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Network Plus 2005

Network Plus 2005

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Sections

  • About Specialized Solutions
  • Introduction
  • CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+
  • Study Plan Strategies
  • Your Video Instructor
  • How to Take the Test
  • Who may take the test?
  • How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success
  • About This Course
  • Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals
  • Introduction to Networking
  • Benefits of Networking Computers
  • Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN)
  • The Client/Server Relationship
  • Client/Server Networking
  • Peer-to-Peer Networking
  • Basic Network Structure (Topology)
  • Star Topology
  • Ring Topology
  • Special Topologies
  • esh Topology
  • Hybrid Topologies
  • Wireless Topology
  • Network Access
  • Token Passing
  • Ethernet
  • Fast Ethernet
  • Passive Hubs
  • Hubs and Concentrators
  • Active Hubs
  • Active Hub
  • Hub-Based Networks
  • Summary
  • KEYWORDS Exercise
  • Review Questions - Chapter 1
  • Chapter 2 - Network Operating Syst
  • What is an Operating System?
  • hat is a Network Operating System (NOS)?
  • Server/Client Software
  • NOS Packages
  • Novell NetWare
  • Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System
  • UNIX Operating Systems
  • Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service)
  • Summar
  • eview Questions
  • Seven Layers of the OSI Model
  • Application Layer
  • Presentation Layer
  • Session Layer
  • Transport Layer
  • Data Link Layer
  • Network Layer
  • Logical Link Control (LLC)
  • Media Access Control (MAC)
  • Physical Layer
  • Communication Between Peer Layers
  • Protocol Stacks
  • OSI and the Real World
  • Devices and the OSI Model
  • Repeaters
  • Routers
  • Bridges
  • Brouters
  • Gateways
  • IEEE 802 Standards
  • etwork Drivers and the OSI Model
  • NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)
  • ODI (Open Data Link Interface)
  • Protocol Binding
  • Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless
  • Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols
  • AppleTalk
  • DECnet
  • IPX/ SPX
  • SMB (Server Message Block)
  • SNA (Systems Network Architecture)
  • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
  • IP (Internet Protocol)
  • UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
  • FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
  • Telnet
  • NFS (Network File System)
  • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
  • RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
  • NTP (Network Time Protocol)
  • OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
  • ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
  • XNS (Xerox Network System)
  • Non-Routable Protocols
  • DLC (Data Link Control)
  • LAT (Local Area Transport)
  • X.25
  • NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)
  • Other Protocols
  • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
  • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
  • XDR (External Data Representation)
  • PC (Remote Procedure Call)
  • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)
  • Review Questions – Chapter 3
  • Chapter 4 - Hardware Media and Peripherals
  • Network Cabling
  • Coaxial Connectors
  • Twisted-Pair Cable
  • Fiber-Optic Cable
  • IBM Cabling
  • Summary of Cabling
  • Cabling Terms
  • Bandwidth
  • Selecting Cables
  • Signals and Clocking
  • Preparing the Data
  • Network Addressing/MAC Address
  • Configurable Options
  • DMA (Direct Memory Channel)
  • Controlling the Data Flow
  • Wireless NICs
  • Fiber-Optic NICs
  • Data Bus Architecture
  • Standard Bus Types
  • Laptops
  • Network Performance
  • Wireless Networks
  • Why Wireless?
  • • Satellite Station Networking
  • Satellite Station Networking
  • Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Stand
  • Access Methods
  • CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance)
  • Demand Priority
  • Network Communications (Frames and Packets)
  • Packet Structure
  • Packet Components
  • Network Standards
  • Logical Link Control (802.2)
  • ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)
  • Review Questions Chapter 5
  • Chapter 6 – Network Design
  • Starting a Network Proj
  • The Customer
  • The Network Goals
  • etermine Network Type
  • When to Choose Peer-to-Peer
  • When to Choose Client/Server
  • Making the Choice
  • Public and Private networks
  • Design the Network
  • Media Selection
  • NOS Selection
  • Protocol Selection
  • Environmental Concerns
  • Putting it all together
  • Cable to Computer
  • Cable to Hub
  • Network Adapter Cards
  • Adapter Card Compatibility
  • Media Compatibility
  • Computer Compatibility
  • Preventing Compatibility P
  • Standards
  • Resolving Compatibility Problems
  • Minimum Requirements
  • HCL and Windows 2000
  • Chapter 7 - Expanding a Network
  • Expanding a LAN with Hubs
  • When a LAN is Too Small
  • Repeater
  • Router
  • Gateway
  • Connection Services
  • Carriers
  • WAN Overview
  • Circuit-switched Network
  • VLAN
  • Advanced WAN Environments
  • Modems
  • Remote Access Computing (R
  • Connecting Two Computers
  • RAS Protocols
  • Installing and Configuring RAS
  • Troubleshooting a RAS setup
  • Limitations of RAS
  • YWORDS Exercise
  • Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials
  • Introduction to TCP/IP
  • RFC (Request For Comments)
  • TCP/IP Protocols
  • The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols
  • her TCP/IP Protocols
  • Naming Systems
  • WINS
  • NETBIOS
  • BOOT
  • HOSTS file
  • LMHOSTS file
  • IP Gateway
  • CP/IP Addressing
  • IPv4
  • Class A Addresses
  • Class B Addresses
  • Class D and Class E Addresses
  • IPv6 (IP Next Generation)
  • Subnetting
  • How to Subdivide a Network
  • TCP/IP Configuration Concept
  • Review Questions Chapter 8
  • Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities
  • Network Managers - SNMP
  • Management Software
  • Agent Software
  • Communities
  • Validation Tools
  • Event Viewer
  • ROUTE
  • NETSTAT
  • TRACERT
  • NBTSTAT
  • IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG
  • TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
  • RARP
  • PING
  • NSLOOKUP
  • Review Questions Chapter 9
  • User and Share Level
  • Share-level Security
  • Firewalls
  • Security Techniques
  • Firewall
  • Blocking Port Numbers
  • Backing up Data
  • Backup Options
  • Backup Software
  • Full, Differential, and Incremental Backups
  • Volumes
  • Fault Tolerance and RAID
  • Fault Tolerance and Power
  • Password Practices and Procedures
  • Encryption
  • Disaster Recovery
  • Viruses
  • Review Questions Chapter 10
  • Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Ne
  • Basic Troubleshooting
  • Networking and Troubleshooting Tools
  • Hardware Troubleshooting Tools
  • aintaining and Troubleshooting Networks
  • Troubleshooting Scenarios
  • Cable Problems
  • IC Indicator Lights
  • Performance
  • Conclusion
  • Appendix A – Tech Summary
  • -4-3 Rule
  • Coaxial Cable Types
  • Ethernet Cabling
  • UTP Cable Categories
  • IBM Cable Types (Token Ring)
  • IEEE 802.x Standards
  • IRQ Assignments
  • Subnet Masking
  • TCP/IP Ports
  • TCP/IP Utilities
  • Topology Review
  • Troubleshooting Tools
  • Appendix B – Useful Web Sites
  • Microsoft:
  • Novell
  • Other Helpful Sites
  • Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations
  • CCITT
  • IEEE
  • Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam
  • To Register for the Network+ Exams
  • Appendix E – Glossary
  • Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers
  • Review Questions Chapter 1
  • Review Questions Chapter 2
  • Review Questions Chapter 3
  • Review Questions Chapter 4
  • Review Questions Chapter 6
  • Review Questions Chapter 7
  • Review Questions Chapter 11
  • Index

Network+ 2005 Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network+

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Copyright© 2004 by Specialized Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 338 East Tarpon Street, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. Publisher: Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Contributing Writers: Bill Ferguson Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Editor: Bill Ferguson

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Suggestions/Comments Please forward all comments or suggestions to: Specialized Solutions, Inc. 338 East Tarpon St. Tarpon Springs, FL 34689

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... I

ABOUT SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS ...........................................................IX
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+ .............................................................2005 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ..................................................................................................9 YOUR VIDEO INSTRUCTOR .................................................................................................9 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST ..................................................................................................10 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................10 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................10 ABOUT THIS COURSE .......................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS ..................................................17 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING ....................................................................................17 Benefits of Networking Computers .............................................................................17 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) .................................18 The Client/Server Relationship ...................................................................................19 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................19 Peer-to-Peer Networking ............................................................................................20 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).....................................................................21 Bus Topology ..............................................................................................................21 Star Topology..............................................................................................................22 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................22 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES ......................................................................................................23 Hybrid Topologies ......................................................................................................23 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................23 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................24 NETWORK ACCESS ...........................................................................................................26 Token Passing .............................................................................................................26 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................26 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................27 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS ...........................................................................................28 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................28 Active Hubs .................................................................................................................29 Hub-Based Networks ..................................................................................................29 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................30 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................31 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1 ....................................................................................33 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS) ....................................35 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? ..................................................................................35 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking .............................................................36 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)? ........................................................37 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................37 Server/Client Software ................................................................................................39 NOS PACKAGES...............................................................................................................42 Specialized Solutions, Inc. i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Novell NetWare .......................................................................................................... 42 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System................................................... 45 Windows NT Minimum Requirements ...........................Error! Bookmark not defined. UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................ 47 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service)................................................ 48 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 50 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................. 51 REVIEW QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................ 52 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS.......... 55 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION ..................................................... 55 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL ................................................................................ 56 Application Layer ....................................................................................................... 56 Presentation Layer ..................................................................................................... 57 Session Layer.............................................................................................................. 57 Transport Layer.......................................................................................................... 57 Network Layer ............................................................................................................ 58 Data Link Layer.......................................................................................................... 58 Logical Link Control (LLC) ....................................................................................... 59 Media Access Control (MAC) .................................................................................... 59 Physical Layer............................................................................................................ 60 PROTOCOL STACKS ......................................................................................................... 62 Communication Between Peer Layers ....................................................................... 62 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD ............................................................................................ 64 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL ....................................................................................... 66 Repeaters .................................................................................................................... 66 Bridges........................................................................................................................ 66 Routers........................................................................................................................ 66 Brouters ...................................................................................................................... 67 Gateways .................................................................................................................... 67 IEEE 802 STANDARDS .................................................................................................... 68 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL ...................................................................... 70 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)......................................................... 70 ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ................................................................................ 70 PROTOCOLS AND OSI ...................................................................................................... 70 Protocol Binding ........................................................................................................ 71 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless ................................................................... 71 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols ........................................................................ 71 Networking Protocols and Stacks............................................................................... 72 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................... 73 DECnet ....................................................................................................................... 73 IPX/ SPX..................................................................................................................... 73 SMB (Server Message Block) ..................................................................................... 74 SNA (Systems Network Architecture) ......................................................................... 74 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ....................................................................... 74 IP (Internet Protocol)................................................................................................. 74 UDP (User Datagram Protocol)................................................................................ 74 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) ..................................................................................... 74 ii Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Table of Contents Telnet...........................................................................................................................75 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................75 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................75 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................75 NTP (Network Time Protocol) ....................................................................................75 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) ...............................................................................75 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................75 X.25 .............................................................................................................................76 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................76 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................76 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................76 LAT (Local Area Transport) .......................................................................................76 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................77 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................78 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................78 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) ...................................................................................78 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) ................................................................78 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) ........................................................78 ISO/OSI Standard .......................................................................................................78 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ...............................................................78 DNS (Domain Name System) ......................................................................................78 XDR (External Data Representation) .........................................................................78 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................78 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................80 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................81 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................82 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................85 NETWORK CABLING .........................................................................................................85 Coaxial Cable .............................................................................................................85 Coaxial Connectors ....................................................................................................86 Twisted-Pair Cable .....................................................................................................88 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................91 Summary of Cabling ...................................................................................................93 CABLING TERMS ..............................................................................................................94 AWG (American Wire Gauge) ....................................................................................94 Bandwidth ...................................................................................................................94 Plenum Grade Cabling ...............................................................................................94 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................95 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)..............................................................................97 Preparing the Data .....................................................................................................97 Signals and Clocking ..................................................................................................97 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel) .................................................................................98 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................98 Configurable Options..................................................................................................98 Wireless NICs............................................................................................................100 Specialized Solutions, Inc. iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Fiber-Optic NICs...................................................................................................... 100 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................ 101 Standard Bus Types .................................................................................................. 101 Laptops ..................................................................................................................... 101 NETWORK PERFORMANCE ............................................................................................. 102 WIRELESS NETWORKS ................................................................................................... 103 Why Wireless? .......................................................................................................... 103 Wireless Transmission Methods............................................................................... 104 Radio Transmission.................................................................................................. 105 Satellite Station Networking..................................................................................... 106 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 108 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 109 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.................................................................................... 112 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS .................................. 115 ACCESS METHODS......................................................................................................... 116 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) .................... 116 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) ................... 117 Token Passing........................................................................................................... 117 Demand Priority....................................................................................................... 117 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS) ............................................... 119 Packet Structure ....................................................................................................... 119 Packet Components .................................................................................................. 120 NETWORK STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 122 Logical Link Control (802.2).................................................................................... 122 Ethernet (802.3)........................................................................................................ 122 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................. 129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)................................................... 131 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 133 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 134 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.................................................................................... 136 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.......................................................................... 139 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT ................................................................................... 139 The Customer ........................................................................................................... 139 The Network Goals................................................................................................... 140 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE ......................................................................................... 142 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer.................................................................................. 142 When to Choose Client/Server ................................................................................. 143 Making the Choice.................................................................................................... 144 Public and Private networks .................................................................................... 144 DESIGN THE NETWORK.................................................................................................. 150 Media Selection ........................................................................................................ 151 Environmental Concerns.......................................................................................... 152 NOS Selection........................................................................................................... 152 Protocol Selection .................................................................................................... 152 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER ............................................................................................ 154 Cable to Computer ................................................................................................... 154 iv Specialized Solutions, Inc.

.................................................................................................................................168 WAN Overview.....................................................162 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 ........................................................................................................160 Standards ..................................................................................................178 Connecting Two Computers..................159 Computer Compatibility............................................................................................................................................165 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS....................................................................167 Gateway .......192 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols ...................EXPANDING A NETWORK ..........................................................161 HCL and Windows 2000 .............165 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL ............................................................................................................................................ v ......................................159 PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS .....................................................189 RFC (Request For Comments)............................................................................161 Minimum Requirements ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................169 Digital Connectivity ......172 Packet Switching Networks....................................................176 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS) ..............................................................................................168 Carriers..........................................................................................189 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS ............................................184 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 .....................................166 Repeaters....................................178 RAS Protocols ...186 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS ................197 DNS ............................170 Circuit-switched Networks.............................................................................................154 Network Adapter Cards .................................................179 Installing and Configuring RAS.........................................183 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .......................................................................157 Adapter Card Compatibility ........166 Routers ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Inc....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................166 Bridges ..............................................................197 Specialized Solutions.....................160 Hard Work .......182 Troubleshooting a RAS setup.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................157 Media Compatibility ...........................................167 CONNECTION SERVICES ...............................................................................................................................174 MODEMS ...........................................164 CHAPTER 7 .......................................................................194 NAMING SYSTEMS .................172 VLAN.....Table of Contents Cable to Hub .169 Analog Connectivity.................................189 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................182 Limitations of RAS .............................................................192 Other TCP/IP Protocols .......................................................................173 Advanced WAN Environments ....................................................................................................................................................................................................160 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ..........155 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.................. 198 HOSTS file.................................................................................................................. 202 IPv4 ............................................................................................................... 200 TCP/IP ADDRESSING....... 205 SUBNETTING ............................................................................................. 203 Class B Addresses ....................................................................... 221 NETWORK MANAGERS ......... 225 NSLOOKUP..................................................................................................................................... 202 IP Addresses .......................... 215 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................. 223 NBTSTAT ... 200 NAT................................................................. 209 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 221 Management Software. 219 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES.............................................................................................................................. 198 NETBIOS ..................................................... 229 vi Specialized Solutions..................... 200 IP Proxy Servers............................. 223 ROUTE................................................................................ 203 IPv6 (IP Next Generation) .. 199 BOOTP .............................. 229 USER AND SHARE LEVEL .............................................. Inc................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 225 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................................................. 217 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8.................................................................................................................................................................. 221 Agent Software .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 199 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES .................................................................................................... 222 Communities.......................................................................................................SNMP . 203 Class C Addresses ................................................................ 199 LMHOSTS file .............................. 225 IFCONFIG............... 207 How to Subdivide a Network ....................................... 227 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9....................................................................................... 225 PING......................... 223 TRACERT.......................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... 199 DHCP ............................................... 228 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY .................................................................... 225 ARP ................................................................. 200 ICS ............................... 225 RARP..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS............................................................................................ 222 VALIDATION TOOLS ............................ 203 Class A Addresses ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 223 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .................. 199 IP Gateway ........ 223 NETSTAT ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 203 Class D and Class E Addresses............................................................................................................................................................................... 222 EVENT VIEWER .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 225 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG .........

.271 OSI MODEL ...................234 Volumes.............................................................................................................................232 Firewalls .....245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ................................................................................................................................260 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ...................................................232 Blocking Port Numbers.................................................... vii ........................................................................................X STANDARDS...........................................................................239 Viruses......................269 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING) .........257 Cable Problems....................................................................243 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK ..................................275 TCP/IP UTILITIES ............................234 Full........................251 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS ..................................................................................................................245 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................239 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Differential.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................237 Encryption.....................................................................................................................267 5-4-3 RULE .............................259 NIC Indicator Lights ..............................................................................................273 SUBNET MASKING ......................................................264 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY ........................................269 IEEE 802....................250 Hardware Networking Tools........................................................................................242 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10 .................................................................................270 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS ............................................. and Incremental Backups .............................................................................229 Share-level Security .......274 TCP/IP PORTS ..................................................................................................................234 Fault Tolerance and Power .................................................................232 Backup Options.............................................234 Fault Tolerance and RAID.................................................................................................238 Disaster Recovery ..............................250 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................260 Name Resolution ......................................................................................................................................263 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11 ............232 Backing up Data .......................................................................255 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS ...............................................................................................267 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES .......236 PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES ..........................................................230 SECURITY TECHNIQUES .........................................................................................................................260 Performance...Table of Contents User-level Security........................267 ETHERNET CABLING ...............................257 Misbehaving Protocols ..............................................268 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES ............. Inc...........................................................................................275 Specialized Solutions..................................................264 CONCLUSION .........233 Backup Software .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

................. 306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.............................................................................. 323 viii Specialized Solutions................. 284 SAG ..................................................................................................... 319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10...................... 278 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .................................................................................................................... 281 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS ............................................................ 283 ANSI.................................................................................................. 316 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8............... 304 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3...................... 320 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11.................................................................................................... 285 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY............................................................... 287 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ............ OTHER HELPFUL SITES ................................................................................ 284 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM. 278 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES ............................... 281 COMPUSERVE ........ 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1.................................................................................................................................................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.................................................................................................................. 311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6.................................................. 281 MICROSOFT: ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Inc....................................................................................................................... .................................................... 283 EIA ....................................................................................................................................................................... 283 CCITT ............................................................ 285 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 309 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5................... 281 NOVELL ...................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TOPOLOGY REVIEW ........................................ 276 TRANSMISSION MEDIA ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 284 ISO........................................................................................................................................................................ 318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9...................................... 283 IEEE .............................. 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2............................. 321 INDEX ............................ 315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7......................................

Inc. One hundred percent customer satisfaction and unmatched customer service is always our commitment to the computer professional. Inc. ix . We strive to provide training programs that far exceed the expectations of our customers.specializedsolutions. is dedicated to providing the computer professional the highest level of self-study training and certification materials the industry has to offer. Inc.About Specialized Solutions About Specialized Solutions Welcome to Specialized Solutions. We will always provide a quality product to customers at a price that is within reach of most computer professionals.’s Network+ training and certification course. We thank you for choosing our company as your resource for Information Technology SelfStudy Training.com Specialized Solutions. Inc. cost-effective programs that are customized to suit your needs. Our highly skilled staff of computer and educational professionals are dedicated to delivering high quality. please visit us at: www. Specialized Solutions. To see other Specialized Solutions. We are committed to always be on the leading edge of new computer environment training products. course offerings.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide x Specialized Solutions.

1 .Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives. Computer Graphics Experts. easy to follow format. as a stand-alone textbook. Remember. Inc. or as a textbook in a classroom environment. at Specialized Solutions. and Digital Video Studio Professionals. Technical Editors. Technical Writers. We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical. We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! Specialized Solutions. It can be used in conjunction with the Specialized Solutions. Network+ video training series. Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals. We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program. our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. Inc.

” The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1. The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content. test objectives and example content.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey.” “This examination includes blueprint weighting. Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination. .0 Media & Topologies 2.0 Network Support Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 25% 35% 100% 2 Specialized Solutions.0 Protocols & Standards 3. Inc.0 Network Implementation 4.

3 Specify the characteristics (For example: speed.0 .3 (Ethernet). features and functions of the following network components: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • Gateways • CSU / DSU (Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit) Specialized Solutions. 1000BASE-CX. including: • Speed • Access method (CSMA / CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) and CSMA / CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection)) • Topology • Media 1. length.11 (wireless). 5. 3 . and 6 • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) • STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) • Coaxial cable • SMF (Single Mode Fiber) optic cable • MMF (Multimode Fiber) optic cable 1.Media and Topologies – 20% 1. 802. Inc.5 Recognize the following media types and describe their uses: • Category 3. 802. schematic or description: • Star • Bus • Mesh • Ring 1.5 (token ring). 10 GBASE-LR and 10 GBASE-ER 1.6 Identify the purposes. 802.4 Recognize the following media connectors and describe their uses: • RJ-11 (Registered Jack) • RJ-45 (Registered Jack) • F-Type • ST (Straight Tip) • SC (Subscriber Connector or Standard Connector) • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) • Fiber LC (Local Connector) • MT-RJ (Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack) • USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1. topology. 5e. 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX • 10 GBASE-SR. and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) networking technologies.Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: Domain 1.2 (Logical Link Control).2 Specify the main features of 802. and cable type) of the following cable standards: • 10BASE-T and 10BASE-FL • 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX • 1000BASE-T.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a diagram.

Domain 2.8 Identify factors which affect the range and speed of wireless service (For example: interference. addressing schemes.5 Identify the components and structure of IP (Internet Protocol) addresses (IPv4.8 Identify the differences between private and public network addressing schemes. frequency. 2.11 (Frequency hopping spread spectrum) • 802. 2.7 Identify the purpose of subnetting. B and C). Inc.6 Identify classful IP (Internet Protocol) ranges and their subnet masks (For example: Class A. antenna type and environmental factors).11x (Direct sequence spread spectrum) • Infrared • Bluetooth 1.7 Specify the general characteristics (For example: carrier speed. transmission type and topology) of the following wireless technologies: • 802. 2.10 Define the purpose. 2. IPv6) and the required setting for connections across the Internet.0 – Protocols and Standards – 20% 2. .2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model and their functions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • NICs (Network Interface Card) • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) adapters • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) • Modems • Transceivers (media converters) • Firewalls 1.1 Identify a MAC (Media Access Control) address and its parts.4 Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing. 2. 2. interoperability and naming conventions: • IPX / SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange / Sequence Packet Exchange) • NetBEUI (Network Basic Input / Output System Extended User Interface) • AppleTalk / AppleTalk over IP (Internet Protocol) • TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) 2.3 Identify the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) layers at which the following network components operate: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • NICs (Network Interface Card) • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) 2.9 Identify and differentiate between the following IP (Internet Protocol) addressing methods: • Static • Dynamic • Self-assigned (APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing)) 2. function and use of the following protocols used in the TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) suite: • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) 4 Specialized Solutions.

ICS (Internet Connection Sharing). SMB (Server Message Block).14 Identify the basic characteristics (For example: speed. AFP (Apple File Protocol).11 Define the function of TCP / UDP (Transmission Control Protocol / User Datagram Protocol) ports. LPD (Line Printer Daemon) and Samba).13 Identify the purpose of network services and protocols (For example: DNS (Domain Name Service). 5 . WINS (Windows Internet Name Service). NFS (Network File System).12 Identify the well-known ports associated with the following commonly used services and protocols: • 20 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 21 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 22 SSH (Secure Shell) • 23 Telnet • 25 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • 53 DNS (Domain Name Service) • 69 TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • 80 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • 110 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) • 119 NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • 123 NTP (Network Time Protocol) • 143 IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • 443 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) 2. 2.25 2. Zeroconf (Zero configuration).15 Identify the basic characteristics of the following internet access technologies: • xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) • Broadband Cable (Cable modem) • POTS / PSTN (Plain Old Telephone Service / Public Switched Telephone Network) • Satellite • Wireless Specialized Solutions. capacity and media) of the following WAN (Wide Area Networks) technologies: • Packet switching • Circuit switching • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) • T1 (T Carrier level 1) / E1 / J1 • T3 (T Carrier level 3) / E3 / J3 • OCx (Optical Carrier) • X.Introduction • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) • POP3 / IMAP4 (Post Office Protocol version 3 / Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • Telnet • SSH (Secure Shell) • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) • ARP / RARP (Address Resolution Protocol / Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) • NTP (Network Time Protocol) • NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) • IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) • LPR (Line Printer Remote) 2. Inc. NAT (Network Address Translation). 2. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol).

MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). punch down tool or tone generator). an authentication scheme.3 Identify the appropriate tool for a given wiring task (For example: wire crimper. application support and security) of the following server operating systems to access network resources: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. 3. and physical connectivity. PAP (Password Authentication Protocol). Inc.0 Network Implementation – 25% 3. 3. 6 Specialized Solutions.1 Identify the basic capabilities (For example: client support. RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service). interoperability. network protocols and peer and server services).17 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function: • IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Continued on the next page… Continued from the previous page… • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) • 802.18 Identify authentication protocols (For example: CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol).6 Identify the purpose. 3.16 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services: • RAS (Remote Access Service) • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) • PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) • VPN (Virtual Private Network) • RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) 2. configure the connection.2 Identify the basic capabilities needed for client workstations to connect to and use network resources (For example: media. benefits and characteristics of using a proxy service.1x 2.5 Identify the purpose. Includes connection to the following servers: • UNIX / Linux / MAC OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. file and print services. 3. 3.9 Identify the main characteristics and purpose of extranets and intranets. determine the impact on network functionality of a particular security implementation (For example: port blocking / filtering.7 Given a connectivity scenario.8 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks). authentication and encryption).4 Given a remote connectivity scenario comprised of a protocol.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. media tester / certifier. Domain 3. Kerberos and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)). authentication. . 3. benefits and characteristics of using a firewall.

authentication failure. print services. benefits and characteristics of using antivirus software. 4.3 Given a network scenario.5 Given a troubleshooting scenario between a client and the following server environments. select the appropriate network utility from the following: • Tracert / traceroute • ping • arp • netstat • nbtstat • ipconfig / ifconfig • winipcfg • nslookup / dig 4. interpret visual indicators (For example: link LEDs (Light Emitting Diode) and collision LEDs (Light Emitting Diode)) to determine the nature of a stated problem.Introduction 3.2 Given output from a network diagnostic utility (For example: those utilities listed in objective 4.10 Identify the purpose. 3. warm and cold sites Domain 4.6 Given a scenario. network hardware or environment).4 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a client accessing remote network services. determine the impact of modifying. identify the cause of a stated problem (For example: bad media. identify the network area affected and the cause of the stated failure. identify the utility and interpret the output. star. 4.0 Network Support – 35% 4. protocol configuration. adding or removing network services (For example: DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). interference. 4. identify the cause of a stated problem: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 4.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario. 4. physical connectivity and SOHO (Small Office / Home Office) router).7 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology (For example: bus. 7 . 4. Specialized Solutions. mesh or ring) and including a network diagram. DNS (Domain Name Service) and WINS (Windows Internet Name Service)) for network resources and users.8 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving an infrastructure (For example: wired or wireless) problem.11 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance: • Power • Link redundancy • Storage • Services 3. identify the cause of the problem (For example: file services.12 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery: • Backup / restore • Offsite storage • Hot and cold spares • Hot.1). Inc.

Identify the affected area 3. This strategy can include the following steps: 1.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. Test the result 7. Establish what has changed 4. Inc. select an appropriate course of action based on a logical troubleshooting strategy. Select the most probable cause 5. Identify the symptoms and potential causes 2. . Identify the results and effects of the solution 8. Implement an action plan and solution including potential effects 6.9 Given a network problem scenario. Document the solution and process 8 Specialized Solutions.

MCSA. teaching classes for most of the national training companies and some regional training companies. MCP+I. In addition he holds the CompTIA certifications of A+. Originally in technical sales and sales management with Sprint.” Specialized Solutions. CCSI. not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation. Use the “Help” button where available. However. MCSE. 9 . “My job is to understand the material so well that I can make it easier for my students to learn than it was for me to learn. Practice the function on your computer. Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding. Bill is an enthusiastic. He is certified as an MCT. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary. Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. results oriented computer specialist who has extensive knowledge of Microsoft networks. Bill has written the “MCDST Study Guide” for Sybex Inc. In addition.Introduction Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not extremely complicated. Hands-on experience is best. Alabama. Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge. Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand. Bill says. Network+. Inc. such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. Bill made his transition to Certified Technical Trainer in 1997 with ExecuTrain. it may seem so. Bill has been in the computer industry for over 15 years. Bill now runs his own company as an independent contractor in Birmingham. if this is your first exposure to networking. as well as “Designing Security for Windows Server 2003 Network” for Exam Cram2. use a study plan. and Security+. Server+. To get the best results from your training. and CCNA. MCDST. Your Video Instructor Your video instructor is Bill Ferguson. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented.

There are no specific requirements. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find. You may be surprised at how near you are to a testing center! Evaluate your learning aptitudes. The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry. but A+ certification is not required. French and Japanese. Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam. Inc. German. . This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English. except payment of the test fee. there is no one method that will work for everyone. A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge.com) or any Thomson Prometric testing center (2test. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book.com). YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Schedule the test for a few weeks from now so that you will have a guidepost that is constantly reminding you that you need to study the material. How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills. 1999. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. • • • How do you learn best (reading. The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test. watching. You can also call VUE at 877-551-7587 or Thomson Prometric at 888-8956116. Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs. Since most of us learn in different ways. You can take the test at any Virtual University Enterprises testing center (vue. CONGRATULATIONS. You can locate a testing center and schedule the test on the web. hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 10 Specialized Solutions.

set aside the time to learn. Re-read the test and review the video presentation. Inc. What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through. Based on your time to learn (and your schedule). If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course. just get a feel for it. Make an appointment with yourself. • Complete the course a second time. go though the entire course again. Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises. 11 .Introduction Make a plan to learn. Review the video presentation one more time if necessary. Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time. Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). At this time. Use the rewind button as often as necessary. Specialized Solutions. This workbook will make this task much easier. you want to begin to understand. If you need to. Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read. You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through. You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point.

Evaluate the questions you missed. including one photo ID. All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam. You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam As you prepare for your certification exam it will be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure. Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam. which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted. You will be asked to sign the form. • • • • 12 Specialized Solutions. it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. . You will be required to show two forms of identification. You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam. (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam. The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form. It is a closed book exam. If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams. Inc. The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in.

) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. skip it. mark a question or answer a question. put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. Do not read too much into the question. Specialized Solutions. you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score. If you know the answer. It lists your score by objective. The course contains five instructor led CD-ROMs. Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides. You will have plenty of time as long as you use it wisely. Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam. Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! About This Course This Specialized Solutions Network+ course is a multi-media.Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials. 13 . you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam. Inc. mark it and come back to it. If you positively don’t know the answer.Introduction HINT . Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. Usually. ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam. If you don’t know the answer. guess. Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers. Before retaking the exam. answer the question. self-study training system. a Network+ Training & Test Preparation Guide and a practice exam simulator. you can see which questions are not answered. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you. If you’re not quite sure. but be sure to read it in its entirety. (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass. At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered. or if you are unclear about what you should do. marked or skipped. Keep track of the time and pace yourself. Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system. If the administrator does not do this. (You don’t need to send them the score report. (such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test. you are given the ability to skip a question.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Video Chapters Include: CD 1: Introduction and Overview Network Topologies Network Technologies Cable Standards Media Connectors CD 2: Media Types Network Components Wireless Technologies Protocols and Standards The OSI Model IP Addressing CD 3: Ports Services WAN Internet Access Remote Access Security Protocols CD 4: Server Operating Systems Client Connectivity Tools for Networking Firewalls Proxy Service Network Connectivity Virtual Local Area Networks Antivirus Software Fault Tolerance Disaster Recovery CD 5: Troubleshooting Network Utilities Troubleshooting Network Services Troubleshooting Topologies Troubleshooting Strategy Preparation for a Certification Test 14 Specialized Solutions. .

Inc.Introduction This study guide is divided into 11 chapters. Specialized Solutions. It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course. 15 .

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Specialized Solutions.) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics. Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources.” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service. It is very important that. After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking. It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than to purchase a printer for every user. and applications (resources). This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents. peripherals. You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN. Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking. Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need. users can access programs. Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage. as a networking professional. Inc. A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented. a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data. you understand exactly what a network is. files. 17 . Additionally. and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net. But for our purposes.” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do. Through networking. a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files. An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?).

A WAN can connect networks from building to building or across the world. The Internet is the world’s largest WAN.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function. Also. 18 Specialized Solutions. A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network. Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information. or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. it is still considered a LAN. Inc. the speed of communication between the computers is typically much faster in a LAN. When LANs are connected they create a WAN. . The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits.

that access would cause the workstation to become a server. or a mail server (E-mail). one for applications (application server). and is a client. A large network may have more than one server. A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. For example. but they are not common. and expandability. including applications. Users. A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. also known as clients. It is important to know what a MAN is. A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network. The advantages of this type of network are central administration. The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer. since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client). log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access. Specialized Solutions. Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. one for printing (print server). Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. A mainframe will handle all the functions. including hard disk space and RAM. there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or county. The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. efficiency in backing up the data. However. it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. network security. These terms are not interchangeable. 19 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals There is actually a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). Also. The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation. that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files. when the user is getting information from the server. The Internet has replaced most MANs today. configuration and management may be more challenging. Inc. Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity.

Peer-to-Peer Network 20 Specialized Solutions. In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal. a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand.g. This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers. A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install. The computers are simply cabled together. Also. All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user. and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e. network security is unreliable. . Inc. A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security. Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network.

you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network. backbone. refers to its physical layout. The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other. There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). 21 . if the cable breaks. Specialized Solutions. also called Network Adapter Cards). (Network Interface Cards. scheme. the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce. or segment. Devices only listen for data being transmitted. they do not move the transmissions along. To stop signal bounce. design. NICs. However. or topology. and even how the cabling is run through a building. and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. As a network professional. The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used. connectors. only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal. While the signal is bouncing back and forth. how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. or diagram. the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other. are all determined by the topology used. it prevents other devices from sending data. Inc. The Bus topology is a passive topology. Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. This cable is called a trunk. map. a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable. In a Bus network. If not prevented. A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together. future growth needs.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable. Different topologies have different cabling requirements. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address).

the entire network will go down. all devices are connected to a central point called a hub. It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology. Inc. A disadvantage is that if one computer fails. If the hub fails. however. 22 Specialized Solutions. The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network. but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down. Star Topology Ring Topology In a Ring topology. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Star Topology In a Star topology. The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. . it can affect the entire network. There are no ends to terminate. the rest of the network will still continue to function. The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network.

is how the network actually works. In these networks. You will be able to see a physical topology. 23 . a computer can fail and not prevent the network from functioning. Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals With IBM Token Ring networks. These are known as Hybrid topologies. This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. Also. Before you can understand some of these special topologies. but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. Specialized Solutions. you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology. Inc. Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations. Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. It consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. These are the methods in which a network is actually wired. The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. the ring is actually in a special type of hub called a Multistation Access Unit (MSAU). A logical topology. we have been discussing physical topologies. on the other hand. they operate between the hubs like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus. For example. However. So far. some Ethernet networks today are wired using a using multiple hubs. This gives us a physical star topology. Token Ring networks are physical stars and logical rings.

. 24 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points. Since each computer has its own connection to the wireless access point (WAP). The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter 4 of this book. . the topology of a wireless network is that of an “invisible star”. Inc.

25 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Specialized Solutions. Inc.

only one device at a time can communicate on the network. Multiple Access means that more than one computer 26 Specialized Solutions. Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages. With several devices connected to one media. This is based on the media or wiring of the network. The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network. The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). we create kind of a “party line”. Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices. The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message. We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards. It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit. Inc. they are called Token Ring and Ethernet. . and the message is delivered. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected. Since there is only one token.

Specialized Solutions. Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original. Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks. Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps. Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals can be connected to the same cable. Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted). 27 .

The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator. Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only. With a Token Ring. Inc. since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network. Essentially. Passive hubs do not require any electrical power to function. they are called MSAUs (Multiple Station Access Units). not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network. Passive Hub – Patch Panel 28 Specialized Solutions. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified. Hubs can be classified as either passive or active. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks. they are all the same. Today. hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function. Just remember.

3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated. Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs. Specialized Solutions. 2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available. Inc. They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected. This type type of hub requires electrical power to function. 29 . An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. 4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs.

The two types of networks are LANs and WANs. and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN. The three main types of topology are bus. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. star. Inc. Topology is a term we use to describe the logical shape of the connection of computers in a network. It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources. A WAN is not geographically limited and typically has greater speed of communication than a WAN. . 30 Specialized Solutions. go back and review the chapter again. and ring. We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network.

31 . Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 32 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

Inc. 8. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. 33 . 11.Chapter 1 1. Name the three basic topologies. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6. 10. What are the key differences between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Review Questions . 5. 7. Name two media access methods. Specialized Solutions. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. What is the main reason for networking computers? 3. 9. What is a “sneaker net”? 4. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12.

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what we are really talking about are network operating systems. Most of today’s client and server operating systems have a built-in network operating system. network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system.g. hard disk space. What is an Operating System? Not that long ago. Hardware resources such as RAM.Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking. 35 . In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems. This chapter is all about the various operating systems with which a networking professional needs to be familiar. Specialized Solutions. and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). it is just a pile of metal and plastic. spreadsheet. as well as the operating system. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well. it will just sit there. most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions. You can get it all set up and turn on the power. and database programs). Today. processor time. but without an operating system. Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 . When we are talking about operating systems. if you don’t have the software to run it. The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other. Inc. The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e. When we refer to the operating system in this chapter. We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities. Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment. word-processing. we are referencing the built-in network operating system component.

36 Specialized Solutions. Preemptive multitasking began with Windows 95 and the Intel Pentium processor. In non-preemptive multitasking. A true multitasking (multi-processing) operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors. . Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor. Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed. It is used on all of the latest operating systems.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs. put simply. means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. the processor is never taken away from a task. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. Inc.

Instead. Specialized Solutions. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. Microsoft Client. Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems. or a similar program. Windows 95/98 Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems that include a network operating system.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. turning on the computer and answering questions. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. It is well-suited for editing home movies. all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network. Novell NetWare. Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs. to communicate with other computers over a network. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system. such as BSD UNIX. and you have a working network. 37 . They use an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration. moving photos to the Web. Inc. Then. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices. Windows 95/98 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network. and archiving music. Their new graphical interface and networking capabilities make them a vast improvement over their predecessors. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card.

is equipped to be networked easily. It features file protection. It also uses System Restore. EFS (Encrypting File System). Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across in real life but are unlikely to be on the test: 38 Specialized Solutions. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server. which allows for safety when installing additional software or making changes to the computer’s configuration. like ME. Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is the newest edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users. a simplified visual design. like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here. remote OS installation. driver certification. Inc. IPsec and Kerberos support. multilingual support. It allows for faster user switching. It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies. It. peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT.

However. it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment. Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network. the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability. Inc. Specialized Solutions. 39 . Inc. In a Serverbased network. This can also provide accessibility and security for all devices on a network. Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (uses resources locally).Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. the computers act as both a client and a server.

However. Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server. The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed. most of the data is stored on the server. the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords. Some networks even cluster server so that more that one server can share a database of information. Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access. This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. This 40 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. Unlike most client software. if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. and to the server. Inc. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location. out onto the network. Server Software As their name implies. the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. Data Protection As we already discussed. . Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access). At the very least. The component that handles these requests is called the redirector. Servers exist to serve. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus.

to resources. It does this by assigning drive letters. which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer. If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus. Inc. Basically. etc. If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server. or if they need to be redirected to the server. called drive designators. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs. This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer. The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server. Specialized Solutions. it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) provides for load balancing of the server resources as well as fault tolerance if one server were to fail. It does not need to know anything about networks. 41 .

Inc. 486. copied.11 operate on 386.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use. web-publishing. Version 6. but it is losing market share to Microsoft servers every year. • NetWare’s popularity is due largely to its ability to provide services across multioperating system environments. password. login security provides authentication and verification of user name.5 is now on the market. Organization of network resources such as users. and account restrictions. messaging. In this section. NetWare Security The purpose of a network may be to share resources. Directory and file attributes are used to set the types of access for a file or directory such as viewed. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. as well as what kind of access they have. which is a DOS-based utility.12 and 4. NetWare is administered through NetADMIN. It is a reliable operating system that provides performance and security.11 is called IntranetWare. time. but there will always be data in any network to which access must be restricted. In the past. or Pentium machines. NetWare Directory Services (NDS) NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. deleted. servers. management. 42 Specialized Solutions. name service.EXE. Versions 3. Novell NetWare The NetWare operating system has been around for a long time. it was the most popular server operating system. a user may logon from anywhere on the network and gain access with all of their assigned rights and privileges intact. NetWare File Services The NetWare file server hard drive may be mapped to a client and the client machine will recognize the drive as a logical drive and be able to access it as it would any other drive in the computer. non-shareable. routing. NetWare provides more than adequate network security by using a combination of approaches. or through NWADMIN. and file and print services. Trustee rights regulate which directories and files a user can access. With NDS’ single point logon. . It is Novell’s push to gain market share and is a way of creating an Intranet.2) was designed to operate on 286 machines. It may be installed in either the client or server format. NetWare is based upon the industry standard X500 directory architecture. which is like the Internet but within a network or company. First. or changed. and volumes is also handled with NDS. Version 4. which is a Windows-based utility. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. groups. we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. The earliest version (2. shared. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security.

Printers may be attached to the server. or directly to the network. and finally to the printer. NetWare also provides a method of using simple commands to send messages to other users on the network. You can send messages to individuals or to groups very easily. NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS) MHS may be installed on any server and configured to be a network wide E-mail system. You can even send messages to everyone in a group. as well as others. It is compatible with E-mail programs such as Novell’s GroupWise and Microsoft Mail. a workstation. Print requests are first routed to the file server. NetWare Minimum Requirements The following are the minimum installation requirements as specified by Novell for installing their server software: Specialized Solutions. next to the print server. 43 . The file server and the print server can be the same computer. except an individual workstation.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Print Services NetWare Print Services can support up to 256 printers. Inc.

X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 5: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Pentium Class or higher 64 MB 550 MB 386 or higher 16 MB 105 MB 386 or higher 6 MB 30 MB 286 or higher 2.11 or OS/2 Warp and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 Macintosh 6.1 or later (Standard or Extended Edition) and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 OS/2 2.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 3.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS OS/2 1.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for Macintosh OS Specialized Solutions.5 MB 20 MB Client Software The client software may be installed on any computer running any of the following: • • • • • 44 DOS 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Version 2.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 4. . Inc.1 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS MS Windows 3.

Full Control. Specialized Solutions. This type is performed by each workstation or server publicly sharing a directory on the network. Change. interoperability simply means the ability of an operating system to operate with other systems. but Windows NT contains services such as NWLink and Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW) that allow them to work together effectively. 45 . Windows File Services Like NetWare. Inc. its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows Servers. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data. or No Access may be set on the directory. another security method must be utilized. The NetWare client can be installed with almost any other operating system. the Windows servers may be configured to store each workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups. Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. Today. The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of Microsoft’s server/workstation technology. The advanced security features of Windows are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT . Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier. Files in Windows may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network. Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software). Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management. It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. NetWare is extremely efficient at operating with other systems. The attributes such as Read. which as at the base of all Microsoft’s servers. This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments. As we’ve already discussed. Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version. The newest of these server operating systems. Unlike NetWare. offer even more advantages and stronger security than their predecessors. but it does have several advantages.File Allocation Table) during installation. actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2). Problems do occur when trying to operate within the Windows NT domain. Windows combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories. Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems. You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows network. The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of Windows security features. In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows .Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Interoperability As the word implies. The NT Kernel. With this method.

This trend continued with the latest Windows server operating systems (Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003.. A domain is simply a group of users. Windows Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in a Windows network. (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource. Server Service provides access to network resources. Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service. you are given the option to share it to the network. Windows Network Services There are many services available in Windows to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user.. At least one domain controller is assigned to each domain. especially with the latest Windows Server 2003 family. Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in the domain. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer.) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer. Even if you are installing a local printer. Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers. Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions). See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. and resources with a shared security database. Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible. computers. . The following is a list of services included with Windows Server software to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between Microsoft and NetWare. Microsoft uses domains to control access and authenticate users and computers. Remember. more than one printer can be installed to any machine. permissions. Inc. and user rights. Workstation Service is the redirector service. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network. A domain controller is a server that maintains and manages all accounts. 46 Specialized Solutions. Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows Server Security Security was a major concern in the development of Windows Servers.

Previous Microsoft server operating systems were built to serve and then had security features to protect them.well serve. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases. used as such. Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 is the latest in the line of Microsoft server operating systems. FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access Microsoft file and print services. 47 . Windows Server 2003 is the first Windows server that was built primarily with security in mind. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the Microsoft service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. In contrast.0). In addition. Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be. Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory. It provides all of the advantages of Windows 2000 Server.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an Microsoft domain and the NetWare server. In fact. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. Installing CSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional. Windows Server 2003 offers a more secure Web Server (IIS 6. Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to Windows. UNIX is a Specialized Solutions. when using Windows Server 2003 you typically must remove or configure security boundaries in order to get the server to. This software is not included with Netware but can be purchased separately. which govern what users can see and do on the network. Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to Microsoft’s domain controller..0) than the previous version in Windows 2000 (IIS 5. it has more “locked down” security templates that make it less likely that users will try to go around the security. It can be installed on the Microsoft client to allow it to connect the Netware server directly. It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network. It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives.. and is. but it adds many features that are designed exclusively for security. Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. This is necessary because all Microsoft client workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point. Inc. It allows Novell NDS computers to be managed just as Microsoft domain controllers. Installing GSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well.

The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. as well as others. Software is available. A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users. StreetTalk provides directory. many variations of Linux have been created over the years such as Caldera and Red Hat. Inc. Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows. At one time. VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top. it was an extremely popular network operating system. UNIX. It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system. multi-user. in fact the software is available for a free download. . 48 Specialized Solutions. and many other features associated with an OS. Like Novell NetWare. OS/2. These terminals are not stand-alone computers. Because of its open source nature. At its inception. but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. as well as file and printer sharing. UNIX is a multi-tasking. Linux is open source. which means that it can be changed by a software programmer. TCP/IP. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system. It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments. however. and messaging services. general-purpose operating system. The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide bulky operating system. Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX. It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources. security. to convert the UNIX host into a file server.

Specialized Solutions. but users also use them personally. Inc. they developed what later became known as the mouse and the first GUI display. 49 . Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production. In conjunction with Xerox. and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC. both at home and on the go.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984. The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction with the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book).

centralization of administration. With the redirector. Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems. Study through the chapter again if you need to. Inc. In a peer-to-peer network. The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely). A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare). Banyan VINES. the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network). . Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. and data backups. an application is unaware that it is working from a network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer. There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system. The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly. such as Novell NetWare and Windows server operating systems. and at least be familiar with others. 50 Specialized Solutions.). Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. In a server-based network. Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic. the client computers rely on the server for their resources. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems. etc. It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today. (UNIX. The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. Today. the most popular network operating systems also function as the network operating system.

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS)

KEYWORDS Exercise
Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition

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Review Questions
1. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system?

2.

What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking?

3.

What is the purpose of the redirector?

4.

NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments.

5.

What is NDS?

6.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5?

7.

Define interoperability.

8.

Unlike NetWare, Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one.

9.

What is NTFS?

10.

What is a domain?

11.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server?

52

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Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) 12. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.

13.

What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system?

14.

What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984?

15.

What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system?

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Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards

Chapter 3- The OSI Model and Communication Standards
In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, what it is and its primary function. You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles each function, and which devices function at each layer. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam.

The Seven Layers of Network Communication
The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. As a result, some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other, and how they will communicate if they are using different languages. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit; when not to transmit; and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected; how the data will flow (at what speed); and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications.

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The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you should notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers, depending upon their functions.

Seven Layers of the OSI Model
The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network. These services include file, print, and messaging services. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer. The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. This is not the actual application or program, simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail, transfer files across the network, or access a

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Sessions may be established using simplex. and data encryption. and ending connections. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network. Each connection is called a session. interpreting graphics commands. This layer is also responsible for data compression. and when. or full-duplex communication. Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them. without duplication. The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging. protocol conversion. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. If Specialized Solutions. add any addressing information and error correction information. The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer.) character set conversion. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. they will be combined. 57 . and prepare it for its journey. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local. bit ordering. The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence. it presents data to the application layer. For example. These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. if the packets are too small. This layer is responsible for establishing. or receive. The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer. managing. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. etc. In short. and error free. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh. It provides a logical connection between the two devices. The network redirector operates at this layer.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards network database. it will break the data into packets. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network. and un-packaging the data for transport. Inc. half-duplex. Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure. The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit. As its name implies.

In an ideal world. Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. segmentation information and routing information. When the data is received. This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. checked for errors. The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. it will be un-packed. the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets. especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination. delivery of packets is not guaranteed. UDP is a connectionless protocol. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. Inc. it will retransmit after a specified amount of time. This controls network congestion. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer. When you are using a connectionless protocol. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses. Routers and NICs function on this layer. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide they are too large. Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. For example. Once the data is reassembled. the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards.) It also includes control information such as frame type. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks. all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly. When you are using a connection-oriented protocol.518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. Connectionless protocols are faster. Should an error occur. however. error free manner. stripped of its addressing information. . The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. they will be broken into smaller packets. 58 Specialized Solutions. It receives a packet from the Network layer and packages it into what is called a frame. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link.

They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers. If the calculation does not check out. it will automatically resend the packet. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame. When the sending computer does not receive and acknowledgement. It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards. Inc. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium. The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer. The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). such as SDLC. The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards In addition. the data is sent out on the wire to all computers. and Demand Priority. The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized. The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address. The way that a network shares the channel is called its carrier access method. 59 .2 standard defines how this takes place. Although quite rare. It identifies a line protocol. In a broadcast network such as Ethernet. The IEEE 802. Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers. The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. In this way. Token Passing. then it discards the data. NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers. the destination computer will not send an acknowledgement. (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host). The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer. If it is not. it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer. If it is. TCP/IP is somewhat “self healing”. It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link. the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions. This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer. it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not. The following is an example of a MAC address: Specialized Solutions. Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel.

Note: For more information on the OSI Model. synchronizes the data. Switches. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer. all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model. hubs and transceivers. it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals. and determines when and how data may be transmitted. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses. It identifies the NIC. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets. The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets. Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer. Inc. visit www.ch/. The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames. an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable. . and what each one will do. Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. Repeaters. 60 Specialized Solutions. The last 3 bytes (35FD-AB) are the Device ID that is unique to the associated Vendor ID. Point-topoint communication is the process of one device communicating with one other device . data work at the Data Link layer of the OSI model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 00-00-13-35-FD-AB The first 3 bytes (00-00-13) identify the manufacturer of the card. For example. Point to point communication is often used between switches and routers on a network. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium. It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer. Multipoint communication is the process of one device communicating with multiple devices on a network.iso. It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network.

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each layer is also responsible for adding or removing headers so that the data is ready to be interpreted by the next layer. the process of moving through the layers is reversed. The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. This is called a protocol stack. (Remember. When the destination computer receives the data. This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. 62 Specialized Solutions. In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. For example: You send a request for services to the server. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. The Physical layer does not add a header. . it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. As the packet travels up through the layers. in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers. and provides services to the layer directly above it. The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. Inc. In addition to reading the headers and performing the instructions. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer. You are communicating directly with the Application layer. each layer reads and performs the tasks specified in its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task. the Application layer is not the actual application. The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message. over the network medium. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted by you and the request is considered processed. Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture. These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task. protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions. Headers contain instructions for tasks that need to be performed at that level.) The request is in the form of a packet. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. or suite. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer.

but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Signals or Bits or Data Stream into Frames Frames into Packets Frames or Datagrams into Segments Segments into data Data Data Data into Data Files or Messages Specialized Solutions. Because of this.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers. 63 . The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers. Inc. they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers.

Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer. as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. By relating various protocols to the OSI model. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program. Also. The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 64 Specialized Solutions. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections. . Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers. This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model. Inc. you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model. the OSI Model is not a protocol. In fact. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model. it would not match. This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed.

Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task. etc. you do need to remember the different layers and the tasks for which each layer is responsible. This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate. The specifications describe how components are supposed to function. These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments. it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work. Without them we would not have as many software or hardware packages available to us. Specialized Solutions. The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer. 65 . because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers. Inc.

Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X. These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change. are going to be used when they write a program. Repeaters. Data Link layer and the Network layer.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT 66 Specialized Solutions. routers. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. A repeater amplifies these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs. They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination. Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols. Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model. Routers are responsible for using logical addresses to move packets from one network to another and deliver them to a host. and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network. etc. as well as where in the OSI model they operate. bridges. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices. It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs. . As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer. Inc. This weakening is known as attenuation.

A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router. If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). A popular example is an SNA Gateway. 67 . if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI. The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate. A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols or even different technologies. Inc. which can be used to connect an IBM mainframe computer to a Microsoft network. Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing. Specialized Solutions. Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers. but usually in the Application layer). Router tables can be entered manually by a network administrator or they can be dynamically updated using routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF. However.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Each router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it.

The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802. 100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards.7 802. and if you would like more information on them. February 1980). This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started. These standards were prepared before the OSI standards.ieee. Inc.11 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers.9 802. 68 Specialized Solutions. Inc.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards. a little surfing might be in order.4 802.12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN.2 802.1 802.6 802.10 802.3 802.5 802. (IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs. . but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible.8 802. visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www.standards.

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Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers. which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols. NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another. Network 70 Specialized Solutions. and hence. ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver. which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver. The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks. This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another). the NIC also needs a device driver to function. This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. Inc. However. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp. Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver. The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. . the network.

) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. There is no guarantee that the message was delivered. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data. the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. 71 . it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol. In a connectionless communication. It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. if TCP/IP is bound first. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. Protocol Binding In order to function. Connection-Oriented vs. Specialized Solutions. Connectionless communication is faster. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. a protocol must be bound to the NIC.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network. Inc. Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party. For example. Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. You have no confirmation (unless he calls you back) that he received the message. In a connectionless scenario. If that fails. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless. Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model. In connection-oriented communication. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on his answering machine. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent. In today’s LANs however. and in full. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication. It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department. Routable vs. Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable. They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable. but connection-oriented is more reliable. it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected using a router.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X. . you should be familiar with these protocol stacks and you should know the OSI layer in which their components function.25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet). 72 Specialized Solutions. Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks. As a networking professional. It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable. Inc.

It resides in the Network layer. It has been modified over the years and now contains the following components: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model. regardless of speed. It is a routable protocol. It uses the MAC address and is non-routable. IPX/ SPX This protocol is the proprietary protocol that was developed by Novell for Netware servers and clients. It resides in the Network layer. Inc. In addition to hop count. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination.) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. (If data must cross a router SPX is used. and handles file and print services. Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – Provides transmission of packets across a network. This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – Provides Application layer services for Macintosh. This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment. AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – Manages file sharing at the Application layer AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – Provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack. NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol. At the Presentation Specialized Solutions. LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers. this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP. 73 • • • • • • .

We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers. . APPC supports Transport and Session layer services. It is also layered on IP like TCP. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol.1 and later installs TCP/IP by default. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking). • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server. No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed. TCP and IP. while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections. It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary. At the Transport layer it handles sequencing. At the Session layer it establishes and controls sessions. Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead. It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with. • Many companies use Netware with the TCP/IP protocol stack. TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol. flow control. 74 Specialized Solutions. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide layer it handles data translation. SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector. and connection-oriented error control services. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems. Novell Netware 5. Inc. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names. FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system.

Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely. but in addition. Inc. it will broadcast on the local subnet to determine the MAC address of the computer with the associated IP address. this is also a Network layer protocol. 75 . OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond. It chooses the route with the fewest hops.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). ARP will add the information to its table for future use. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. without regard to speed. It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability. ARP will first check its table and if a matching address is not found. making it connectionless. If you do not need to use passwords. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond to the broadcast by sending its MAC address. It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP. then TFTP would be advisable over FTP. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server. ARP keeps a table of corresponding IP and MAC addresses that have been resolved in the previous 10 minutes. It is an Application layer protocol. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function. instead of only the number of hops. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP is responsible for resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses. It resides in the Network layer. but in reverse. Specialized Solutions. The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely. Telnet can also be used for remote configuration of servers and network devices such as routers and switches. It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP. NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system.

It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers. This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions. Instead. X. it is out of the administrator’s control. asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN. 76 Specialized Solutions. the X. Data is routed via the best connection at a given time. It is a DEC protocol used for interactive. This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. X. It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP. Inc.25 a very slow but very reliable protocol. In addition.25 network. The second part of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment). Data goes in and comes out. This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use. The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment). It uses standard telephone lines and switches. .25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization. but in between. making X. DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. At each stop. only printing functions.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced). This protocol is not used for data communication. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable. LAT (Local Area Transport) LAT does not have a Network layer. packets are re-examined to determine whether they are damaged.25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud. XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs. Because of this.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide X. This means that routes change as conditions change. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet.25 X. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end. It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer. The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs.25 is also an equipment specification. which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines. which is the main reason that it is non-routable. This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits. it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer. This is the host on an X.

which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model. but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks. Specialized Solutions. Inc. 77 . It may be used with bridges. easy to configure and small. It is fast.

and other protocols as well as TCP/IP. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations. PPP supports IPX. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer. file transfers. It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. NetBEUI. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Other Protocols The following are other protocols with which you should be familiar: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it. It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. it detects congested areas and links that are down. administration. SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. Inc. or DHCP. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures. and connection release. Like a traffic report on your radio. It maintains a database and provides hostname to IP address resolution. . It handles session establishment. and notifies upper layers to route around them. Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes. SLIP is not used as much as PPP. DHCP. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands. NetBEUI. RPC is used by the redirector to 78 Specialized Solutions. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely over the Internet. but it can also be modified manually by the network administrator. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications. It does not support IPX. NWLink and NetBEUI. This database is typically dynamic in today’s modern networks. It also supports data encryption.

It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer. Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards determine if a resource is local or on the network. 79 . Inc.

80 Specialized Solutions. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter. For example. Inc. but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other. we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. if you can get to the server through a router. It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test. you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three. The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword 802. Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition Specialized Solutions. 81 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions – Chapter 3 1. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model. 7. and ending connections? 12. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. 3. 10. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11. What is a MAC address? 13. What is the function of the Application Layer? 9. 4. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. . 5. Which OSI layer is responsible for the MAC address? 8. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. 6. Who developed the OSI model? 2. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? 00-01-A5-D3-B4-01 82 Specialized Solutions. Inc. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. managing.

23.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 14. Which is faster. Describe protocol binding. What are they? 17. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 22. 21. without duplication and error free? 16. What are NDIS and ODI? 20. Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 15. Inc. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 19. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. 83 . You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. What is the function of a Gateway? 18. Will this work? Why or Why not? Specialized Solutions. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence.

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and the hardware aspect of network operations. It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install. and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. or DIX (Digital. but may still be used in some temporary installations such as a construction trailer (although wireless would be a much more likely alternative). it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology. along with connectors. and other hardware and peripherals. Intel. It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 . The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. There are numerous kinds of cable. It can transmit voice. Because it is shielded. Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet). Xerox). video. Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential. which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation.Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. Specialized Solutions. 85 . most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover. How to properly configure and use network adapter cards. There are several cabling options. Inc. Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. It is not often used in today’s networks. which we will address here. Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist. The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. network adapter cards. It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable. Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid. and how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter. but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand. (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter).

BNC Cable Connectors BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable. It is attached directly to the NIC but allows network signal to flow straight through it as well as to the NIC. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. They are specified based on their impedance. 86 Specialized Solutions. Inc. It is expressed in ohms. Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. as well as how they are attached to the cables. it is not as easy to install. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers. In the past.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. Thicknet was used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks. As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses. it has been replaced by twisted-pair cable and fiber optic cable. . In today’s networks.

Specialized Solutions. This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable. 87 . One of the terminators must be grounded. BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together. Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver. The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function. A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium. BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on. Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver. and is used to connect the device to the network. and an AUI cable. The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors). N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet. It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection.

These clamp-on transceivers were often referred to as vampire taps because they utilized sharp teeth that punctured the cable to make the connection. This types of connections have been largely replaced by newer cable methods such as twisted-pair and fiber optic cable. Instead. It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types. this was time-consuming and it absorbed signal so it was not the common approach. Inc. . There are four pair strands in most twisted-pair cables. Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today. The twist helps 88 Specialized Solutions. This cable type consists of insulated pair strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another. most networking professionals used a clamp-on transceiver.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver.

The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per meter in each pair of wires. Twisted Pair Cabling Specialized Solutions. This results in less sensitivity to EMI. The tighter the twist. Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 1000 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM and Gigabit Ethernet Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. the faster the signal can be sent through the wires without crosstalk. Since it is unshielded. Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. 89 . UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs. there are six categories. Currently. The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling. it is more sensitive to EMI. UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP). The following is a summary of UTP cables. Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. Inc. It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters.

. This is an excellent way to organize network cables. Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium. The front of the patch panel contains RJ-45 ports (a port is a female counterpart for the RJ-45 jack). These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. Inc. RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector. An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger. The RJ-45 jack’s position can therefore be changed from patch panel to patch panel to use a different set of cables for the same connection.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors. Wall Plates for RJ-45 90 Specialized Solutions. The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location. The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a special tool punch down tool to make the proper connection by stripping the insulation from the wire without breaking the wire. Wall plates are typically used to make the connection to the computers themselves. An RJ-11 jack has four connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight. This gives the network administrator a greater degree of flexibility and provides fault tolerance for the network cabling system. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations. They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 10 Gbps .

IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks. IBM cabling is based on its Type.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking. fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances. Because of this feature. which is easier to install. as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types.) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable. it is therefore not as common as UTP.. It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI. 91 . One strand transmits and one receives. (The core can also be made up of plastic. . it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength. but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. The following is a summary of IBM Types: Specialized Solutions. SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses. They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP. Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic). Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. the data cannot be tapped or stolen. It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). which reduces signal loss. Inc. This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber. However.

Not Defined Two 62. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications. The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors. IBM Connector 92 Specialized Solutions. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Contains a shield for use under carpets. Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data. Six twisted pairs. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet).5/125-micron multimode fibers. . Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Inc. These are very rarely used in today’s modern networks. Plenum grade.

Inc. Specialized Solutions. 93 .Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter.

(send and receive) but only one at a time. If this type of cable were used in the plenum. fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. but cannot send a message. these fumes would circulate throughout a building in the event of a fire. the wire thickness increases. Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only. Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge. For example. The signal flow is uni-directional. a pager can receive a message. For example. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire. Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways. Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps) or gigabits per second (Gbps). It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing). This space is used to circulate air through a building. Because this space does circulate air through a building. An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time. . 94 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cabling Terms The following are terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. • Simplex vs. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). PVC grade cable is less expensive than Plenum grade cable but it gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned.Baseband vs. The signal flow is bidirectional. Both you and the party you are talking to can talk and listen at the same time. Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions. • Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above. Inc. Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum. For example. As the AWG wire number decreases.

For example. A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling.) Will the cable be installed in “noisy” areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting. Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives. shielded cable or fiber optic cable might be more appropriate. It is therefore specifically designed to be used in these circulation areas. such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well. the flexibility of the medium should be considered.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals In contrast.) Specialized Solutions. Inc. how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners.) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum. Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes. local fire codes will need to be addressed. 95 .

. there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective. cost are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network. On the other hand.) If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small. Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 96 Specialized Solutions. last but not least.) Transmission speeds and. Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance. attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor. fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping.

Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs. Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame. The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. This is known as parallel communication. Specialized Solutions. most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit. Today.) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port. Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side. Because these paths are side-by-side. Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). are also known as Network Adapter Cards. NICs are used to connect the computer to the network. and controls the flow of data on the network. or 0’s (off). We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later. It makes the physical connection to the network. Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. which constantly vary in one or more values. Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves. 97 . This is known as serial communication. Analog data has an infinite number of possible states. (And of course to translate it back again. data is moved along in groups. The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. handles network addressing. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. Inc. Network cabling moves data in a single data stream. Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses.

they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. This makes transferring data much faster. Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting. This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique MAC address. DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU. When this occurs. . Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. The time intervals between data chunks. If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer. DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it. Inc. the two cards start sending and receiving data. How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs. Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC. The amount of time between confirmations. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC. Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer. The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. the NIC may need to be configured. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the 98 Specialized Solutions. The speed of the transmission.

Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems. DMA Channel Configuration of Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels is similar to IRQs. The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. In practice. This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address. these devices can access the memory that they need without interrupting the processor. Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. and some are set using software. certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned. These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor. This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments. in this case the NIC. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. Specialized Solutions. not all devices need one. The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available. Other cards will need to be configured manually. DMA channels are used by devices that frequently need access to large amounts of memory. With a DMA channel. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by a device. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. such as: IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that typically no two devices can use the same interrupt. The good news is that unlike an IRQ. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. Only devices like NIC cards that need this type of memory access are assigned DMA channels. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line. The device is constantly listening to this channel for commands from the processor.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses. See Appendix A for common address assignments. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU. 99 . Inc. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings.

Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer. or both). Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC. . If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail. Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC. they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required. They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable. 100 Specialized Solutions. Inc. The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter. RJ-45. Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards. or you may have to configure it manually.

They are also called PC-Card Buses. Specialized Solutions. 101 . Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers. Inc. The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus. The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus. Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much. Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus. With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus. Today most buses are either EISA or PCI. but can be a 64-bit bus. They are generally 32-bit buses. including network connectivity.

. 102 Specialized Solutions. This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus. the NIC would be a bottleneck.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Performance Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance. Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data. Without this feature. RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed. but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. This type of card is expensive. Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data. thereby bypassing the CPU. The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks. thereby improving network performance. Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer. Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU. Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data. it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally. Inc.

Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking. – hubs). Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems. Inc. People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home.Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs. A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks. With wireless systems. For example. Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems. Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems. They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. 103 .Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling. but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN. This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings. Mobile Computing . but through the use of an infrared or radio medium. Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly. With some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down. Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created. Wireless networks use wireless access points (WAPs) to “connect” the network devices to each other. or on the road. the office. • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective. Extended Local Area Networks . They function just like other access points (i. a user can access the network from anywhere in the building. making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. Specialized Solutions. This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations such as ocean dwelling oil platforms.e.

Infrared networks typically broadcast at about 10 Mbps. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared You use infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control. This involves using infrared (below Red) light to carry signals to a receiver. These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources. and because the transmissions are tightly focused. Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • 104 Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint Specialized Solutions. Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference. they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping. The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet. Inc. such as windows.

In the direct sequence modulation method. Specialized Solutions. the message is broken into parts (called chips). which are then transmitted over separate frequencies. The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. the signal is beamed towards a central unit. Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems. 105 . or direct sequence modulation. the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time. In the hopping method. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. It does. etc. Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. as the name implies. which then routes the signal appropriately. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. ceilings. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station. Inc. until it reaches the receiver. Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. however. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. uses broadband technology. require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps.

These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information. and only the destination device can receive and read the packet. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally. . 106 Specialized Solutions. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances. Inc. Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings. Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver. The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities. Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite. It is used for line-of-sight communication. or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts. Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite.

107 . Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Specialized Solutions.

etc. 108 Specialized Solutions. After discussing at network cabling we then took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself. It prepares. Inc. Laser. receives. we took a look at the future. Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network. RJ-45. . The four basic wireless types are: Infrared.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. Finally. Wireless networking is the trend of the future. As a network professional. transmits. Twisted Pair. and controls data flow over the network. it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet. In addition. Radio. you should know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type. As a networking professional. You should know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks. There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial. Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals. and Fiber-Optic. AUI. and Microwave.

Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. 109 .Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair 110 Specialized Solutions. Definition .

111 . Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword Vampire Tap Definition Specialized Solutions.

What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2. What is the most popular of the cable types? 10. Inc. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9. How is a vampire tap connected? 6. What is the least expensive of the cable types? 112 Specialized Solutions. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7. . What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4. What is the most expensive cable type? 13.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable.

15. What does AWG stand for and what is it?

16. Describe baseband.

17. Describe broadband.

18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication?

19. What is the function of a network adapter card?

20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available?

21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card?

22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network?

23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types?

24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network?

25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally?

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards
In previous chapters, we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed, along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets, or frames. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. In this chapter, we will discover how Ethernet works, as well as how Token-ring networks function. AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter. After completing this chapter, you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture, while not as popular as Ethernet, are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers, in this case, over a network. In Chapter 3, you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite, IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture, SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk

The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols; thus, they do not map directly to the OSI Model. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. Specialized Solutions, Inc. 115

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information, handle addressing, and check for errors. Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments.

A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card, also known as the network interface card (NIC), in order for it to be used with a network computer. In some instances, as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX, two protocols may be bound to one card. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC.

Access Methods
In a network, multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. If two or more computers were to send data at the same time, the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing

• Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free, it will send data. While there is data traveling on the cable, no computer will transmit data. Occasionally, however, two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. Naturally, the more users who are connected to a network, the denser network traffic becomes. Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method.

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. It is, however, the access method that works best with wireless connections; since the wireless channel can be verified before the data is sent. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. A token (a special type of packet) is circulated around the ring from computer to computer. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network, it must wait until it possesses the token. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. Data is transmitted in frames. The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. The trailer includes error control information. When the computer is ready, the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted, the frame would be resent. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. Because only one computer at a time may transmit, this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions. (Some more recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer, router, switch, or bridge. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes, addresses, and links are functioning. Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer, hub, and destination computer, instead of broadcasts over the entire network. Because of the cabling method used with this access method, (four pairs Specialized Solutions, Inc. 117

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of wires are used, which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time, but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously, the one with the highest priority is serviced first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests.

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Error checking information such as Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) information.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Network Communications (Frames and Packets) As we’ve discussed previously. Also. (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. Data files tend to be quite large. Specialized Solutions. 119 . Computer control data such as service requests and commands. Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection. only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). information. if there is a transmission error. but we will use the term packets. Inc. All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. or messages. data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium.) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. The data to be transmitted. Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission. Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data. and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. The destination address of the receiving computer. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files.

the trailer contains the error checking information. . The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted. When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer. A Packet 120 Specialized Solutions. the calculation is run again. Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. If there is a discrepancy. Inc. the source and destination addresses. packets can be various sizes. the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact. CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet. Usually. Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission. and clocking information. the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit. Depending upon the network. Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network. usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes. If the results are the same.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet.

121 . Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Specialized Solutions.

and typically transmits at 10 Mbps. some are diesel. as addressed previously. . in a railroad. The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL 122 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Standards Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network. There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points. is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium.94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable. but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol. some are wide gauge. It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method. data (in this case passengers and freight) is moved in various cars. or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT). These provide the standards for the railroads. Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication. like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell). Not all railroads are the same (some are electric. For example.3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs. Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data). In this section. Logical Link Control (802. Ethernet (802.3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. However. Thicknet coaxial (10Base5). There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards. It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. The standards define the means of communications. Inc. Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802. It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2).2) The Logical Link Control layer. we are going to look at different standards for networks. The original version was a 2. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology). and some are narrow gauge). it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data). The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements.

The minimum distance between nodes is 2. 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications. The maximum number of nodes per network 90. is 185 meters. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30. As its name implies. The minimum distance between nodes is . meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2. it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology.) This is referred to as the “5-4-3 Rule”. The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters. however. it is most commonly created with UTP cable. The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet Specialized Solutions. The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling. The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology. (There may be five segments but only three may be populated. 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors. 123 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs. 10BaseT uses the star topology. document and image storage. BNC connectors and a transceiver. If the segment must exceed this limitation. 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable. The maximum number of nodes per network 100. These applications include video. and computer aided design.5 meters. Inc. And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling. indicating its maximum segment length.5 meters. to name a few. The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters.5 meters. repeaters can be used for longer distances. and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated. The actual maximum segment length. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system. 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable.

the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon. 100BaseVG. they are referring to the same thing. Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks. When you see any of these terms.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard. This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps. It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN. and the longest cable length is 250 meters. The IEEE specification 802. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs). Because of its intense speed.12 is the standard that defines this technology. It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets. but that will be referred to later in this book. using the CSMA/CD access method. There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know. . and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. 124 Specialized Solutions. and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet) 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade. Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable. VG. It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards. and AnyLAN. although copper can be used with much shorter distances. ATM competes. the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology. Inc. with Gigabit Ethernet. It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology. to some degree. (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment.

Ethernet also works in the UNIX environment. Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP. Specialized Solutions. 125 . by joining with either a router or a bridge. It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance.

A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token. and 3). Actually. The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring. Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802. 126 Specialized Solutions. The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes. The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token. The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable. The Token Ring access method.5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems. it is known as a data frame. Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer. it uses the baseband technology. The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame. It is not as popular as Ethernet. This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data. and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps.5 standard. Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it. but is still used today. 2. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub. How it Works Basically. While the token is in use by a computer to send data. Like Ethernet. Inc. This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token. is what sets Token Ring apart. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1. more than the cable design. . IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984. Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame.

As each new computer comes online. the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing. while IBM says counter-clockwise. . Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful. if there were errors. Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. Or. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal. To accomplish this task. The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor. This computer. the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address. Beaconing In a Token Ring environment. After encoding the data frame. Message This is the data or file to be transmitted. The IEEE 802. the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring. 127 Specialized Solutions. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention. as well as its own address. The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected. The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring. the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected.5 standards say it travels clockwise. called the active monitor. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon. The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time.

The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network. Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network. The Type 128 Specialized Solutions. Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters. Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable.5 meters. but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters. just as in other networks that use a hub. the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. but types 1 and 2 may also be used. Using STP. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network. Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. Using UTP. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2. each ring can connect up to 260 computers. Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters. In a pure token passing environment. IBM states that it is only 46 meters. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. Inc. Each node is connected to the hub via a cable. Using UTP. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs. the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters. as there are no male and female ends. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails. This hub is known by a few names. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. . it is only about 45 meters. When a computer is connected. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. Using STP.

care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible. Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software. Patch panels are used to organize patch cables. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. Using a pair of repeaters. Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments. Type 6 may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers. All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed. Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters. therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures. The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. 129 . Specialized Solutions. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub. A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. Therefore. Inc. Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable. AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment.

If it is not being used by another computer. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers. or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology. TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. As such. Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers. it is very inexpensive to initiate. It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices. Inc. and even some UNIX computers. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network. LocalTalk performance is rather limited. This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. by using zones. EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable. A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it. UTP. it will store it to use each time it goes online.5 Standard) environment. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare. This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses. 130 Specialized Solutions. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address. the device assigns itself an address. Apple has always been open to third-party development. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring. LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP. mainframe computers. Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones. When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. AppleShare also provides a print server. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer. EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC.

but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable. but it can be adequately charted to the 802. the source address and up to 508 bytes of data. ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. called ARCNet Plus.4 standards (Token Bus LAN). has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps. 131 . These packets contain the destination address. Instead of the token traveling around a ring.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology. Specialized Solutions.5 Mbps. If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other. It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology. It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2. Inc. or smart. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data. If using an active hub in a Star topology. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters. This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology. the token is passed in numerical order. the token still passes in numerical order. this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order. ARCNet transmits data in packets. ARCNet utilizes hubs. the maximum cable distance is 244 meters. These hubs may be passive. If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors. ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling. Obviously. active. A later version. a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors. Just like other token-passing access method architectures.

Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802.11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology. Speeds up to 54 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific). Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range. . generally). Inc.11) IEEE 802. 132 Specialized Solutions. The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well.

Managing network data is all about traffic control. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD. Packets consist of three components: the Header. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method. and the Trailer. It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures. Packets will include information to identify the source address. which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. the Data. go back and review the chapter again. Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames). As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future. it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. Therefore. etc. the source and destination addresses. The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances. and clocking information. 10Base5. and 10BaseT. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet.3 standards. CSMA/CA. Specialized Solutions. Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network. Inc. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. Be sure that you understand how this architecture works. but as a networking professional you will encounter them. If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data. it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year. 133 . which is where the error checking calculation is located. It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. . Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Definition 134 Specialized Solutions.

135 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Token Ring TokenTalk Trailer Zones Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Inc. What are the three primary access methods? 2. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12. How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4. What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. 5. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11. . What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1. CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. 3. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 136 Specialized Solutions. Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10.

What is a SMAU? 21. 22. 137 . What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24. Inc. What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13. 14. 19. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? Specialized Solutions. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. Describe a MIC connector. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 138 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. The customer’s likes. Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. Specialized Solutions. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network. this is a Macintosh-based company. rather than a client’s. You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. address. etc. Most importantly. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. However. The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. etc? If. There are two things that you will need to know. Inc. pay attention to details. This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. you are not designing for yourself. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation. your design will not work for them. The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. dislikes. in many cases. (demographics). how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them. As a network professional. and goals. This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. we will consider hardware compatibility. (If not. who has them. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office. The size of the company and the portion of the network affected. for example. The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. are there any printers or scanners. The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have. you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows. Finally. Even if this network is your own. 139 . whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever indebted to you.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have.

or as large as 8 GB. files services. 140 Specialized Solutions. Remember. you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. . at this time. There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available. Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale). So. prepare a design document.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps. or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD. A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later. print services. etc. Inc. For example. Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources. or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files. you must get a clear definition of goals of the network. With this information in hand. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint. the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. if the file is compressed. you are not documenting your network. This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components. You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility. Once you collect this information.

Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 141 .

Likewise. The level of security required. if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t. The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. If you do not have this information go back and get it. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network. Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. may cause problems in the future. The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. you will have no problem. they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. The wrong choice now. The commitment of management and users. they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing. The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future. Skill level of the network users. you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it. all computers are equal. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network). In a peer-to-peer network. you will need to start making some decisions. if you have a printer connected to your computer. Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement. First. The most prominent are simplicity and cost.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. This sharing is on a directory level. Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future). not all nodes may need the same level of security. As long as you have the original software disk (CD). as generally it is not installed during a standard installation.” That is. . The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. Also. This means that every 142 Specialized Solutions. This can range from none to very high. You may have to add network cards and cabling. They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. You may need to install the software. You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server. but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. The first is the type of network you will be designing. For example. Inc.

In a strict peer-topeer network. administration can be a Specialized Solutions. Also. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added. As for size. a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network. Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off. While there are many advantages. this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. and lots of memory. This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. In a server-based network. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. You can connect more workstations. any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. if employees need remote access. is another advantage of a server-based network. Remember. For these people. Last but not least. a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution. In small networks. The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network. Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security. Before you can use any resource. the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations. must less the workings of a network. This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server. 143 . you will also need to consider the disadvantages. Inc. and expand as your needs expand. such as your printer. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer). if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. they will also be using your processor to do their printing. the network must operate transparent to them. the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. Since these computers are larger. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. Also. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. 24-hours per day. the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). instead of backing up individual workstations. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. In a peer-to-peer situation.Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. In large networks. The more sophisticated the network. This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). etc. server-based networks are scaleable. have high-power processor. information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation. all network resources are usually centralized.

Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each.0 -172. which would limit its access to those outside of the company.0 255. 10. present each case to the client and let them make the final decision. .255.255.0. For this reason.0. you can use any address that you want to use inside of your own network and behind your firewalls.0 . Actually. in others it could go either way. then you might have an address conflict with another entity on the Internet. Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult. A public network would be the Internet. For this reason.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified network professional.255. stick with it and move forward. it is highly recommended that you use these addresses for your private addressing. get more. Once you have made this decision.16. since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN. the answer will be very obvious. let us define the difference between the terms public and private network.0.255 255. Inc. there are specific addresses that are filtered by the routers at the backbone of the Internet.0 192. If you are not sure you have enough information. The use of these addresses will completely prevent the address conflict issue. If all else fails.192. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer).0 255.168.255 172. with open access to the global community.255.0.32.255.0 -10. In some cases. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design.0. Public and Private networks In addition. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information. When you are sitting on the fence.0. A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet.0 144 Specialized Solutions.0. The only problem is that if your firewall were to come down.168.255.0.

145 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc.

ask him or her to show you. Also. whether hardware or software. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. you can skip this section. you must add new hardware. Use it as a starting place to build your own. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software. Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form. The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like. On the other hand. That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you. The following is an example of an inventory sheet. Remember. this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks. . This form should identify the equipment and its specifications. if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have. The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. When taking this inventory. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation. 146 Specialized Solutions. if all or part of a network already exists.

147 . Inc. etc. PCI.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: Computer Printer Telecommunication Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA.) # of Free Slots Network Card Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Specialized Solutions.

. 148 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function. Inc. Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary. describe each program. Software: If this device uses software.

149 . Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

make a drawing of the facility and each network node. or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility. Inc. By assigning them a number now. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment. . Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network. This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. and collect all of the documentation you have been working on. It is time to get out that pencil and paper.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network. it will make future documentation easier. A Network Layout 150 Specialized Solutions.

151 . or just good common sense. These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network. and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments. Inc. Realistically. if you are not sure if expansion is in your future. or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small temporary LAN. In addition. hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation. It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace. For example. you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub. The 100 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. Cable Grade – Local fire codes. CAT 6 is the UTP of choice. it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5e or CAT 6 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years. repeaters and nodes. consider Thinnet coaxial cable. Therefore. The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the performance criteria of the network. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. However. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files. However. Specialized Solutions. the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3. (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics. you might consider CAT 3. such as in an imaging environment. It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. but if this is a large facility.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly. where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. Cable lengths must be considered. you will need to install CAT 5e or CAT 6 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 1000 Mbps speed. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end). 5-4-3 – If your installation is coaxial Ethernet. you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. In most environments this will be no problem. On the high end. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 5 UTP cables.

Like us. low-humidity. or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. but are not limited. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. On the other hand. they are sensitive to temperature changes. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference. Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment. Fiber optics are also a good alternative when the manufacturing environment cannot allow for any possibility of even a small spark. you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. which can cause corrosion. high-humidity. Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. Inc. the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers. with a relative humidity of 30 percent. Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment in which the computers will be operating. The equipment should be shielded from ESD. it doesn’t really matter. which can generate damaging ESD. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically. The non-routable protocols. These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. Fortunately. since they don’t use electricity to transmit a signal. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source. Therefore. Variable temperatures. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). on the surface. and RFI. it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows 2000/2003. EMI. it will work. and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. 152 Specialized Solutions. . which requires the use of routers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise). but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. However. which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment.

Inc. 153 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. if using CAT 5 or CAT 6. To keep these organized. the cables are connected to a patch panel. So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables. One advantage of using CAT 5 or CAT 6 cable in a star topology from a hub. The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable. This way you can identify each location. Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding. Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable. you will most likely need to install a wall outlet. This way. In most cases. These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network. Inc. The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet. One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable. 154 Specialized Solutions. . it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub. There are a few more components that need to be installed. The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room. All the cables will be brought to one location. This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network. Therefore you must know the requirements of each. Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed. 155 . Inc. This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media. Actually. Once that is done. we must select a card that is compatible with both. That part is the network adapter card. there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC Specialized Solutions.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 156 Specialized Solutions.

Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting. These are little LEDs (one. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA. administration. The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. which can be a useful tool. the number of connectors. a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). In general. or three) that indicate the status of the card. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection. and therefore the speed at which data can be moved. Depending on the vintage of the computer. but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look. For example. Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network. Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network. will change. you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus. Not all cards are the same. Inc. also called PC Cards. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. a Specialized Solutions. This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. the speed of the card is important. The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. but only at 10 Mbps. An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network. Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards. Micro Channel. and PCI). you must have Token Ring cards. Also. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. 157 . the card must be compatible with the computer. and expansion projects. Resolving these issues is actually quite simple.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. If you are installing a Token Ring network. The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. Therefore. In addition to being compatible with the network. Before purchasing a network card. two. but only at 10 Mbps. there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. This section will look at compatibility issues. Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus. EISA. Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple.

Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. if you upgrade your operating system. be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. Connect the network cabling. . be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. Install the appropriate drivers for the card. the computer may not boot or the conflicting devices might not be able to work simultaneously. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches. Note: If you must remove the case. you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. but you are not finished yet. Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot. If there are any conflicts. Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer. Finally. If your system is not Plug-n-Play. You need to configure the card to work with your network software. Now the network adapter card is installed. Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. In addition. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light indicates that data is being transferred. If you must do this manually. this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer). Configure the IRQ and I/O address. 158 Specialized Solutions. Drivers are usually supplied with the network card. you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. Physically install the card. the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. Inc. Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course. Each card must be configured for a different network. In most cases with a new card. If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver. you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using. Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards.

Inc. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it. In the case of UTP. To increase marketability of their cards. some manufacturers will provide two. For example. However. Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. These types of problems can be more personal in nature. as well as possible solutions. Some STP cards require special connectors. The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy. the engineering department may be PC-based. it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. For Thinnet or Thicknet. different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines. and possibly three. If you encounter this type of situation. Specialized Solutions. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario. For example. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on. the card should have an RJ-45 connector. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day. the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based. 159 . as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector.

with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier. we learned about network protocols and standards. This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly. Inc. With this information in hand. Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network. With this done. By defining the standards to which the network must comply. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them. . and detail both its hardware and software. boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software. you will need to establish the standards for your network. Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network. if installed. As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards. Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots. 160 Specialized Solutions. each component will work with the others. that were identically configured. hard work and standards. As the network designer or administrator. you are going to have your work cut out for you. and knowledge of the network operating system. Standards Earlier in this training course.

You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device. however. Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems. there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. all you need to do is install the Windows XP drivers for the offending hardware. you will need to upgrade. when upgrading from Windows 98 to Windows XP. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. the Internet is the answer. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase. network card and/or printer no longer work. you find that your modem. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. 161 . Specialized Solutions. This is a true statement. Also. If drivers exist. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems. have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements. you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site. The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system. The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind. In this case. Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system. More than likely. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. For example.Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are. but your proficiency will be very low. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. A good example is Windows 95. you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. the system will not run. These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system. you probably do not have the necessary drivers. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. Inc. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers.

or hardware compatibility lists. is the Microsoft Windows Catalog at www. This is part of the Windows Logo program. especially with the newest operating systems such as Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with Windows 2000. This list will ship with the 2000 package (on the CD-ROM) and 2000 will make a check during installation. If you want the latest list. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. You can also look for the corresponding logos on the boxes of hardware and software that you are considering purchasing for your network. it most likely will not work with Windows 2000. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000 is hardware dependent. Here you will find the latest information about hardware and software that is Designed for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 or at least tested to be compatible with these operating systems. Inc. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision. 162 Specialized Solutions. you will need to check the HCL for that product. Microsoft Windows Catalog Still another web site to check for compatibility of hardware and software. If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary.microsoft.com/windows/catalog.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists an example of the minimum requirements for three operating systems: HCL and Windows 2000 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs. .

163 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. he intends to expand the network in the future. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 6 1. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. Was this a good purchase? 9. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. However. . How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? 164 Specialized Solutions. but they are not all the same. Inc. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3. 7.

Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series.” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive. For example. Expanding a LAN with Hubs A common method for expanding networks is to use a hub. A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network. 165 . Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location. There are several different types of hubs. from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network. An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals).Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Chapter 7 . it may be too small. In addition to being called “hubs. you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network. to larger hubs that can connect many more computers. Specialized Solutions. This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network. sooner or later. Inc.

thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths. When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network. have increased response times. They do not translate or filter any information. 166 Specialized Solutions. Depending on the objectives of the LAN. Fortunately.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. but has one additional feature. such as databases. . the simple hub just won’t do the job. Inc. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. amplify the signal. They do however. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. Traffic-generating applications. Long waits to access a printer or file. Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network. Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater.

the NetBEUI protocol is not routable. Not all network protocols will work with a router. Inc. It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. Routers work at the Network layer of the OSI model. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge. Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment. Specialized Solutions. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. For example. 167 .

Be careful when choosing a carrier. . the distance the data must travel. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway Connection Services When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries. 168 Specialized Solutions. it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system. Inc. but connecting at this rate is rare. there are two levels of service to consider. Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs. Just because the cost looks good. microwave. and the cost of the service. When considering which connection service to use. The first is public dial-up network lines. be sure to take into account your throughput. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances. With dial-up networking. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection. or dedicated. Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps. When thinking of telephone lines. each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. Typically. we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. These are our standard telephone connections. Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps. lines. these connections are slow and not very reliable. does not mean that it is the best value. An example of such a system is the telephone company. and satellite connections. They are providing the cabling. The second choice is leased. When thinking of a carrier.

It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). 169 . routers and communications services are used to create a WAN. These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with. It can regenerate the signal. and deals with timing issues.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded. WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs. Inc. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity. items such as bridges. if necessary. Most WANs are a collection of LANs. The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back. Specialized Solutions. as well as those transmitted to it. The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN. A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN.

Voice/radio with tone conditioning. Voice and data over private lines. but if you have sufficient traffic. Application relays. 170 Specialized Solutions. Digital Connectivity When you need a faster. This is because you lease the line 100% of the time and therefore do not have to dial-in. Inc. . The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. Voice and data over trunks between computers. more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection. Dedicated lines are far more expensive. Voice and video. you need DDS (Digital Data Service). Voice with some quality control. Dedicated analog lines provide an instant connection. Voice and data over trunk circuits. Data applications below 1200 bps. they can be justified. Basic data.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Basic voice. The down-side of these lines is that you will have to pay for them 100% of the time instead of on an “as used” basis.

Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line. 171 . data. Inc.048 Mbps 34.736 Mbps 2. It can be used to transmit digital voice.544 Mbps transmissions. and video signals. Specialized Solutions.520 or 622. whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP.080 (can reach 10 Gbps) OC-1 OC-3 ATM 1 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A The T1 and the T3 standard are American. The following table lists the most common connection types: Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A Voice Channels DATA RATE (MBPS) 24 672 32 512 N/A 1. It is capable of 1.544 Mbps 44. faster download than upload 51.52 Mbps Either 155.8 Mbps 155.

Standard PSTN lines have a very limited bandwidth of less than 56 Kbps. For this reason. . this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs. X. A packet switched network provides multiple paths that packets could travel from source to destination. In older. 172 Specialized Solutions. be used for somewhat secure remote access by employing the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) and tunneling protocols. Obviously. Frame Relay does not check the packet at each step in its route. all of which are considered reliable. Inc.25 based packet switched networks. so it can be both reliable and fast. a packet may be sent over multiple permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). each packet was examined at each step in the path to determine whether it was damaged. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network. These lines can.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. With Frame Relay. convenient. Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast. however. and reliable network messaging. since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet. Today’s networks use a different technology referred to as Frame Relay. This made for a very reliable and very slow connection.

) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically. without having to change the physical picture of the network. An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within his company. printers. or by the specific use of the computers. etc. 173 . adding computers or adjusting resources.” Specialized Solutions. Inc. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN. This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN. or any other logical means. which lays out hosts (computers.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN. One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need.2 Gbps. or fiber optic. ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential. These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1. which is intended for use in the home or small business. they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps. ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial. has two 64 Kbps 174 Specialized Solutions.Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication. ATM can be used with FAX. and focuses on the home and business market. It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles). However. it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds. While not a good choice for WANs. however. while using copper telephone wires. These cells can speed communication because the network always know exactly what to expect in regard the size of the next cell. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services. and imaging. twisted pair. audio. This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network. FDDI . ATM . you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies. Because it is fiber optic-based.Asynchronous transfer mode uses fixed length (53 byte) cells instead of packets. video. in actuality. it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference. It is. ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface). It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. Inc. . media limited. As well as the common voice and data.

6). This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802. It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx). Specialized Solutions. The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps). and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control. It is capable of transmitting voice.Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network. much like E1 is to T1. 175 . Internationally. To be more precise. like OCx with SONET. a call.84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768). which is intended for use by large businesses. data and video at rates ranging from 51.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps). SMDS SMDS . within one transmission frame. and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control. Inc. has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1. It carries all the bits from say. it is the European equivalent of SONET. ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface). SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media. SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices. It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM).544 Mbps).

The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V. . times as fast as the Baud rate.32bis bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard. 4. etc.400 bps. As we have already learned. Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions. there is a limit of 2400 Baud. the Baud rate was equal to the bps.22bis V. FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14. To increase our network beyond a few computers. With this change. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines. 176 Specialized Solutions.32 V. Therefore. Today. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. 8. designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. connecting a few computers to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards. With early modems.600 bps. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections. A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable. The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion. These speeds are measured as bits per second. Modems transmit data at various speeds. However. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2. or over long distances.600 bps. and media. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate. Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56. Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data. Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud.400 High-speed version of the V. Inc. the term Baud has disappeared and been replaced with bps. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56.32 standard. Modems are classified by a “V” rating. 14. network cards. due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of transmitting signals over long distances.

90 19. Backwards compatible with earlier V.32terbo V.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network V.200 Not officially a standard yet. modems – error correction standard.34 V.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards.FastClass.600 Backwards compatible with earlier V. 177 . Specialized Solutions. Inc.32terbo. 56. modems.800 Improved V. 57.42 V. 28. Will only communicate with another V.

Any two computers can be connected. Let’s first look at connecting two computers. the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. Also. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors. there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number. or directly via COM ports and a cable. Actually. Inc. On the other hand. A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication. or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. You must use a Null-Modem cable. RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection. For example. both of these terms mean the same thing. By running Network Connections Wizard and following the simple 178 Specialized Solutions. . A system running Windows XP or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection. the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building). while a true server like Windows Server 2003 will allow 256 inbound connections. With RAS. The difference is how each computer is being utilized. The difference between a simple computer (Windows XP or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows Server 2003) is the number of inbound connections. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. In addition. when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. either via modems and telephone lines. Windows XP has an feature called a direct cable connection.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem. Since the two computers are directly connected.

the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user. With this in place. in this case. Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking. The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network. you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network instructions provided. but is still in use with some systems. On the client side. RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work. Inc. your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server. This is a relatively old standard (1984). While this was the protocol of choice for a Specialized Solutions. Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but. the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software. RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security. the RAS software must be installed and running. both computers must be using the same protocol. you will use a modem to establish the connection. 179 . From this accessory. These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection. On the server side. Normally.

It can be used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private 180 Specialized Solutions. It provides security. NetBEUI. and DECnet. It supports only TCP/IP. It supports encrypted passwords. It transmits in text only. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) provides for a secure encrypted tunnel for communication through the Internet. Inc. the limits of SLIP caused many problems. Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. Many organizations are using tunnels. This is accomplished by encapsulating one protocol with another protocol. Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks. It cannot encrypt logon information. It’s only supported by RAS clients. IPX. such that only the sender and the receiver can accurately interpret the data that is being sent. AppleTalk. Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP. • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the Network layer of the OSI model. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. in today’s networks it has several disadvantages. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. . VPN (Virtual Private Networks). RAS and Security. as a less explensive alternative to costly leased lines. With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications. created by PPTP and other tunneling protocols.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide long time. PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today. It provides data compression and error control. Encrypted Connections. It enables highly private network links over the public Internet.

Linux. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 Active Directory use this type of security by default. it does not require IP connectivity. It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs. UNIX. SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server. a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE). or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server. Kerberos V5. and Macintosh computers. ICA can be used with Windows. usually a user’s credit card number. and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. Thin clients are computers with no hard drive. Unlike PPTP. Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP. certificates (like X. . IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header). TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL. which is the highest security method. It uses a key to encrypt the data. Inc. AH only authenticates the user. limited RAM. meaning that the computers.509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec. It is based on an end-to-end security model. Specialized Solutions. L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the latest version of the tunneling protocol.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network. most relating to higher security. authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well. it only establishes the user’s identity. as does Novell Directory Services (NDS). 181 . both sending and receiving. It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS.. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket. discussed here in the next chapter. ESP. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. It does not provide authorization. L2TP offers many advantages over PPTP. It is transparent to the user.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to providing remote sharing of information. In addition. Security Host (Bastion Host) A security host or bastion host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller. This provides for additional authentication. If another software package has “control” of the modem. . installing RAS can be frustrating. This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. 182 Specialized Solutions. you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server. At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system. and thus more security. The type of communication port you intend to configure. As with all security measures. By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. If it does not work the first time. Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server. This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call. Inc. Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly. you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. RAS provides several layers of security. you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. and any other software that might use the modem. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary. Before installation. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration. the modem configuration.

You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps. As a networking professional. 183 . and you don’t need a fulltime connection. The latest Microsoft server operating systems such as Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 have wizards that make installing an RAS server much simpler. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses. you want to keep the costs down. Inc. it is not always the solution for every network.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Definition . Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH 184 Specialized Solutions.

185 .Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X. Inc.25 Definition Specialized Solutions.

Name four forms of RAS security.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 7 1. 4. 9. 7. Inc. Name three advanced WAN environments. 186 Specialized Solutions. . Define a repeater. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. a router. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. and a gateway. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. 10. Name three RAS protocols. What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2. a bridge.544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6. What is analog communication? 5.

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Transport. and the Internet. TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. Internet and Network Interface. The four layers are: Application. the recognized standard for internetworking altogether. which will be discussed later in the chapter. TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard. and FTP. 189 . such as SMTP. TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. From this beginning. and is usually seen in the combination. intranets. These standards. It is important for the networking professional to know that TCP/IP is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board).Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is an internet (between network) protocol. it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. It is also used with Ethernet networks. some are considered to be Internet standards. these protocols were available on UNIX early on. Also. Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress). Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor. RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP. Specialized Solutions. SNMP. This is the most common protocol suite with which a networking professional works. and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. and is in fact. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers. Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. Inc. known as BSD UNIX. TCP/IP. TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project. as well as Internet standards. Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol).

Inc. There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections.Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 190 Specialized Solutions. These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model. .

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the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports. Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP. Let’s take a look at how this works. . It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. Inc. Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. TCP breaks data into tiny chunks. The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 192 Specialized Solutions. However. On a TCP/IP network. they can be retransmitted in a timely manner. It then routes the information to its destination. The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier. A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams. Should lost or corrupted packets be detected. and for the Network+ exam. Let’s take a look at them. called packets. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets. and reassembles the data. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model.

The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023. consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65. or port numbers. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information.535.e. The addresses. HTTP. If the transmission has not been successful. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. nor does it check for errors. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point. Telnet. the protocol number. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted. and specify a certain protocol. This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines. a port is different from a socket. Although the terms. UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session. IP is connectionless. and a Specialized Solutions. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. TCP will retransmit the data. 193 . UDP transports data. For each packet sent. The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received. but does not acknowledge delivery. IP merely routes the data. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned. Inc. etc. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer. IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP. i. Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number. TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination. When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535..Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number. and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number. FTP. The port number identifies the application associated with the data.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide checksum. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer. To be more specific, the checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. When the data arrives at the destination computer, the receiving computer performs the calculation. If the checksum is the same, the data is assumed to have arrived intact. The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network, it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. Time to Live – provides TTL data. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. This cache contains a list of all the devices with which it is communicating. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five, TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server, run searches, or access multiple mail servers. 194 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet, which is what you use when you send out mail. SMTP is server to server, whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers, usually over the Internet. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People.” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files, by typing in a user name, or the word “anonymous.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents, such as web pages. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts, using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP, allowing access to a secure Web server. It uses port 443, the secure SSL port instead of port 80, the HTTP port. HTTPS, as well as SSL, allow for the use of X.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user.

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Naming Systems
Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. Remember, we are working in two worlds, the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names. Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking. DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates hostnames to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. DNS functions like a telephone directory. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers. For example, the domain bigcompany.com may have an IP address of 192.49.238.33. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose, such as government, education, commerce, or interest. Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC, also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. These domains require suffixes such as .com for businesses or .edu for educational institutions. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains:

.com .net .edu .org .gov .mil .biz .pro .info .xx

Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance, Big Company Inc. in Italy might be http://www.Bigcompany.com.it or in Australia www.Bigcompany.com.au. Also, .tv is gaining in popularity. Tuvalu is a small country, which receives financial benefit from the registration fees.

WINS In a Windows-based network, the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network. NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode, leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application. A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast), P-node (peer-peer), M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). 198 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. It predates DNS. It must be manually created and changed. LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. It must be manually created and changed. IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. For example, it could connect a LAN to the Internet. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet, it must be assigned a static IP address. This means that it is permanently assigned. It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers, sooner or later we will run out of numbers. In smaller isolated networks, IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. However, as the number of addresses required increases, you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. To resolve this, IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. That is, assigned on an “as needed” basis. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. When not needed, the address can be leased to another host. To accomplish this, you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address, subnet mask, and a default gateway if needed. Notice that the IP addresses are leased. This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. A lease can be renewed. When the term of the lease is at 50%, the client will send a request for renewal. If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available), the lease will be renewed without interruption. If not renewed, the client will attempt to contact the DHCP server that issued it the IP address directly about every 5 minutes until it reaches 87.5% of the lease, at which time the client will broadcast a request to obtain an address from any available DHCP server. If all addresses are being used or a DHCP server does not respond, the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user. In this case, the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

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Inc. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other. but it is most often used between a private network and the networks public address or addresses. like a LAN. The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties. a NAT is just a device or program that translates one set of IP addresses to another set of IP addresses. and DNS. the proxy server. . The proxy server is actually making a connection to another network or to the Internet on behalf of the client. ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time. to share a single connection to the Internet. who think they are communicating directly with one another. It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. it serves many clients through only one connection. depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time. i. 200 Specialized Solutions. The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client. IP Proxy Servers Earlier. It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses.e. It contains DHCP. NAT also acts as a type of firewall. In the case of a proxy server.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (public IP address). Actually. The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers. NAT. Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network.

201 .Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names. Internet IP addresses. Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256.39.294.194.8. An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets. are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes. . Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them. let’s now take a look at IP address numbers. So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33. 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194. To simplify these addresses. The result is called a dotted decimal number.11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------16 8 2 1 128 64 32 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet.296 (4.2 billion) different numbers.967. Although that is easy for a computer. 202 Specialized Solutions. Inc. A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001. however. they are broken down into four octets. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes. This IP address is a 32-bit binary number. it is not easy for us. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet. Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address. the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique).00001000. A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4.00100111.

An example of a Class B IP address would be 129. Within classes.39. Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large. Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks. The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID).8. The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID). Inc.39. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID. There are five common classes: A through E. the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use.194 would be the Host ID. 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) Specialized Solutions.194. An example of a Class C IP address would be 193. In this case 129. 203 .39 would be the Network ID and 8. The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID. Depending on the assignment.194 where the Network ID would be 193.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components. the network is divided into classes.) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126. The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39. The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191. The class can be determined by the value of the first octet. The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000).8 and the Host ID would be 194. In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID.8.39.194. Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks.194 would be an example of a Class A address. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000).8. B and C. For the Network+ exam.8. you should pay special attention the Classes A. The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000). The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33. (A host may be any device on the network.39. only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID).

Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID. (For example. Class C .0.191 192 . so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts. there are only 65. 204 Specialized Solutions. Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time.126 128 . Class C IP addresses are still available. there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and for multicasting and are not available for normal host addresses. This is the loopback address.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts.534 possible Host ID numbers. you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address. This organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center). if a network is going to be connected to the Internet.used for medium-sized networks. B or C address. Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs.used by very large networks. specifically 127.0.223 In addition. Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available. and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses. Class B uses two octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID. You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts. the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic. Inc.214 possible Host ID numbers. Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 . Also. As we mentioned earlier. Likewise. Class B .777. Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A. All in use and no longer available. with the least number of Network IDs.1) Class A . there are 16. .

The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. Rather than having “classes” like IPv4. The address types are Unicast. as well as ease of configuration and security built right in. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers (0 to 9. Inc. Anycast. however. to define the address type. You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example. This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology. which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits. An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. as compared to IPv4. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot.net. demand high bandwidth. however. IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP). Unicast is an address for a single host. and Multicast. Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Specialized Solutions. then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field. use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address. 205 . For example. It would make it unclear as to what was represented. which only uses 32-bit addressing. A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic. It uses 128-bit addressing. It does. It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4.

An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link. IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address. is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix.0. The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1. Finally. Multicast. since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain.1 with IPv4.0. A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses. just like 127.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address. Inc. 206 Specialized Solutions. . Site-local address. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one. All in all. which replaces broadcast.

255.0. lets look at subnet masks. a large university may have a network spread over several buildings and perhaps remote campuses.0.0 (Class C). all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet.0.0 255.00000000. separating it from the host portion of the address. Anding is the binary addition that the router uses to make this determination. You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet.255.255. Before looking at anding. a router can determine which addresses are local and which addresses are for other subnets within the network.00000000 or 255. The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address.216 hosts) Class B (65. By using subnets. This is done with binary addition (anding).0.0. A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) in which all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address. For example.0 (Class B).255. or 225. In this example.255. Since a router connects each subnet.0.0 Class A (16. only the traffic that is not local will pass through. Inc. Default Subnet Masks 255.0 (Class A).534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s. you can reduce the overall network traffic.0 255. You must however.11111111. a subnet mask can be 255. By using a concept called anding.255. Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask. The number of 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network.0. 207 . which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address. For example: 11111111.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of creating more than one private network from one public network address by customizing your subnet mask. If you “and” the IP address to the subnet mask.255. 255. have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right.777.0 In regard to classful addressing . Specialized Solutions. the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class).

. 00100001. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID.8. Inc. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7.0. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet.8.8.11100000.8.8.39.194) 11111111.00100111.32. Any local addresses will not pass through. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment.32. thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 208 Specialized Solutions.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones.00100000.194. and through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remember.7.0) equals 00100001.00000000. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now. using our previous example of 33.32 and the Host ID is 7.00000000. let’s and it to the subnet mask of 255.224.00000000 (33. it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33.00000000 (255. while the Host ID 0.194.0.194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask.224.39.0.194. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet.0.32. By using this method.0. Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33.00001000.11000010 (33.0.

A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network.0.0 255.255.c 128. There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required.b.b. • • • • Connect physically remote local networks.152 Number of Hosts 16. Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment. If a router is connected to two subnets.0.c to 223.b. 209 .b. Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet.0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255.777. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring).0 255.a. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner.0 255.a. Be sure to include some room for growth of the network.0 Number of Networks 126 16.c to 126.b.a.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001.c 192.0.097.255.b. Inc.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking.255.0.a.c Default Subnet Mask 255.216 65.0 255. Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate.0.255.384 2.c to 191. Specialized Solutions.255. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet.255.a. A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card.a. it will require an address for each subnet.0.

As we begin to subnet.255. you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC. The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network.255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet.0 255.192 255.36.255.0 255. we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host.255.255.0.255.255. We use this formula to determine the number of subnets that will be created by borrowing bits from the hosts.382 Hosts N/A 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 210 Specialized Solutions.255.0 255. You should remember the formula 2n-2 where n is the number of bits borrowed.0 255.255. Inc.255.255. .255.255.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16.128 255. Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255.255.255.240 255.255.255.255.0. First. we have one network with approximately 65.254.0 255.224 255.0 255.192.248.248 255. We will use an InterNIC ID of 191.255.255.0 255.224.255.252. With this number. To begin this process. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255.240.000 hosts. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign.

Enter the value of 18.248 255. the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements. 2. let’s add 4 more for future expansions. Just to be on the safe side. 1.240 255.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255.255. Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator). lets keep our network ID of 191.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 Hosts N/A 30 14 6 2 To make this easy. Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected. The number 18 will now be in binary (10010).192 255. 3.255. Specialized Solutions.255.224 255.255. 211 .255. we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs. Now we get out our Windows calculator. Inc.255. Change the mode to binary (Bin).255.255. you can use the scientific calculator supplied with any Windows operating system. giving us a total requirement of 18.255.36 as assigned to us by InterNIC.255. We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID. For this example.

255. our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets.0 and the network address of 192. Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask. This will be the number of bits required for the third octet. Had we needed to add a new subnet. Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth).224.248.000 hosts each. you can determine the available Network IDs.0.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. For this example. This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2. Inc. let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255.255. The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 212 Specialized Solutions. we would have had to reconfigure the entire network. instead of selecting the next subnet on our list. . To keep things simple.36. Count the number of binary digits (5). the subnet mask would be 255.

160 192. or one that is located on a remote network.000 or .32 192. If it is different.255.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192. they are on the same network.0.0. In dotted-decimal format. the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery.128 192.255.36.64 192. This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address.36 (overall network address) 192. The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID.0. on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255. The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network. 213 .255.255.36.) Specialized Solutions.36.0.36. (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask. Inc. these are reserved for broadcast addresses.0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255. and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet.36. indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively.192 Determine the Host IDs The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001).96 192. A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255.0.36. Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network. up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID. this means that the number starts with . For example. The only restrictions are that you cannot use .001 in the last octet.

255.223 214 Specialized Solutions.255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255.0.0 255.0.191 192 .0 CLASS ID 1 . Inc.0 255.0. .255.126 128 .

Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. 215 .Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. in addition to other hardware and software configurations. Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways. The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using. click the Protocols tab. other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window. DNS You can enable or disable DNS. Next. and enter the information in the appropriate fields. or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically. Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor. Click the radio button to enable DNS. Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information. and click Properties. you may specify a particular IP address. Inc. right-click on TCP/IP Protocol. you will need to type in the specified default gateway. IP Address Here. However. On some screens. Specialized Solutions.” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server.

. Inc. 216 Specialized Solutions. This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration. and subnet mask configuration.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients. WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses. default gateway. It also includes the DNS configuration.

Inc.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 217 . Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet Definition Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword POP3 Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 218 Specialized Solutions. .

10. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3. 12. Inc.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Review Questions Chapter 8 1. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9. What is the purpose of DNS? 5. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. 219 . 4. What is a domain? 7. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP. What is an FQDN and give an example? 6. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Specialized Solutions. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 220 Specialized Solutions.

It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data. In addition. The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base). the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network. From the database and the software interface. Inc. Network Managers . 221 . Using one of these products. Specialized Solutions.SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks. you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network. you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network. The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator.

Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager). The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents. Get-next: request the next value in a sequence.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device. Set: sends a configuration value to a device. Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network. These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt. A community can also restrict access. This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager. 222 Specialized Solutions. An additional SNMP command is the trap. It will respond to commands issued by the management software. therefore providing a level of security. . Inc. The three commands are: Get: request data from the device.

Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. Inc. Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis. serious (!). Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names. Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics. shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination. Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table. TRACERT. Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table. 223 . Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports. Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred). ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it. but did not cause a stop. and normal (i). Specialized Solutions. NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. This includes critical system errors. TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. and TCP/IP events and errors.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar. 224 Specialized Solutions. and typing in either cmd or command. clicking Run. Inc. .

and will display the current configuration of a computer. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain. Specialized Solutions. the IP of a host might be 192. Ping works at the IP level. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address. NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified.12. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device. NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain.168. IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration. Inc. Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client. IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same. Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once. RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter. NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain. PING The lowest level test to find out if you have connectivity to a remote host.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools.1. NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. 225 . and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot. For example.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 226 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 227 . Inc. Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition Specialized Solutions. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. 3. List as many as you can.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 9 1. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. each device will need to be _________ compliant. . What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2. 228 Specialized Solutions. Inc. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network.

There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. As you might have already deduced. creating chaos and costing thousands. or at least have your plan intact. Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company. the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change. before you set up the network. or an irresponsible prank. Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user. A disgruntled employee. or anyone who has access to your network for that matter. is right up front. can deliberately damage your network. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created). depending on the roles they play in your company. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. Whether the sabotage is malicious. data encryption. you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent. unless safeguards are built in. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. Specialized Solutions. User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access.Chapter 10 – Network Security Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. Password practices and procedures. The best time to set up your network security. motivated by curiosity. from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files. Users should be held accountable for the security of their individual workstations. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. Inc. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems. she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of her particular network. Most users will also be able to access shared files. Therefore. anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. 229 . or even millions. Very few users will have access to administrative features. of dollars. the results can be devastating. A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords.

the user will be inclined to be less attentive to personal security. while the original file remains intact. Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. Password protection is. where the administrator can easily retrieve it.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. Inc. In a manner similar to the signature on a document. passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users. A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process. such as a template or another type of file. should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required. Users can access a shared resource. a gesture of respect for the user and the system. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place. and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. However. 230 Specialized Solutions. among other things. authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source. The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality. . The user can edit the file as necessary.

Inc.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Security Specialized Solutions. 231 .

and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. As the system administrator. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network. If you are accessing the Internet from your network. Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs. and work at the application level. Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet. This needs to be handled in such a way that production will not be interrupted. or auditing. Files need to be backed up daily. Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter. For example.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. at the very least. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. by forwarding application traffic through the firewall. 232 Specialized Solutions. Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. and even more often on larger networks. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system. you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network. or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. you will most likely be using E-mail. Inc. It is an important part of a network security plan. . you would block port 80. they can be host-based. but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information.

Although slower than RAID. for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available. and the procedure to follow for recovery. you must answer important questions about what to backup. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk. Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. While planning your backup strategy. called the backup medium. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. it is still a viable option. If anything happens to one. those who fail to plan. the other can take over without compromising network operations. These multiple disks are called disk arrays. Floppy disk capacities today. 233 . As you might guess. Inc. This backup medium is suitable for small companies. Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. There are several options available. which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs. Remember. Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). the second server should serve as a backup to the first. and are more commonly known as RAID. As a computer professional. offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other.44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. plan to fail. the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk. rather than one larger server. Ideally. Specialized Solutions. so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations. so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security. how the backup information will be tested. In addition. range from 1. and how often backups will be performed. It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data.Chapter 10 – Network Security It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers.

This type of backup is usually performed weekly. despite the presence of hardware or software failures. and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full. 234 Specialized Solutions. This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed. Full.. Differential and Incremental. The Full backup. . but will be the easiest to restore. Inc. will backup all selected data on the network. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server. and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level. To restore. as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup. A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk. but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space. the last full backup and all of the incremental backup tapes will be needed. This method will take the largest amount of storage media. When recovering from a failure. both the last differential backup tape copy and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations. is called fault tolerance. This usually involves some degree of redundancy.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient. Differential. as its name implies. Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk.

support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing. This technique may be applied in either software or hardware. If more than one disk is lost. administrators are alerted when one disk fails so that they can “regenerate” the RAID set before another disk has a chance to fail.) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk. With this method.Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 . Inc. then the data in the entire array is also lost. this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful.Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 . (Provides no fault tolerance. If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up.Chapter 10 – Network Security The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 .Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 .Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping. The same data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure. Typically.Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 .” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data. this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent. This. a copy of the data is spread across all of the disks based on a mathematical formula such that any one disk in the set can be lost and the other disks will have a copy of all of the information that it contained. Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies. However. 235 . Several operating systems.Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 . however. the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved. which provides for even more fault tolerance. including Novell NetWare. and is a standard feature of RAID systems. RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme. if anything happens to one of the drives. such as a single file. is not being used commercially at the moment to an Specialized Solutions.

Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI). Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. . A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. Cost. It functions faster. also called surge suppressors. RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array). RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. which allows for better performance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide large degree. It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN. the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. and each type provides power for a different length of time. SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached. There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity. Like RAID-10. SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. is like RAID-10. is an issue. and sags in the power supply. allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes. surges. but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. since it is not dependent on another computer. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. but at a greater cost. Inc. An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. it offers better performance. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests. RAID-53. as you might guess. 236 Specialized Solutions. These types of RAID are not as commonly used and are not as likely to be on the test. There are different types of UPS devices. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. such as battery time remaining. In this case.

personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. no matter who they are. and numbers. Users working with sensitive information such as budgets. Some “classified” networks require password changes every day. away. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them. Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others. etc. and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days. Passwords should be changed more frequently in high-security networks. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being applied.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network. Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed. but are easy enough that users can remember them. numbers and symbols. In order for this policy to be effective.” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents. This holds users accountable for their actions on the network. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy. include characters. If the network administrator needs to use the workstation. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there. Specialized Solutions. symbols. and troubleshoot before the trouble starts. So. The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters and use a combination of letters. 237 . There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files. Inc. This is known as a security audit. an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis. No one. he or she will know how to accomplish the task.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient. RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. other than the person for whom the message was intended. and is used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking. Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. . DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data. This method uses a 56-bit private key. the Internet is not the most secure of environments. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. 238 Specialized Solutions. A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest. The name comes from their first initials. Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon. can understand the message. and Leonard Adleman. Inc. These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. Adi Shamir. Even with encryption. The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem.

PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages. Prevention should also be addressed in the plan. it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed. but they are less secure. but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex. Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method. which is used to encrypt data and to decrypt it. is called a digital signature. As the name implies. Specialized Solutions. which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption. and bulletin boards. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). will ensure a much quicker recovery. With this method of encryption both parties have the same key. The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key. Viruses can be spread by various sources including: shareware. The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. much less a day. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities. files downloaded from the Internet.Chapter 10 – Network Security Extra data appended to a message. both on location and at backup sites. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability. 239 . Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. There are over 60. If the receiver wishes to respond. it is not a completely secure encryption method. There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run. Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip. Many viruses are simple annoyances. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. Inc. It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. It is similar to DES.000 known viruses. Symmetric Keys can also be used. software from unknown origins. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off.

many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet. If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes. Hundreds of viruses are written each month. It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document. 240 Specialized Solutions. . Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world. Inc. Use extreme caution when you download files. they will go to work on the system. With this in mind. Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks. The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files). (prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk). enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing a new operating system. just from running a program. there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market. Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines. Make sure it is compatible with all of the operating systems that you use. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site. they mean that when you open a document you are running a program.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs. Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine. These days. Macro Virus: These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened. (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail). but when loaded. Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. Keep your anti-virus program updated.

Chapter 10 – Network Security Specialized Solutions. 241 . Inc.

Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. . Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 242 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

The acronym RAID stands for __________. 243 . 5. What are the three common levels of RAID? 6. Inc. 3. In a share level model. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Specialized Solutions.Chapter 10 – Network Security Review Questions Chapter 10 1. passwords are assigned to __________. What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2. What is the function of a firewall? 4.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 Specialized Solutions.

test the result. The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper. computers never fail at a convenient time. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. but they often hold the keys to the problem. select the most probable cause. you will most likely be called when there is a problem. This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now. Remember. a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you. In most cases. To make matters worse. The user of the computer or network is your best source of information. If fact. if you are the expert.Conclusion Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. implement a solution. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software. What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. while for others it is a struggle. you must be organized. As a troubleshooter. Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned. The eight parts are as follows: establish the symptoms. a pen (or pencil). It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier. not the symptom. troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. In order to do this. The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks. “as reported. you are looking for the cause. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem. not when all is well. identify the affected area. For those who must endure the struggle. it seems well defined by the person who calls and complains! But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. and progress with some specific tools that you can employ to simplify the process. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution. establish what has changed. and good listening skills. 245 . so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause. After all. Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). Inc. This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. Specialized Solutions.” is really just the symptom and not the true cause. Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. Remember. They always fail in the middle of a job.

If it is an operatorinduced problem. For example. Be sure to observe the failure yourself. but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works. The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work toward the more complex. You will need to create your own list based on the situation. have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory. however. do not intimidate the user. it is important to observe how it is created. Inc. the process of elimination is all that you can do. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience. The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that caused the failure. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation. lights. You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. This will take time and patience. or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever. . Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know. These never seem to occur when you are present. The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. Do not make the questions too technical. screen changes. Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem. Sometimes. network or computer moved. With a little experience. as well as the results. recent software upgrade.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of the failure. Describe any changes in the computer (noise. the failure occurs.) Show me how to create the error. One thing that might 246 Specialized Solutions. have someone demonstrate the failure to you. and when. Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. and so forth). You may. If possible. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before. and most importantly. Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones.

but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up. write them down. but to call you. Starting from the top. Once a plan is created. but you cannot receive any E-mail. and move forward. isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user Specialized Solutions. Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. If for example. Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made. Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems. it is important to follow it through. If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be). make a plan and follow it. That way the “evidence” is not disturbed. is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly. In the case of a network problem. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood. If you must make any assumptions. You may have to refer back to them later. 247 . The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally. Document every action and its results. Inc.Conclusion help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. Do not make any assumptions. For example. then you know for sure that the network is physically working. It requires two simple steps.

With hardware. as well as the one that is causing problems. This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how. For example. repair or replacement is usually all that is needed. Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities. if the problem is software or configuration related. you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed. the problem may be caused by the operator. To resolve these types of problems. either repair or replace the defect. It is important to use another operator. In these situations. be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes. it may require some additional effort. you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem). 248 Specialized Solutions. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures. and not the hardware or the system. Inc. start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not. Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures. However.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Once the search has been narrowed. This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome. if an operator is afraid of computers in general. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work). you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems. In these cases. Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. Implement the solution. Note: If the problem is software-oriented. .

the problem. or a follow up call just to make sure all is well. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. there is no substitute for experience. Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction. and the repair. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems. you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem.Conclusion Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. Specialized Solutions. You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. Document the solution Finally. maintain. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle. The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. document the problem and the repair. and share experience. You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience. Inc. The basis for this policy is that once the system is running. 249 . This is one way to build. In troubleshooting. Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms.

Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack. Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools. They secure the connection between the wires and the block. Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network. . Punch Down Tool 250 Specialized Solutions. a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier. Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals. let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician. The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire.

Inc. Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. Since it is made up of wires. in principle. it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. Specialized Solutions. Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps). Some meters will let you test for current as well. we will have to know how to test for continuity. it is still possible to test for continuity. When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing. which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound. very easy to troubleshoot. These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted).Conclusion Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. as well as the electrical power in the computer. the circuit is broken. The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters. The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe. a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete. A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other. If your meter does not have a continuity setting. We will start by looking at a multimeter. For example. the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. With it you can test various electronic components. you can have only one of two problems. If the wire is broken. When working with network cabling. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured. resistance. a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red). whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. In a wire for example. These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up. the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. You can test for AC and DC voltage. Network cabling is. If the test is negative (no light or noise). which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. 251 . Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. and continuity. All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device.

to find pairs of wires in a bundle. The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky. there are more often than not. thus locating the wires. Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. and test at the other end. . this is not a problem. if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building. 252 Specialized Solutions. If both ends are in the same location. Inc. However. these tools are often called a fox and a hound. it will emit a tone. The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). testing for continuity will require an additional wire. You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end. The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. This applies a signal on the wires. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. However. The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator. several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician should have one. When used together. called tone generators and tone locators.

The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling. and therefore back to the network card. also called packet sniffers. because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable. Inc. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions. the location of any break or short can be determined. Software analyzers. A crossover cable is similar to a loopback. Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic. Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable. They will monitor network traffic. there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment. 253 . These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning.Conclusion Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. are usually a PC with a special network card. Be careful when using a crossover cable. Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire. Specialized Solutions. Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters. capture packets and generate reports. It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. A loopback cable is just what the name implies. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa). By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. but is double-ended. If you are able to send a signal and have it return. It has the transmit and receive wires connected.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR. but used for fiber optic cabling. . OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back. 254 Specialized Solutions.

You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so. or a disk resource. It could be the processor. The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network. due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck. 255 . Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords. you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. Inc. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail. Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security. For some reason. but can be caused by a disconnected cable. If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate. Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. Some passwords are case-sensitive. This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. the traffic is not moving. Therefore. the network.Conclusion Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network. and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors.

. the network slows down. tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night. so does the traffic. For example. check for memory bottlenecks. As networks grow. Inc. deletes. You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives. You must defragment the drive. and moves information. Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 256 Specialized Solutions. When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it. These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves. If slow loading persists even after defragmenting.

PING. but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card. The first step is to PING the loopback address.1. PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation. On a Macintosh system. you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu. This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS. Inc. because as a network professional. Specialized Solutions. It also lets you know the time that it takes. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on your intranet or on the Internet your packet is going. If you are using TCP/IP.0. 257 . These commands work from a command prompt. you will use it often. This will test the protocol stack in the computer.0. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities. The loopback address is 127. Remember this address. TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination. and TRACERT commands to test the network. On a Windows 95/98 computer.Conclusion Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network.

. XP. or 2003 system. 2000. WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly.55. This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195. WINIPCFG.48. 258 Specialized Solutions. Inc. your dialog box will look like the following. If you are using Windows.6.

you have encountered a problem. With each step. Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems. then there is a problem with the protocol. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday. 259 .6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation. Inc. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol. For the IPX/SPX networks. PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer. Usually this means you have the wrong IP address. they must be okay. use the ipxping command. the server. you receive a message like the following. Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t.48. you will be testing a larger portion of the network.55. If at any stage. Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: Specialized Solutions.Conclusion PING 195. It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network. and so on.

suspect a loose or disconnected cable. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector. . the first thing to do is find out what has changed. To resolve this problem. respectively. If no lights are on. Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files. you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup. while green lights indicate that all is well. If there is a sudden change in performance. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow. 260 Specialized Solutions.” With nslookup. or hosts. Inc. we need to look at four limiting factors on performance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. have two names. The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause. (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. If these files are being used. One is the IP address number. Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem. If present. we learned that workstations. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name. These are text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses. How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution. you can be sure that the network is not being detected. In general. Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa. Beyond that. That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server). Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address. they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer. The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details. you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory. Earlier.

The speed limit. adding to the network load. Therefore. if you are experiencing slow printing. Latency delays. Specialized Solutions. This can slow down data transfer. but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation. This means that for a small amount of time. Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays. if the traffic gets too congested. you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. For example. after you identify the problem. You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information. you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed. Just like our highway. From this information. A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache. for the most part. everything slows down. slow. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. at a later date. you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. The answer lies in creating a performance baseline. To create a baseline. 261 . but are interrelated.Conclusion Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing. or maximum speed that traffic can move. it will affect the entire network. is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). and average time to print the document. Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory. Inc. Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. For example. This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now. if any one component is performing poorly. Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. are negligible. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps). the more packets that can be moved). you will know the high. Then. The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system. Resolving performance problems can be easy. Latency Small delays in packet movement that are caused by devices is called latency. it can send data at a faster than rated speed. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request.

Windows Performance Monitor 262 Specialized Solutions. With this activated.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. etc. you will be able to monitor such events as processor time. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events. etc. Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network. percent of network utilization. Windows has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools. you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself. To collect these statistics. available memory. . Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. Inc. With this tool.

Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Conclusion KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition Specialized Solutions. 263 .

You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slowly. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10. You have located the cable in question #3. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Conclusion 264 Specialized Solutions. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2. Inc. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. What is the loopback IP address? 7. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. and think it might be shorted. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4. What tool would you need to find the short? 5. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9. After repairing a problem. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. You have just connected a workstation to the network.

or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. After taking a practice exam. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material. 265 .Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. at Specialized Solutions. To measure your retention of these materials. Inc. When you are ready to schedule your exam. start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course. be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site. Remember. We love to hear from our students. our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. Specialized Solutions. so if you have any questions. be sure to review any areas that need improvement. as you like. When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range. and as often. Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs. and don’t forget to use the Glossary. you are ready to sit for your certification exam.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 266 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

Appendix A – Tech Summary Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing coaxial Ethernet cabling. It is expressed in ohms. you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule. Inc. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. Only 3 segments can contain nodes. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. • • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Specialized Solutions. 267 . Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. They are specified based on their impedance. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. Maximum of 4 repeaters.

but also used for broadband transmissions. Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 10Base5 Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Bus 500 10 100 5 4 10Base2 Bus 185 10 30 5 4 3 268 Specialized Solutions. ArcNet networks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core. such as cable television. Broadband transmission. Description Stranded wire core. Length (meters) Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment Max Segments Max. RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max. Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59. Military specification of RG-58 A/U. . Inc.

but adds voice capability along with data.Appendix A – Tech Summary UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps. Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG. Plenum grade. Data grade up to 100 Mbps. Same as type 1. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks. Two STP – 26 AWG wire. Inc. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch.5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. Specialized Solutions. Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Not Defined Two 62. Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch. Two STP –26 AWG wire. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Contains a shield for use under carpets. Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps. Voice-grade cable. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Six twisted pairs. Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch. 269 Fiber Optic Data patch cables.

4 802.1 802. Inc.11 802.7 802.5 802.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model.6 802. .12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 270 Specialized Solutions.10 802.2 802.9 802. 802.3 802. They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls.8 802.x Standard 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802.

Appendix A – Tech Summary IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer. however. COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs. COM4 COM1. No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually Specialized Solutions. 271 . there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed. The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2. Inc.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address. . Inc.LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 272 Specialized Solutions.LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F . The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F .

273 .Appendix A – Tech Summary 3A0 to 3AF 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model Specialized Solutions. Inc.

x.x.x 128.777. Inc.097.214 65.x.0 Number of Networks 126 16.255.x.0. x.0.x 192.255.0.x.0 255. x.0 255.152 Number of Host 16.x to 223.x. .534 254 274 Specialized Solutions.x to 126.x.x Default Subnet Mask 255.x. Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001.x to 191.x. Repeaters Computers Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address.384 2.255. Hubs.x.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Gateways Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Brouter Bridges Switches NICs.

Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks. Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address. the subnet address. Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses).0. 275 .1) to test the IP architecture and configuration.Appendix A – Tech Summary TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the Linux user’s network interface configuration. and default gateway. Inc. Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. Sends a test packet to a specified address. If all is well. PING ARP RARP Specialized Solutions. the subnet mask. it will return. Use the loopback address (127.0.

In a star topology. Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents. Used to check the status of current IP connections. Inc. 276 Specialized Solutions. NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology. Used to verify the route to a remote host. all computers are connected in a series. ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries. all computers are connected to a hub.) Used to verify entries on a DNS server.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it. . Used to check the resolution of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses. (Pronounced Trace Route.

In a mesh topology. all computers are logically connected in a circle. Specialized Solutions. Inc. 277 . all computers are connected to each other.Appendix A – Tech Summary In a ring topology.

Also called a network analyzer. Protocol Analyzer 278 Specialized Solutions. An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals. resistance. Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. Can also be used for precise voltage measurements. TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. . Inc. and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks.

Inc. Event Viewer SNMP Specialized Solutions. Displays or prints a list of events. routers. Used to provide information for network baselines.Appendix A – Tech Summary Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations. and networks. Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers. and bridges). interface cards. servers. hubs. 279 .

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 280 Specialized Solutions.

Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www.com Novell http://www. 281 .cnet.novell.microsoft.com Other Helpful Sites http://www. Inc.com Specialized Solutions.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 282 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

it is responsible for establishing standards for communication. CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below). The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards. This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry. it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set. In the computing industry.Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry. Inc. This is a common code for basic characters and numbers. Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector. let alone the networking industry. Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes. For additional information. Specialized Solutions. search for these organizations on the Internet. As its name implies. It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. 283 .

the data can be smoothly transferred.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model. As long as both are SQL compliant.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. . Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused. 284 Specialized Solutions. Inc.x sub-committees. See Appendix A for a summary of the 802. Since they cover a wide variety of equipment. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards. ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product. Inc. the IEEE is subdivided into committees. The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802. This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another.x committee. its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language. As you may guess from its name. These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model.

Method of payment. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers. 285 .Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE.vue. please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number. When you call. Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time. go to www.com for Prometric or www. Payment is made at the time of registration. Prices subject to change without notice. Date you wish to take the test. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like. Specialized Solutions. credit card or voucher. To register via the Internet.2test. Payment must be made each time you take the test. and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE. either by credit card.com for VUE. Inc. or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 286 Specialized Solutions.

Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. The highest layer of the OSI Model. Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through.Appendix E – Glossary Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. so they can communicate with other applications or nodes. or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. A continuously variable signal. these three terms are often used interchangeably. usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). opposite of digital. Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. program. or computers on the network (nodes). 287 . it supplies functions to applications. or bits per second (bps). Software. The Apple networking protocol. Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies. The file server on an AppleTalk network. American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. A dedicated server for applications. Inc.

GM. A bus driver. such as Microsoft. or DEC. . The signal flow is uni-directional. Inc. these are all in use at the present time. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. such as IBM. IP Address used by medium-sized networks. Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. IP Address used by very large networks. A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances. Hardware that connects one network with another. A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems. British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. A form of mobile computing.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address 288 Specialized Solutions. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC. Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals).

or Cyclic redundancy Code. Cyclic Redundancy Check. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. itself. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor. to allow other tasks to run. Inc. Same as a hub. 289 . The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation.Appendix E – Glossary Client Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable User computer “being served” by another computer. A form of multitasking. Data that is encoded for security reasons. at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level. from computer or network to another. or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. stored. is a number derived from. using a specific protocol. called a server. which is. Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption Specialized Solutions. The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable. or language. Software used by the client.

in a round-robin fashion. DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU.A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients. this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data. so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives. Inc. A limited form of bus mastering. When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. The Data Link layer splits data into frames. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one. . It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly. so that one can take over for the other if it fails. the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk. It also receives acknowledgement frames. for sending on the Physical layer. Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 290 Specialized Solutions. This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks. Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency. If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. (Simple “on” or “off” signal.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model.) Being able to recover data from a disaster. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. such as an individual file. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. Also called data striping.

and other control information. An improved version of X. File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network. A network’s central computer.Appendix E – Glossary DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. 291 DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex . sent over a communications channel. A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once. error detection. A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received. Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. Specialized Solutions. with a very large amount of storage space for shared files. A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard.25 packet switching technology. Inc. A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits. A group of bits containing address information.

test packets. that enables two networks. Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. to communicate with each other. Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. It precedes the actual data. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol. and informational messages related to IP. even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. but only one at a time. and other information. is usually represented in dotted decimal notation. The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses. using different protocols. A network topology that combines bus. RFC 792. or ring topologies. star. defined in STD 5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway A computer that acts as a translator. HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). Inc. GSNW Half-Duplex Header HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address 292 Specialized Solutions. is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages. . RFC 791. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5.

” Server used for E-mail. 293 ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU . A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. Specialized Solutions. Inc.Appendix E – Glossary IPCONFIG IPsec IRQ DOS command that tells you the IP address for your computer. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network. Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice. and video data sources. A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data. a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver. data. Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring. Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC. it’s “hardware address. Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator. Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer. across a network connection.

400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS). Provides the physical connection to the network cable. a 32-bit bus. Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X. A type of hub. MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. among others. . A method of data transmission. introduced by IBM for its PS/2 computer line. Single Frequency Radio. and is used by CompuServe. protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources. Performing multiple tasks simultaneously. The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission. Inc. Much like your local radio station. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS. Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card 294 Specialized Solutions. Also known as a network interface card.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide MCA Bus Micro Channel Architecture. totally incompatible with the original PC bus.

Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet. including network connectivity.Appendix E – Glossary Network Administrator Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. Acts as a connection point only. 295 Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card . They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards. An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network. A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. depending on the protocol. A generic term used to describe a unit of data. Inc. Specialized Solutions. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model. Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network. The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network.

The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time. Inc. such as a printer or scanner. A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server.1. . Defines a channel between a device and the processor. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network. depending upon the needs of the user. Dedicated server for printing. many third-party applications are available.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Peer-to-Peer Performance Monitor All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server. other processes will still run. The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack. used to circulate air through a building.5 of Windows 3. this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking. The Presentation layer formats data exchange. converting character sets and encrypting data. A hardware device. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model. Although included as part of Windows NT. which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer. Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 296 Specialized Solutions. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer. and running on TCP/IP. Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning. and even if a process takes full control. The space between the ceiling and the floor above.

A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network. Used to increase cable distances in network environments. i.Appendix E – Glossary Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection.e. to be accessed via a modem. including support for dialup and logon. In Token-Ring networks. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. The signal is beamed towards a central unit. In a Ring topology. For example. The services or peripherals that are shared over the network. Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors. Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. A device that forwards packets between networks. Redirects a call from one port to another. the devices are connected in a continuous loop. the proxy server. Inc. 297 . Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network. Connector used with standard telephone wire. which then routes the signal appropriately. For example. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN Specialized Solutions. the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. Connector used with UTP and STP network cables.

defined in RFC 1055. RFC 1157. acknowledgments (ACK). was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. Software that resides on a server. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. connection establishment and release. A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. until it reaches the receiver. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol. as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. to be used over a serial link. usually over Ethernet. data transfer. A computer on a network that provides services to other computers. A uni-directional data channel. the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15. The Session layer handles such things as security authentication. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use. ceilings. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. . as opposed to duplex. Simple Network Management Protocol. etc. is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP 298 Specialized Solutions. normally used on Ethernet. Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another. Transmission rates are slower with this type. Inc.

An access method used in a Token Ring topology. that uses a large diameter. If the hub fails. The process of subdividing a network into logical units. 299 SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk . This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. Specialized Solutions. rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms. Inc.5 Standard) environment.Appendix E – Glossary SONET Spread-Spectrum Radio Synchronous Optical Network Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub. the official protocol of the Internet. A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings. such as bodies of water or deserts. the entire network goes down. Maximum segment length is 500 meters. Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol. Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. Using binary addition. An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5. The maximum speed that “traffic” can move. or across large flat open areas. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters.

it will emit a tone. Used on transceivers. like TCP. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. defined in STD 6. which. A device that transmits and receives data. User Datagram Protocol. The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport. Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments. RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol. The “hound. this applies a signal on the wires. Inc. thus locating the wires. The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information.” A receiver set to the frequency of the generator. A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. The “fox. Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer.” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). Tool for stripping and cutting wire Tone Locator TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 300 Specialized Solutions. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. . is layered on top of IP. Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding.

A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. Inc. resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address. 301 . AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks. using zones Zones Specialized Solutions. such as Token Ring.Appendix E – Glossary WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 302 Specialized Solutions.

Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security). Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net. Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers. What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. configure. and peripheral devices. A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. 3. No security. 2. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet. data backups can be more easily and routinely performed. 6. Review Questions Chapter 1 1. such as data. and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less). 7. A WAN is not geographically limited. What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use. Specialized Solutions. What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources. LANs typically also have much faster communication speed than WANs. loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations. 303 . Name some advantages of having centralized documents. like one office). Simple to install. applications. Files are easily accessed by all users. Inc. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server). 5. 4. It is confined to a limited area.

Star. 11. 12. They represent what the topology looks like. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment. Some NOSs function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. 304 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). Centralized location of resources (server). File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access. more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). Name the three basic topologies. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU. Increased performance on large networks. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. and Demand Priority. What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. Ease of data backups. Centralized administration. 9. Token Passing.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 8. Review Questions Chapter 2 1. Can be expanded as network grows. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. The three basic topologies are: Bus. 10. More difficult to install and configure. and Ring. 2. . Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see.

It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments. management. messaging. and volumes is also handled with NDS. What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. Organization of network resources such as users. routing. 305 . and file and print services. 8. 4. 5. name service. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. 7. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. 64 MB RAM. groups. 550 MB of free hard drive space. NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. Specialized Solutions. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. web-publishing. redirecting them to the server. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. servers. Unlike NetWare. 6. 9. Inc. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. Define interoperability.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems. Session.1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network. What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 15. 125 MB free hard drive space. 11. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 14. What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals. Transport. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. Presentation. Inc. . Application. 16 MB RAM. Review Questions Chapter 3 1. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare. and Physical 3.What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. Network. 12. Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 306 Specialized Solutions. Data Link. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. 2. 13.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 10. Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT.

A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 4. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. Which OSI layer is responsible the MAC address? The Data Link layer 8. 9. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? D3-B4-01 14. This is not the actual application or program. It is a computer’s physical address. 11. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. managing. Data Link layer 5. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. 307 . Network Layer 6. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. 13. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer. and ending connections? The Session layer 12. Inc. Presentation layer 7. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer Specialized Solutions. Physical 10.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 15. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence, without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 16. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 17. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. 18. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802.2 19. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. They are incompatible with each other. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com, while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. 20. Describe protocol binding. In order to function, a protocol must be bound to the NIC. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 21. Which is faster, connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster, but connection-oriented communication is more reliable. 22. . Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. AppleTalk, DECnet, IPX/SPX, PPP, PPTP, SLIP, SMB, SNA, TCP/IP, UDP, X.25, XNS 23.. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Will this work? Why or Why not? 308

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol.

Review Questions Chapter 4

1. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. 5. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. 6. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above, which is used to circulate air in a building). Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned, which would end up being circulated throughout the building. 7. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 10. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs, which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. 11. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. However, it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. 13. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths, segment lengths of up to several miles, and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. 15. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. 16. Describe baseband. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. 17. Describe broadband. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable, making the signal flow unidirectional. 18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way, can receive but not send. For example, a pager. Half-duplex communication can send or receive, but not at the same time. For example, a CB radio. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. For example, the telephone. 310 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 19. What is the function of a network adapter card? Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network. (They make the physical connection to the network.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. 20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers, including network connectivity. 22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network, to backup a cable-based network, to provide a mobile network environment, for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly, outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform. 23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared, Laser, Radio, and Microwave 24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. 25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally; Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances.

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority Specialized Solutions, Inc. 311

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). Specialized Solutions, Inc. 313

18.5 says it travels clockwise. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions. however. It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? The IEEE 802. Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise. It can be either depending upon how it is set up. It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately.5 standard 16. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802. IEEE 802. Describe a MIC connector. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function. data collisions are avoided. 314 Specialized Solutions. 19. This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer. They are also called hermaphrodite connectors. 20. The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist.3 standard 15. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. 21. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17. . Inc.

315 . Review Questions Chapter 6 1. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No. it stores it to use each time it connects to the network. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. 25. 23. If no other computer is using the address. Inc.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 22. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it. Specialized Solutions. NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers. 5. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. 4. It also provides a print server. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper. etc. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. 3. 24. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2. 2.

Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time.microsoft. but they are not all the same. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. Passive hubs are used only to make connections. 8. but not enough to run it efficiently. Why should you refuse this offer? First. Inc. It will be less costly to install CAT 6 now than to replace the CAT 5 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps to handle the higher traffic. having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 6. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network. Review Questions Chapter 7 1. .com/windows/catalog. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. 316 Specialized Solutions. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. he intends to expand the network in the future. 2. However. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths. 9. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? Check the Windows Catalog on the web at www. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS. An active hub requires some input power. Also. 7.

Gateway . a bridge. A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem. They do not translate or filter any information. and SONET 7. Auditing. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. NetBEUI is not routable. 10. and a gateway. Frame Relay. BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. Define a repeater. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. SLIP.A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature.Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. PPP. 5. Name three RAS protocols. What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network. a router. Callback Security. What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking). Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model. 8. For example. Specialized Solutions. Bridge . ISDN.A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. Repeater . Name four forms of RAS security. 4. Not all network protocols will work with a router. and PPTP filtering. Security host. They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment. In older modems. 317 . Inc. They do however. Name three advanced WAN environments. Router .544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. BAUD and bps were the same thing.A router has all the features of a bridge. BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables. Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model. PPTP and L2TP 9.

4.microsoft. Internet and Network Interface. SNMP. and ARP. Inc. HTU UTH 6. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application. 2. 7. ICMP. 5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1. What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. IP. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names. 32 10. FTP. Transport. 8. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3. UDP. . and HTTP. 3. An example is http://www.com. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9. What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 318 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11) Specialized Solutions. SMTP.

ROUTE. NETSTAT and TRACERT. Specialized Solutions. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups. each device will need to be _________ compliant. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment Review Questions Chapter 9 1. 319 . List as many as you can. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3. Event Viewer.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. U U U U 12. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status. Inc. 2. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. NBTSTAT.

2. It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. In a share level model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1. passwords are assigned to __________. 4. 5. Inc. What are the three most common levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 5 Striped array with parity 6. 320 Specialized Solutions. What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet. The acronym RAID stands for____________? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. Resources 3. . What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password.

0. you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables. The fox and hound. Inc. What is the loopback IP address? 127. Isolate the Problem. What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP. and think it might be shorted. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. You have located the cable in question #3. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. WINIPCFG from the RUN command. 2.0. Specialized Solutions. and Repair the Problem. 6. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. After repairing a problem. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. You have just connected a workstation to the network. 5. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. 8. 4. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. 321 . You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 11 1. 3.1 7.

What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 322 Specialized Solutions. 10. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slow. . Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. Inc. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time.

52 Data Protection. 217 ATM. 122 AppleTalk. 186 Analog. 89 cloud. 96 brouter. 166 attenuation. 13 ARCNet. 13 Clocking. 98 Change. 111 D Data Link Layer. 42 base memory address. 67 demand priority. 160 Category 3. 109 CSNW. 34 clients. 89 Direct Memory Access (DMA). 86 B backbone. 243 CSMA/CD. 34 DECnet. 61 C Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD. 114 A access method. 114 10BaseFL. 70 DMA. 92 Boot Sector. 253 Banyan VINES. 78. 196 client software. 65 continuity. 81 Cellular Networking. 70 coaxial cable. 116 100VG-AnyLAN. 89 AppleShare. 39 Circuit-switched. 323 . 151 connection-oriented. 65 BNC. 114 10BaseT. 91 Baseband. 50 application server. 77 Computer compatibility. Inc. 226 Bandwidth. 109 DES (Data Encryption Standard). 60 attributes. 39 AUI connector. 91 domain. 108. 226 Digital. 60 Broadband. 79 AWG. 196 Class B. 161 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC). 189 domain controller. 167 bridge. 231 BOOTP. 123 ARP. 119 binding. 16. 40 Specialized Solutions.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Index 1 100BaseX. 78. 40. 196 Class C. 69. 78 Boot Prom’s. 24 Address Resolution Protocol. 81 Category 5. 121 Application Layer. 116 10Base2. 86 Broadband Optical Telepoint. 191 BRI. 164 Class A. 230 Differential backup. 41 CSU/DSU. 90 DLC. 79 backup utility. 86 Beaconing. 38 Client Software. 114 10Base5. 67. 21 Carriers. 108 Active Directory. 42 active hubs.

186 Incremental backup. 217 IMAP4. 83 File Infectors. 185 interoperability. 12 Laser. 61 Gateways. 166 fiber-optic. 174 LAN. 167 ISDN adapters. 68. 224 FPNW. 189 Domain Reflectometer (TDR). 116 ground probe. 187 hubs. 226 Infrared. 96 Linux. 39 IP. 245 DSMN. 62 Internet Control Message Protocol. 231 EISA. 174 IPv6. 93 EMI. Inc. 41 H Half-Duplex. 191 dynamic routers. 159 Gigabit Ethernet. 185 IP address. 187 Full backup. 86 firewall. 68. 41 Frame Relay. 39 fault tolerance. 21. 174 Line-of-Sight Infrared. 70 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol. 96 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 60 E EES. 114 EtherTalk. 167 FTP. 197 IPX. 174 L L2TP. 71 ICS. 226 Full Control. 161 . 187 HTTPS. 174 ICMP. 194 IPCONFIG. 215 F Fast Ethernet. Inc. 86 G gateway.Fiber Distributed Data. 42 Headers. 91 ISA. 192 IFCONFIG. 18 I I/O port number. 122 Event Viewer. 191 gateways. 157 hybrid topologies.. 96 LAT. 39 Full-Duplex. 56 324 Specialized Solutions. 191 HTTP. 226 FDDI . 67 IRQ. 243 Group policies. 86 headers. 231 fire codes. K Kerberos. (IEEE). 120 ICA. 81 environment. 22 FAT. 144 Ethernet. 41 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). 112 HOSTS file. 91 IBM cabling. 42 GSNW.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Domain Name Service (DNS). 83 IBM Type 3 UTP. 249 IPsec. 217. 93 ISDN. 186 Internet Protocol (IP).

242 325 Specialized Solutions. 164 Packet-Radio Networking. 13 peer-to-peer. 69 Network-attached storage (NAS). 18 Ping. 23 media access methods. 64 Open Systems Interface (OSI). Inc. 120 Microwave. 64 proxy server. 215 NCP. 41. 37 Network Adapter Cards. 86 PPP. 34 MAU. 71. 14 Peer-to-peer LANs. 30 N NAT. 43 Macro Virus. 39 Null-Modem. 18 LSL.Multiple Access Units. 231 physical topologies. 172 Preemptive multitasking. 71. 96 MLID. 29 OS/2. 157 PCI. 36 NetBEUI. 168 MSAU. 36 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh. 30 PRI. 171 NWLink. 151 Media Tester. 232 Managing User Accounts. 36 NetWare file server. 229 Patch Panel. 67 M Macintosh. 114 Network Time Protocol (NTP). 243 mesh topology. 167 protocol. 98 packets. 111 parallel communication. 29 NSLOOKUP. . 70 NETBIOS. 120 Multimeter. 31 Network standards. 49 operating system. 172 PPTP. 157 MAUs . 37 NetWare Print Services. 93 PDC . 67 modem. 114 LMHOSTS. 39 NOS – Network Operating System. 217 PING. 68 O ODI.Primary Domain Controller. 89 Network Layer. 93 PCMCIA. 37 MIB (Management Information Base). 249 plenum. 243 multitasking. 213 MIC (Media Interface Connectors). 67 NDIS. 217 NTFS.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers LLC. 36 NetWare Client32 for DOS. 215 NetWare. 228 NFS. 31 PGP. 36 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95. 23 Passwords. 49. 107 protocols. 52 Network Neighborhood. 36 NetWare Client32 for OS/2. 191 LocalTalk. 120. 191 NBTSTAT. 192 Punch Down Tool. 69 NLSP. 21 Media Compatibility. 18 MHS. 32 P Packet switching. 67 No Access. 64 NDS (NetWare Directory Services). 122 logical topology. 190 NETSTAT. 89 passive hub. 37 NetWare security.

80 U UDP. 16. 79 thicknet. 109 token ring. 187 Software analyzers. 245 SONET. 58 . 86 SLIP. 225 TCP. 217 Read. 17 static routers. 69 ROUTE. 89 Server room. 11 signal bounce. 175 Security. 225 repeater. 33 servers. 225 removable optical disk. 67 SSL. 174 token passing. 79 Transport Layer. 227 RARP. 60. Inc. 187 SNA. 69 terminator. 232 troubleshooting. 215 router. 16 serial communication. 174 Standards. sneaker net. 16 twisted-pair. 96 relative humidity. 11 SNMP. 167 SPX. 60. 167 security. 98 Scatter Infrared. 71 RSA. 65 RPC. 158 requester. 112 transceiver. 60 Storage Area Network (SAN). 68. 237 trunk.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide R Radio. 13 sharing applications. 96 SDH. 67. 185 UTP. 172 SMAU. 39 redirector. 182 UNIX. 184 Telnet. 71. 215. 13 Server-based network. 249 Trailer. 230 S SAP. 80 virtual connections. 68 Trojan Horses. 68. 96 RAID. 80 V vampire taps. 34 server-based network. 71. 167 SMTP. 21. 51 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 199 T tape backup. 253 TLS. 16 TRACERT. 68 SMDS. 68 Satellite Station Networking. 144 Server Software. 35 ring topology. 34. 16. 152 star topology. 144 Remote Access Server or RAS. 35 Reflective Infrared. 81 Subnetting. 221 segment. 68 326 Specialized Solutions. 79 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 17 RIP. 213 Simplex. 159 routers. 171 removable disks. 77 Thinnet. 120 SMB. 69. 77 throughput. 42 User Datagram Protocol (UDP). 118 topology. 228 STP.

166 XDR. 19. Inc.25. 124 wireless network. 242 Wireless. 31 Windows NT Print Servers. 71 XNS. 154 Windows 95/98. 31 Windows for Workgroups. 12 Warp Connect. 40 U U WINS. 95 Wireless NICs. 231 VLAN. 13 X X. 92 workstation.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Viruses. 230 W WAN. 70 Specialized Solutions. 32 Windows 2000. 327 . 165 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks). 190 Wire Crimper. 69.

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