Network+ 2005 Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network+

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Copyright© 2004 by Specialized Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 338 East Tarpon Street, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. Publisher: Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Contributing Writers: Bill Ferguson Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Editor: Bill Ferguson

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Suggestions/Comments Please forward all comments or suggestions to: Specialized Solutions, Inc. 338 East Tarpon St. Tarpon Springs, FL 34689

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... I

ABOUT SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS ...........................................................IX
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+ .............................................................2005 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ..................................................................................................9 YOUR VIDEO INSTRUCTOR .................................................................................................9 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST ..................................................................................................10 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................10 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................10 ABOUT THIS COURSE .......................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS ..................................................17 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING ....................................................................................17 Benefits of Networking Computers .............................................................................17 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) .................................18 The Client/Server Relationship ...................................................................................19 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................19 Peer-to-Peer Networking ............................................................................................20 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).....................................................................21 Bus Topology ..............................................................................................................21 Star Topology..............................................................................................................22 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................22 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES ......................................................................................................23 Hybrid Topologies ......................................................................................................23 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................23 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................24 NETWORK ACCESS ...........................................................................................................26 Token Passing .............................................................................................................26 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................26 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................27 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS ...........................................................................................28 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................28 Active Hubs .................................................................................................................29 Hub-Based Networks ..................................................................................................29 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................30 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................31 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1 ....................................................................................33 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS) ....................................35 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? ..................................................................................35 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking .............................................................36 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)? ........................................................37 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................37 Server/Client Software ................................................................................................39 NOS PACKAGES...............................................................................................................42 Specialized Solutions, Inc. i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Novell NetWare .......................................................................................................... 42 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System................................................... 45 Windows NT Minimum Requirements ...........................Error! Bookmark not defined. UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................ 47 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service)................................................ 48 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 50 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................. 51 REVIEW QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................ 52 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS.......... 55 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION ..................................................... 55 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL ................................................................................ 56 Application Layer ....................................................................................................... 56 Presentation Layer ..................................................................................................... 57 Session Layer.............................................................................................................. 57 Transport Layer.......................................................................................................... 57 Network Layer ............................................................................................................ 58 Data Link Layer.......................................................................................................... 58 Logical Link Control (LLC) ....................................................................................... 59 Media Access Control (MAC) .................................................................................... 59 Physical Layer............................................................................................................ 60 PROTOCOL STACKS ......................................................................................................... 62 Communication Between Peer Layers ....................................................................... 62 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD ............................................................................................ 64 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL ....................................................................................... 66 Repeaters .................................................................................................................... 66 Bridges........................................................................................................................ 66 Routers........................................................................................................................ 66 Brouters ...................................................................................................................... 67 Gateways .................................................................................................................... 67 IEEE 802 STANDARDS .................................................................................................... 68 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL ...................................................................... 70 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)......................................................... 70 ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ................................................................................ 70 PROTOCOLS AND OSI ...................................................................................................... 70 Protocol Binding ........................................................................................................ 71 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless ................................................................... 71 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols ........................................................................ 71 Networking Protocols and Stacks............................................................................... 72 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................... 73 DECnet ....................................................................................................................... 73 IPX/ SPX..................................................................................................................... 73 SMB (Server Message Block) ..................................................................................... 74 SNA (Systems Network Architecture) ......................................................................... 74 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ....................................................................... 74 IP (Internet Protocol)................................................................................................. 74 UDP (User Datagram Protocol)................................................................................ 74 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) ..................................................................................... 74 ii Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Table of Contents Telnet...........................................................................................................................75 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................75 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................75 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................75 NTP (Network Time Protocol) ....................................................................................75 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) ...............................................................................75 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................75 X.25 .............................................................................................................................76 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................76 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................76 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................76 LAT (Local Area Transport) .......................................................................................76 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................77 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................78 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................78 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) ...................................................................................78 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) ................................................................78 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) ........................................................78 ISO/OSI Standard .......................................................................................................78 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ...............................................................78 DNS (Domain Name System) ......................................................................................78 XDR (External Data Representation) .........................................................................78 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................78 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................80 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................81 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................82 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................85 NETWORK CABLING .........................................................................................................85 Coaxial Cable .............................................................................................................85 Coaxial Connectors ....................................................................................................86 Twisted-Pair Cable .....................................................................................................88 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................91 Summary of Cabling ...................................................................................................93 CABLING TERMS ..............................................................................................................94 AWG (American Wire Gauge) ....................................................................................94 Bandwidth ...................................................................................................................94 Plenum Grade Cabling ...............................................................................................94 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................95 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)..............................................................................97 Preparing the Data .....................................................................................................97 Signals and Clocking ..................................................................................................97 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel) .................................................................................98 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................98 Configurable Options..................................................................................................98 Wireless NICs............................................................................................................100 Specialized Solutions, Inc. iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Fiber-Optic NICs...................................................................................................... 100 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................ 101 Standard Bus Types .................................................................................................. 101 Laptops ..................................................................................................................... 101 NETWORK PERFORMANCE ............................................................................................. 102 WIRELESS NETWORKS ................................................................................................... 103 Why Wireless? .......................................................................................................... 103 Wireless Transmission Methods............................................................................... 104 Radio Transmission.................................................................................................. 105 Satellite Station Networking..................................................................................... 106 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 108 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 109 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.................................................................................... 112 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS .................................. 115 ACCESS METHODS......................................................................................................... 116 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) .................... 116 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) ................... 117 Token Passing........................................................................................................... 117 Demand Priority....................................................................................................... 117 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS) ............................................... 119 Packet Structure ....................................................................................................... 119 Packet Components .................................................................................................. 120 NETWORK STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 122 Logical Link Control (802.2).................................................................................... 122 Ethernet (802.3)........................................................................................................ 122 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................. 129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)................................................... 131 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 133 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 134 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.................................................................................... 136 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.......................................................................... 139 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT ................................................................................... 139 The Customer ........................................................................................................... 139 The Network Goals................................................................................................... 140 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE ......................................................................................... 142 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer.................................................................................. 142 When to Choose Client/Server ................................................................................. 143 Making the Choice.................................................................................................... 144 Public and Private networks .................................................................................... 144 DESIGN THE NETWORK.................................................................................................. 150 Media Selection ........................................................................................................ 151 Environmental Concerns.......................................................................................... 152 NOS Selection........................................................................................................... 152 Protocol Selection .................................................................................................... 152 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER ............................................................................................ 154 Cable to Computer ................................................................................................... 154 iv Specialized Solutions, Inc.

.............................................................................183 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ......................................197 DNS ....................168 Carriers.........................................................................182 Troubleshooting a RAS setup...........................................166 Routers ..............................................................................................................................173 Advanced WAN Environments ...................................................................................................162 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 ................................................................................................................................................................EXPANDING A NETWORK .................174 MODEMS ..........................................................................................160 Hard Work ..................................................169 Digital Connectivity ..........................................161 HCL and Windows 2000 ...165 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS....182 Limitations of RAS ........................................................................................164 CHAPTER 7 ..................................................................................189 RFC (Request For Comments)............................189 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS .................................................159 Computer Compatibility...........................................184 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 .................................................................................................................................................154 Network Adapter Cards ..........................................................................................................160 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................176 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS) .......................................................161 Minimum Requirements ..............................................170 Circuit-switched Networks...........................................160 Standards ......................................................189 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP........166 Repeaters............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................165 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL ...................................................................................................................................................................178 Connecting Two Computers.....192 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols ...............................................................157 Media Compatibility ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Inc........................194 NAMING SYSTEMS ............................................186 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS .......................................................................................................Table of Contents Cable to Hub ......................................................................................................................172 VLAN...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................166 Bridges ........................................................................................................................................172 Packet Switching Networks...............................................................................................................................................................................................155 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY .....................................................159 PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS .........................179 Installing and Configuring RAS..............157 Adapter Card Compatibility ..................................................................................................................168 WAN Overview...............178 RAS Protocols .............................................................................................................192 Other TCP/IP Protocols .......... v ...........................................................................................................................................................................169 Analog Connectivity............................................................................................167 Gateway ........167 CONNECTION SERVICES ........................197 Specialized Solutions.....................................................................................

...... 225 IFCONFIG.......................................................................................................................................................... 223 ROUTE............................................................... 203 Class A Addresses ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 229 vi Specialized Solutions........................................................................................ 209 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS ......................................... 227 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9.......................... 222 Communities........... 200 IP Proxy Servers................................................. 199 DHCP . 203 IPv6 (IP Next Generation) ........................................................................................................ 223 TRACERT.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 202 IP Addresses ............. 222 EVENT VIEWER ....................... 223 NETSTAT ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 202 IPv4 ..................................................................................................... 225 NSLOOKUP............................................................. 198 NETBIOS ..... 200 TCP/IP ADDRESSING....................................................................... 217 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 200 NAT............................................................................................................................ 199 BOOTP ............................................................................... 225 RARP...................................................................... 203 Class C Addresses ...................................................... 221 Agent Software ............................................................................... 203 Class B Addresses .......................................... 198 HOSTS file...... 207 How to Subdivide a Network ...... 221 Management Software............................... 219 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES.......................................................................... 203 Class D and Class E Addresses...................... 225 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG ................................................................ 225 ARP ...............................................................SNMP .... 229 USER AND SHARE LEVEL ......................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS............................................................................................................................. 205 SUBNETTING .............. 199 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES ............................................ 225 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ......... 223 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ......................................................................... 199 LMHOSTS file .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 225 PING............................................................................... Inc........................................................................................................................... 215 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .......................................................................................................... 199 IP Gateway ................................................................................................... 228 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY . 222 VALIDATION TOOLS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 221 NETWORK MANAGERS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 223 NBTSTAT .............. 200 ICS ...........................................

...............................................................................................................257 Cable Problems........................................................................................................242 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10 .........................................................................................................................................................267 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES .............................................................................................................243 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK ...............................................234 Fault Tolerance and RAID................................................................................................................................................................................................ vii ................................................................................................................................................................236 PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES ........................260 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................239 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .............259 NIC Indicator Lights ..............................................260 Name Resolution .............................245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .........................................269 IEEE 802............. Differential..................................255 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS ..........................................264 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY .......................230 SECURITY TECHNIQUES .........................237 Encryption..........................................................................................................................................................245 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING..........................................................................................................................................................267 5-4-3 RULE .................................. and Incremental Backups .............................229 Share-level Security .........................................................................................................271 OSI MODEL ...............................................................................................................................................................264 CONCLUSION ...................................................................................X STANDARDS......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................269 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING) ...270 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS ......................250 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools................................................................................................234 Volumes.........................260 Performance................................257 Misbehaving Protocols ..........273 SUBNET MASKING ..............................................................................................................................................................................234 Full...........232 Backing up Data ..........................................275 Specialized Solutions.............................................................................................................232 Backup Options.....................................................................................267 ETHERNET CABLING ............................................................................................................................263 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11 .....................................Table of Contents User-level Security...............................................268 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES ...............................................232 Firewalls .......274 TCP/IP PORTS .....................................................................................................................239 Viruses..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................234 Fault Tolerance and Power ................................................................................250 Hardware Networking Tools...................................................... Inc............................................................................................................................................................................................................233 Backup Software ..................................238 Disaster Recovery ........................................................................................................275 TCP/IP UTILITIES ..............232 Blocking Port Numbers.............................................................................................................................................................................251 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS ...............................

............. Inc............................................ 283 ANSI....................................................................................................................................... 319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10............................................................ 309 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5...................................................... 278 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6.................... 287 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS .............. 283 EIA ........................................ 318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9........................................................ 284 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM.................................................................... 276 TRANSMISSION MEDIA ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 283 IEEE .................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TOPOLOGY REVIEW ................................................................................................................ 283 CCITT .......................................................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1............. 278 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 323 viii Specialized Solutions................................ 281 COMPUSERVE ................................. OTHER HELPFUL SITES ............................................................................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2........................... 316 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8................ 285 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 284 SAG ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7................................................................... 321 INDEX .................................................... 281 NOVELL ................. 285 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS ........................................... ..................... 304 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3............................................................................................................................................. 320 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11......... 284 ISO............. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED......................... 281 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS ................................................................................................ 281 MICROSOFT: ......

’s Network+ training and certification course. Inc. We strive to provide training programs that far exceed the expectations of our customers. ix .specializedsolutions. Our highly skilled staff of computer and educational professionals are dedicated to delivering high quality. cost-effective programs that are customized to suit your needs. One hundred percent customer satisfaction and unmatched customer service is always our commitment to the computer professional. We thank you for choosing our company as your resource for Information Technology SelfStudy Training. To see other Specialized Solutions. We are committed to always be on the leading edge of new computer environment training products. We will always provide a quality product to customers at a price that is within reach of most computer professionals.About Specialized Solutions About Specialized Solutions Welcome to Specialized Solutions.com Specialized Solutions. please visit us at: www. Inc. Inc. Specialized Solutions. is dedicated to providing the computer professional the highest level of self-study training and certification materials the industry has to offer. Inc. course offerings.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide x Specialized Solutions.

Inc. We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical. Remember. and Digital Video Studio Professionals. Computer Graphics Experts.Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives. Inc. Technical Writers. as a stand-alone textbook. Network+ video training series. at Specialized Solutions. or as a textbook in a classroom environment. 1 . our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. It can be used in conjunction with the Specialized Solutions. Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals. We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! Specialized Solutions. We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program. easy to follow format. Technical Editors.

0 Network Support Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 25% 35% 100% 2 Specialized Solutions. Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination. .0 Protocols & Standards 3.0 Media & Topologies 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey. The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content. Inc.” The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1.0 Network Implementation 4.” “This examination includes blueprint weighting. test objectives and example content.

3 .3 Specify the characteristics (For example: speed. 10 GBASE-LR and 10 GBASE-ER 1.2 Specify the main features of 802. 1000BASE-CX. and cable type) of the following cable standards: • 10BASE-T and 10BASE-FL • 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX • 1000BASE-T. 802.3 (Ethernet). 5e. including: • Speed • Access method (CSMA / CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) and CSMA / CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection)) • Topology • Media 1.Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: Domain 1.4 Recognize the following media connectors and describe their uses: • RJ-11 (Registered Jack) • RJ-45 (Registered Jack) • F-Type • ST (Straight Tip) • SC (Subscriber Connector or Standard Connector) • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) • Fiber LC (Local Connector) • MT-RJ (Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack) • USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1.6 Identify the purposes.11 (wireless).5 (token ring). 802. topology. 802. features and functions of the following network components: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • Gateways • CSU / DSU (Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit) Specialized Solutions.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a diagram.0 . 5.Media and Topologies – 20% 1.5 Recognize the following media types and describe their uses: • Category 3. schematic or description: • Star • Bus • Mesh • Ring 1. Inc. and 6 • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) • STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) • Coaxial cable • SMF (Single Mode Fiber) optic cable • MMF (Multimode Fiber) optic cable 1.2 (Logical Link Control). length. 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX • 10 GBASE-SR. and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) networking technologies.

2.9 Identify and differentiate between the following IP (Internet Protocol) addressing methods: • Static • Dynamic • Self-assigned (APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing)) 2. antenna type and environmental factors). function and use of the following protocols used in the TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) suite: • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) 4 Specialized Solutions. frequency.10 Define the purpose. IPv6) and the required setting for connections across the Internet.8 Identify the differences between private and public network addressing schemes.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • NICs (Network Interface Card) • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) adapters • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) • Modems • Transceivers (media converters) • Firewalls 1. interoperability and naming conventions: • IPX / SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange / Sequence Packet Exchange) • NetBEUI (Network Basic Input / Output System Extended User Interface) • AppleTalk / AppleTalk over IP (Internet Protocol) • TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) 2. 2. 2. addressing schemes. 2.4 Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing.7 Specify the general characteristics (For example: carrier speed.1 Identify a MAC (Media Access Control) address and its parts.11 (Frequency hopping spread spectrum) • 802.8 Identify factors which affect the range and speed of wireless service (For example: interference. Domain 2.6 Identify classful IP (Internet Protocol) ranges and their subnet masks (For example: Class A.11x (Direct sequence spread spectrum) • Infrared • Bluetooth 1. B and C). transmission type and topology) of the following wireless technologies: • 802. 2.3 Identify the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) layers at which the following network components operate: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • NICs (Network Interface Card) • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) 2.0 – Protocols and Standards – 20% 2.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model and their functions. Inc.5 Identify the components and structure of IP (Internet Protocol) addresses (IPv4. .7 Identify the purpose of subnetting. 2.

Zeroconf (Zero configuration). ICS (Internet Connection Sharing). LPD (Line Printer Daemon) and Samba). capacity and media) of the following WAN (Wide Area Networks) technologies: • Packet switching • Circuit switching • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) • T1 (T Carrier level 1) / E1 / J1 • T3 (T Carrier level 3) / E3 / J3 • OCx (Optical Carrier) • X. 2. NAT (Network Address Translation). 5 . NFS (Network File System).15 Identify the basic characteristics of the following internet access technologies: • xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) • Broadband Cable (Cable modem) • POTS / PSTN (Plain Old Telephone Service / Public Switched Telephone Network) • Satellite • Wireless Specialized Solutions. AFP (Apple File Protocol). SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). 2.14 Identify the basic characteristics (For example: speed.11 Define the function of TCP / UDP (Transmission Control Protocol / User Datagram Protocol) ports. SMB (Server Message Block).25 2.Introduction • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) • POP3 / IMAP4 (Post Office Protocol version 3 / Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • Telnet • SSH (Secure Shell) • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) • ARP / RARP (Address Resolution Protocol / Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) • NTP (Network Time Protocol) • NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) • IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) • LPR (Line Printer Remote) 2. Inc.12 Identify the well-known ports associated with the following commonly used services and protocols: • 20 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 21 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 22 SSH (Secure Shell) • 23 Telnet • 25 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • 53 DNS (Domain Name Service) • 69 TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • 80 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • 110 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) • 119 NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • 123 NTP (Network Time Protocol) • 143 IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • 443 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) 2. WINS (Windows Internet Name Service).13 Identify the purpose of network services and protocols (For example: DNS (Domain Name Service).

file and print services.6 Identify the purpose. RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service).8 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks). 3.7 Given a connectivity scenario.1x 2. media tester / certifier. application support and security) of the following server operating systems to access network resources: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. 3. .0 Network Implementation – 25% 3. authentication and encryption). Kerberos and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)). MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). 3. benefits and characteristics of using a firewall.5 Identify the purpose. and physical connectivity. configure the connection. benefits and characteristics of using a proxy service. interoperability. Domain 3.17 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function: • IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Continued on the next page… Continued from the previous page… • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) • 802. authentication. determine the impact on network functionality of a particular security implementation (For example: port blocking / filtering. 3. an authentication scheme. punch down tool or tone generator). 6 Specialized Solutions. 3.1 Identify the basic capabilities (For example: client support.3 Identify the appropriate tool for a given wiring task (For example: wire crimper. Inc. PAP (Password Authentication Protocol).4 Given a remote connectivity scenario comprised of a protocol. Includes connection to the following servers: • UNIX / Linux / MAC OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2.2 Identify the basic capabilities needed for client workstations to connect to and use network resources (For example: media.16 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services: • RAS (Remote Access Service) • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) • PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) • VPN (Virtual Private Network) • RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) 2.9 Identify the main characteristics and purpose of extranets and intranets. 3. network protocols and peer and server services).18 Identify authentication protocols (For example: CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol).

5 Given a troubleshooting scenario between a client and the following server environments. identify the cause of the problem (For example: file services.1). authentication failure. Inc.3 Given a network scenario. identify the cause of a stated problem: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 4. 4.4 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a client accessing remote network services. interpret visual indicators (For example: link LEDs (Light Emitting Diode) and collision LEDs (Light Emitting Diode)) to determine the nature of a stated problem. protocol configuration. select the appropriate network utility from the following: • Tracert / traceroute • ping • arp • netstat • nbtstat • ipconfig / ifconfig • winipcfg • nslookup / dig 4.7 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology (For example: bus.10 Identify the purpose.Introduction 3. adding or removing network services (For example: DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). Specialized Solutions. identify the network area affected and the cause of the stated failure. 4. determine the impact of modifying. interference. 4.12 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery: • Backup / restore • Offsite storage • Hot and cold spares • Hot.6 Given a scenario. identify the cause of a stated problem (For example: bad media. physical connectivity and SOHO (Small Office / Home Office) router). 3.11 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance: • Power • Link redundancy • Storage • Services 3. benefits and characteristics of using antivirus software. 7 .1 Given a troubleshooting scenario. 4.2 Given output from a network diagnostic utility (For example: those utilities listed in objective 4. star. mesh or ring) and including a network diagram. network hardware or environment). identify the utility and interpret the output.8 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving an infrastructure (For example: wired or wireless) problem.0 Network Support – 35% 4. DNS (Domain Name Service) and WINS (Windows Internet Name Service)) for network resources and users. print services. 4. warm and cold sites Domain 4.

This strategy can include the following steps: 1. Document the solution and process 8 Specialized Solutions. Identify the affected area 3. Identify the symptoms and potential causes 2. . Implement an action plan and solution including potential effects 6. Test the result 7. select an appropriate course of action based on a logical troubleshooting strategy.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. Establish what has changed 4.9 Given a network problem scenario. Inc. Identify the results and effects of the solution 8. Select the most probable cause 5.

MCSA. 9 . Server+. not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation. CCSI.Introduction Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not extremely complicated. as well as “Designing Security for Windows Server 2003 Network” for Exam Cram2. Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding. Hands-on experience is best. In addition he holds the CompTIA certifications of A+. MCP+I. Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge. Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand. such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. However. teaching classes for most of the national training companies and some regional training companies. Network+. To get the best results from your training. Bill now runs his own company as an independent contractor in Birmingham. Inc. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented. Alabama. Bill made his transition to Certified Technical Trainer in 1997 with ExecuTrain. Bill has written the “MCDST Study Guide” for Sybex Inc. and CCNA. MCSE. if this is your first exposure to networking. “My job is to understand the material so well that I can make it easier for my students to learn than it was for me to learn. use a study plan. Originally in technical sales and sales management with Sprint. it may seem so. Practice the function on your computer. Bill says. Bill has been in the computer industry for over 15 years. Use the “Help” button where available. Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. Your Video Instructor Your video instructor is Bill Ferguson. Bill is an enthusiastic. He is certified as an MCT. and Security+. MCDST. results oriented computer specialist who has extensive knowledge of Microsoft networks. In addition.” Specialized Solutions. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary.

. You can also call VUE at 877-551-7587 or Thomson Prometric at 888-8956116.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book. Inc. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English. You may be surprised at how near you are to a testing center! Evaluate your learning aptitudes. CONGRATULATIONS. but A+ certification is not required. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills.com). This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. You can locate a testing center and schedule the test on the web. German. There are no specific requirements. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive.com) or any Thomson Prometric testing center (2test. The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find. The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. French and Japanese. Since most of us learn in different ways. except payment of the test fee. Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test. there is no one method that will work for everyone. 1999. watching. You can take the test at any Virtual University Enterprises testing center (vue. YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Schedule the test for a few weeks from now so that you will have a guidepost that is constantly reminding you that you need to study the material. A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge. • • • How do you learn best (reading. Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 10 Specialized Solutions. Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs. How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam.

If you need to.Introduction Make a plan to learn. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. you want to begin to understand. 11 . Inc. Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time. If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course. Re-read the test and review the video presentation. You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through. Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read. What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through. It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point. Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). Based on your time to learn (and your schedule). Review the video presentation one more time if necessary. go though the entire course again. just get a feel for it. At this time. set aside the time to learn. Specialized Solutions. Use the rewind button as often as necessary. Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time. • Complete the course a second time. This workbook will make this task much easier. Make an appointment with yourself. Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises.

All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam. . Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam As you prepare for your certification exam it will be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure. You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. You will be required to show two forms of identification. it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature. If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams. You will be asked to sign the form.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. Evaluate the questions you missed. You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam. including one photo ID. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test. which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test. Inc. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in. Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam. • • • • 12 Specialized Solutions. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them. It is a closed book exam. The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer. The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form. (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam.

13 . Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers. At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered.Introduction HINT . Keep track of the time and pace yourself. The course contains five instructor led CD-ROMs. If you’re not quite sure.) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. (such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you. Specialized Solutions. Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! About This Course This Specialized Solutions Network+ course is a multi-media. guess. You will have plenty of time as long as you use it wisely. Do not read too much into the question. It lists your score by objective. put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. Before retaking the exam. If the administrator does not do this. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides. you are given the ability to skip a question. If you don’t know the answer.Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials. skip it. If you positively don’t know the answer. mark it and come back to it. or if you are unclear about what you should do. Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system. (You don’t need to send them the score report. Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions. ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam. marked or skipped. you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam. Usually. self-study training system. you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score. mark a question or answer a question. a Network+ Training & Test Preparation Guide and a practice exam simulator. answer the question. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. you can see which questions are not answered. You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. Inc. Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass. If you know the answer. (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. but be sure to read it in its entirety. Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Video Chapters Include: CD 1: Introduction and Overview Network Topologies Network Technologies Cable Standards Media Connectors CD 2: Media Types Network Components Wireless Technologies Protocols and Standards The OSI Model IP Addressing CD 3: Ports Services WAN Internet Access Remote Access Security Protocols CD 4: Server Operating Systems Client Connectivity Tools for Networking Firewalls Proxy Service Network Connectivity Virtual Local Area Networks Antivirus Software Fault Tolerance Disaster Recovery CD 5: Troubleshooting Network Utilities Troubleshooting Network Services Troubleshooting Topologies Troubleshooting Strategy Preparation for a Certification Test 14 Specialized Solutions.

15 . Inc.Introduction This study guide is divided into 11 chapters. It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course. Specialized Solutions.

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Through networking. An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?). and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net. and applications (resources).Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking. users can access programs.” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service. Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources. Specialized Solutions. you understand exactly what a network is. But for our purposes. files. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents. Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage. peripherals. 17 . Additionally. Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking. It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than to purchase a printer for every user. After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment. This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment.) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics. Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need. You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN. Inc. It is very important that. a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data.” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do. A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented. as a networking professional. a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files.

Inc. A WAN can connect networks from building to building or across the world. or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits. the speed of communication between the computers is typically much faster in a LAN. Also. . 18 Specialized Solutions. When LANs are connected they create a WAN.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function. The Internet is the world’s largest WAN. A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network. it is still considered a LAN. Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information.

For example. or a mail server (E-mail). log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access. Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity. A large network may have more than one server. including applications. These terms are not interchangeable. there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). and is a client. Also. A mainframe will handle all the functions. since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client). The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer. The Internet has replaced most MANs today. including hard disk space and RAM. when the user is getting information from the server. The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. but they are not common. that access would cause the workstation to become a server.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals There is actually a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). configuration and management may be more challenging. The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. also known as clients. A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or county. A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files. A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network. it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. one for applications (application server). The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation. Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. 19 . It is important to know what a MAN is. one for printing (print server). Inc. efficiency in backing up the data. network security. and expandability. However. Users. The advantages of this type of network are central administration. Specialized Solutions.

network security is unreliable. A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security. and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e.g. . The computers are simply cabled together.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers. a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand. All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user. This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved. Peer-to-Peer Network 20 Specialized Solutions. Also. Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network. Inc. In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal. A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install.

A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. future growth needs. The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used. This cable is called a trunk. However. While the signal is bouncing back and forth. In a Bus network. map. Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address). and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. it prevents other devices from sending data. or segment. 21 . connectors. you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network. The Bus topology is a passive topology. only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal. backbone. are all determined by the topology used. how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). and even how the cabling is run through a building. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together. The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable. the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other. This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. (Network Interface Cards. If not prevented. Specialized Solutions. Inc. they do not move the transmissions along. or topology. An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. design. There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). scheme. or diagram. Devices only listen for data being transmitted. NICs. To stop signal bounce. also called Network Adapter Cards). refers to its physical layout. As a network professional. a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable. Different topologies have different cabling requirements. if the cable breaks.

. The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network. the rest of the network will still continue to function. There are no ends to terminate. The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network. the entire network will go down. it can affect the entire network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Star Topology In a Star topology. but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down. If the hub fails. all devices are connected to a central point called a hub. The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. Star Topology Ring Topology In a Ring topology. It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology. A disadvantage is that if one computer fails. 22 Specialized Solutions. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable. however. Inc.

a computer can fail and not prevent the network from functioning. The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. Inc. Specialized Solutions. Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies. you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology. 23 . the ring is actually in a special type of hub called a Multistation Access Unit (MSAU). Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies. some Ethernet networks today are wired using a using multiple hubs. This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. These are known as Hybrid topologies. Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. However. we have been discussing physical topologies. So far.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals With IBM Token Ring networks. but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. is how the network actually works. A logical topology. You will be able to see a physical topology. In these networks. Token Ring networks are physical stars and logical rings. Also. Before you can understand some of these special topologies. It consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. These are the methods in which a network is actually wired. For example. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations. This gives us a physical star topology. they operate between the hubs like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus. on the other hand.

. The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter 4 of this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points. the topology of a wireless network is that of an “invisible star”. Inc. Since each computer has its own connection to the wireless access point (WAP). . 24 Specialized Solutions.

Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Specialized Solutions. Inc. 25 .

only one device at a time can communicate on the network.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. This is based on the media or wiring of the network. The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network. and the message is delivered. we create kind of a “party line”. The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message. The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages. With several devices connected to one media. Inc. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods. We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards. Multiple Access means that more than one computer 26 Specialized Solutions. Since there is only one token. It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token. Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected. . they are called Token Ring and Ethernet. Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit.

Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original. Inc. 27 . Specialized Solutions. Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps. Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted). Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals can be connected to the same cable.

Today. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified. not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks. Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only. . they are all the same. Essentially. Passive Hub – Patch Panel 28 Specialized Solutions. With a Token Ring. Just remember. hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function. they are called MSAUs (Multiple Station Access Units). Hubs can be classified as either passive or active. Passive hubs do not require any electrical power to function. Inc. The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator. since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network.

4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs. 3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated. This type type of hub requires electrical power to function. An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. Specialized Solutions. Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs. They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected. 29 . 2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available. Inc.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources. A WAN is not geographically limited and typically has greater speed of communication than a WAN. We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network. Topology is a term we use to describe the logical shape of the connection of computers in a network. The two types of networks are LANs and WANs. star. The three main types of topology are bus. Inc. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. go back and review the chapter again. 30 Specialized Solutions. and ring. It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN. . A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition Specialized Solutions. 31 .

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 32 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

5. Name some advantages of a Server-based network.Chapter 1 1. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. 33 . What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6. What is a “sneaker net”? 4. What is the main reason for networking computers? 3. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Inc. Specialized Solutions. 10. 11. 9. What are the key differences between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Review Questions . Name two media access methods. Name the three basic topologies. 7. 8.

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Hardware resources such as RAM. The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other. hard disk space. The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e. Today. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well. it is just a pile of metal and plastic. and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). if you don’t have the software to run it. You can get it all set up and turn on the power. 35 . Specialized Solutions. we are referencing the built-in network operating system component. Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe.Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 . We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities. as well as the operating system. word-processing. In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems. When we are talking about operating systems. most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions. spreadsheet. and database programs). processor time. but without an operating system. what we are really talking about are network operating systems. When we refer to the operating system in this chapter. network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system. Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment. it will just sit there.g. Inc. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment. Most of today’s client and server operating systems have a built-in network operating system. This chapter is all about the various operating systems with which a networking professional needs to be familiar. What is an Operating System? Not that long ago.

In non-preemptive multitasking. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. . 36 Specialized Solutions. A true multitasking (multi-processing) operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs. It is used on all of the latest operating systems. Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed. the processor is never taken away from a task. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor. Inc. Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. Preemptive multitasking began with Windows 95 and the Intel Pentium processor. put simply.

Microsoft Client. All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood. It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. and you have a working network. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). moving photos to the Web. Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems. Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices. Instead. Inc. or a similar program. Windows 95/98 Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems that include a network operating system. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. turning on the computer and answering questions. They use an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. such as BSD UNIX. to communicate with other computers over a network. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. and archiving music. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. Their new graphical interface and networking capabilities make them a vast improvement over their predecessors. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network. Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. Then. Specialized Solutions. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network. 37 . Novell NetWare. all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network. It is well-suited for editing home movies. Windows 95/98 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems.

like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server. EFS (Encrypting File System). is equipped to be networked easily. which allows for safety when installing additional software or making changes to the computer’s configuration. like ME. It features file protection. Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is the newest edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users. It also uses System Restore. Inc. . driver certification. It. a simplified visual design. Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across in real life but are unlikely to be on the test: 38 Specialized Solutions. multilingual support. remote OS installation. It allows for faster user switching. IPsec and Kerberos support. peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT. It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies.

the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability. it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment. Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network. This can also provide accessibility and security for all devices on a network. Specialized Solutions. 39 . Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (uses resources locally). Inc. the computers act as both a client and a server. In a Serverbased network.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. However. Inc.

the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. This 40 Specialized Solutions. They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access). Some networks even cluster server so that more that one server can share a database of information. Data Protection As we already discussed.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task. . However. the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). and to the server. At the very least. This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus. server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location. Servers exist to serve. out onto the network. if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. Unlike most client software. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. Server Software As their name implies. The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed. The component that handles these requests is called the redirector. Inc. Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords. most of the data is stored on the server. Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server.

It does not need to know anything about networks. etc. called drive designators. If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus. or if they need to be redirected to the server. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) provides for load balancing of the server resources as well as fault tolerance if one server were to fail. to resources. 41 . The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server. If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server. which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer. it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests. Specialized Solutions. Inc. It does this by assigning drive letters. This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer. Basically.

it was the most popular server operating system. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. deleted. a user may logon from anywhere on the network and gain access with all of their assigned rights and privileges intact. In this section. and account restrictions. shared. which is a Windows-based utility. Version 6. and volumes is also handled with NDS. Directory and file attributes are used to set the types of access for a file or directory such as viewed. groups. NetWare is administered through NetADMIN. which is like the Internet but within a network or company. non-shareable. NetWare is based upon the industry standard X500 directory architecture. or through NWADMIN. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages.EXE. • NetWare’s popularity is due largely to its ability to provide services across multioperating system environments. Versions 3. Trustee rights regulate which directories and files a user can access. Novell NetWare The NetWare operating system has been around for a long time. but it is losing market share to Microsoft servers every year. or Pentium machines. name service. With NDS’ single point logon. management. Inc. NetWare provides more than adequate network security by using a combination of approaches. .11 operate on 386. First. we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. but there will always be data in any network to which access must be restricted. messaging.11 is called IntranetWare. or changed.12 and 4. It is Novell’s push to gain market share and is a way of creating an Intranet.2) was designed to operate on 286 machines. as well as what kind of access they have.5 is now on the market. Version 4. copied. routing.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use. which is a DOS-based utility. In the past. The earliest version (2. login security provides authentication and verification of user name. password. NetWare Directory Services (NDS) NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. web-publishing. servers. time. It may be installed in either the client or server format. NetWare Security The purpose of a network may be to share resources. 42 Specialized Solutions. It is a reliable operating system that provides performance and security. 486. and file and print services. Organization of network resources such as users. NetWare File Services The NetWare file server hard drive may be mapped to a client and the client machine will recognize the drive as a logical drive and be able to access it as it would any other drive in the computer.

It is compatible with E-mail programs such as Novell’s GroupWise and Microsoft Mail. You can even send messages to everyone in a group. next to the print server. except an individual workstation. You can send messages to individuals or to groups very easily. NetWare also provides a method of using simple commands to send messages to other users on the network. and finally to the printer. NetWare Minimum Requirements The following are the minimum installation requirements as specified by Novell for installing their server software: Specialized Solutions. NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS) MHS may be installed on any server and configured to be a network wide E-mail system. 43 . a workstation. or directly to the network. Inc.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Print Services NetWare Print Services can support up to 256 printers. as well as others. Printers may be attached to the server. Print requests are first routed to the file server. The file server and the print server can be the same computer.

X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 5: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Pentium Class or higher 64 MB 550 MB 386 or higher 16 MB 105 MB 386 or higher 6 MB 30 MB 286 or higher 2.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 4.11 or OS/2 Warp and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 Macintosh 6.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for Macintosh OS Specialized Solutions.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 3.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS OS/2 1.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Version 2.5 MB 20 MB Client Software The client software may be installed on any computer running any of the following: • • • • • 44 DOS 3.1 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS MS Windows 3. . Inc.1 or later (Standard or Extended Edition) and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 OS/2 2.

but it does have several advantages. The NetWare client can be installed with almost any other operating system. As we’ve already discussed. Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version. NetWare is extremely efficient at operating with other systems. You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows network. The NT Kernel.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Interoperability As the word implies. The advanced security features of Windows are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT . Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows Servers. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. Problems do occur when trying to operate within the Windows NT domain. This type is performed by each workstation or server publicly sharing a directory on the network. With this method. actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2). Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems. the Windows servers may be configured to store each workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups. This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments. another security method must be utilized. interoperability simply means the ability of an operating system to operate with other systems. Specialized Solutions. Inc. but Windows NT contains services such as NWLink and Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW) that allow them to work together effectively. Files in Windows may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network. The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of Microsoft’s server/workstation technology. The attributes such as Read. and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier. Full Control. Unlike NetWare.File Allocation Table) during installation. which as at the base of all Microsoft’s servers. The newest of these server operating systems. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories. It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. or No Access may be set on the directory. 45 . In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows . Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software). offer even more advantages and stronger security than their predecessors. Windows File Services Like NetWare. The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of Windows security features. Change. Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management. you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data. Windows combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. Today.

A domain is simply a group of users. and user rights.) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer. . permissions. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource. especially with the latest Windows Server 2003 family. you are given the option to share it to the network. Remember. Windows Network Services There are many services available in Windows to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer. At least one domain controller is assigned to each domain. and resources with a shared security database. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network. more than one printer can be installed to any machine. Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions). This trend continued with the latest Windows server operating systems (Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. Workstation Service is the redirector service. 46 Specialized Solutions. Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows Server Security Security was a major concern in the development of Windows Servers.. Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in the domain. Inc. Windows Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in a Windows network. Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers. Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible. Even if you are installing a local printer. A domain controller is a server that maintains and manages all accounts.. Server Service provides access to network resources. Microsoft uses domains to control access and authenticate users and computers. computers. Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service. The following is a list of services included with Windows Server software to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between Microsoft and NetWare.

Windows Server 2003 offers a more secure Web Server (IIS 6. but it adds many features that are designed exclusively for security.0). Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 is the latest in the line of Microsoft server operating systems. and is. Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be. Windows Server 2003 is the first Windows server that was built primarily with security in mind. which govern what users can see and do on the network. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators. In fact. It allows Novell NDS computers to be managed just as Microsoft domain controllers. In addition. Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to Microsoft’s domain controller. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an Microsoft domain and the NetWare server.0) than the previous version in Windows 2000 (IIS 5. It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network.. when using Windows Server 2003 you typically must remove or configure security boundaries in order to get the server to. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the Microsoft service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory. In contrast. This software is not included with Netware but can be purchased separately. UNIX is a Specialized Solutions. It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives. It provides all of the advantages of Windows 2000 Server. Installing CSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. it has more “locked down” security templates that make it less likely that users will try to go around the security. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System.well serve. 47 . Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to Windows. used as such. It can be installed on the Microsoft client to allow it to connect the Netware server directly. Installing GSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. Previous Microsoft server operating systems were built to serve and then had security features to protect them. This is necessary because all Microsoft client workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional.. FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access Microsoft file and print services. Inc.

in fact the software is available for a free download. These terminals are not stand-alone computers. Because of its open source nature. UNIX. UNIX is a multi-tasking. It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. which means that it can be changed by a software programmer. 48 Specialized Solutions. but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. TCP/IP. OS/2. It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). to convert the UNIX host into a file server. . Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows. and messaging services. Like Novell NetWare. The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS. Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX. however. Linux is open source. Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. Inc. VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top. as well as others. At one time. A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide bulky operating system. At its inception. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system. many variations of Linux have been created over the years such as Caldera and Red Hat. Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system. multi-user. VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. security. and many other features associated with an OS. A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users. general-purpose operating system. it was an extremely popular network operating system. StreetTalk provides directory. The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. Software is available. It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms. as well as file and printer sharing.

they developed what later became known as the mouse and the first GUI display. Specialized Solutions. 49 . Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production. but users also use them personally. both at home and on the go. In conjunction with Xerox.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984. Inc. The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction with the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book). and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC.

Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic. Banyan VINES. such as Novell NetWare and Windows server operating systems. . The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare). With the redirector. There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer. the most popular network operating systems also function as the network operating system. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems.). an application is unaware that it is working from a network. (UNIX. the client computers rely on the server for their resources. the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network). Inc. etc. The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely). Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. In a server-based network. and at least be familiar with others. It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today. and data backups. Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. Study through the chapter again if you need to. centralization of administration. In a peer-to-peer network. Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems. The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security. 50 Specialized Solutions. Today.

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS)

KEYWORDS Exercise
Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition

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Review Questions
1. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system?

2.

What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking?

3.

What is the purpose of the redirector?

4.

NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments.

5.

What is NDS?

6.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5?

7.

Define interoperability.

8.

Unlike NetWare, Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one.

9.

What is NTFS?

10.

What is a domain?

11.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server?

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Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) 12. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.

13.

What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system?

14.

What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984?

15.

What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system?

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Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards

Chapter 3- The OSI Model and Communication Standards
In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, what it is and its primary function. You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles each function, and which devices function at each layer. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam.

The Seven Layers of Network Communication
The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. As a result, some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other, and how they will communicate if they are using different languages. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit; when not to transmit; and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected; how the data will flow (at what speed); and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications.

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The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you should notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers, depending upon their functions.

Seven Layers of the OSI Model
The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network. These services include file, print, and messaging services. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer. The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. This is not the actual application or program, simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail, transfer files across the network, or access a

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Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure. and un-packaging the data for transport. and when.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards network database. This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local. In short. they will be combined. protocol conversion. add any addressing information and error correction information. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. Each connection is called a session. The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging. If Specialized Solutions. The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network. half-duplex. 57 . or receive. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer. Sessions may be established using simplex. and prepare it for its journey. bit ordering. it will break the data into packets. The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. if the packets are too small. and error free. and data encryption. The network redirector operates at this layer. interpreting graphics commands. As its name implies. it presents data to the application layer. This layer is responsible for establishing. The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh. For example.) character set conversion. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network. etc. The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence. It provides a logical connection between the two devices. The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them. Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. Inc. managing. and ending connections. This layer is also responsible for data compression. without duplication. or full-duplex communication.

but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. segmentation information and routing information. Connectionless protocols are faster. In an ideal world. Inc. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. When the data is received. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses. When you are using a connectionless protocol. This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side. checked for errors. This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link. Should an error occur. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols. the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination. UDP is a connectionless protocol. Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. . however. This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks. delivery of packets is not guaranteed. For example. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. Once the data is reassembled. they will be broken into smaller packets. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. It receives a packet from the Network layer and packages it into what is called a frame. it will retransmit after a specified amount of time. This controls network congestion. all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly.518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide they are too large. Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. Routers and NICs function on this layer. error free manner. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. stripped of its addressing information. The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission. When you are using a connection-oriented protocol. it will be un-packed.) It also includes control information such as frame type. 58 Specialized Solutions.

it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer. Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards In addition. The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer. The IEEE 802. When the sending computer does not receive and acknowledgement. The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame. Token Passing. NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements. The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards. then it discards the data. it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer. it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. In a broadcast network such as Ethernet. The way that a network shares the channel is called its carrier access method. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers. This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers. MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized. and Demand Priority. The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium. the destination computer will not send an acknowledgement. 59 . the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions. The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). Although quite rare. it will automatically resend the packet. the data is sent out on the wire to all computers. The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address. Inc. The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer. In this way. If it is not. It identifies a line protocol. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame. If the calculation does not check out. The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. such as SDLC. Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel. It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link. The following is an example of a MAC address: Specialized Solutions. If it is. TCP/IP is somewhat “self healing”. It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not. (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host).2 standard defines how this takes place. The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check).

synchronizes the data. It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer. For example. Note: For more information on the OSI Model. The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames. Point-topoint communication is the process of one device communicating with one other device . and determines when and how data may be transmitted. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses. Point to point communication is often used between switches and routers on a network.iso.ch/. It identifies the NIC. Inc. Repeaters. Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model. it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals. and what each one will do.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 00-00-13-35-FD-AB The first 3 bytes (00-00-13) identify the manufacturer of the card. The last 3 bytes (35FD-AB) are the Device ID that is unique to the associated Vendor ID. It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. hubs and transceivers. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium. an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer. Multipoint communication is the process of one device communicating with multiple devices on a network. all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model. . The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets. visit www. 60 Specialized Solutions. Switches. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer. data work at the Data Link layer of the OSI model.

Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. 61 .

In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. each layer reads and performs the tasks specified in its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture. The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. Inc. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted by you and the request is considered processed. the process of moving through the layers is reversed. each layer is also responsible for adding or removing headers so that the data is ready to be interpreted by the next layer. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions. In addition to reading the headers and performing the instructions. in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers. . This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. and provides services to the layer directly above it. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer. 62 Specialized Solutions. the Application layer is not the actual application. (Remember. These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task. As the packet travels up through the layers. or suite. You are communicating directly with the Application layer. protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. Headers contain instructions for tasks that need to be performed at that level. This is called a protocol stack. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. When the destination computer receives the data. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer.) The request is in the form of a packet. over the network medium. The Physical layer does not add a header. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer. For example: You send a request for services to the server.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task. The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message. In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack.

63 . The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers. Inc. they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers. Because of this. but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Signals or Bits or Data Stream into Frames Frames into Packets Frames or Datagrams into Segments Segments into data Data Data Data into Data Files or Messages Specialized Solutions.

By relating various protocols to the OSI model. we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 64 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program. Also. This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. . you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections. the OSI Model is not a protocol. Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model. as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol. In fact. you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed. This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model. it would not match.

Inc. you do need to remember the different layers and the tasks for which each layer is responsible. because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system. The specifications describe how components are supposed to function. it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work. This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate. Without them we would not have as many software or hardware packages available to us. 65 . etc. Specialized Solutions. These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments. The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers. Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task.

are going to be used when they write a program. As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself. They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination. Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model. Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. Inc. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X. These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change. bridges. Routers are responsible for using logical addresses to move packets from one network to another and deliver them to a host. The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices. . A repeater amplifies these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs. Data Link layer and the Network layer. routers. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. This weakening is known as attenuation. Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer. etc. It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs. as well as where in the OSI model they operate. and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network. Repeaters.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT 66 Specialized Solutions.

Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers. which can be used to connect an IBM mainframe computer to a Microsoft network. A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols or even different technologies. The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate. the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing. Router tables can be entered manually by a network administrator or they can be dynamically updated using routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF. 67 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Each router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it. If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). A popular example is an SNA Gateway. It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. Inc. but usually in the Application layer). Specialized Solutions. if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI. However.

(IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs. The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802.12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers.6 802.11 802.ieee. Inc. but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible. February 1980).3 802.2 802. 68 Specialized Solutions.8 802.7 802.4 802. and if you would like more information on them. This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started.9 802.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards. These standards were prepared before the OSI standards.5 802. a little surfing might be in order.10 802.standards.1 802. 100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards. Inc. . visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www.

Inc. 69 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions.

Inc. Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments. ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another). NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another. and hence.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer. the network. which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver. Network 70 Specialized Solutions. Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver. It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks. This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC. The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. . The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC. This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. However. the NIC also needs a device driver to function. which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols.

It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network. Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party. In today’s LANs however. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function. Inc. Connectionless communication is faster. Routable vs. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. If that fails. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model. There is no guarantee that the message was delivered. 71 . Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable. it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol. Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent. They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. Protocol Binding In order to function. In a connectionless communication. it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected using a router. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data.) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. and in full. Connection-Oriented vs. In connection-oriented communication. You have no confirmation (unless he calls you back) that he received the message. For example. but connection-oriented is more reliable. if TCP/IP is bound first. In a connectionless scenario. the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless. Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on his answering machine. Specialized Solutions.

. As a networking professional.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X. It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable. 72 Specialized Solutions. Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks. you should be familiar with these protocol stacks and you should know the OSI layer in which their components function.25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet). Inc.

This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – Provides Application layer services for Macintosh. In addition to hop count. this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP. Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – Provides transmission of packets across a network. It resides in the Network layer. Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment. IPX/ SPX This protocol is the proprietary protocol that was developed by Novell for Netware servers and clients. DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack. It has been modified over the years and now contains the following components: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – Manages file sharing at the Application layer AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – Provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer. NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces. NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer.) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol. LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination. It is a routable protocol. (If data must cross a router SPX is used. This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. and handles file and print services. regardless of speed. 73 • • • • • • . It uses the MAC address and is non-routable. It resides in the Network layer. At the Presentation Specialized Solutions.

Inc. so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. It is also layered on IP like TCP. Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers. At the Session layer it establishes and controls sessions. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP. It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network. 74 Specialized Solutions. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network. . It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names. and connection-oriented error control services. SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols. The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking).1 and later installs TCP/IP by default. TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol. flow control. We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. Novell Netware 5. TCP and IP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide layer it handles data translation. No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed. At the Transport layer it handles sequencing. while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections. FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system. • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server. SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector. APPC supports Transport and Session layer services. • Many companies use Netware with the TCP/IP protocol stack. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead.

but in addition. It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources. but in reverse. It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond. instead of only the number of hops. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system. without regard to speed. ARP keeps a table of corresponding IP and MAC addresses that have been resolved in the previous 10 minutes. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP. Inc. then TFTP would be advisable over FTP. If you do not need to use passwords. OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer. Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely. making it connectionless. It resides in the Network layer. Telnet can also be used for remote configuration of servers and network devices such as routers and switches. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond to the broadcast by sending its MAC address. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. 75 . RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function. Specialized Solutions. It is an Application layer protocol. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. ARP will first check its table and if a matching address is not found. The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely. it will broadcast on the local subnet to determine the MAC address of the computer with the associated IP address. this is also a Network layer protocol. It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability. ARP will add the information to its table for future use. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP is responsible for resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses. It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP.

It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP. This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use. LAT (Local Area Transport) LAT does not have a Network layer.25 is also an equipment specification. This protocol is not used for data communication. which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines. This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions. making X. This is the host on an X. which is the main reason that it is non-routable. Inc. 76 Specialized Solutions. .25 network. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable. The second part of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment). This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. Data is routed via the best connection at a given time. The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment). X. The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs. but in between. DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. X.25 a very slow but very reliable protocol. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end.25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud. XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs. At each stop. the X. packets are re-examined to determine whether they are damaged. It uses standard telephone lines and switches. It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer. asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide X. Because of this. It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers. It is a DEC protocol used for interactive. Instead.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced).25 X. it is out of the administrator’s control. only printing functions. it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer. This means that routes change as conditions change. Data goes in and comes out.25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet. This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits. In addition.

It may be used with bridges. Specialized Solutions. easy to configure and small.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model. It is fast. which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems. 77 . but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks. Inc.

It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. NetBEUI. Like a traffic report on your radio. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations. Inc. PPP supports IPX. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol. and connection release. Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes. SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. This database is typically dynamic in today’s modern networks. administration. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Other Protocols The following are other protocols with which you should be familiar: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. . SLIP is not used as much as PPP. file transfers. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands. ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer. DHCP. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model. it detects congested areas and links that are down. and other protocols as well as TCP/IP. but it can also be modified manually by the network administrator. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely over the Internet. and notifies upper layers to route around them. It does not support IPX. RPC is used by the redirector to 78 Specialized Solutions. or DHCP. It also supports data encryption. NWLink and NetBEUI. It maintains a database and provides hostname to IP address resolution. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. NetBEUI. It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications. It handles session establishment.

Inc. 79 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards determine if a resource is local or on the network. Specialized Solutions. Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text. It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer.

we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test. Inc. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other. For example. but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network. if you can get to the server through a router. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter. The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional. you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three. 80 Specialized Solutions.

Inc. 81 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword 802.x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition Specialized Solutions.

What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11. 3. 4. managing. Inc. 10. 7.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions – Chapter 3 1. Who developed the OSI model? 2. 6. What is a MAC address? 13. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. Which OSI layer is responsible for the MAC address? 8. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? 00-01-A5-D3-B4-01 82 Specialized Solutions. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. 5. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. What is the function of the Application Layer? 9. . and ending connections? 12. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model.

What are they? 17. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. 83 . 23. Inc. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 22. without duplication and error free? 16. 21. Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. What are NDIS and ODI? 20. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What is the function of a Gateway? 18.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 14. Which is faster. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Will this work? Why or Why not? Specialized Solutions. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 19. Describe protocol binding. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 15.

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It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC. Xerox). but may still be used in some temporary installations such as a construction trailer (although wireless would be a much more likely alternative). Inc. Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install. or DIX (Digital. which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector.Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. Because it is shielded. a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover. which we will address here. It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. Specialized Solutions. There are numerous kinds of cable. There are several cabling options. most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. How to properly configure and use network adapter cards. It can transmit voice. It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable. (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter). Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet). It is not often used in today’s networks. Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist. It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. and how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter. it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 . along with connectors. Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential. 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology. and other hardware and peripherals. video. Intel. and the hardware aspect of network operations. network adapter cards. Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. 85 . Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation.

Inc. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. 86 Specialized Solutions. it has been replaced by twisted-pair cable and fiber optic cable. They are specified based on their impedance. In the past. it is not as easy to install. as well as how they are attached to the cables. BNC Cable Connectors BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable. . Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. Thicknet was used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks. It is expressed in ohms. As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. In today’s networks. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. It is attached directly to the NIC but allows network signal to flow straight through it as well as to the NIC. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers. In order for the network to operate at peak performance.

The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function. One of the terminators must be grounded. and is used to connect the device to the network. Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on. It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection. Specialized Solutions. and an AUI cable. Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver. BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium. The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors). Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together. This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable. 87 . It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver. N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet.

this was time-consuming and it absorbed signal so it was not the common approach. It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types. This cable type consists of insulated pair strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another. Inc. most networking professionals used a clamp-on transceiver.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver. . The twist helps 88 Specialized Solutions. This types of connections have been largely replaced by newer cable methods such as twisted-pair and fiber optic cable. These clamp-on transceivers were often referred to as vampire taps because they utilized sharp teeth that punctured the cable to make the connection. Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today. Instead. There are four pair strands in most twisted-pair cables.

Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. The tighter the twist. it is more sensitive to EMI. This results in less sensitivity to EMI. It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters. Twisted Pair Cabling Specialized Solutions. UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs. Since it is unshielded. There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP). Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 1000 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM and Gigabit Ethernet Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular. The following is a summary of UTP cables. Currently. The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling. the faster the signal can be sent through the wires without crosstalk. Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per meter in each pair of wires. Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. 89 . there are six categories.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors. RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations. Wall plates are typically used to make the connection to the computers themselves. Wall Plates for RJ-45 90 Specialized Solutions. The front of the patch panel contains RJ-45 ports (a port is a female counterpart for the RJ-45 jack). Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium. Inc. This gives the network administrator a greater degree of flexibility and provides fault tolerance for the network cabling system. The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a special tool punch down tool to make the proper connection by stripping the insulation from the wire without breaking the wire. An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger. An RJ-11 jack has four connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight. This is an excellent way to organize network cables. They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 10 Gbps . . These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location. The RJ-45 jack’s position can therefore be changed from patch panel to patch panel to use a different set of cables for the same connection.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking. 91 . Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength. It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI.. The following is a summary of IBM Types: Specialized Solutions. which reduces signal loss. fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances.) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable. . Inc. which is easier to install. This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber. (The core can also be made up of plastic. SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses. They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP. the data cannot be tapped or stolen. However. but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. Because of this feature. One strand transmits and one receives. Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic). as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types. IBM cabling is based on its Type. IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks. it is therefore not as common as UTP.

IBM Connector 92 Specialized Solutions. . Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data. Not Defined Two 62. Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. These are very rarely used in today’s modern networks. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Inc. Six twisted pairs. IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet).5/125-micron multimode fibers. Plenum grade. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Contains a shield for use under carpets. An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter. Specialized Solutions. Inc. 93 .

(send and receive) but only one at a time. For example. For example. Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways. Both you and the party you are talking to can talk and listen at the same time. 94 Specialized Solutions.Baseband vs. It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing). Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions. The signal flow is uni-directional. Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps) or gigabits per second (Gbps). but cannot send a message.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cabling Terms The following are terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. Inc. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. • Simplex vs. • Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above. . Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). PVC grade cable is less expensive than Plenum grade cable but it gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned. Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge. these fumes would circulate throughout a building in the event of a fire. a pager can receive a message. Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum. This space is used to circulate air through a building. the wire thickness increases. Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only. An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time. PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. For example. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire. Because this space does circulate air through a building. The signal flow is bidirectional. If this type of cable were used in the plenum. fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. As the AWG wire number decreases.

shielded cable or fiber optic cable might be more appropriate. 95 . local fire codes will need to be addressed. how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners. Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals In contrast. It is therefore specifically designed to be used in these circulation areas.) Will the cable be installed in “noisy” areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting. such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well. A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling.) Specialized Solutions.) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum. Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes. Inc. For example. the flexibility of the medium should be considered.

. there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective. fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping.) Transmission speeds and. On the other hand. cost are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small. Inc. last but not least.) If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure. Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 96 Specialized Solutions. Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance. attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor.

NICs are used to connect the computer to the network. or 0’s (off). and controls the flow of data on the network. Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time. are also known as Network Adapter Cards. 97 . Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. Today. Specialized Solutions. Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame. handles network addressing. Because these paths are side-by-side. which constantly vary in one or more values. This is known as parallel communication. Network cabling moves data in a single data stream. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. data is moved along in groups.) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port. The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium. Analog data has an infinite number of possible states. This is known as serial communication. most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking. The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. (And of course to translate it back again. It makes the physical connection to the network. Inc. Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side. We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs. Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves.

The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. This makes transferring data much faster. Inc. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the 98 Specialized Solutions. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC. If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. The speed of the transmission. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting. . Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. The time intervals between data chunks. Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. The amount of time between confirmations. When this occurs. the two cards start sending and receiving data. DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium. Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed. Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer. they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs. the NIC may need to be configured. This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters. Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC. DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU. Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique MAC address.

This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. Other cards will need to be configured manually. These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor. not all devices need one. This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address. Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that typically no two devices can use the same interrupt. In practice. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. these devices can access the memory that they need without interrupting the processor. Specialized Solutions. Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses. DMA Channel Configuration of Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels is similar to IRQs. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. With a DMA channel. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by a device. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. in this case the NIC. certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available. 99 . The good news is that unlike an IRQ. Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings. Inc. The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. such as: IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. The device is constantly listening to this channel for commands from the processor. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. DMA channels are used by devices that frequently need access to large amounts of memory. and some are set using software. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. Only devices like NIC cards that need this type of memory access are assigned DMA channels. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned. See Appendix A for common address assignments.

Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC. If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail. . 100 Specialized Solutions. they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required. Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. Inc. RJ-45. Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter. or both). Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards. Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer. The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable. or you may have to configure it manually.

The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus. Specialized Solutions. The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus. Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much. 101 . They are generally 32-bit buses. including network connectivity. With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs. Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus. Today most buses are either EISA or PCI. Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. but can be a 64-bit bus. They are also called PC-Card Buses. Inc. Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers.

The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks. Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data. Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data. thereby improving network performance. Inc. This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus. . This type of card is expensive. thereby bypassing the CPU. Without this feature. it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally. RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed. the NIC would be a bottleneck. Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU. Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Performance Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance. 102 Specialized Solutions. Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data.

Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created. Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems. 103 . Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations such as ocean dwelling oil platforms. but through the use of an infrared or radio medium. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. For example. Wireless networks use wireless access points (WAPs) to “connect” the network devices to each other. or on the road. A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks.Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs. This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components. but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN. Mobile Computing . With some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down. Specialized Solutions. making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. the office. Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. They function just like other access points (i. People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home. – hubs). Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems. Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling. Inc. Extended Local Area Networks . Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly.e. • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective. a user can access the network from anywhere in the building. They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. With wireless systems. a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings.Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking.

. The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet. they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping. This involves using infrared (below Red) light to carry signals to a receiver. Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference. and because the transmissions are tightly focused.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared You use infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control. Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • 104 Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint Specialized Solutions. Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources. such as windows. Inc. Infrared networks typically broadcast at about 10 Mbps.

the message is broken into parts (called chips). which then routes the signal appropriately. however. Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems. In the direct sequence modulation method. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. ceilings. It does. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. the signal is beamed towards a central unit. etc. Inc. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station. Specialized Solutions. as the name implies. the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time. but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. uses broadband technology. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint. require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. or direct sequence modulation. In the hopping method. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. 105 . which are then transmitted over separate frequencies. until it reaches the receiver. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls.

The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication. Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite. or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts. It is used for line-of-sight communication. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances. Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. and only the destination device can receive and read the packet. These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information. There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite. Inc. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. 106 Specialized Solutions. Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings. mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities. . Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver.

Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Specialized Solutions. 107 .

Inc. etc. Finally. This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network. Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals. In addition. it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. . it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks. You should know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. and Microwave. and controls data flow over the network. Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet. RJ-45. you should know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type. receives.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. As a networking professional. The four basic wireless types are: Infrared. we took a look at the future. Twisted Pair. As a network professional. It prepares. Wireless networking is the trend of the future. 108 Specialized Solutions. Laser. and Fiber-Optic. AUI. There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial. After discussing at network cabling we then took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself. Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). Radio. transmits.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 109 .

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair 110 Specialized Solutions. Definition .

111 . Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword Vampire Tap Definition Specialized Solutions.

What is the most expensive cable type? 13. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9. Inc. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. . What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3. What is the least expensive of the cable types? 112 Specialized Solutions. What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7. How is a vampire tap connected? 6. What is the most popular of the cable types? 10.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable.

15. What does AWG stand for and what is it?

16. Describe baseband.

17. Describe broadband.

18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication?

19. What is the function of a network adapter card?

20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available?

21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card?

22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network?

23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types?

24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network?

25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally?

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards
In previous chapters, we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed, along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets, or frames. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. In this chapter, we will discover how Ethernet works, as well as how Token-ring networks function. AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter. After completing this chapter, you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture, while not as popular as Ethernet, are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers, in this case, over a network. In Chapter 3, you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite, IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture, SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk

The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols; thus, they do not map directly to the OSI Model. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. Specialized Solutions, Inc. 115

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information, handle addressing, and check for errors. Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments.

A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card, also known as the network interface card (NIC), in order for it to be used with a network computer. In some instances, as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX, two protocols may be bound to one card. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC.

Access Methods
In a network, multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. If two or more computers were to send data at the same time, the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing

• Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free, it will send data. While there is data traveling on the cable, no computer will transmit data. Occasionally, however, two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. Naturally, the more users who are connected to a network, the denser network traffic becomes. Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method.

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. It is, however, the access method that works best with wireless connections; since the wireless channel can be verified before the data is sent. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. A token (a special type of packet) is circulated around the ring from computer to computer. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network, it must wait until it possesses the token. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. Data is transmitted in frames. The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. The trailer includes error control information. When the computer is ready, the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted, the frame would be resent. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. Because only one computer at a time may transmit, this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions. (Some more recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer, router, switch, or bridge. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes, addresses, and links are functioning. Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer, hub, and destination computer, instead of broadcasts over the entire network. Because of the cabling method used with this access method, (four pairs Specialized Solutions, Inc. 117

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of wires are used, which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time, but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously, the one with the highest priority is serviced first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests.

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The data to be transmitted. The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. Also. or messages. Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission. if there is a transmission error. and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. Inc. The destination address of the receiving computer. This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. Computer control data such as service requests and commands. Data files tend to be quite large. only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). Specialized Solutions. (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably. data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium. Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. information. Error checking information such as Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) information.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Network Communications (Frames and Packets) As we’ve discussed previously. but we will use the term packets.) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. 119 . Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data. Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection.

the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit. If the results are the same. Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted. CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet. Usually. . Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network. usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes. Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission. A Packet 120 Specialized Solutions. packets can be various sizes. the trailer contains the error checking information. the calculation is run again. and clocking information. Depending upon the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet. the source and destination addresses. If there is a discrepancy. When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer. Inc. the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Specialized Solutions. 121 . Inc.

and typically transmits at 10 Mbps. These provide the standards for the railroads. It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. some are diesel. Thicknet coaxial (10Base5). it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data). as addressed previously.94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable. Not all railroads are the same (some are electric. The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements.2) The Logical Link Control layer. In this section. Inc. is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT). in a railroad. The original version was a 2. and some are narrow gauge). Ethernet (802. However. we are going to look at different standards for networks. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology). like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell). some are wide gauge. Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data). It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2). There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards. The standards define the means of communications. There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points. Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802. Logical Link Control (802. For example.3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Standards Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network. but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol. Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication.3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs. data (in this case passengers and freight) is moved in various cars. . The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL 122 Specialized Solutions.

document and image storage. The minimum distance between nodes is . 123 . 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable.5 meters. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30. The minimum distance between nodes is 2.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps. 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications. is 185 meters. 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. As its name implies. (There may be five segments but only three may be populated. BNC connectors and a transceiver. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs.) This is referred to as the “5-4-3 Rule”. 10BaseT uses the star topology. The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). repeaters can be used for longer distances. The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet Specialized Solutions. The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters. And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling. The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters. If the segment must exceed this limitation. and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated.5 meters. it is most commonly created with UTP cable. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology. indicating its maximum segment length. meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters. and computer aided design. it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. The maximum number of nodes per network 90. Inc. These applications include video. however. The actual maximum segment length. 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors.5 meters. to name a few. The maximum number of nodes per network 100. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2. While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling. 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable. The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters.

It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable. It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets. and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN. 100BaseVG. 124 Specialized Solutions. but that will be referred to later in this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet) 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade. to some degree. ATM competes.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard. and AnyLAN. with Gigabit Ethernet.12 is the standard that defines this technology. This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps. There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know. Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks. using the CSMA/CD access method. When you see any of these terms. Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable. the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology. . and the longest cable length is 250 meters. they are referring to the same thing. VG. The IEEE specification 802. 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable. It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs). although copper can be used with much shorter distances. Inc. Because of its intense speed. (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment.

Ethernet also works in the UNIX environment. Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP. Specialized Solutions. 125 . by joining with either a router or a bridge. It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance.

Actually. The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable. A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token. The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes. The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token. The Token Ring access method. While the token is in use by a computer to send data. IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984. Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished). Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. 2. is what sets Token Ring apart. The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame. The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1.5 standard. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems. Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. It is not as popular as Ethernet. it uses the baseband technology. Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer. This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token.5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. more than the cable design. The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring. This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data. . How it Works Basically. Inc. Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub. and 3). it is known as a data frame. 126 Specialized Solutions. but is still used today. Like Ethernet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802.

It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected.5 standards say it travels clockwise. The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring. the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal. called the active monitor. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected. The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. The IEEE 802. The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. As each new computer comes online. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted. After encoding the data frame. Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. as well as its own address. This computer. The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. Message This is the data or file to be transmitted. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon. the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time. while IBM says counter-clockwise. Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful. 127 Specialized Solutions. Beaconing In a Token Ring environment. Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention. . This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor. if there were errors. To accomplish this task. Inc. Or. the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity. the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring.

Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. just as in other networks that use a hub. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. Using UTP. but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters. In a pure token passing environment. it is only about 45 meters. the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another. The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2. but types 1 and 2 may also be used. IBM states that it is only 46 meters. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters. the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. Using UTP. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. as there are no male and female ends.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails. Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable.5 meters. These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. Using STP. each ring can connect up to 260 computers. This hub is known by a few names. Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. When a computer is connected. The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network. Using STP. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network. The Type 128 Specialized Solutions. . Each node is connected to the hub via a cable. Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network. Inc.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters. care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. Type 6 may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub. Using a pair of repeaters. Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable. AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment. Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper. Patch panels are used to organize patch cables. hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers. Specialized Solutions. Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures. 129 . A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. Inc. therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers. Therefore. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software.

When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. by using zones. As such. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network. LocalTalk performance is rather limited. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer. Inc. This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. mainframe computers. 130 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings.5 Standard) environment. A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it. it is very inexpensive to initiate. It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices. or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology. . Apple has always been open to third-party development. EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. it will store it to use each time it goes online. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring. UTP. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system. LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP. Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers. AppleShare also provides a print server. Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address. This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses. the device assigns itself an address. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare. and even some UNIX computers. TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers. If it is not being used by another computer. EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable.

ARCNet utilizes hubs. A later version. ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable. It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology. but it can be adequately charted to the 802. Specialized Solutions. Obviously.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology. It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2. the token still passes in numerical order. or smart. the token is passed in numerical order. has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps. These packets contain the destination address.4 standards (Token Bus LAN). If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other.5 Mbps. the maximum cable distance is 244 meters. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data. This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology. the source address and up to 508 bytes of data. Inc. Just like other token-passing access method architectures. ARCNet transmits data in packets. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors. active. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters. 131 . If using an active hub in a Star topology. These hubs may be passive. If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors. called ARCNet Plus. a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data. Instead of the token traveling around a ring. this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order. ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling.

11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology. The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well.11) IEEE 802. generally). Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four. Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range. 132 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802. Inc. . Speeds up to 54 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific).

If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data. which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting. Inc. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. and the Trailer. and clocking information. the Data. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances. 133 . it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network. Managing network data is all about traffic control. destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted. etc. Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames). It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring. The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. CSMA/CA. It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures. go back and review the chapter again. Packets consist of three components: the Header. 10Base5. but as a networking professional you will encounter them. Packets will include information to identify the source address. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. which is where the error checking calculation is located. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD. it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year. Be sure that you understand how this architecture works. Specialized Solutions. and 10BaseT.3 standards. Therefore. As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. the source and destination addresses.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc. . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Definition 134 Specialized Solutions.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Token Ring TokenTalk Trailer Zones Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. 135 .

Describe the difference between the two different contention methods. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 136 Specialized Solutions. 3. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6. What are the three primary access methods? 2. CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1. . What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. 5. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12. How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7. Inc.

22. What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17. 137 . Describe a MIC connector. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25. 14. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15. Inc. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? Specialized Solutions. What is a SMAU? 21. 19. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 138 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

139 . Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks. you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. this is a Macintosh-based company. This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. in many cases. The size of the company and the portion of the network affected. are there any printers or scanners. (If not. how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. address. The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. pay attention to details. you are not designing for yourself. Most importantly. There are two things that you will need to know. whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever indebted to you. Specialized Solutions. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. etc. you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. Even if this network is your own. The customer’s likes. This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have. your design will not work for them. and goals. (demographics). Inc. dislikes. who has them. However. You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. for example. we will consider hardware compatibility. you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows. As a network professional. etc? If. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation. Finally. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network. rather than a client’s. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office.

if the file is compressed. There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available. A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale). files services. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint. This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components. For example. you are not documenting your network. or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files. or as large as 8 GB. Once you collect this information. You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility. at this time. So. With this information in hand. prepare a design document. etc. Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. Remember. you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD. only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. Inc. Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources. 140 Specialized Solutions. print services. The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. you must get a clear definition of goals of the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps. the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB. .

141 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc.

As long as you have the original software disk (CD). The wrong choice now. For example. not all nodes may need the same level of security. The level of security required. they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing. may cause problems in the future. The first is the type of network you will be designing. Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network). They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. if you have a printer connected to your computer. This can range from none to very high. The most prominent are simplicity and cost. but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. all computers are equal. Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement. You may need to install the software. Also. The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. If you do not have this information go back and get it. Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. This sharing is on a directory level.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. Inc. First. you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it. In a peer-to-peer network. as generally it is not installed during a standard installation.” That is. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future. Likewise. they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. you will need to start making some decisions. This means that every 142 Specialized Solutions. you will have no problem. Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future). if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t. Skill level of the network users. . The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. The commitment of management and users. You may have to add network cards and cabling. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network.

In a strict peer-topeer network. While there are many advantages. This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older.Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. 143 . all network resources are usually centralized. slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. In small networks. administration can be a Specialized Solutions. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added. Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations. Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. The more sophisticated the network. Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off. if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. they will also be using your processor to do their printing. and lots of memory. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. Since these computers are larger. Last but not least. information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. Inc. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. if employees need remote access. the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution. etc. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation. Before you can use any resource. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security. This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. In large networks. You can connect more workstations. the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. such as your printer. have high-power processor. The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network. the network must operate transparent to them. server-based networks are scaleable. When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts. Also. Also. must less the workings of a network. As for size. instead of backing up individual workstations. you will also need to consider the disadvantages. This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server. Remember. is another advantage of a server-based network. In a server-based network. a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network. For these people. In a peer-to-peer situation. and expand as your needs expand. 24-hours per day. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer).

you can use any address that you want to use inside of your own network and behind your firewalls.168.192. If all else fails. the answer will be very obvious.0. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer).16. then you might have an address conflict with another entity on the Internet.0 -10.0 255.0. For this reason.0 144 Specialized Solutions. A public network would be the Internet.255.0 255. Actually. stick with it and move forward. If you are not sure you have enough information. there are specific addresses that are filtered by the routers at the backbone of the Internet. Public and Private networks In addition. get more.0.0. in others it could go either way.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified network professional. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design.255. For this reason.0. The use of these addresses will completely prevent the address conflict issue. present each case to the client and let them make the final decision. Inc. with open access to the global community.0.255 172.255 255. When you are sitting on the fence.0 192. it is highly recommended that you use these addresses for your private addressing.168. A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet.0. since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN. Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult. let us define the difference between the terms public and private network.255.0 .255. which would limit its access to those outside of the company. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information. Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each. 10.32. Once you have made this decision.0.0 -172.255. In some cases. .255. The only problem is that if your firewall were to come down.

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Use it as a starting place to build your own. When taking this inventory. if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form. That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. The following is an example of an inventory sheet. ask him or her to show you. This form should identify the equipment and its specifications. . On the other hand. The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. you must add new hardware. Also. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has. Remember. this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation. if all or part of a network already exists. Inc. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. you can skip this section. 146 Specialized Solutions. The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software. whether hardware or software.

) # of Free Slots Network Card Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Specialized Solutions.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: Computer Printer Telecommunication Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA. PCI. etc. 147 . Inc.

Software: If this device uses software. Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary. Inc. . describe each program.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function. 148 Specialized Solutions.

Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 149 .

It is time to get out that pencil and paper. A Network Layout 150 Specialized Solutions. By assigning them a number now. or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility. This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network. Inc. and collect all of the documentation you have been working on. it will make future documentation easier. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment. . make a drawing of the facility and each network node.

Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network. Therefore. or just good common sense. such as in an imaging environment. For example. CAT 6 is the UTP of choice. if you are not sure if expansion is in your future. (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics. but if this is a large facility. consider Thinnet coaxial cable. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the performance criteria of the network. a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 5 UTP cables. you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments. Specialized Solutions. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. Cable lengths must be considered. If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small temporary LAN. However. In most environments this will be no problem. On the high end. Realistically. you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. In addition. may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation. the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3. These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. Cable Grade – Local fire codes. However. 5-4-3 – If your installation is coaxial Ethernet. and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files. repeaters and nodes. 151 . it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5e or CAT 6 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years. you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub. you will need to install CAT 5e or CAT 6 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 1000 Mbps speed. Inc. It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace. It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end). The 100 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. you might consider CAT 3.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly.

but are not limited. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference. It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically. it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows 2000/2003. or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. which can generate damaging ESD. As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise). which can cause corrosion. on the surface. However. are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. Inc. The non-routable protocols. with a relative humidity of 30 percent. and RFI. EMI. which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment. Therefore. On the other hand. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network. Fortunately. . Fiber optics are also a good alternative when the manufacturing environment cannot allow for any possibility of even a small spark. If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment in which the computers will be operating. it doesn’t really matter. it will work. Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. low-humidity. Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment. which requires the use of routers. Like us. and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. Variable temperatures. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). high-humidity. Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. they are sensitive to temperature changes. since they don’t use electricity to transmit a signal. The equipment should be shielded from ESD. you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. 152 Specialized Solutions. such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers.

Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 153 .

So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables. The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet. In most cases. it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet. if using CAT 5 or CAT 6. Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network. . Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable. This way you can identify each location. you will most likely need to install a wall outlet. Inc.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub. Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends. the cables are connected to a patch panel. All the cables will be brought to one location. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding. There are a few more components that need to be installed. This way. One advantage of using CAT 5 or CAT 6 cable in a star topology from a hub. To keep these organized. 154 Specialized Solutions. The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable. This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room. The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it.

there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed. Therefore you must know the requirements of each. Actually. This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media. That part is the network adapter card. Inc. we must select a card that is compatible with both.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network. Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. 155 . Once that is done. there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC Specialized Solutions.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 156 Specialized Solutions.

Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting. Depending on the vintage of the computer. Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance. the card must be compatible with the computer. Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards. Also. but only at 10 Mbps. or three) that indicate the status of the card. the number of connectors. 157 . Therefore. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. also called PC Cards. Not all cards are the same. An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network. there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. In general. This section will look at compatibility issues. The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots. The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look. and therefore the speed at which data can be moved. two. will change. but only at 10 Mbps. a Specialized Solutions. Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network. If you are installing a Token Ring network.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. you must have Token Ring cards. a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. EISA. Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture. administration. which can be a useful tool. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA. Inc. This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. and PCI). Before purchasing a network card. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus. the speed of the card is important. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection. These are little LEDs (one. For example. Resolving these issues is actually quite simple. and expansion projects. In addition to being compatible with the network. Micro Channel.

this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer). be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. the computer may not boot or the conflicting devices might not be able to work simultaneously. be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer. If there are any conflicts. Finally. Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. In most cases with a new card. you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using. 158 Specialized Solutions. In addition. Physically install the card. if you upgrade your operating system. Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches. Drivers are usually supplied with the network card. you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. Inc. Connect the network cabling. The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. Each card must be configured for a different network. Now the network adapter card is installed. If you must do this manually. Note: If you must remove the case. the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card. . You need to configure the card to work with your network software. Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot. you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. but you are not finished yet. If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light indicates that data is being transferred. Configure the IRQ and I/O address. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards. If your system is not Plug-n-Play. it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. Install the appropriate drivers for the card. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use.

Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines. and possibly three. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day. To increase marketability of their cards. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. the engineering department may be PC-based. Specialized Solutions. In the case of UTP. some manufacturers will provide two. the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based. as well as possible solutions. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector. However. 159 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. Some STP cards require special connectors. If you encounter this type of situation. The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy. as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network. These types of problems can be more personal in nature. it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on. For Thinnet or Thicknet. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario. the card should have an RJ-45 connector. different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. Inc. For example. AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it. For example.

As the network designer or administrator. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly. and detail both its hardware and software. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them. Standards Earlier in this training course. hard work and standards. . Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. With this done. and knowledge of the network operating system. By defining the standards to which the network must comply. that were identically configured. This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card. you will need to establish the standards for your network. Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system. Inc. each component will work with the others. we learned about network protocols and standards. with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier. if installed.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards. With this information in hand. Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network. boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software. 160 Specialized Solutions. you are going to have your work cut out for you. Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network. You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots.

The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system. you find that your modem. If drivers exist. network card and/or printer no longer work. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase. when upgrading from Windows 98 to Windows XP. 161 . Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers. the Internet is the answer. Inc. The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements. A good example is Windows 95. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device. Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. but your proficiency will be very low. there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. Also. all you need to do is install the Windows XP drivers for the offending hardware. More than likely. Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system. have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. you probably do not have the necessary drivers. you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site. you will need to upgrade.Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. Specialized Solutions. This is a true statement. however. In this case. you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems. These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system. For example. the system will not run.

especially with the newest operating systems such as Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. Inc. or hardware compatibility lists. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision. .microsoft. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware. This list will ship with the 2000 package (on the CD-ROM) and 2000 will make a check during installation.com/windows/catalog. Here you will find the latest information about hardware and software that is Designed for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 or at least tested to be compatible with these operating systems. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with Windows 2000. 162 Specialized Solutions. This is part of the Windows Logo program. You can also look for the corresponding logos on the boxes of hardware and software that you are considering purchasing for your network. If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000 is hardware dependent. Microsoft Windows Catalog Still another web site to check for compatibility of hardware and software. If you want the latest list.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists an example of the minimum requirements for three operating systems: HCL and Windows 2000 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs. it most likely will not work with Windows 2000. you will need to check the HCL for that product. is the Microsoft Windows Catalog at www.

Inc. 163 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. he intends to expand the network in the future. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3. but they are not all the same. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4. . Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 6 1. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? 164 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. However. 7. Was this a good purchase? 9. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6.

Specialized Solutions.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Chapter 7 . There are several different types of hubs. sooner or later. you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network. This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network. An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals). from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices. Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series. A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network. Expanding a LAN with Hubs A common method for expanding networks is to use a hub.” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive. In addition to being called “hubs. For example.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network. Inc. to larger hubs that can connect many more computers. 165 . Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location. it may be too small.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. Long waits to access a printer or file. amplify the signal. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. Inc. Fortunately. Traffic-generating applications. thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths. have increased response times. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. . They do not translate or filter any information. Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model. Depending on the objectives of the LAN. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater. such as databases. 166 Specialized Solutions. Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network. They do however. the simple hub just won’t do the job. but has one additional feature.

Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment. the NetBEUI protocol is not routable. Not all network protocols will work with a router. Specialized Solutions. For example. Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. Routers work at the Network layer of the OSI model. It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. Inc. but it can switch packets across multiple networks.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge. 167 .

microwave. Just because the cost looks good. Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps. and satellite connections. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates. 168 Specialized Solutions. there are two levels of service to consider. Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs. it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system. does not mean that it is the best value.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway Connection Services When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries. These are our standard telephone connections. Be careful when choosing a carrier. When thinking of a carrier. Typically. They are providing the cabling. . An example of such a system is the telephone company. but connecting at this rate is rare. The first is public dial-up network lines. Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps. or dedicated. When considering which connection service to use. we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. Inc. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances. With dial-up networking. When thinking of telephone lines. the distance the data must travel. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection. lines. and the cost of the service. each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. The second choice is leased. be sure to take into account your throughput. these connections are slow and not very reliable.

as well as those transmitted to it. Most WANs are a collection of LANs. These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. It can regenerate the signal. It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back. items such as bridges. WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs. Inc. and deals with timing issues. The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN. It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). Specialized Solutions. if necessary. The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. 169 . A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN. routers and communications services are used to create a WAN. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with. There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded.

The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. you need DDS (Digital Data Service). Basic data. but if you have sufficient traffic. Inc. Application relays. Voice and data over trunks between computers. more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection. Voice with some quality control. 170 Specialized Solutions. Voice and data over trunk circuits.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Basic voice. Voice and data over private lines. Digital Connectivity When you need a faster. Data applications below 1200 bps. Dedicated lines are far more expensive. Dedicated analog lines provide an instant connection. Voice/radio with tone conditioning. This is because you lease the line 100% of the time and therefore do not have to dial-in. . The down-side of these lines is that you will have to pay for them 100% of the time instead of on an “as used” basis. they can be justified. Voice and video.

544 Mbps transmissions.048 Mbps 34. Specialized Solutions. whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard. Inc. It can be used to transmit digital voice.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line.8 Mbps 155.52 Mbps Either 155. It is capable of 1. faster download than upload 51.736 Mbps 2.520 or 622. data.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP. and video signals. 171 .544 Mbps 44.080 (can reach 10 Gbps) OC-1 OC-3 ATM 1 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A The T1 and the T3 standard are American. The following table lists the most common connection types: Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A Voice Channels DATA RATE (MBPS) 24 672 32 512 N/A 1.

however. Frame Relay does not check the packet at each step in its route. These lines can. For this reason. This made for a very reliable and very slow connection. Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast. 172 Specialized Solutions. In older. so it can be both reliable and fast. Inc. a packet may be sent over multiple permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network.25 based packet switched networks. each packet was examined at each step in the path to determine whether it was damaged. Standard PSTN lines have a very limited bandwidth of less than 56 Kbps.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. convenient. Today’s networks use a different technology referred to as Frame Relay. since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet. A packet switched network provides multiple paths that packets could travel from source to destination. be used for somewhat secure remote access by employing the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) and tunneling protocols. and reliable network messaging. X. this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs. Obviously. all of which are considered reliable. . With Frame Relay.

or by the specific use of the computers.” Specialized Solutions. or any other logical means. etc. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN. without having to change the physical picture of the network. 173 . printers. This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment. An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within his company. Inc.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment.) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically. adding computers or adjusting resources. which lays out hosts (computers.

twisted pair. it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds. ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial. however. audio. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services. As well as the common voice and data. This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network.2 Gbps. they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps. One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need. It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface). It is. . in actuality.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN. you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies. video. These cells can speed communication because the network always know exactly what to expect in regard the size of the next cell. or fiber optic. Because it is fiber optic-based. which is intended for use in the home or small business. It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles). While not a good choice for WANs. ATM can be used with FAX. ATM . ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential. FDDI . These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1.Asynchronous transfer mode uses fixed length (53 byte) cells instead of packets. has two 64 Kbps 174 Specialized Solutions. and imaging. while using copper telephone wires.Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication. and focuses on the home and business market. it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference. media limited. However. Inc.

and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control. a call. Internationally.6). It is capable of transmitting voice. has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1. It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM). data and video at rates ranging from 51. and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control. much like E1 is to T1. it is the European equivalent of SONET. which is intended for use by large businesses. It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx). SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media.544 Mbps). 175 . within one transmission frame. ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface). The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps).Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802. like OCx with SONET. it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network.84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768). To be more precise. SMDS SMDS . Specialized Solutions. It carries all the bits from say. SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices. Inc.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps).

etc. The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication. there is a limit of 2400 Baud. times as fast as the Baud rate.600 bps. network cards.32bis bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard. . With this change. designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle. or over long distances. the Baud rate was equal to the bps. With early modems. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. Modems transmit data at various speeds. FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56. To increase our network beyond a few computers.22bis V. 4.600 bps. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems. 14. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion. Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud.32 standard. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V.32 V. due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of transmitting signals over long distances. However. These speeds are measured as bits per second. and media.400 High-speed version of the V. Therefore. Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data. A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate. Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions. connecting a few computers to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. As we have already learned. a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2. 176 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections. Modems are classified by a “V” rating. Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines. 8.400 bps. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines. Today. Inc. the term Baud has disappeared and been replaced with bps.

modems – error correction standard.32terbo V.600 Backwards compatible with earlier V. 177 .90 19.32terbo. Backwards compatible with earlier V.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards.200 Not officially a standard yet.FastClass. Will only communicate with another V. 56.34 V. 28. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network V. 57. Inc.42 V.800 Improved V. modems.

By running Network Connections Wizard and following the simple 178 Specialized Solutions. With RAS. Let’s first look at connecting two computers. For example. This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem. or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors. either via modems and telephone lines. Inc. In addition. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building). so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection. The difference between a simple computer (Windows XP or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows Server 2003) is the number of inbound connections. Windows XP has an feature called a direct cable connection.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. or directly via COM ports and a cable. The difference is how each computer is being utilized. Actually. while a true server like Windows Server 2003 will allow 256 inbound connections. On the other hand. A system running Windows XP or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection. RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. You must use a Null-Modem cable. all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer. A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number. Since the two computers are directly connected. the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. Any two computers can be connected. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. . Also. both of these terms mean the same thing. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client.

but is still in use with some systems. The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network. you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection. the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user. you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number. Inc. On the client side. the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software. Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but. From this accessory. RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work. These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server. both computers must be using the same protocol. On the server side. Normally. in this case. RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security. This is a relatively old standard (1984). With this in place. Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network instructions provided. 179 . the RAS software must be installed and running. you will use a modem to establish the connection. While this was the protocol of choice for a Specialized Solutions.

It’s only supported by RAS clients. It supports encrypted passwords. such that only the sender and the receiver can accurately interpret the data that is being sent. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. It provides security. VPN (Virtual Private Networks). IPX. and DECnet. Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks. Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. . Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP. the limits of SLIP caused many problems. This is accomplished by encapsulating one protocol with another protocol.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide long time. created by PPTP and other tunneling protocols. in today’s networks it has several disadvantages. RAS and Security. • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the Network layer of the OSI model. NetBEUI. Encrypted Connections. PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today. It enables highly private network links over the public Internet. Inc. AppleTalk. It can be used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private 180 Specialized Solutions. as a less explensive alternative to costly leased lines. Many organizations are using tunnels. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) provides for a secure encrypted tunnel for communication through the Internet. It cannot encrypt logon information. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. It supports only TCP/IP. It provides data compression and error control. It transmits in text only. With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications.

which is the highest security method. It does not provide authorization.509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec. and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. Inc. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 Active Directory use this type of security by default. a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE). certificates (like X. It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs. usually a user’s credit card number. ESP. It is based on an end-to-end security model. or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server. TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL. Linux. L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the latest version of the tunneling protocol. both sending and receiving. IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header). SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server. Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. meaning that the computers. Unlike PPTP. UNIX. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. Thin clients are computers with no hard drive. 181 . it does not require IP connectivity. authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket. Kerberos V5. most relating to higher security. ICA can be used with Windows. it only establishes the user’s identity. as does Novell Directory Services (NDS). It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS. It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). It is transparent to the user. L2TP offers many advantages over PPTP. . AH only authenticates the user. It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP. discussed here in the next chapter.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network. Specialized Solutions.. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission. limited RAM. It uses a key to encrypt the data. and Macintosh computers.

Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. RAS provides several layers of security. Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server. By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection. you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call. the modem configuration. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration. If it does not work the first time. and thus more security. 182 Specialized Solutions. Security Host (Bastion Host) A security host or bastion host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. . At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. As with all security measures. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. installing RAS can be frustrating. you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server. Before installation. The type of communication port you intend to configure.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to providing remote sharing of information. you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. In addition. Inc. This provides for additional authentication. All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly. If another software package has “control” of the modem. and any other software that might use the modem. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary. This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller.

Inc. As a networking professional. you want to keep the costs down. You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses. it is not always the solution for every network. The latest Microsoft server operating systems such as Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 have wizards that make installing an RAS server much simpler. 183 . and you don’t need a fulltime connection. Specialized Solutions.

Inc. Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH 184 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Definition . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Inc. 185 .Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X.25 Definition Specialized Solutions.

Name four forms of RAS security. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. Inc. 4. What is analog communication? 5. 7. 9. Define a repeater. What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. a bridge. 186 Specialized Solutions. 10. and a gateway. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. a router.544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6. Name three RAS protocols. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2. Name three advanced WAN environments. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 7 1.

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some are considered to be Internet standards. SNMP.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is an internet (between network) protocol. RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP. It is important for the networking professional to know that TCP/IP is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor. Specialized Solutions. Transport. Internet and Network Interface. Inc. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers. intranets. TCP/IP. are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board). 189 . TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard. as well as Internet standards. Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress). These standards. these protocols were available on UNIX early on. and FTP. This is the most common protocol suite with which a networking professional works. and is usually seen in the combination. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. the recognized standard for internetworking altogether. and is in fact. and the Internet. The four layers are: Application. TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project. Also. It is also used with Ethernet networks. Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX. it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. known as BSD UNIX. TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol). Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. such as SMTP. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. which will be discussed later in the chapter. From this beginning.

These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model. . Inc. There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections.Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 190 Specialized Solutions.

191 . Inc.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions.

there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. Inc. Let’s take a look at them. It then routes the information to its destination. Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model. . they can be retransmitted in a timely manner. On a TCP/IP network. and for the Network+ exam. However.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. called packets. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets. The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier. The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 192 Specialized Solutions. Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others. It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission. the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports. or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams. Should lost or corrupted packets be detected. Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine. A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. TCP breaks data into tiny chunks. Let’s take a look at how this works. and reassembles the data.

This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received. a port is different from a socket. consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65. i. The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer. The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023. and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted. meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information.. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number.e. The addresses. UDP transports data. The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. Telnet. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type. Inc. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. IP is connectionless. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably. For each packet sent. but does not acknowledge delivery. 193 . FTP. TCP will retransmit the data. When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet. or port numbers. Although the terms. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned. HTTP.535. TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination. IP merely routes the data. and a Specialized Solutions. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. If the transmission has not been successful. IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP. Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet. etc. The port number identifies the application associated with the data. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. and specify a certain protocol. nor does it check for errors. the protocol number.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number. This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model. UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide checksum. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer. To be more specific, the checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. When the data arrives at the destination computer, the receiving computer performs the calculation. If the checksum is the same, the data is assumed to have arrived intact. The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network, it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. Time to Live – provides TTL data. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. This cache contains a list of all the devices with which it is communicating. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five, TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server, run searches, or access multiple mail servers. 194 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet, which is what you use when you send out mail. SMTP is server to server, whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers, usually over the Internet. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People.” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files, by typing in a user name, or the word “anonymous.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents, such as web pages. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts, using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP, allowing access to a secure Web server. It uses port 443, the secure SSL port instead of port 80, the HTTP port. HTTPS, as well as SSL, allow for the use of X.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user.

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Naming Systems
Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. Remember, we are working in two worlds, the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names. Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking. DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates hostnames to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. DNS functions like a telephone directory. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers. For example, the domain bigcompany.com may have an IP address of 192.49.238.33. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose, such as government, education, commerce, or interest. Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC, also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. These domains require suffixes such as .com for businesses or .edu for educational institutions. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains:

.com .net .edu .org .gov .mil .biz .pro .info .xx

Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance, Big Company Inc. in Italy might be http://www.Bigcompany.com.it or in Australia www.Bigcompany.com.au. Also, .tv is gaining in popularity. Tuvalu is a small country, which receives financial benefit from the registration fees.

WINS In a Windows-based network, the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network. NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode, leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application. A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast), P-node (peer-peer), M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). 198 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. It predates DNS. It must be manually created and changed. LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. It must be manually created and changed. IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. For example, it could connect a LAN to the Internet. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet, it must be assigned a static IP address. This means that it is permanently assigned. It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers, sooner or later we will run out of numbers. In smaller isolated networks, IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. However, as the number of addresses required increases, you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. To resolve this, IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. That is, assigned on an “as needed” basis. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. When not needed, the address can be leased to another host. To accomplish this, you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address, subnet mask, and a default gateway if needed. Notice that the IP addresses are leased. This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. A lease can be renewed. When the term of the lease is at 50%, the client will send a request for renewal. If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available), the lease will be renewed without interruption. If not renewed, the client will attempt to contact the DHCP server that issued it the IP address directly about every 5 minutes until it reaches 87.5% of the lease, at which time the client will broadcast a request to obtain an address from any available DHCP server. If all addresses are being used or a DHCP server does not respond, the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user. In this case, the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

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In the case of a proxy server. 200 Specialized Solutions.e. since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. to share a single connection to the Internet. It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses. like a LAN. but it is most often used between a private network and the networks public address or addresses. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other. Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network. the proxy server. depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time. ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time. i. The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties. IP Proxy Servers Earlier. It contains DHCP. who think they are communicating directly with one another. Inc. . a NAT is just a device or program that translates one set of IP addresses to another set of IP addresses. NAT also acts as a type of firewall. The proxy server is actually making a connection to another network or to the Internet on behalf of the client.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (public IP address). The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. it serves many clients through only one connection. Actually. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers. NAT. The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client. and DNS.

Inc. 201 .Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions.

This IP address is a 32-bit binary number. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8. they are broken down into four octets. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39. The result is called a dotted decimal number.194. are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes.294. Internet IP addresses.967.2 billion) different numbers.00001000. let’s now take a look at IP address numbers.39. . however.8. 202 Specialized Solutions. Although that is easy for a computer. So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33. Inc.00100111. it is not easy for us. A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4. the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique).296 (4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names. 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194.11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------16 8 2 1 128 64 32 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet. An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets. Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256. Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address. A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001. Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them. To simplify these addresses.

Within classes.8. 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) Specialized Solutions.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components.194 would be the Host ID.8. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use. B and C. The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID).194 where the Network ID would be 193. The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223. The class can be determined by the value of the first octet.194 would be an example of a Class A address. The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33.194. An example of a Class B IP address would be 129.39.39 would be the Network ID and 8. The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000).8. the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID. Inc. The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000). only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID). Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks. The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191. In this case 129.39. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000).39. Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large. For the Network+ exam. The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID). (A host may be any device on the network. Depending on the assignment. you should pay special attention the Classes A. There are five common classes: A through E. Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks.8. the network is divided into classes.194. The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID.39.) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126.8 and the Host ID would be 194. In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID. 203 . An example of a Class C IP address would be 193.

B or C address. You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts. you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address. if a network is going to be connected to the Internet. Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A. and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses. (For example. Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 . Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID. .used for medium-sized networks.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available.1) Class A . Class B . Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs. so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts.214 possible Host ID numbers.0. Also.777. there are only 65. Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time.0. Class C . Class C IP addresses are still available. As we mentioned earlier.223 In addition.126 128 .191 192 .used by very large networks. there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and for multicasting and are not available for normal host addresses.534 possible Host ID numbers. the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic. Likewise. Class B uses two octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID. Inc. This is the loopback address. there are 16. All in use and no longer available. specifically 127. This organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center). 204 Specialized Solutions. with the least number of Network IDs.

as compared to IPv4. A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. It would make it unclear as to what was represented. which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers (0 to 9. The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example. The address types are Unicast.net. demand high bandwidth. An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. to define the address type. It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot. use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address. It uses 128-bit addressing. IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic. then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme. and Multicast. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field. Unicast is an address for a single host. however. IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP). Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Specialized Solutions. Inc. as well as ease of configuration and security built right in. which only uses 32-bit addressing. 205 . It does. however. Anycast. For example. This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. Rather than having “classes” like IPv4.

Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address. just like 127.0. Multicast.1 with IPv4. A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses.0. . The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1. All in all. 206 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address. Finally. which replaces broadcast. Site-local address. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one. IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking. since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain. An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix. Inc.

Anding is the binary addition that the router uses to make this determination.0 (Class A). Default Subnet Masks 255. you can reduce the overall network traffic. Inc.0. The number of 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network.255. Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask. a router can determine which addresses are local and which addresses are for other subnets within the network. a subnet mask can be 255. all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet.0.255. lets look at subnet masks. A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) in which all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address. which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address. only the traffic that is not local will pass through.11111111.0. For example. 255.0. Specialized Solutions.255. or 225.255. The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address.0 255.0. You must however.00000000. Before looking at anding. have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right.0. a large university may have a network spread over several buildings and perhaps remote campuses.0 Class A (16.0 255.00000000 or 255.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of creating more than one private network from one public network address by customizing your subnet mask. separating it from the host portion of the address. 207 . If you “and” the IP address to the subnet mask.534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s.216 hosts) Class B (65. In this example.255. Since a router connects each subnet.255. By using a concept called anding. For example: 11111111. the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class).255.0 (Class C).777.0 In regard to classful addressing . This is done with binary addition (anding). You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet.0. By using subnets.0 (Class B).

00000000 (255. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet. Any local addresses will not pass through. while the Host ID 0. Inc.8.8.11100000. and through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33.32. thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now.0. Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33. 00100001. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet.224.194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones.224.7.11000010 (33.32.32.8. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33.00100000.00000000. By using this method. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7.194.0.8.194.39. let’s and it to the subnet mask of 255.00000000.00100111.194.00000000 (33. it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address.0.0. .194) 11111111. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 208 Specialized Solutions.8.0. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment.0) equals 00100001. using our previous example of 33.0. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remember.39.32 and the Host ID is 7.00001000.

384 2. Inc.a.0.0.b.b. it will require an address for each subnet.c 192. Be sure to include some room for growth of the network.777. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet.a. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner. • • • • Connect physically remote local networks.b.b. 209 . If a router is connected to two subnets.c 128.0.255.255.a. A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network.097. Specialized Solutions.0.152 Number of Hosts 16.0.0 Number of Networks 126 16. Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet.0 255.216 65.255.0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255.b.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking.c Default Subnet Mask 255. There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required.0 255.255.255.255. Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment. A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card.c to 191.0.a.a.c to 126. Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001.c to 223.0 255.a. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring).0 255.b.

248 255.255. Inc.255. With this number.0 255.254.240 255. As we begin to subnet.382 Hosts N/A 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 210 Specialized Solutions.0 255.255. The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network.128 255.248. We will use an InterNIC ID of 191.255.192.0.0 255.224.255.0. Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255.255. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign.255.224 255.255.255. you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC.255.255. You should remember the formula 2n-2 where n is the number of bits borrowed.000 hosts. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255.252.255.255. we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host.255. First.36.255. To begin this process.255.0 255.255.240. we have one network with approximately 65.255. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet.255.0 255.0 255.255.192 255.255. We use this formula to determine the number of subnets that will be created by borrowing bits from the hosts.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16.0 255.

192 255. We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID.255.255.255. Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected. the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements. Enter the value of 18.36 as assigned to us by InterNIC. The number 18 will now be in binary (10010). Now we get out our Windows calculator.255.240 255. 1. Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator).255.255. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 Hosts N/A 30 14 6 2 To make this easy.248 255. lets keep our network ID of 191.255. For this example. let’s add 4 more for future expansions. Change the mode to binary (Bin). 3.224 255. Inc. Just to be on the safe side. you can use the scientific calculator supplied with any Windows operating system. giving us a total requirement of 18.255.255.255. 2. we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs. 211 .

The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 212 Specialized Solutions.255. you can determine the available Network IDs. instead of selecting the next subnet on our list. This will be the number of bits required for the third octet. Had we needed to add a new subnet.0. our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets.224.0 and the network address of 192. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4.255. Count the number of binary digits (5). Inc. This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2.000 hosts each. we would have had to reconfigure the entire network. Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask. let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255. Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth).248.36. For this example. To keep things simple. the subnet mask would be 255.

Inc.0.255.128 192.000 or .0.160 192. and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet. Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network.64 192. or one that is located on a remote network.0. indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively. The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID.) Specialized Solutions.36.96 192.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192. The only restrictions are that you cannot use . This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address. the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery. In dotted-decimal format.36.255.0.36 (overall network address) 192.001 in the last octet.36. The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network.255.36. 213 . For example. (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask.0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255.0. these are reserved for broadcast addresses.36. they are on the same network. If it is different. on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255.192 Determine the Host IDs The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001).36. A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255.32 192. up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID. this means that the number starts with .255.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255.0 255.126 128 .0 255.255.255.0 CLASS ID 1 . Inc.191 192 .223 214 Specialized Solutions.0.255. .0.0.

Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor. click the Protocols tab.” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server. you may specify a particular IP address. you will need to type in the specified default gateway. Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways. IP Address Here. Next. Inc. However.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. and click Properties. DNS You can enable or disable DNS. Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. Click the radio button to enable DNS. or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically. and enter the information in the appropriate fields. in addition to other hardware and software configurations. right-click on TCP/IP Protocol. Specialized Solutions. On some screens. This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information. other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window. 215 . Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using.

216 Specialized Solutions. Inc. default gateway. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology. This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration. . WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses. It also includes the DNS configuration. and subnet mask configuration.

Inc. 217 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet Definition Specialized Solutions.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword POP3 Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 218 Specialized Solutions. .

Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8. What is a domain? 7. What is an FQDN and give an example? 6. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Specialized Solutions. 12. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3. 4.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Review Questions Chapter 8 1. Inc. 10. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9. What is the purpose of DNS? 5. 219 . What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 220 Specialized Solutions.

The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base). the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network. you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network. From the database and the software interface. you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device. The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator. It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data.SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network. Inc. 221 . Specialized Solutions. In addition. Using one of these products. Network Managers .

Inc. 222 Specialized Solutions. The three commands are: Get: request data from the device. This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager. . Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager). These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt. A community can also restrict access. Get-next: request the next value in a sequence. Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device. The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents. It will respond to commands issued by the management software. An additional SNMP command is the trap. Set: sends a configuration value to a device. therefore providing a level of security.

Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table. Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred). Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses. NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics. Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table. TRACERT.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. but did not cause a stop. 223 . Inc. and normal (i). Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis. Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports. Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it. Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names. serious (!). This includes critical system errors. Specialized Solutions. NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination. and TCP/IP events and errors.

Inc. clicking Run. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar. and typing in either cmd or command. 224 Specialized Solutions.

NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain. PING The lowest level test to find out if you have connectivity to a remote host. NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain. Ping works at the IP level. Specialized Solutions.1. Inc. IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu. NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address.12. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host. For example.168. Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client. Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once. and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same. IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter. NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified. and will display the current configuration of a computer. 225 . the IP of a host might be 192. RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 226 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

227 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc. Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition Specialized Solutions.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2. each device will need to be _________ compliant. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network. 228 Specialized Solutions. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. List as many as you can. 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 9 1. . Inc. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network.

As you might have already deduced. Inc. the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network. of dollars. Therefore. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. or even millions. Whether the sabotage is malicious. unless safeguards are built in. she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of her particular network. Password practices and procedures. A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords. The best time to set up your network security. Specialized Solutions. Users should be held accountable for the security of their individual workstations.Chapter 10 – Network Security Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. can deliberately damage your network. creating chaos and costing thousands. 229 . User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access. is right up front. Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user. There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. Very few users will have access to administrative features. Most users will also be able to access shared files. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created). or at least have your plan intact. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change. before you set up the network. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. A disgruntled employee. or anyone who has access to your network for that matter. the results can be devastating. or an irresponsible prank. anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent. depending on the roles they play in your company. motivated by curiosity. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems. from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files. data encryption.

while the original file remains intact. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model. should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required. However. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system. authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security. a gesture of respect for the user and the system. Inc. Users can access a shared resource. It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality. such as a template or another type of file.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. . In a manner similar to the signature on a document. among other things. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file. A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process. Password protection is. 230 Specialized Solutions. where the administrator can easily retrieve it. The user can edit the file as necessary. the user will be inclined to be less attentive to personal security.

Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Security Specialized Solutions. 231 . Inc.

As the system administrator.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet. by forwarding application traffic through the firewall. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system. 232 Specialized Solutions. or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. you would block port 80. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. This needs to be handled in such a way that production will not be interrupted. they can be host-based. you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs. or auditing. but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information. Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network. and even more often on larger networks. If you are accessing the Internet from your network. Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. Files need to be backed up daily. Inc. . Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs. at the very least. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network. Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter. and work at the application level. It is an important part of a network security plan. Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. you will most likely be using E-mail. For example.

rather than one larger server. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. These multiple disks are called disk arrays. called the backup medium. you must answer important questions about what to backup. Although slower than RAID. Remember. which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs. how the backup information will be tested. It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. 233 . the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security. As you might guess. and are more commonly known as RAID. Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk. it is still a viable option. This backup medium is suitable for small companies. As a computer professional. offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other. If anything happens to one. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available. Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data. Inc. In addition. so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups. Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. range from 1. Ideally. those who fail to plan. Specialized Solutions.44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. the other can take over without compromising network operations. There are several options available. While planning your backup strategy. the second server should serve as a backup to the first. and the procedure to follow for recovery. plan to fail. Floppy disk capacities today. Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today.Chapter 10 – Network Security It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers. and how often backups will be performed.

This type of backup is usually performed weekly. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server. but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. . 234 Specialized Solutions. This usually involves some degree of redundancy. When recovering from a failure. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups. Inc. To restore. the last full backup and all of the incremental backup tapes will be needed. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. both the last differential backup tape copy and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used. Differential and Incremental. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed. A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk. Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations. as its name implies. This method will take the largest amount of storage media. Full. despite the presence of hardware or software failures. Differential. and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full. and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup.. as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. but will be the easiest to restore.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space. The Full backup. will backup all selected data on the network. is called fault tolerance. Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk.

this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful. support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing. If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up.) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk. (Provides no fault tolerance. RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme. so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping. the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved. Several operating systems.Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 . a copy of the data is spread across all of the disks based on a mathematical formula such that any one disk in the set can be lost and the other disks will have a copy of all of the information that it contained. Typically. which provides for even more fault tolerance. then the data in the entire array is also lost. The same data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure.Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 . if anything happens to one of the drives. this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent. is not being used commercially at the moment to an Specialized Solutions. However. including Novell NetWare. With this method. This technique may be applied in either software or hardware. If more than one disk is lost. administrators are alerted when one disk fails so that they can “regenerate” the RAID set before another disk has a chance to fail. and is a standard feature of RAID systems.Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 . 235 . however.Chapter 10 – Network Security The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 . such as a single file.Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 . Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies. Inc.Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 .Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks.” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data. This.

There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. and sags in the power supply. allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. . A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. Cost. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. These types of RAID are not as commonly used and are not as likely to be on the test. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes. It functions faster. It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN. which allows for better performance. as you might guess. Like RAID-10. The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. is like RAID-10. but at a greater cost. but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. There are different types of UPS devices. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity. the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. surges. and each type provides power for a different length of time. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. it offers better performance. RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. since it is not dependent on another computer. also called surge suppressors. An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. Inc. RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array). is an issue. RAID-53. 236 Specialized Solutions. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. such as battery time remaining.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide large degree. In this case. Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI). SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests.

and numbers.” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents. should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network. Passwords should be changed more frequently in high-security networks. Inc. This is known as a security audit. Some “classified” networks require password changes every day. include characters. and troubleshoot before the trouble starts. and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas. but are easy enough that users can remember them. personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. In order for this policy to be effective. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days. The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters and use a combination of letters. No one. 237 . This holds users accountable for their actions on the network. etc. no matter who they are. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. If the network administrator needs to use the workstation. numbers and symbols. an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis. Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy. There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files. Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others. Users working with sensitive information such as budgets. Specialized Solutions. symbols. So. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being applied. away. he or she will know how to accomplish the task.

other than the person for whom the message was intended. The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used. This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. Inc. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. can understand the message. A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. the Internet is not the most secure of environments. and is used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. Even with encryption. RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. and Leonard Adleman. Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient. and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. 238 Specialized Solutions. . Adi Shamir. The name comes from their first initials. This method uses a 56-bit private key. It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest.

239 . The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key. but they are less secure. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages. There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run. It is similar to DES. The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. Viruses can be spread by various sources including: shareware. Specialized Solutions. Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters. There are over 60. both on location and at backup sites.Chapter 10 – Network Security Extra data appended to a message. files downloaded from the Internet. and bulletin boards. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. software from unknown origins. As the name implies. With this method of encryption both parties have the same key. but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability. it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed. Symmetric Keys can also be used. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). Prevention should also be addressed in the plan. It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities. the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. Inc. Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip. much less a day. The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method. If the receiver wishes to respond. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. it is not a completely secure encryption method. which is used to encrypt data and to decrypt it.000 known viruses. will ensure a much quicker recovery. Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. Many viruses are simple annoyances. is called a digital signature. which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption.

Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. Hundreds of viruses are written each month. Inc. Make sure it is compatible with all of the operating systems that you use.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site. but when loaded. Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks. With this in mind. (prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk). many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet. enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing a new operating system. Use extreme caution when you download files. just from running a program. Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine. there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market. (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail). It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document. Macro Virus: These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened. If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes. 240 Specialized Solutions. Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines. they mean that when you open a document you are running a program. Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world. . The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files). Keep your anti-virus program updated. These days. they will go to work on the system.

Inc.Chapter 10 – Network Security Specialized Solutions. 241 .

Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. . Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 242 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

243 . Inc. passwords are assigned to __________. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Specialized Solutions. 5.Chapter 10 – Network Security Review Questions Chapter 10 1. 3. In a share level model. The acronym RAID stands for __________. What are the three common levels of RAID? 6. What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2. What is the function of a firewall? 4.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 Specialized Solutions.

This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems. For those who must endure the struggle. and progress with some specific tools that you can employ to simplify the process. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software. 245 . Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause. a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you. The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper. “as reported. In order to do this. establish what has changed. Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. computers never fail at a convenient time. implement a solution. so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier. a pen (or pencil). What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. The eight parts are as follows: establish the symptoms. while for others it is a struggle. it seems well defined by the person who calls and complains! But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. you will most likely be called when there is a problem. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. test the result. Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. not when all is well. you must be organized. They always fail in the middle of a job. In most cases. you are looking for the cause. This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. if you are the expert.Conclusion Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now. identify the affected area. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. To make matters worse. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. The user of the computer or network is your best source of information. After all. select the most probable cause. Inc. the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. Remember. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks. If fact.” is really just the symptom and not the true cause. Specialized Solutions. and good listening skills. but they often hold the keys to the problem. Remember. not the symptom. As a troubleshooter. Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned.

the process of elimination is all that you can do. do not intimidate the user. or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred. and most importantly. lights. This will take time and patience. have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory. The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that caused the failure. however. Be sure to observe the failure yourself. and when. Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know. have someone demonstrate the failure to you. it is important to observe how it is created. and so forth). as well as the results. Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure. With a little experience. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever. recent software upgrade. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience. If it is an operatorinduced problem. Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem.) Show me how to create the error. These never seem to occur when you are present. the failure occurs. Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones. screen changes.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of the failure. but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure. Inc. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before. If possible. You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. You will need to create your own list based on the situation. . The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work toward the more complex. You may. One thing that might 246 Specialized Solutions. Sometimes. Describe any changes in the computer (noise. network or computer moved. For example. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works. Do not make the questions too technical. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation.

then you know for sure that the network is physically working. That way the “evidence” is not disturbed. It requires two simple steps.Conclusion help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally. Document every action and its results. you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood. and move forward. Once a plan is created. Inc. Do not make any assumptions. 247 . Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems. create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. If for example. is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly. it is important to follow it through. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. make a plan and follow it. Starting from the top. but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. If you must make any assumptions. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up. isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user Specialized Solutions. If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be). but to call you. For example. write them down. Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. You may have to refer back to them later. but you cannot receive any E-mail. In the case of a network problem. Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made.

Implement the solution. Inc. you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems. . as well as the one that is causing problems. the problem may be caused by the operator. repair or replacement is usually all that is needed. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work). In these situations. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Once the search has been narrowed. It is important to use another operator. In these cases. it may require some additional effort. This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome. you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. Note: If the problem is software-oriented. be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes. you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem). start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not. To resolve these types of problems. Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures. This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how. Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. 248 Specialized Solutions. if an operator is afraid of computers in general. no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed. However. With hardware. and not the hardware or the system. Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities. For example. either repair or replace the defect. if the problem is software or configuration related.

maintain. You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience. the problem. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle. The basis for this policy is that once the system is running. and share experience. Inc. 249 . Document the solution Finally. you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. or a follow up call just to make sure all is well. Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists. Specialized Solutions.Conclusion Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. document the problem and the repair. The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again. This is one way to build. and the repair. there is no substitute for experience. Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user. In troubleshooting. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms.

Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools. The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire. . Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network. Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals. Inc. They secure the connection between the wires and the block.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician. Punch Down Tool 250 Specialized Solutions. let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling. a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier. Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack.

If your meter does not have a continuity setting. When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing. A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other. All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device. If the wire is broken. If the test is negative (no light or noise). You can test for AC and DC voltage. Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps). in principle. For example. Some meters will let you test for current as well. Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete. as well as the electrical power in the computer. Network cabling is. which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. we will have to know how to test for continuity. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up. The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe. it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires. a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red). These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted). and continuity. which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. Inc. the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. 251 . resistance. you can have only one of two problems. The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. With it you can test various electronic components. An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other. In a wire for example. whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. We will start by looking at a multimeter. The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters. the circuit is broken. A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. Since it is made up of wires. it is still possible to test for continuity.Conclusion Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. When working with network cabling. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured. very easy to troubleshoot. Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. Specialized Solutions.

Inc. The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. When used together. The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator. it will emit a tone.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician should have one. thus locating the wires. called tone generators and tone locators. 252 Specialized Solutions. You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end. there are more often than not. this is not a problem. several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel). The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky. to find pairs of wires in a bundle. . these tools are often called a fox and a hound. This applies a signal on the wires. and test at the other end. The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). However. If both ends are in the same location. if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building. Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. However. testing for continuity will require an additional wire.

It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable. you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning. Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic. also called packet sniffers. They will monitor network traffic. The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa). because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable. capture packets and generate reports. are usually a PC with a special network card. the location of any break or short can be determined. A loopback cable is just what the name implies. By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. Software analyzers. It has the transmit and receive wires connected.Conclusion Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. Specialized Solutions. These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire. and therefore back to the network card. 253 . there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment. Be careful when using a crossover cable. If you are able to send a signal and have it return. Inc. but is double-ended. Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters. A crossover cable is similar to a loopback.

Inc. OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR. but used for fiber optic cabling. 254 Specialized Solutions. .

Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords. For some reason. Therefore. Inc.Conclusion Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate. Some passwords are case-sensitive. the network. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail. You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so. A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. but can be caused by a disconnected cable. This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security. The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network. due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck. Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. the traffic is not moving. Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam. 255 . and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network. or a disk resource. It could be the processor.

You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives. the network slows down. deletes. and moves information. These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours. so does the traffic. As networks grow. Inc. check for memory bottlenecks. You must defragment the drive. tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night. When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it. Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 256 Specialized Solutions. For example.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves. If slow loading persists even after defragmenting. .

PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation. The loopback address is 127. Remember this address. This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS. 257 . On a Macintosh system. If you are using TCP/IP. and TRACERT commands to test the network. but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card. PING. you will use it often. On a Windows 95/98 computer. you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu.0. The first step is to PING the loopback address. This will test the protocol stack in the computer. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG. TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination. Inc. These commands work from a command prompt.Conclusion Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on your intranet or on the Internet your packet is going. Specialized Solutions. because as a network professional.1. It also lets you know the time that it takes.0. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195. your dialog box will look like the following.48.6. If you are using Windows. WINIPCFG. 258 Specialized Solutions. 2000. .55. This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT. WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly. XP. Inc. or 2003 system.

the server.48. you receive a message like the following. Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: Specialized Solutions. you have encountered a problem. Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t. Inc. For the IPX/SPX networks. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol. and so on.6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation. they must be okay. you will be testing a larger portion of the network. Usually this means you have the wrong IP address. If at any stage. Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems. It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday. With each step.55. use the ipxping command. then there is a problem with the protocol. 259 . PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer.Conclusion PING 195.

Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. If these files are being used.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa. In general. they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address. but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow. respectively. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector. If no lights are on. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name. or hosts.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause.” With nslookup. That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server). How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution. Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files. (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). we need to look at four limiting factors on performance. Inc. you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory. they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network. . we learned that workstations. have two names. you can be sure that the network is not being detected. One is the IP address number. suspect a loose or disconnected cable. 260 Specialized Solutions. the first thing to do is find out what has changed. Beyond that. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. These are text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer. The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS. If present. Earlier. To resolve this problem. If there is a sudden change in performance. while green lights indicate that all is well. The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details. you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup.

The speed limit. Inc. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed. The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation. Just like our highway. Resolving performance problems can be easy. but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request. you will know the high. after you identify the problem. This means that for a small amount of time. it can send data at a faster than rated speed. This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. if the traffic gets too congested. This can slow down data transfer. Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays. To create a baseline. Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory. everything slows down. Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. if any one component is performing poorly. An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. and average time to print the document. For example. Therefore. for the most part. A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache. For example.Conclusion Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing. From this information. The answer lies in creating a performance baseline. or maximum speed that traffic can move. you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. 261 . slow. the more packets that can be moved). You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information. The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps). The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system. it will affect the entire network. adding to the network load. but are interrelated. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. Then. are negligible. Specialized Solutions. you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). Latency delays. Latency Small delays in packet movement that are caused by devices is called latency. Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. if you are experiencing slow printing. at a later date.

percent of network utilization. Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network. Inc. you will be able to monitor such events as processor time. To collect these statistics. . Windows has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools. etc. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. With this activated. Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself. Windows Performance Monitor 262 Specialized Solutions. available memory. With this tool. etc.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc. Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition Specialized Solutions. 263 .Conclusion KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

You need to know the IP address of a workstation. You have located the cable in question #3. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slowly. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Conclusion 264 Specialized Solutions. What tool would you need to find the short? 5. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8. What is the loopback IP address? 7. Inc. You have just connected a workstation to the network. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. and think it might be shorted. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. After repairing a problem. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1. . You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2.

265 . or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. and as often. To measure your retention of these materials. and don’t forget to use the Glossary. When you are ready to schedule your exam. start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course. we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. you are ready to sit for your certification exam.Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. Inc. so if you have any questions. as you like. Specialized Solutions. our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material. be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site. be sure to review any areas that need improvement. We love to hear from our students. Remember. Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs. After taking a practice exam. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. at Specialized Solutions. When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 266 Specialized Solutions. .

It is expressed in ohms. Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. Inc. Only 3 segments can contain nodes. 267 . Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Specialized Solutions. They are specified based on their impedance. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule. Maximum of 4 repeaters. • • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series.Appendix A – Tech Summary Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing coaxial Ethernet cabling.

Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59. Military specification of RG-58 A/U. Description Stranded wire core. such as cable television. Inc. Broadband transmission. ArcNet networks. Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 10Base5 Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Bus 500 10 100 5 4 10Base2 Bus 185 10 30 5 4 3 268 Specialized Solutions. RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core. but also used for broadband transmissions. Length (meters) Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment Max Segments Max. .

Not Defined Two 62. Inc. Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Data grade up to 100 Mbps. Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch.Appendix A – Tech Summary UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps. Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch. Six twisted pairs. Same as type 1. Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks. 269 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). Specialized Solutions. Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch. Two STP – 26 AWG wire. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Voice-grade cable. Two STP –26 AWG wire.5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG. Plenum grade. but adds voice capability along with data. Contains a shield for use under carpets.

10 802.9 802.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model.1 802.3 802.4 802. .11 802.6 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802.8 802. They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls. Inc.2 802. 802.5 802.x Standard 802.7 802.12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 270 Specialized Solutions.

271 . COM4 COM1. No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually Specialized Solutions. there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed. however.Appendix A – Tech Summary IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer. Inc. The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2. COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs.

.LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F . Inc. The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F .LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 272 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address.

Inc. 273 .Appendix A – Tech Summary 3A0 to 3AF 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model Specialized Solutions.

x.x.x.0.x.x.x to 223.x Default Subnet Mask 255.777.x.255. . Hubs. x.534 254 274 Specialized Solutions.x.0 255.0.x to 126.0 Number of Networks 126 16.x 128. x.097.214 65.x.0 255. Repeaters Computers Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address. Inc.255.255.152 Number of Host 16.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Gateways Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Brouter Bridges Switches NICs.0.x to 191.384 2. Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001.x.x.x 192.

PING ARP RARP Specialized Solutions. and default gateway.Appendix A – Tech Summary TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses). Use the loopback address (127.1) to test the IP architecture and configuration. 275 . Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks. the subnet address.0. Inc. Sends a test packet to a specified address. If all is well. Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. it will return. the subnet mask. Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the Linux user’s network interface configuration.0. Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address.

Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents. Used to check the resolution of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it. In a star topology. Inc. . all computers are connected to a hub. 276 Specialized Solutions. Used to check the status of current IP connections.) Used to verify entries on a DNS server. all computers are connected in a series. Used to verify the route to a remote host. ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries. NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology. (Pronounced Trace Route.

Appendix A – Tech Summary In a ring topology. 277 . all computers are connected to each other. In a mesh topology. Inc. all computers are logically connected in a circle. Specialized Solutions.

and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages. TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. Inc. Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. Can also be used for precise voltage measurements. An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals. Also called a network analyzer. resistance. Protocol Analyzer 278 Specialized Solutions. .

and bridges). hubs. servers. Event Viewer SNMP Specialized Solutions. Used to provide information for network baselines. 279 . interface cards. routers. and networks. Inc. Displays or prints a list of events. Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers.Appendix A – Tech Summary Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 280 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

com Other Helpful Sites http://www.microsoft.Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www. Inc.cnet.com Novell http://www.com Specialized Solutions.novell. 281 .

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 282 Specialized Solutions. .

As its name implies.Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below). EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. search for these organizations on the Internet. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards. let alone the networking industry. Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes. It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry. Specialized Solutions. Inc. it is responsible for establishing standards for communication. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry. 283 . This is a common code for basic characters and numbers. it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set. Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector. For additional information. In the computing industry.

Inc. See Appendix A for a summary of the 802. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards. its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment. As long as both are SQL compliant. . the IEEE is subdivided into committees. Inc. As you may guess from its name.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802. the data can be smoothly transferred. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model.x committee. These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model. Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused. Since they cover a wide variety of equipment. This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another. ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product.x sub-committees. 284 Specialized Solutions.

and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE. or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer. please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number. Prices subject to change without notice. To register via the Internet. 285 .com for Prometric or www. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers. Inc.vue. When you call. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like. Payment must be made each time you take the test. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test. either by credit card. credit card or voucher.Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE. Payment is made at the time of registration.com for VUE.2test. Specialized Solutions. Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time. go to www. Method of payment. Date you wish to take the test.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 286 Specialized Solutions.

or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals.Appendix E – Glossary Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. or bits per second (bps). program. A continuously variable signal. Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. The highest layer of the OSI Model. Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. The file server on an AppleTalk network. it supplies functions to applications. Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies. The Apple networking protocol. usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). opposite of digital. Inc. or computers on the network (nodes). A dedicated server for applications. so they can communicate with other applications or nodes. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. Software. these three terms are often used interchangeably. 287 .

Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. Hardware that connects one network with another. such as IBM. IP Address used by very large networks. An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. . Inc. A bus driver. these are all in use at the present time. A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. GM. A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems. The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. IP Address used by medium-sized networks. Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals). Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address 288 Specialized Solutions. A form of mobile computing. Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances. or DEC. The signal flow is uni-directional. such as Microsoft. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium.

Cyclic Redundancy Check. or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation. is a number derived from. Data that is encoded for security reasons. The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. or Cyclic redundancy Code. or language. 289 . The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable. A form of multitasking. stored. which is. Software used by the client. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. itself. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor. Inc. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption Specialized Solutions. from computer or network to another. to allow other tasks to run. Same as a hub. using a specific protocol.Appendix E – Glossary Client Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable User computer “being served” by another computer. called a server. at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level.

If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. . It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly. which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks. Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency. It also receives acknowledgement frames. When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one. The Data Link layer splits data into frames. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. Inc. so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives. Also called data striping. for sending on the Physical layer. the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk.A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients. DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. (Simple “on” or “off” signal.) Being able to recover data from a disaster. in a round-robin fashion. Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 290 Specialized Solutions. such as an individual file. This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. A limited form of bus mastering. so that one can take over for the other if it fails. this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data.

Inc. 291 DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex . A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard. File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once. Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. sent over a communications channel. with a very large amount of storage space for shared files. and other control information. A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received. File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network. Specialized Solutions.Appendix E – Glossary DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. A group of bits containing address information. A network’s central computer. A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors.25 packet switching technology. Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits. An improved version of X. error detection.

Inc. or ring topologies. RFC 791.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway A computer that acts as a translator. . RFC 792. defined in STD 5. and other information. Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol. to communicate with each other. HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5. Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). using different protocols. is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages. that enables two networks. but only one at a time. and informational messages related to IP. is usually represented in dotted decimal notation. The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses. star. GSNW Half-Duplex Header HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address 292 Specialized Solutions. Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. A network topology that combines bus. It precedes the actual data. test packets.

Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice. data. and video data sources. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver. across a network connection. Inc. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer.” Server used for E-mail. A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. Specialized Solutions. Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology. A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data.Appendix E – Glossary IPCONFIG IPsec IRQ DOS command that tells you the IP address for your computer. internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring. Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC. Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer. 293 ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU . Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator. it’s “hardware address.

Single Frequency Radio. totally incompatible with the original PC bus.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide MCA Bus Micro Channel Architecture. Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS. Provides the physical connection to the network cable. Also known as a network interface card. Inc. Much like your local radio station. protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources. a 32-bit bus. MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems. among others. introduced by IBM for its PS/2 computer line. The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. and is used by CompuServe. Performing multiple tasks simultaneously. Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X. Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card 294 Specialized Solutions. One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. .400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS). A method of data transmission. A type of hub. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission.

A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards. Acts as a connection point only. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. 295 Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card . A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network. depending on the protocol. A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources. A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network. A generic term used to describe a unit of data. They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. including network connectivity. Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model. Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet.Appendix E – Glossary Network Administrator Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network. Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network. Inc. Specialized Solutions.

Although included as part of Windows NT. The space between the ceiling and the floor above. Inc. The Presentation layer formats data exchange. Dedicated server for printing. used to circulate air through a building. . such as a printer or scanner. this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking. Defines a channel between a device and the processor. Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network. many third-party applications are available. other processes will still run. The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time. which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack. depending upon the needs of the user. A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server. converting character sets and encrypting data. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Peer-to-Peer Performance Monitor All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning. A hardware device. and running on TCP/IP. and even if a process takes full control. Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 296 Specialized Solutions.1.5 of Windows 3.

Inc.Appendix E – Glossary Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection. the devices are connected in a continuous loop. including support for dialup and logon. A device that forwards packets between networks. the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. Connector used with standard telephone wire. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN Specialized Solutions. Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. to be accessed via a modem. Connector used with UTP and STP network cables. For example.e. which then routes the signal appropriately. In Token-Ring networks. Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. i. In a Ring topology. 297 . Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors. The signal is beamed towards a central unit. The services or peripherals that are shared over the network. For example. A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network. A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network. Redirects a call from one port to another. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. Used to increase cable distances in network environments. the proxy server.

The Session layer handles such things as security authentication. until it reaches the receiver. A uni-directional data channel. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. normally used on Ethernet. Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. . Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol. SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP 298 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. Transmission rates are slower with this type. Software that resides on a server. usually over Ethernet. defined in RFC 1055. as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15. Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another. RFC 1157. A computer on a network that provides services to other computers. etc. Inc. is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP). ceilings. was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. Simple Network Management Protocol. acknowledgments (ACK). connection establishment and release. as opposed to duplex. to be used over a serial link. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. data transfer.

such as bodies of water or deserts. Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5. rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms. The process of subdividing a network into logical units. Specialized Solutions. Inc. so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. Using binary addition. Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol. A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. that uses a large diameter. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings.Appendix E – Glossary SONET Spread-Spectrum Radio Synchronous Optical Network Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. The maximum speed that “traffic” can move. Maximum segment length is 500 meters. If the hub fails.5 Standard) environment. the entire network goes down. the official protocol of the Internet. measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing. 299 SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk . or across large flat open areas. A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. An access method used in a Token Ring topology.

and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). Inc. User Datagram Protocol. A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. is layered on top of IP. The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information.” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface. . Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding. defined in STD 6. which. it will emit a tone. A device that transmits and receives data.” A receiver set to the frequency of the generator. The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport. this applies a signal on the wires. thus locating the wires. Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer. Tool for stripping and cutting wire Tone Locator TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 300 Specialized Solutions. Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments. The “hound. RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol. The “fox. Used on transceivers. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. like TCP.

such as Token Ring. A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks. Inc. using zones Zones Specialized Solutions.Appendix E – Glossary WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves. resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address. 301 .

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 302 Specialized Solutions. .

Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. A WAN is not geographically limited. Specialized Solutions. LANs typically also have much faster communication speed than WANs. Inc. Files are easily accessed by all users. like one office). What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet. 6. such as data. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources. 4. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. 2. Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security). Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net. and peripheral devices. What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations. 303 . 7. 3. configure. Review Questions Chapter 1 1. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server). Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area. applications. Simple to install. 5. and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less). It is confined to a limited area. No security. data backups can be more easily and routinely performed.

Some NOSs function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). Ease of data backups. 9. . Name the three basic topologies. File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. Centralized location of resources (server). 10. Can be expanded as network grows. What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. They represent what the topology looks like. and Ring. Centralized administration. Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. Star. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. 304 Specialized Solutions. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. Review Questions Chapter 2 1. Inc. More difficult to install and configure. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see. 12. more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). 11.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 8. The three basic topologies are: Bus. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU. Token Passing. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. 2. Increased performance on large networks. and Demand Priority. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment.

NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. routing. web-publishing. Specialized Solutions. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security. Unlike NetWare. and file and print services. What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. management. messaging. Inc. 8. 6. redirecting them to the server.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. 64 MB RAM. It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. groups. 305 . It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. 9. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. and volumes is also handled with NDS. 4. 5. name service. 7. servers. Define interoperability. Organization of network resources such as users. 550 MB of free hard drive space. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one.

13.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 10. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare. Session. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU. and Physical 3. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. Application. Data Link. 11. Inc.1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 306 Specialized Solutions. Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Network. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. Presentation. Review Questions Chapter 3 1. What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 15. 125 MB free hard drive space. Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT. . 16 MB RAM. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. 2. FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 14. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. Transport. 12. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems.

A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. Inc. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer Specialized Solutions. 9. Physical 10. and ending connections? The Session layer 12. 13.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 4. Presentation layer 7. managing. This is not the actual application or program. It is a computer’s physical address. Which OSI layer is responsible the MAC address? The Data Link layer 8. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. 307 . Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? D3-B4-01 14. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. Data Link layer 5. Network Layer 6. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. 11. What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 15. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence, without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 16. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 17. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. 18. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802.2 19. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. They are incompatible with each other. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com, while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. 20. Describe protocol binding. In order to function, a protocol must be bound to the NIC. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 21. Which is faster, connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster, but connection-oriented communication is more reliable. 22. . Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. AppleTalk, DECnet, IPX/SPX, PPP, PPTP, SLIP, SMB, SNA, TCP/IP, UDP, X.25, XNS 23.. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Will this work? Why or Why not? 308

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol.

Review Questions Chapter 4

1. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. 5. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. 6. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above, which is used to circulate air in a building). Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned, which would end up being circulated throughout the building. 7. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 10. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs, which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. 11. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. However, it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. 13. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths, segment lengths of up to several miles, and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. 15. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. 16. Describe baseband. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. 17. Describe broadband. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable, making the signal flow unidirectional. 18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way, can receive but not send. For example, a pager. Half-duplex communication can send or receive, but not at the same time. For example, a CB radio. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. For example, the telephone. 310 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 19. What is the function of a network adapter card? Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network. (They make the physical connection to the network.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. 20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers, including network connectivity. 22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network, to backup a cable-based network, to provide a mobile network environment, for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly, outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform. 23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared, Laser, Radio, and Microwave 24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. 25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally; Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances.

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority Specialized Solutions, Inc. 311

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). Specialized Solutions, Inc. 313

Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17. 20. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise. data collisions are avoided. Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. 314 Specialized Solutions. . It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds. Inc. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends. They are also called hermaphrodite connectors.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14.3 standard 15. The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network. Describe a MIC connector. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions. 19. IEEE 802. It can be either depending upon how it is set up.5 says it travels clockwise. 21. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. however. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once.5 standard 16. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? The IEEE 802. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token. 18. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function. It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise.

What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper. 2. 25. it stores it to use each time it connects to the network. It also provides a print server. 5. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. If no other computer is using the address. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. etc.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 22. 4. Inc. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. 315 . How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it. 3. 24. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2. Review Questions Chapter 6 1. Specialized Solutions. 23. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No.

Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 6. Passive hubs are used only to make connections. Also. 2. 7. However. An active hub requires some input power. he intends to expand the network in the future. Review Questions Chapter 7 1. Inc. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths. It will be less costly to install CAT 6 now than to replace the CAT 5 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps to handle the higher traffic.microsoft. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards.com/windows/catalog. 316 Specialized Solutions. but not enough to run it efficiently. Why should you refuse this offer? First. 9. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? Check the Windows Catalog on the web at www. having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network. but they are not all the same. you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS. 8. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards.

Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem. Frame Relay. Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model.A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment. Name three RAS protocols. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. BAUD and bps were the same thing. a router.A router has all the features of a bridge.Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem. Bridge .544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Router . Define a repeater. 4. For example. What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking).Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. a bridge. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. ISDN. They do not translate or filter any information. They do however. 317 . Repeater . They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment. and PPTP filtering. Specialized Solutions. Gateway . and SONET 7. amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. NetBEUI is not routable.A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature. Inc. In older modems. 10. Name four forms of RAS security. and a gateway. Not all network protocols will work with a router. PPTP and L2TP 9. Callback Security. Name three advanced WAN environments. 8. BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. Security host. PPP. SLIP. Auditing. What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network. 5.

What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application. 8. SNMP. UDP. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3. 3. ICMP.microsoft. What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses. 32 10. and HTTP. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names. Internet and Network Interface. and ARP. . 7. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 318 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11) Specialized Solutions. Inc. SMTP. 4. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP. Transport. 5. 2. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9. HTU UTH 6. FTP. IP.com.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1. An example is http://www.

In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. NBTSTAT. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network. Event Viewer. each device will need to be _________ compliant. 319 . NETSTAT and TRACERT. List as many as you can. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment Review Questions Chapter 9 1. Specialized Solutions. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. U U U U 12. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status. Inc. ROUTE. 2.

The acronym RAID stands for____________? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. Inc. In a share level model. 5. 4. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet. 2. passwords are assigned to __________.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1. What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password. Resources 3. 320 Specialized Solutions. What are the three most common levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 5 Striped array with parity 6. It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. .

What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables. 8. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub.1 7. and think it might be shorted. What is the loopback IP address? 127. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. 3. you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network. Inc. WINIPCFG from the RUN command. After repairing a problem. You have located the cable in question #3. 2. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. 5.0.0. What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 11 1. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution. Isolate the Problem. 6. 4. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. You have just connected a workstation to the network. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. Specialized Solutions. The fox and hound. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. 321 . and Repair the Problem.

What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 322 Specialized Solutions. Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. 10. . You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slow. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time. Inc.

114 10BaseT. 186 Analog. 79 AWG. 41 CSU/DSU.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Index 1 100BaseX. 121 Application Layer. 226 Digital. 34 DECnet. 108. 253 Banyan VINES. 81 Category 5. 39 Circuit-switched. 231 BOOTP. 151 connection-oriented. 13 Clocking. 98 Change. 160 Category 3. 38 Client Software. 24 Address Resolution Protocol. 116 100VG-AnyLAN. 92 Boot Sector. 167 bridge. 34 clients. 78. 109 CSNW. 40. 114 10Base5. 67 demand priority. 114 A access method. 69. 323 . 16. 191 BRI. 42 base memory address. 86 B backbone. 91 Baseband. 42 active hubs. 91 domain. 21 Carriers. 50 application server. 196 client software. 52 Data Protection. 217 ATM. 89 AppleShare. 60 Broadband. 39 AUI connector. 96 brouter. 86 Broadband Optical Telepoint. 67. 89 Direct Memory Access (DMA). 90 DLC. 61 C Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD. 161 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC). 122 AppleTalk. 13 ARCNet. 243 CSMA/CD. 196 Class C. 78. 108 Active Directory. 77 Computer compatibility. 70 DMA. 196 Class B. 89 cloud. 70 coaxial cable. 164 Class A. 116 10Base2. 230 Differential backup. 78 Boot Prom’s. 111 D Data Link Layer. 123 ARP. 60 attributes. Inc. 114 10BaseFL. 189 domain controller. 65 continuity. 119 binding. 40 Specialized Solutions. 226 Bandwidth. 79 backup utility. 86 Beaconing. 65 BNC. 109 DES (Data Encryption Standard). 166 attenuation. 81 Cellular Networking.

42 Headers. 187 Full backup. 167 FTP. 144 Ethernet. 39 Full-Duplex.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Domain Name Service (DNS). 96 Linux. 56 324 Specialized Solutions. 191 HTTP. 86 headers. 174 LAN. Inc. 93 ISDN. 62 Internet Control Message Protocol. 185 interoperability. 86 G gateway. 166 fiber-optic. 41 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). 197 IPX. 41 Frame Relay. 245 DSMN. 67 IRQ. 194 IPCONFIG. (IEEE). 122 Event Viewer. 70 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol. 186 Incremental backup.. 39 IP. 39 fault tolerance. 12 Laser. 243 Group policies. 159 Gigabit Ethernet. 86 firewall. 192 IFCONFIG. 68.Fiber Distributed Data. 18 I I/O port number. 217. 161 . 22 FAT. 249 IPsec. 91 IBM cabling. 60 E EES. 41 H Half-Duplex. 93 EMI. 189 Domain Reflectometer (TDR). 21. 120 ICA. 116 ground probe. 83 IBM Type 3 UTP. 174 L L2TP. 114 EtherTalk. 215 F Fast Ethernet. 226 FDDI . 71 ICS. 191 dynamic routers. 157 hybrid topologies. 68. 224 FPNW. 231 EISA. 81 environment. 186 Internet Protocol (IP). 42 GSNW. 226 Full Control. 83 File Infectors. 191 gateways. 91 ISA. 217 IMAP4. K Kerberos. 174 Line-of-Sight Infrared. 167 ISDN adapters. 96 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 187 hubs. 187 HTTPS. 61 Gateways. 185 IP address. 96 LAT. 226 Infrared. 174 IPv6. 231 fire codes. Inc. 112 HOSTS file. 174 ICMP.

18 Ping. 67 M Macintosh. 41. 229 Patch Panel.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers LLC. 37 Network Adapter Cards. 14 Peer-to-peer LANs. 52 Network Neighborhood. 217 NTFS. 89 Network Layer. 37 MIB (Management Information Base). 172 PPTP. 34 MAU. 228 NFS. 114 Network Time Protocol (NTP). 13 peer-to-peer. 157 MAUs . 89 passive hub. 37 NetWare Print Services. 157 PCI. 39 NOS – Network Operating System. 71. 232 Managing User Accounts. 36 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95. 242 325 Specialized Solutions. 120 Microwave. 122 logical topology. 172 Preemptive multitasking. 111 parallel communication. 18 LSL. 67 NDIS. 171 NWLink. 190 NETSTAT. 64 Open Systems Interface (OSI). 43 Macro Virus. 49 operating system. 49. 36 NetBEUI. 69 NLSP. . 30 PRI. 18 MHS. 243 multitasking. 23 Passwords. 67 No Access. 215 NCP. 68 O ODI. 29 NSLOOKUP. 37 NetWare security. 215 NetWare. 98 packets. 164 Packet-Radio Networking. 31 Network standards. 36 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh. Inc. 23 media access methods. 120. 213 MIC (Media Interface Connectors). 29 OS/2.Primary Domain Controller. 231 physical topologies. 217 PING. 67 modem. 93 PDC . 36 NetWare Client32 for OS/2.Multiple Access Units. 64 NDS (NetWare Directory Services). 86 PPP. 36 NetWare file server. 249 plenum. 39 Null-Modem. 32 P Packet switching. 96 MLID. 31 PGP. 243 mesh topology. 167 protocol. 191 NBTSTAT. 30 N NAT. 120 Multimeter. 168 MSAU. 21 Media Compatibility. 191 LocalTalk. 192 Punch Down Tool. 64 proxy server. 114 LMHOSTS. 93 PCMCIA. 69 Network-attached storage (NAS). 36 NetWare Client32 for DOS. 107 protocols. 151 Media Tester. 70 NETBIOS. 71.

68. 89 Server room. 69 terminator. 215 router. 11 SNMP. 152 star topology. 68 SMDS. 158 requester. 118 topology. 39 redirector. 16. 171 removable disks. 225 removable optical disk. 215. 69 ROUTE. 11 signal bounce. 67. 79 thicknet. 16 TRACERT. 96 SDH. 35 ring topology. 230 S SAP. 174 token passing. 35 Reflective Infrared. 199 T tape backup. 182 UNIX. 60 Storage Area Network (SAN). 120 SMB. 68 326 Specialized Solutions. 185 UTP. 34. sneaker net. 86 SLIP. 71 RSA. 58 . 42 User Datagram Protocol (UDP). 16 serial communication. 81 Subnetting. 184 Telnet. 112 transceiver. 80 U UDP. 68 Satellite Station Networking. 13 sharing applications. 67 SSL. 34 server-based network. 175 Security. 144 Remote Access Server or RAS. 249 Trailer. 109 token ring. 51 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 167 SPX. 228 STP. 17 RIP. Inc. 174 Standards. 98 Scatter Infrared. 80 virtual connections. 167 SMTP. 79 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 79 Transport Layer. 237 trunk. 65 RPC. 96 relative humidity. 60. 217 Read. 68 Trojan Horses. 253 TLS. 225 TCP. 159 routers. 187 Software analyzers. 232 troubleshooting. 17 static routers. 213 Simplex. 68.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide R Radio. 21. 77 Thinnet. 225 repeater. 96 RAID. 60. 187 SNA. 16 twisted-pair. 80 V vampire taps. 33 servers. 13 Server-based network. 167 security. 71. 221 segment. 245 SONET. 71. 227 RARP. 69. 77 throughput. 144 Server Software. 172 SMAU. 16.

154 Windows 95/98. 92 workstation.25. 166 XDR. 69. 165 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks). Inc. 230 W WAN. 190 Wire Crimper. 124 wireless network. 32 Windows 2000. 31 Windows NT Print Servers. 19. 231 VLAN.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Viruses. 13 X X. 70 Specialized Solutions. 40 U U WINS. 327 . 71 XNS. 31 Windows for Workgroups. 242 Wireless. 95 Wireless NICs. 12 Warp Connect.

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