and click Properties. However. On some screens. Inc. 215 . This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information. and enter the information in the appropriate fields. click the Protocols tab. you may specify a particular IP address.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically. Next. Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways. in addition to other hardware and software configurations. The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using. Specialized Solutions. Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. DNS You can enable or disable DNS. other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window. you will need to type in the specified default gateway. Click the radio button to enable DNS. IP Address Here. Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor. right-click on TCP/IP Protocol.

DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients. It also includes the DNS configuration. . 216 Specialized Solutions. and subnet mask configuration. This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology. WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses. default gateway. Inc.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 217 . Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet Definition Specialized Solutions.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword POP3 Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 218 Specialized Solutions.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Review Questions Chapter 8 1. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP. 4. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9. Inc. What is an FQDN and give an example? 6. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups. What is a domain? 7. 10. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8. What is the purpose of DNS? 5. 219 . How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Specialized Solutions. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. 12.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 220 Specialized Solutions. .

From the database and the software interface. The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator. Specialized Solutions. The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base). you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device.SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks. you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network. Inc.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network. It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data. the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network. In addition. Using one of these products. 221 . Network Managers .

The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents. Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network. The three commands are: Get: request data from the device. Set: sends a configuration value to a device. It will respond to commands issued by the management software. 222 Specialized Solutions. . Inc. Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager). An additional SNMP command is the trap. Get-next: request the next value in a sequence.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device. A community can also restrict access. This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager. These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt. therefore providing a level of security.

and normal (i). shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination. but did not cause a stop. and TCP/IP events and errors. TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. Inc. 223 . Specialized Solutions. TRACERT. NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred). Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports. Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis. serious (!). Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses. ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it. Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names. This includes critical system errors. Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table. NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table.

clicking Run.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar. 224 Specialized Solutions. . Inc. and typing in either cmd or command.

the IP of a host might be 192. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain. IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu. Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client.1. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter. Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same.168. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain. NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified. For example. and will display the current configuration of a computer. Inc. NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain.12. Specialized Solutions. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address. Ping works at the IP level. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device. and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot. NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain. IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools. RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address. 225 . PING The lowest level test to find out if you have connectivity to a remote host. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 226 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

227 .Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc. Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition Specialized Solutions.

List as many as you can.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 9 1. . Inc. each device will need to be _________ compliant. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. 228 Specialized Solutions. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network. 3. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network.

The best time to set up your network security. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created). motivated by curiosity. A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords. As you might have already deduced. or even millions. Most users will also be able to access shared files. creating chaos and costing thousands. is right up front. or an irresponsible prank. data encryption.Chapter 10 – Network Security Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. depending on the roles they play in your company. Inc. Whether the sabotage is malicious. Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company. or anyone who has access to your network for that matter. or at least have your plan intact. the results can be devastating. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. A disgruntled employee. anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. 229 . you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent. Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user. There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. Very few users will have access to administrative features. the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network. Users should be held accountable for the security of their individual workstations. can deliberately damage your network. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems. before you set up the network. of dollars. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change. unless safeguards are built in. she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of her particular network. User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access. Specialized Solutions. Password practices and procedures. Therefore. from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files.

In a manner similar to the signature on a document. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place. Users can access a shared resource. A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. Inc. The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system. such as a template or another type of file. while the original file remains intact. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model. However. Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. 230 Specialized Solutions. should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source. passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users. the user will be inclined to be less attentive to personal security. . a gesture of respect for the user and the system. Password protection is. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. where the administrator can easily retrieve it. among other things. It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security. The user can edit the file as necessary.

231 .Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Security Specialized Solutions. Inc.

by forwarding application traffic through the firewall. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. For example. As the system administrator. you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs. or auditing. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system. but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information. you will most likely be using E-mail. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network. at the very least. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network. This needs to be handled in such a way that production will not be interrupted. . It is an important part of a network security plan. and work at the application level. Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. If you are accessing the Internet from your network. if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs. Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. they can be host-based. and even more often on larger networks. Files need to be backed up daily. or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. you would block port 80. Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter. Inc. 232 Specialized Solutions.

Ideally. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data. the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk.Chapter 10 – Network Security It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers. In addition. those who fail to plan. Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. As a computer professional. offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other. which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs. so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations. There are several options available. it is still a viable option. the other can take over without compromising network operations. and are more commonly known as RAID. the second server should serve as a backup to the first. Inc. This backup medium is suitable for small companies. Remember. Floppy disk capacities today. so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today. you must answer important questions about what to backup. rather than one larger server. Although slower than RAID. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk. 233 . called the backup medium. how the backup information will be tested. and the procedure to follow for recovery. Specialized Solutions.44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. If anything happens to one. range from 1. These multiple disks are called disk arrays. Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available. As you might guess. While planning your backup strategy. for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups. and how often backups will be performed. plan to fail.

This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed. This method will take the largest amount of storage media. Differential.. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups. Inc. The Full backup.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient. but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. both the last differential backup tape copy and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used. as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space. To restore. despite the presence of hardware or software failures. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. but will be the easiest to restore. and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level. the last full backup and all of the incremental backup tapes will be needed. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server. will backup all selected data on the network. is called fault tolerance. Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations. and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full. as its name implies. This type of backup is usually performed weekly. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. Full. This usually involves some degree of redundancy. When recovering from a failure. 234 Specialized Solutions. Differential and Incremental. . Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk. A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk.

If more than one disk is lost. this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent.Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 . a copy of the data is spread across all of the disks based on a mathematical formula such that any one disk in the set can be lost and the other disks will have a copy of all of the information that it contained.Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 . Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies. (Provides no fault tolerance. The same data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure. Typically. If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up. This technique may be applied in either software or hardware. this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful. is not being used commercially at the moment to an Specialized Solutions. then the data in the entire array is also lost. and is a standard feature of RAID systems.Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 .Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 . Inc.” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data.Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 . This. so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping.Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved. Several operating systems.) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk. support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing. administrators are alerted when one disk fails so that they can “regenerate” the RAID set before another disk has a chance to fail. 235 . which provides for even more fault tolerance. RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme. However.Chapter 10 – Network Security The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 . such as a single file. With this method. however. if anything happens to one of the drives. including Novell NetWare.

are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes. it offers better performance. RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array). RAID-53. SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests. It functions faster. The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. surges. Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. . There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. also called surge suppressors. These types of RAID are not as commonly used and are not as likely to be on the test. but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. such as battery time remaining. Like RAID-10.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide large degree. but at a greater cost. SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. and sags in the power supply. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity. A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI). is like RAID-10. There are different types of UPS devices. A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. 236 Specialized Solutions. Inc. since it is not dependent on another computer. the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. which allows for better performance. and each type provides power for a different length of time. as you might guess. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. In this case. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN. is an issue. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power. Cost.

and troubleshoot before the trouble starts. Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network. he or she will know how to accomplish the task. Users working with sensitive information such as budgets. no matter who they are. 237 . but are easy enough that users can remember them. numbers and symbols. away. If the network administrator needs to use the workstation. So. No one. an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis. include characters. This holds users accountable for their actions on the network. Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed. etc. Specialized Solutions. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being applied. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. and numbers. This is known as a security audit. personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. symbols. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days. Passwords should be changed more frequently in high-security networks.” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents. In order for this policy to be effective. Some “classified” networks require password changes every day. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy. Inc. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them. The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters and use a combination of letters. and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas. should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there. There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files.

Inc. This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem. and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. . and is used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking. The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient. other than the person for whom the message was intended. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. Adi Shamir. can understand the message. and Leonard Adleman. RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest. A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used. These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. The name comes from their first initials.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. Even with encryption. 238 Specialized Solutions. DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message. the Internet is not the most secure of environments. This method uses a 56-bit private key. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data.

Viruses can be spread by various sources including: shareware. it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed. The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. both on location and at backup sites. Symmetric Keys can also be used. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex. but they are less secure. but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. With this method of encryption both parties have the same key. Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip.Chapter 10 – Network Security Extra data appended to a message. it is not a completely secure encryption method. It is similar to DES. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method. 239 .000 known viruses. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run. Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. Inc. files downloaded from the Internet. The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key. Many viruses are simple annoyances. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities. which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption. and bulletin boards. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages. There are over 60. Prevention should also be addressed in the plan. will ensure a much quicker recovery. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). As the name implies. the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off. Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters. If the receiver wishes to respond. which is used to encrypt data and to decrypt it. It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. is called a digital signature. much less a day. Specialized Solutions. The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. software from unknown origins. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability.

Hundreds of viruses are written each month. they mean that when you open a document you are running a program. many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet. they will go to work on the system. (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail). If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes. These days. Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine. It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document. (prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk). but when loaded. The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files). enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing a new operating system. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site. With this in mind. Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. Make sure it is compatible with all of the operating systems that you use. . Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks. just from running a program. Inc. Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs. Use extreme caution when you download files. Keep your anti-virus program updated. there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market. Macro Virus: These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened. 240 Specialized Solutions. Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines.

Inc.Chapter 10 – Network Security Specialized Solutions. 241 .

Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 242 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

The acronym RAID stands for __________. In a share level model.Chapter 10 – Network Security Review Questions Chapter 10 1. Inc. 5. What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2. 243 . 3. What is the function of a firewall? 4. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Specialized Solutions. What are the three common levels of RAID? 6. passwords are assigned to __________.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now. troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. After all. you must be organized. This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. if you are the expert. As a troubleshooter. not when all is well. They always fail in the middle of a job. you will most likely be called when there is a problem. Specialized Solutions. If fact. select the most probable cause. the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem. and progress with some specific tools that you can employ to simplify the process. The user of the computer or network is your best source of information. In most cases. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. it seems well defined by the person who calls and complains! But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier. In order to do this. Inc. This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems. identify the affected area. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution. For those who must endure the struggle. but they often hold the keys to the problem. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you. 245 . Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. Remember. implement a solution.” is really just the symptom and not the true cause. The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks. To make matters worse. not the symptom. The eight parts are as follows: establish the symptoms. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. a pen (or pencil). Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause.Conclusion Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. you are looking for the cause. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software. while for others it is a struggle. and good listening skills. The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper. Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned. establish what has changed. so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. “as reported. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. test the result. computers never fail at a convenient time. Remember.

The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work toward the more complex. The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem. Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones. The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that caused the failure. Be sure to observe the failure yourself. and so forth). network or computer moved. have someone demonstrate the failure to you. the failure occurs. One thing that might 246 Specialized Solutions. For example. Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know. have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory. You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. Describe any changes in the computer (noise. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever. recent software upgrade. Inc. and when. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works. but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure. the process of elimination is all that you can do.) Show me how to create the error. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation. lights. it is important to observe how it is created. . If it is an operatorinduced problem. Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure. This will take time and patience. Sometimes. screen changes. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience. however. You will need to create your own list based on the situation. You may.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of the failure. do not intimidate the user. Do not make the questions too technical. or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred. These never seem to occur when you are present. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. With a little experience. and most importantly. as well as the results. If possible. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before.

In the case of a network problem. Inc. it is important to follow it through. isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user Specialized Solutions. but you cannot receive any E-mail. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. write them down. It requires two simple steps. Document every action and its results. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up. Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems. If for example. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. You may have to refer back to them later. then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. but to call you. Once a plan is created. is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly. For example. Do not make any assumptions. Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made. create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. make a plan and follow it. then you know for sure that the network is physically working. That way the “evidence” is not disturbed. If you must make any assumptions. and move forward. 247 . you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood. If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be). The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally.Conclusion help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration. Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. Starting from the top.

It is important to use another operator. Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems. To resolve these types of problems. This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work). as well as the one that is causing problems. and not the hardware or the system. either repair or replace the defect. if an operator is afraid of computers in general. Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities. you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures. the problem may be caused by the operator. However. This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome. Implement the solution. In these cases. you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. For example. With hardware. if the problem is software or configuration related. In these situations. repair or replacement is usually all that is needed. no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed. you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem). Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures. it may require some additional effort. . be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes. start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not. 248 Specialized Solutions. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Once the search has been narrowed. Note: If the problem is software-oriented.

Inc. The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists. Specialized Solutions. Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user. Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle. In troubleshooting. maintain. You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience. 249 . and the repair. You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. or a follow up call just to make sure all is well. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. there is no substitute for experience. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems. the problem. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. document the problem and the repair. This is one way to build. The basis for this policy is that once the system is running. you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem. and share experience.Conclusion Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms. Document the solution Finally.

The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire. Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools. Inc. . a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier. let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling. They secure the connection between the wires and the block. Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician. Punch Down Tool 250 Specialized Solutions. Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack. Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals.

Network cabling is. resistance. All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device. A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. it is still possible to test for continuity. as well as the electrical power in the computer. When working with network cabling. a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete. When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing. With it you can test various electronic components. Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. in principle. Specialized Solutions. which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. For example. Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires. Since it is made up of wires. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured. a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red). Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. Some meters will let you test for current as well. it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. In a wire for example. If the test is negative (no light or noise). The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe. very easy to troubleshoot. Inc. These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. If your meter does not have a continuity setting. whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. the circuit is broken. the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other.Conclusion Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters. The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up. These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted). 251 . you can have only one of two problems. We will start by looking at a multimeter. and continuity. You can test for AC and DC voltage. which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps). the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. If the wire is broken. we will have to know how to test for continuity.

If both ends are in the same location. However. called tone generators and tone locators. You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end. 252 Specialized Solutions. thus locating the wires. The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky. if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building. there are more often than not. However. testing for continuity will require an additional wire.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician should have one. and test at the other end. The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator. these tools are often called a fox and a hound. to find pairs of wires in a bundle. Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. This applies a signal on the wires. it will emit a tone. several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel). . When used together. Inc. this is not a problem.

Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters. and therefore back to the network card. By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. They will monitor network traffic. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions.Conclusion Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa). also called packet sniffers. but is double-ended. Specialized Solutions. Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable. If you are able to send a signal and have it return. because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable. there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment. It has the transmit and receive wires connected. These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. A loopback cable is just what the name implies. A crossover cable is similar to a loopback. you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning. The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling. 253 . the location of any break or short can be determined. Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire. are usually a PC with a special network card. Be careful when using a crossover cable. Inc. capture packets and generate reports. It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. Software analyzers.

Inc. but used for fiber optic cabling. 254 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR. . OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back.

It could be the processor. Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network. you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. the network. Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network. due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck. Some passwords are case-sensitive. 255 . Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam. If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate. For some reason.Conclusion Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. Therefore. or a disk resource. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail. Inc. A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors. Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security. You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so. but can be caused by a disconnected cable. the traffic is not moving. This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors.

tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night. As networks grow. These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours. check for memory bottlenecks. For example. You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives. deletes. When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it. . You must defragment the drive. Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 256 Specialized Solutions. and moves information. Inc. the network slows down. so does the traffic. If slow loading persists even after defragmenting.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves.

The first step is to PING the loopback address.0. It also lets you know the time that it takes. you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG. If you are using TCP/IP. PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on your intranet or on the Internet your packet is going. but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card.0. This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS. This will test the protocol stack in the computer. On a Macintosh system. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities.Conclusion Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network. Inc. because as a network professional. TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination. These commands work from a command prompt. and TRACERT commands to test the network. PING. Remember this address. The loopback address is 127. On a Windows 95/98 computer.1. 257 . you will use it often. Specialized Solutions.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195. 258 Specialized Solutions.6. This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT. WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly. your dialog box will look like the following. WINIPCFG. XP. or 2003 system.48.55. . 2000. Inc. If you are using Windows.

you will be testing a larger portion of the network. If at any stage. the server. With each step. you have encountered a problem. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday. Inc. and so on. then there is a problem with the protocol. It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network. you receive a message like the following. For the IPX/SPX networks.Conclusion PING 195. they must be okay. PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol. Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t. Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems.48.55. use the ipxping command. Usually this means you have the wrong IP address. Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: Specialized Solutions.6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation. 259 .

the first thing to do is find out what has changed.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause. you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory. That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server). but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow. The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details. we need to look at four limiting factors on performance. These are text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses. Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. . they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. If these files are being used. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. suspect a loose or disconnected cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. you can be sure that the network is not being detected. Beyond that. To resolve this problem. Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name. Inc. If no lights are on. while green lights indicate that all is well. If present. (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files. If there is a sudden change in performance. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. In general. they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network. 260 Specialized Solutions. How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution. you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup. we learned that workstations.” With nslookup. or hosts. respectively. Earlier. One is the IP address number. The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS. You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address. have two names. Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem.

The answer lies in creating a performance baseline. you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. Inc. The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system. From this information. for the most part. Resolving performance problems can be easy. You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information. the more packets that can be moved). after you identify the problem. Latency Small delays in packet movement that are caused by devices is called latency. adding to the network load. if any one component is performing poorly. Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. Latency delays. or maximum speed that traffic can move. you will know the high. if you are experiencing slow printing. it will affect the entire network. everything slows down. The speed limit. The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps). but are interrelated. For example. This means that for a small amount of time. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. it can send data at a faster than rated speed. you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. if the traffic gets too congested. Specialized Solutions. An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. Then. To create a baseline. at a later date. and average time to print the document. is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now. you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed. Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. Therefore. This can slow down data transfer. Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays. 261 . A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache. Just like our highway. Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory. For example. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation.Conclusion Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing. slow. but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks. are negligible. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request.

percent of network utilization. etc. With this tool. Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. Windows Performance Monitor 262 Specialized Solutions. etc. With this activated. you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself. To collect these statistics. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. you will be able to monitor such events as processor time. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events. Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network. . Windows has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools. available memory.

Inc.Conclusion KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 263 .

You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slowly. What is the loopback IP address? 7. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3. You have located the cable in question #3. Inc. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10. You need to know the IP address of a workstation.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Conclusion 264 Specialized Solutions. What tool would you need to find the short? 5. You have just connected a workstation to the network. and think it might be shorted. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. . You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8. After repairing a problem.

be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site. Remember. start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course. Inc. 265 . Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs. and as often. or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. and don’t forget to use the Glossary. When you are ready to schedule your exam.Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. After taking a practice exam. we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range. the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. To measure your retention of these materials. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. as you like. you are ready to sit for your certification exam. be sure to review any areas that need improvement. at Specialized Solutions. We love to hear from our students. Specialized Solutions. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material. so if you have any questions.

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Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Specialized Solutions. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. It is expressed in ohms. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. • • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series. Maximum of 4 repeaters. Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. Inc.Appendix A – Tech Summary Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing coaxial Ethernet cabling. They are specified based on their impedance. Only 3 segments can contain nodes. 267 . you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule.

Length (meters) Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment Max Segments Max. ArcNet networks. Description Stranded wire core.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core. Broadband transmission. . but also used for broadband transmissions. Military specification of RG-58 A/U. Inc. Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59. Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 10Base5 Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Bus 500 10 100 5 4 10Base2 Bus 185 10 30 5 4 3 268 Specialized Solutions. RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max. such as cable television.

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Not Defined Two 62. Two STP – 26 AWG wire. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Specialized Solutions. but adds voice capability along with data. Two STP –26 AWG wire. Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps. Voice-grade cable. Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch.5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. Six twisted pairs. Inc. Contains a shield for use under carpets. Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch. Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG. 269 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Data grade up to 100 Mbps. Same as type 1. IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks. Plenum grade. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet).Appendix A – Tech Summary UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps. Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch.

5 802. They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls. Inc.11 802.12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 270 Specialized Solutions. 802.8 802.x Standard 802.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model.1 802.10 802.4 802.6 802.9 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802. .3 802.7 802.2 802.

Inc. 271 . however. The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2. COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs. No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually Specialized Solutions. there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed. COM4 COM1.Appendix A – Tech Summary IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer.

The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F .LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F . .LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 272 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address. Inc.

Appendix A – Tech Summary 3A0 to 3AF 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model Specialized Solutions. Inc. 273 .

x 192.x.255. Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001.534 254 274 Specialized Solutions.x.0 Number of Networks 126 16.x 128.255.x.384 2.0 255. x.0. x.777.x. Inc.x to 191.214 65.x.x.0.x.0. Hubs.x.x to 126.x.x to 223.097.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Gateways Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Brouter Bridges Switches NICs.0 255.x Default Subnet Mask 255.255.152 Number of Host 16.x. Repeaters Computers Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address. .

275 . Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. and default gateway. PING ARP RARP Specialized Solutions. Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks. Sends a test packet to a specified address.0. Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address.1) to test the IP architecture and configuration. the subnet mask.0. Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses). it will return. Inc. Use the loopback address (127. Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the Linux user’s network interface configuration.Appendix A – Tech Summary TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. If all is well. the subnet address.

) Used to verify entries on a DNS server. Used to check the status of current IP connections. . Inc. all computers are connected to a hub. Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents. Used to verify the route to a remote host. In a star topology. (Pronounced Trace Route. 276 Specialized Solutions. ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries. all computers are connected in a series.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it. Used to check the resolution of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses. NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology.

Specialized Solutions. Inc. all computers are logically connected in a circle. all computers are connected to each other. In a mesh topology. 277 .Appendix A – Tech Summary In a ring topology.

resistance. Can also be used for precise voltage measurements. and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry. TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. Also called a network analyzer. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages. Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. . Protocol Analyzer 278 Specialized Solutions. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks. An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals.

Displays or prints a list of events. and networks. 279 . hubs. Inc. Event Viewer SNMP Specialized Solutions. Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers. interface cards. Used to provide information for network baselines. and bridges). routers.Appendix A – Tech Summary Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations. servers.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 280 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www.com Other Helpful Sites http://www.com Novell http://www.cnet.novell.microsoft. Inc. 281 .com Specialized Solutions.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 282 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

Specialized Solutions. Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector. Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry. For additional information. search for these organizations on the Internet. This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry.Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards. CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below). Inc. it is responsible for establishing standards for communication. In the computing industry. 283 . As its name implies. it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set. EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. let alone the networking industry. This is a common code for basic characters and numbers.

This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another. Inc. the data can be smoothly transferred.x sub-committees. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model. . Inc. Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused. its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment.x committee. the IEEE is subdivided into committees. As you may guess from its name. As long as both are SQL compliant. Since they cover a wide variety of equipment. These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards. 284 Specialized Solutions. See Appendix A for a summary of the 802. The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802. ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product.

and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE. Method of payment. either by credit card.com for Prometric or www. or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer. Date you wish to take the test. go to www. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test. credit card or voucher.2test. To register via the Internet. Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time.Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE. Prices subject to change without notice. Specialized Solutions. When you call. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like.vue. Payment must be made each time you take the test. Inc.com for VUE. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers. 285 . please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number. Payment is made at the time of registration.

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Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies.Appendix E – Glossary Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. The file server on an AppleTalk network. Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. 287 . A continuously variable signal. The highest layer of the OSI Model. Software. program. opposite of digital. A dedicated server for applications. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. these three terms are often used interchangeably. Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. The Apple networking protocol. American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. or computers on the network (nodes). Inc. it supplies functions to applications. so they can communicate with other applications or nodes. usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). or bits per second (bps).

Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address 288 Specialized Solutions. Hardware that connects one network with another. A bus driver. these are all in use at the present time. such as IBM. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. such as Microsoft.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. The signal flow is uni-directional. An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. GM. or DEC. Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals). The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC. Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances. A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. . A form of mobile computing. IP Address used by medium-sized networks. A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems. Inc. British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. IP Address used by very large networks.

is a number derived from. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media. from computer or network to another. at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level. Cyclic Redundancy Check. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor. or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. 289 . Data that is encoded for security reasons. Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption Specialized Solutions. Software used by the client. A form of multitasking. called a server. stored. or Cyclic redundancy Code. Same as a hub. or language. The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. to allow other tasks to run. The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. which is. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation.Appendix E – Glossary Client Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable User computer “being served” by another computer. Inc. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. itself. using a specific protocol.

When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. so that one can take over for the other if it fails. Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency. The Data Link layer splits data into frames. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. (Simple “on” or “off” signal. . DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. for sending on the Physical layer. such as an individual file. so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. in a round-robin fashion.) Being able to recover data from a disaster. If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. Also called data striping. Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 290 Specialized Solutions. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one. this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data. Inc. A limited form of bus mastering. It also receives acknowledgement frames. which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks.A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients. the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk. This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol .

A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received. Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits. An improved version of X. A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. A group of bits containing address information. A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard. Inc. File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network. A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. A network’s central computer. Specialized Solutions. sent over a communications channel. Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once. and other control information.25 packet switching technology. error detection. 291 DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex . with a very large amount of storage space for shared files.Appendix E – Glossary DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems.

even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. and informational messages related to IP. The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses. Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture. is usually represented in dotted decimal notation. Inc. but only one at a time. is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages. HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. that enables two networks. and other information. A network topology that combines bus. Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). to communicate with each other. test packets. Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. using different protocols. RFC 792. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol. . GSNW Half-Duplex Header HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address 292 Specialized Solutions. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5. It precedes the actual data. defined in STD 5. RFC 791. or ring topologies. star.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway A computer that acts as a translator.

293 ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU . internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring. a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology. data. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver. Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator. it’s “hardware address.” Server used for E-mail. A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data. Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC. and video data sources. Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer. Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer. across a network connection.Appendix E – Glossary IPCONFIG IPsec IRQ DOS command that tells you the IP address for your computer. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network. A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. Inc. Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice. Specialized Solutions.

totally incompatible with the original PC bus. One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. Much like your local radio station. Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card 294 Specialized Solutions. . Performing multiple tasks simultaneously. protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources. A method of data transmission.400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS). Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X. among others. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission. Single Frequency Radio. A type of hub. The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems. a 32-bit bus. Inc. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. Also known as a network interface card. Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide MCA Bus Micro Channel Architecture. and is used by CompuServe. Provides the physical connection to the network cable. introduced by IBM for its PS/2 computer line.

An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network. depending on the protocol. A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network. Specialized Solutions. Acts as a connection point only. Inc. A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). 295 Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card . A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards. A generic term used to describe a unit of data. Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet. A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. including network connectivity. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another.Appendix E – Glossary Network Administrator Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network. Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model. They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs.

1. and running on TCP/IP. The Presentation layer formats data exchange. and even if a process takes full control. Inc. The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time. Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 296 Specialized Solutions. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning. used to circulate air through a building. The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Peer-to-Peer Performance Monitor All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server. converting character sets and encrypting data. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model. depending upon the needs of the user. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer. Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3. A hardware device. such as a printer or scanner. Dedicated server for printing. Although included as part of Windows NT. Defines a channel between a device and the processor. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer. . The space between the ceiling and the floor above. many third-party applications are available. A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server. which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking.5 of Windows 3. other processes will still run.

Inc. including support for dialup and logon. In a Ring topology. which then routes the signal appropriately. i. Connector used with UTP and STP network cables. Used to increase cable distances in network environments. For example. the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. The services or peripherals that are shared over the network. Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors. The signal is beamed towards a central unit. the proxy server. For example. 297 . Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. In Token-Ring networks. to be accessed via a modem. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN Specialized Solutions.Appendix E – Glossary Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection. A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network. A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. Redirects a call from one port to another. the devices are connected in a continuous loop. Connector used with standard telephone wire. A device that forwards packets between networks.e.

data transfer. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use. was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another. A uni-directional data channel. to be used over a serial link. as opposed to duplex. the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15. defined in RFC 1055. connection establishment and release. RFC 1157. . ceilings. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. until it reaches the receiver. A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. acknowledgments (ACK). Software that resides on a server. Transmission rates are slower with this type. normally used on Ethernet. is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP). A computer on a network that provides services to other computers. The Session layer handles such things as security authentication. Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. etc. Simple Network Management Protocol. SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP 298 Specialized Solutions. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. usually over Ethernet. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP.

An access method used in a Token Ring topology. Maximum segment length is 500 meters. An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5. The maximum speed that “traffic” can move. Using binary addition. or across large flat open areas. The process of subdividing a network into logical units. Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol.Appendix E – Glossary SONET Spread-Spectrum Radio Synchronous Optical Network Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. 299 SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk . the entire network goes down. Inc. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings. If the hub fails. Specialized Solutions. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub. rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms.5 Standard) environment. such as bodies of water or deserts. that uses a large diameter. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters. A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. the official protocol of the Internet. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network.

When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. defined in STD 6. The “fox. this applies a signal on the wires.” A receiver set to the frequency of the generator. is layered on top of IP. The “hound. The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information. Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer. Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments. Tool for stripping and cutting wire Tone Locator TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 300 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). Inc. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. it will emit a tone. RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol. thus locating the wires. A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments.” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface. User Datagram Protocol. A device that transmits and receives data. . like TCP. Used on transceivers. Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding. The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport. which.

using zones Zones Specialized Solutions.Appendix E – Glossary WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves. such as Token Ring. Inc. resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks. A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. 301 .

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and peripheral devices. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Review Questions Chapter 1 1. and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less). Name some advantages of having centralized documents. Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security). loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations. configure. What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources. 303 . A WAN is not geographically limited. like one office). No security. Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net. Inc. 7. Files are easily accessed by all users. Specialized Solutions. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet. Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area. 3. such as data.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers. Simple to install. LANs typically also have much faster communication speed than WANs. applications. It is confined to a limited area. What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use. 4. 5. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server). data backups can be more easily and routinely performed. A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. 2. 6.

Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. The three basic topologies are: Bus. Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). 304 Specialized Solutions. Some NOSs function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. Centralized location of resources (server). Token Passing. Can be expanded as network grows. Increased performance on large networks. 2. File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access. 11. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see. What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. and Ring. Ease of data backups. They represent what the topology looks like. Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. 12. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. 9. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 8. and Demand Priority. More difficult to install and configure. Star. 10. Name the three basic topologies. Centralized administration. Review Questions Chapter 2 1. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU. .

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. 6. What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. web-publishing. management. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. 550 MB of free hard drive space. 8. and file and print services. Define interoperability. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. 64 MB RAM. 7. and volumes is also handled with NDS. 305 . The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. routing. What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. redirecting them to the server. 4. 9. Organization of network resources such as users. Specialized Solutions. NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security. Inc. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. messaging. It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments. 5. name service. groups. servers. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. Unlike NetWare.

What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 14. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare. Transport. Inc. Data Link. Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 2. Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. 125 MB free hard drive space. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. and Physical 3. Session. Network. 12. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems.1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 306 Specialized Solutions. Presentation. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server.What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. 11. Review Questions Chapter 3 1. Application. 13. FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. 16 MB RAM. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 10. What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 15. .

This is not the actual application or program. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. 13. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer. It is a computer’s physical address. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Physical 10. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. managing. Which OSI layer is responsible the MAC address? The Data Link layer 8. What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. Presentation layer 7. Network Layer 6.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 4. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? D3-B4-01 14. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer Specialized Solutions. 9. 307 . Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. Inc. Data Link layer 5. 11. and ending connections? The Session layer 12.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 15. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence, without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 16. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 17. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. 18. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802.2 19. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. They are incompatible with each other. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com, while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. 20. Describe protocol binding. In order to function, a protocol must be bound to the NIC. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 21. Which is faster, connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster, but connection-oriented communication is more reliable. 22. . Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. AppleTalk, DECnet, IPX/SPX, PPP, PPTP, SLIP, SMB, SNA, TCP/IP, UDP, X.25, XNS 23.. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Will this work? Why or Why not? 308

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol.

Review Questions Chapter 4

1. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. 5. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. 6. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above, which is used to circulate air in a building). Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned, which would end up being circulated throughout the building. 7. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 10. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs, which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. 11. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. However, it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. 13. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths, segment lengths of up to several miles, and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. 15. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. 16. Describe baseband. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. 17. Describe broadband. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable, making the signal flow unidirectional. 18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way, can receive but not send. For example, a pager. Half-duplex communication can send or receive, but not at the same time. For example, a CB radio. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. For example, the telephone. 310 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 19. What is the function of a network adapter card? Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network. (They make the physical connection to the network.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. 20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers, including network connectivity. 22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network, to backup a cable-based network, to provide a mobile network environment, for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly, outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform. 23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared, Laser, Radio, and Microwave 24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. 25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally; Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances.

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority Specialized Solutions, Inc. 311

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). Specialized Solutions, Inc. 313

This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer. however.5 standard 16. The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network. 18. . Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function. IEEE 802. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist. 20. data collisions are avoided. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data. Inc. It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17. 314 Specialized Solutions. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends. while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise. It can be either depending upon how it is set up.3 standard 15.5 says it travels clockwise. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? The IEEE 802. Describe a MIC connector. 19. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. They are also called hermaphrodite connectors. 21.

How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. If no other computer is using the address. 23. Inc. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. 24. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No. 315 . Review Questions Chapter 6 1. NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers. 25. etc. it stores it to use each time it connects to the network. It also provides a print server. 2.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 22. 3. 4. Specialized Solutions. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. 5. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper.

It will be less costly to install CAT 6 now than to replace the CAT 5 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps to handle the higher traffic.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 6. 7. you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network. 2. Why should you refuse this offer? First. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. but they are not all the same. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. Inc. An active hub requires some input power. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? Check the Windows Catalog on the web at www.com/windows/catalog. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. 9. Also. 8.microsoft. Review Questions Chapter 7 1. 316 Specialized Solutions. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths. he intends to expand the network in the future. Passive hubs are used only to make connections. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. but not enough to run it efficiently. . However.

Gateway .544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. NetBEUI is not routable. Repeater . Define a repeater. Name four forms of RAS security. BAUD and bps were the same thing. 5. amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables. Specialized Solutions. ISDN. Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model. and SONET 7. and a gateway. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3.Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Bridge . Router . 10. Callback Security. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking). Inc. a bridge. Auditing. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. 8. They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment. Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model. Security host.A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment. BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. Name three RAS protocols. In older modems. Name three advanced WAN environments. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. a router. PPP. A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem. For example. Not all network protocols will work with a router. They do not translate or filter any information.A router has all the features of a bridge.A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature. and PPTP filtering. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. 4. BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem. Frame Relay. What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network. SLIP. They do however. PPTP and L2TP 9. 317 .

5. SMTP. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application.microsoft. UDP. SNMP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. ICMP. 2. 4. 7. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names. Transport. Inc. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose.com. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9. What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. . 3. What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 318 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11) Specialized Solutions. An example is http://www. and ARP. IP. HTU UTH 6. 32 10. Internet and Network Interface. FTP. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP. 8. and HTTP.

What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. Event Viewer. 319 . Specialized Solutions. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3. NETSTAT and TRACERT. List as many as you can. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. Inc. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment Review Questions Chapter 9 1. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network. ROUTE. NBTSTAT. U U U U 12. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups. 2. each device will need to be _________ compliant. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network.

What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password. 4. 5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1. In a share level model. Resources 3. Inc. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. passwords are assigned to __________. The acronym RAID stands for____________? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. 2. . It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. What are the three most common levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 5 Striped array with parity 6. What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet. 320 Specialized Solutions.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 11 1.1 7. 5. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables.0. 321 . 6. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. 4. You have located the cable in question #3. you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network. Inc. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator. 8. and Repair the Problem. After repairing a problem. 2. What is the loopback IP address? 127. Isolate the Problem.0. WINIPCFG from the RUN command. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. Specialized Solutions. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. The fox and hound. 3. and think it might be shorted. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. You have just connected a workstation to the network.

What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slow. Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted. Inc. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 322 Specialized Solutions. . 10.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9.

86 Broadband Optical Telepoint. 217 ATM. 78. 50 application server. 38 Client Software. 167 bridge. 108. 116 100VG-AnyLAN. 226 Bandwidth. 122 AppleTalk. 164 Class A. 89 AppleShare. 78. 161 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC). 81 Category 5. 108 Active Directory. 67 demand priority. 89 cloud. 109 DES (Data Encryption Standard). 39 Circuit-switched. 81 Cellular Networking. 186 Analog. 61 C Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD. 52 Data Protection. 196 client software. 89 Direct Memory Access (DMA). 69. 91 Baseband. 40 Specialized Solutions. 13 Clocking. 79 AWG. 65 continuity. 70 DMA. 231 BOOTP.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Index 1 100BaseX. 40. 114 A access method. 42 active hubs. 323 . 39 AUI connector. 70 coaxial cable. 65 BNC. 191 BRI. 121 Application Layer. 109 CSNW. Inc. 230 Differential backup. 42 base memory address. 116 10Base2. 119 binding. 13 ARCNet. 34 DECnet. 60 Broadband. 98 Change. 114 10BaseFL. 21 Carriers. 111 D Data Link Layer. 79 backup utility. 92 Boot Sector. 67. 196 Class C. 114 10Base5. 41 CSU/DSU. 196 Class B. 114 10BaseT. 34 clients. 151 connection-oriented. 90 DLC. 86 B backbone. 226 Digital. 78 Boot Prom’s. 123 ARP. 96 brouter. 253 Banyan VINES. 60 attributes. 91 domain. 86 Beaconing. 24 Address Resolution Protocol. 77 Computer compatibility. 160 Category 3. 16. 243 CSMA/CD. 166 attenuation. 189 domain controller.

22 FAT. 39 Full-Duplex. 83 IBM Type 3 UTP.Fiber Distributed Data. 83 File Infectors. Inc. 60 E EES. K Kerberos. 226 FDDI . 197 IPX. 86 firewall. 167 ISDN adapters. 91 ISA. 93 EMI. 159 Gigabit Ethernet. 96 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 96 Linux. 245 DSMN. 116 ground probe. 21. 189 Domain Reflectometer (TDR). 56 324 Specialized Solutions. 185 IP address. 174 LAN. 174 ICMP. 161 . 185 interoperability. 39 IP. 41 Frame Relay. 186 Incremental backup.. 120 ICA. 81 environment. 62 Internet Control Message Protocol. 226 Infrared. 93 ISDN. 67 IRQ. 91 IBM cabling. 217 IMAP4. 174 L L2TP. 144 Ethernet. 86 G gateway. 114 EtherTalk. 41 H Half-Duplex. 249 IPsec. 112 HOSTS file. 192 IFCONFIG. 187 HTTPS. 12 Laser. 122 Event Viewer. 167 FTP. 231 fire codes. 191 HTTP. 231 EISA. 191 gateways. 217. 18 I I/O port number. 41 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). 215 F Fast Ethernet. Inc. 174 IPv6. 226 Full Control. 70 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol. 42 GSNW. 68. 42 Headers. 96 LAT. 157 hybrid topologies. 174 Line-of-Sight Infrared. 224 FPNW. 186 Internet Protocol (IP). 194 IPCONFIG. 243 Group policies. 187 hubs. (IEEE). 61 Gateways. 86 headers. 166 fiber-optic. 71 ICS.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Domain Name Service (DNS). 191 dynamic routers. 39 fault tolerance. 68. 187 Full backup.

36 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh. 52 Network Neighborhood. 172 Preemptive multitasking. 36 NetWare Client32 for OS/2. 89 Network Layer.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers LLC. 18 Ping. 69 NLSP. 29 OS/2. 37 MIB (Management Information Base). 96 MLID. 67 M Macintosh. 30 PRI. 71. 242 325 Specialized Solutions. 36 NetWare Client32 for DOS. 120 Multimeter. 114 LMHOSTS. 31 Network standards. 172 PPTP. 14 Peer-to-peer LANs. 69 Network-attached storage (NAS). 114 Network Time Protocol (NTP). 171 NWLink. 228 NFS. Inc. 71. 215 NetWare. 98 packets. 37 NetWare security. 18 MHS. 191 LocalTalk. 64 Open Systems Interface (OSI). 107 protocols. 157 PCI. 36 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95. 39 NOS – Network Operating System. 157 MAUs . 49. 30 N NAT. 190 NETSTAT. 29 NSLOOKUP. 120. 67 NDIS. 43 Macro Virus. 34 MAU.Multiple Access Units. 213 MIC (Media Interface Connectors). 89 passive hub. 86 PPP. 229 Patch Panel. 23 Passwords. 217 PING. 243 mesh topology. 164 Packet-Radio Networking. 36 NetBEUI. 243 multitasking. 167 protocol. 192 Punch Down Tool. 32 P Packet switching. 23 media access methods. 232 Managing User Accounts. 70 NETBIOS. 122 logical topology. 31 PGP. 13 peer-to-peer. 111 parallel communication. 64 NDS (NetWare Directory Services). 41. . 151 Media Tester. 168 MSAU. 37 NetWare Print Services. 215 NCP. 217 NTFS. 64 proxy server. 39 Null-Modem. 120 Microwave. 93 PCMCIA. 36 NetWare file server. 49 operating system. 67 modem. 68 O ODI. 93 PDC . 231 physical topologies. 249 plenum. 37 Network Adapter Cards. 21 Media Compatibility. 191 NBTSTAT. 18 LSL. 67 No Access.Primary Domain Controller.

120 SMB. 16 serial communication. 80 virtual connections. 80 V vampire taps. 182 UNIX. 71. 68 Trojan Horses. 232 troubleshooting. 13 sharing applications. 174 token passing. 98 Scatter Infrared. 245 SONET. 172 SMAU. 65 RPC. 68. 60. 79 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 187 Software analyzers. 77 Thinnet. 16. 184 Telnet. 167 security. 225 repeater. 51 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 67. 39 redirector. 71 RSA. 227 RARP. 96 RAID. 217 Read. 237 trunk. 71. 35 Reflective Infrared. 60 Storage Area Network (SAN). 213 Simplex. 60. 158 requester. 118 topology. 69 terminator. sneaker net. 16 twisted-pair. 249 Trailer. 69 ROUTE. 81 Subnetting. 58 . 68 SMDS. 167 SPX. 34 server-based network. 69. 253 TLS. 228 STP. 225 removable optical disk. 152 star topology. 215. 16 TRACERT. 86 SLIP. 79 thicknet. 68. 215 router. 17 RIP. 67 SSL. 112 transceiver. 144 Server Software. 225 TCP. 144 Remote Access Server or RAS. 175 Security. 68 326 Specialized Solutions. 109 token ring. 185 UTP. 11 SNMP. 171 removable disks. 33 servers. 13 Server-based network. 42 User Datagram Protocol (UDP). 68 Satellite Station Networking. 174 Standards. 89 Server room. 21. 199 T tape backup. Inc. 16. 167 SMTP. 79 Transport Layer. 11 signal bounce. 34. 159 routers. 96 SDH. 35 ring topology. 221 segment. 77 throughput. 187 SNA. 17 static routers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide R Radio. 96 relative humidity. 80 U UDP. 230 S SAP.

25. 124 wireless network. 154 Windows 95/98. 230 W WAN. 92 workstation. 40 U U WINS. 165 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks). 71 XNS. 95 Wireless NICs. 231 VLAN. 19. 12 Warp Connect. 70 Specialized Solutions. 13 X X. 327 . 242 Wireless. Inc.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Viruses. 31 Windows for Workgroups. 32 Windows 2000. 190 Wire Crimper. 31 Windows NT Print Servers. 69. 166 XDR.

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