Network+ 2005 Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network+

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Copyright© 2004 by Specialized Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 338 East Tarpon Street, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. Publisher: Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Contributing Writers: Bill Ferguson Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Editor: Bill Ferguson

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Suggestions/Comments Please forward all comments or suggestions to: Specialized Solutions, Inc. 338 East Tarpon St. Tarpon Springs, FL 34689

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... I

ABOUT SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS ...........................................................IX
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+ .............................................................2005 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ..................................................................................................9 YOUR VIDEO INSTRUCTOR .................................................................................................9 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST ..................................................................................................10 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................10 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................10 ABOUT THIS COURSE .......................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS ..................................................17 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING ....................................................................................17 Benefits of Networking Computers .............................................................................17 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) .................................18 The Client/Server Relationship ...................................................................................19 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................19 Peer-to-Peer Networking ............................................................................................20 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).....................................................................21 Bus Topology ..............................................................................................................21 Star Topology..............................................................................................................22 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................22 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES ......................................................................................................23 Hybrid Topologies ......................................................................................................23 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................23 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................24 NETWORK ACCESS ...........................................................................................................26 Token Passing .............................................................................................................26 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................26 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................27 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS ...........................................................................................28 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................28 Active Hubs .................................................................................................................29 Hub-Based Networks ..................................................................................................29 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................30 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................31 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1 ....................................................................................33 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS) ....................................35 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? ..................................................................................35 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking .............................................................36 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)? ........................................................37 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................37 Server/Client Software ................................................................................................39 NOS PACKAGES...............................................................................................................42 Specialized Solutions, Inc. i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Novell NetWare .......................................................................................................... 42 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System................................................... 45 Windows NT Minimum Requirements ...........................Error! Bookmark not defined. UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................ 47 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service)................................................ 48 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 50 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................. 51 REVIEW QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................ 52 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS.......... 55 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION ..................................................... 55 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL ................................................................................ 56 Application Layer ....................................................................................................... 56 Presentation Layer ..................................................................................................... 57 Session Layer.............................................................................................................. 57 Transport Layer.......................................................................................................... 57 Network Layer ............................................................................................................ 58 Data Link Layer.......................................................................................................... 58 Logical Link Control (LLC) ....................................................................................... 59 Media Access Control (MAC) .................................................................................... 59 Physical Layer............................................................................................................ 60 PROTOCOL STACKS ......................................................................................................... 62 Communication Between Peer Layers ....................................................................... 62 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD ............................................................................................ 64 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL ....................................................................................... 66 Repeaters .................................................................................................................... 66 Bridges........................................................................................................................ 66 Routers........................................................................................................................ 66 Brouters ...................................................................................................................... 67 Gateways .................................................................................................................... 67 IEEE 802 STANDARDS .................................................................................................... 68 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL ...................................................................... 70 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)......................................................... 70 ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ................................................................................ 70 PROTOCOLS AND OSI ...................................................................................................... 70 Protocol Binding ........................................................................................................ 71 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless ................................................................... 71 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols ........................................................................ 71 Networking Protocols and Stacks............................................................................... 72 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................... 73 DECnet ....................................................................................................................... 73 IPX/ SPX..................................................................................................................... 73 SMB (Server Message Block) ..................................................................................... 74 SNA (Systems Network Architecture) ......................................................................... 74 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ....................................................................... 74 IP (Internet Protocol)................................................................................................. 74 UDP (User Datagram Protocol)................................................................................ 74 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) ..................................................................................... 74 ii Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Table of Contents Telnet...........................................................................................................................75 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................75 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................75 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................75 NTP (Network Time Protocol) ....................................................................................75 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) ...............................................................................75 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................75 X.25 .............................................................................................................................76 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................76 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................76 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................76 LAT (Local Area Transport) .......................................................................................76 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................77 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................78 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................78 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) ...................................................................................78 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) ................................................................78 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) ........................................................78 ISO/OSI Standard .......................................................................................................78 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ...............................................................78 DNS (Domain Name System) ......................................................................................78 XDR (External Data Representation) .........................................................................78 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................78 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................80 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................81 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................82 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................85 NETWORK CABLING .........................................................................................................85 Coaxial Cable .............................................................................................................85 Coaxial Connectors ....................................................................................................86 Twisted-Pair Cable .....................................................................................................88 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................91 Summary of Cabling ...................................................................................................93 CABLING TERMS ..............................................................................................................94 AWG (American Wire Gauge) ....................................................................................94 Bandwidth ...................................................................................................................94 Plenum Grade Cabling ...............................................................................................94 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................95 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)..............................................................................97 Preparing the Data .....................................................................................................97 Signals and Clocking ..................................................................................................97 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel) .................................................................................98 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................98 Configurable Options..................................................................................................98 Wireless NICs............................................................................................................100 Specialized Solutions, Inc. iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Fiber-Optic NICs...................................................................................................... 100 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................ 101 Standard Bus Types .................................................................................................. 101 Laptops ..................................................................................................................... 101 NETWORK PERFORMANCE ............................................................................................. 102 WIRELESS NETWORKS ................................................................................................... 103 Why Wireless? .......................................................................................................... 103 Wireless Transmission Methods............................................................................... 104 Radio Transmission.................................................................................................. 105 Satellite Station Networking..................................................................................... 106 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 108 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 109 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.................................................................................... 112 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS .................................. 115 ACCESS METHODS......................................................................................................... 116 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) .................... 116 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) ................... 117 Token Passing........................................................................................................... 117 Demand Priority....................................................................................................... 117 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS) ............................................... 119 Packet Structure ....................................................................................................... 119 Packet Components .................................................................................................. 120 NETWORK STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 122 Logical Link Control (802.2).................................................................................... 122 Ethernet (802.3)........................................................................................................ 122 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................. 129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)................................................... 131 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 133 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 134 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.................................................................................... 136 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.......................................................................... 139 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT ................................................................................... 139 The Customer ........................................................................................................... 139 The Network Goals................................................................................................... 140 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE ......................................................................................... 142 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer.................................................................................. 142 When to Choose Client/Server ................................................................................. 143 Making the Choice.................................................................................................... 144 Public and Private networks .................................................................................... 144 DESIGN THE NETWORK.................................................................................................. 150 Media Selection ........................................................................................................ 151 Environmental Concerns.......................................................................................... 152 NOS Selection........................................................................................................... 152 Protocol Selection .................................................................................................... 152 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER ............................................................................................ 154 Cable to Computer ................................................................................................... 154 iv Specialized Solutions, Inc.

...........160 Hard Work .....178 Connecting Two Computers........................................Table of Contents Cable to Hub ...................................................159 Computer Compatibility....................................................................................................................................................................197 Specialized Solutions...........................172 Packet Switching Networks..........................................................................................................................................165 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS...............................................................................................................................182 Troubleshooting a RAS setup...................160 Standards ..........................................................................................................183 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .........................................................................................................157 Media Compatibility .........173 Advanced WAN Environments .........................189 RFC (Request For Comments)..............................................................159 PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ......................................................................................................................................................................192 Other TCP/IP Protocols .............................................................165 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL ......................167 CONNECTION SERVICES ...................................................................................................................................................189 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP........................................164 CHAPTER 7 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................155 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................157 Adapter Card Compatibility ...............................174 MODEMS ................................................................................161 HCL and Windows 2000 ....................................................................................169 Analog Connectivity........................162 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 ...............................................................................................................178 RAS Protocols .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................170 Circuit-switched Networks.....................186 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................194 NAMING SYSTEMS ...............................166 Bridges ...184 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 .........................................................168 Carriers..........................................................................................................172 VLAN...........................................161 Minimum Requirements ...........................................................179 Installing and Configuring RAS............................................... v ..................................................................................................182 Limitations of RAS ..........................................166 Routers ..............................................................................197 DNS ........................166 Repeaters........................................................................................176 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS) ........................................................................................................... Inc................................168 WAN Overview.....................................................................EXPANDING A NETWORK ..................................................169 Digital Connectivity .............................................154 Network Adapter Cards ...................167 Gateway ......................................................................189 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS ....................................................................160 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ............................192 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 227 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9.... 225 ARP ................................................................................................................................................................... 222 VALIDATION TOOLS ......... 199 DHCP ............................ 203 Class B Addresses ............................ Inc.............................................................................................................................................. 223 NETSTAT . 202 IPv4 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 222 EVENT VIEWER .................................................................... 217 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8............ 199 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES ..................................................................................................... 205 SUBNETTING ....................... 223 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ............................................................................................................................ 223 ROUTE...... 200 ICS ...................................................................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS.......................................................................................................................................................................... ............................................... 219 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES... 223 TRACERT.................... 207 How to Subdivide a Network .................................................................................................................... 225 NSLOOKUP.................................................... 229 USER AND SHARE LEVEL ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 199 IP Gateway .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 221 Agent Software .............................................................................................................................. 225 IFCONFIG.......................... 209 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS ....................................... 225 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG ...... 228 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY .................................................................................................................................. 203 Class A Addresses ................................................................................................................. 198 NETBIOS ................................... 203 IPv6 (IP Next Generation) ......................................... 221 Management Software.......................................................................................................................................................................... 225 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................. 229 vi Specialized Solutions.................................................. 225 RARP.......... 200 IP Proxy Servers........................................... 223 NBTSTAT ............................................................................................................................... 200 NAT.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 203 Class D and Class E Addresses.................................................................................................................. 203 Class C Addresses ........................ 198 HOSTS file............................................................................................... 215 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ........................................................................................................... 199 BOOTP ........................... 225 PING.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................SNMP .. 199 LMHOSTS file ................................................................................... 222 Communities.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 202 IP Addresses ................................................................................................................................... 221 NETWORK MANAGERS ......................................................................................................... 200 TCP/IP ADDRESSING.......................................................................................................................................................

.......................234 Fault Tolerance and Power ...................................................................263 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................267 5-4-3 RULE .....................................................................239 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ..........................................................................264 CONCLUSION ..........245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ...............................................................274 TCP/IP PORTS ...........................260 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .......................................................................................................................................................................................X STANDARDS...................................................................232 Blocking Port Numbers.............275 TCP/IP UTILITIES .260 Performance.....................................271 OSI MODEL .................................................................................................................................................................................... Inc...............................................................................................................................................................................................................259 NIC Indicator Lights ..................................................................................232 Backup Options...................................................268 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES ...................................................................... Differential..............269 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING) .........................................................................234 Fault Tolerance and RAID...................................................................233 Backup Software ....................................................................................257 Cable Problems....................................................232 Backing up Data .....................................................................................................................................234 Volumes.......250 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools.............................234 Full......................................................................................................................................................................230 SECURITY TECHNIQUES ..........250 Hardware Networking Tools.243 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK .....229 Share-level Security .......................................................................Table of Contents User-level Security.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................269 IEEE 802................................237 Encryption.........................................................260 Name Resolution ...................................................................................238 Disaster Recovery ..............................239 Viruses......232 Firewalls ........................................................................................................... vii ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. and Incremental Backups ...........................................................................................................................................251 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS ....................................................................270 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS ..................................................................................................264 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY .275 Specialized Solutions....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................273 SUBNET MASKING ....................................................................................................................................255 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS ....245 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING..............................................................257 Misbehaving Protocols ..............................................................267 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES ..................................................................267 ETHERNET CABLING .............................................................................................................................................................................................242 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10 .........................................................................................................................236 PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES ...................................................................................................................................

... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 281 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS .............................................................................................................................................................. 323 viii Specialized Solutions................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 304 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3............................... 281 COMPUSERVE ...................................................................................................................... 283 CCITT ........................................................................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1......................................... OTHER HELPFUL SITES ............................ ................................ 321 INDEX ............................................................................................... 281 NOVELL ........................ 284 SAG ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 316 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.... 276 TRANSMISSION MEDIA ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 284 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM....................................................................................... 283 EIA ... 281 MICROSOFT: ...................................................................... 278 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES ..................... 318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9............................................................ 309 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5............ 278 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .................................................................................................................... Inc........................... 306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4................................ 283 IEEE .................................................... 283 ANSI.......Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TOPOLOGY REVIEW ...................................................... 284 ISO.................... 285 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY....................................................... 315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7................................................................................................... 287 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ......................................................... 319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10..................................... 311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6.............................................................................. 320 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11......................................................................... 285 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS ................................................................................................................

We are committed to always be on the leading edge of new computer environment training products. please visit us at: www. Inc. Specialized Solutions. cost-effective programs that are customized to suit your needs. Inc. One hundred percent customer satisfaction and unmatched customer service is always our commitment to the computer professional. Inc.About Specialized Solutions About Specialized Solutions Welcome to Specialized Solutions.specializedsolutions. To see other Specialized Solutions.com Specialized Solutions. We will always provide a quality product to customers at a price that is within reach of most computer professionals. course offerings. ix . We strive to provide training programs that far exceed the expectations of our customers. Our highly skilled staff of computer and educational professionals are dedicated to delivering high quality. We thank you for choosing our company as your resource for Information Technology SelfStudy Training. Inc.’s Network+ training and certification course. is dedicated to providing the computer professional the highest level of self-study training and certification materials the industry has to offer.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide x Specialized Solutions. Inc.

1 . Technical Writers. Inc. our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. at Specialized Solutions. We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program. It can be used in conjunction with the Specialized Solutions. Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals. Remember.Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives. and Digital Video Studio Professionals. We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical. Inc. or as a textbook in a classroom environment. easy to follow format. as a stand-alone textbook. Computer Graphics Experts. We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! Specialized Solutions. Technical Editors. Network+ video training series.

. Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination.” The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1.” “This examination includes blueprint weighting.0 Network Implementation 4. Inc.0 Network Support Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 25% 35% 100% 2 Specialized Solutions. test objectives and example content. The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey.0 Protocols & Standards 3.0 Media & Topologies 2.

802.Media and Topologies – 20% 1. 802. including: • Speed • Access method (CSMA / CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) and CSMA / CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection)) • Topology • Media 1. 10 GBASE-LR and 10 GBASE-ER 1. 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX • 10 GBASE-SR. topology.5 Recognize the following media types and describe their uses: • Category 3.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a diagram.2 Specify the main features of 802. schematic or description: • Star • Bus • Mesh • Ring 1.2 (Logical Link Control).3 Specify the characteristics (For example: speed. and 6 • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) • STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) • Coaxial cable • SMF (Single Mode Fiber) optic cable • MMF (Multimode Fiber) optic cable 1.11 (wireless).4 Recognize the following media connectors and describe their uses: • RJ-11 (Registered Jack) • RJ-45 (Registered Jack) • F-Type • ST (Straight Tip) • SC (Subscriber Connector or Standard Connector) • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) • Fiber LC (Local Connector) • MT-RJ (Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack) • USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1.0 .Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: Domain 1. 3 . 5.6 Identify the purposes. length. 1000BASE-CX.3 (Ethernet). Inc. 5e. and cable type) of the following cable standards: • 10BASE-T and 10BASE-FL • 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX • 1000BASE-T.5 (token ring). 802. and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) networking technologies. features and functions of the following network components: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • Gateways • CSU / DSU (Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit) Specialized Solutions.

frequency.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • NICs (Network Interface Card) • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) adapters • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) • Modems • Transceivers (media converters) • Firewalls 1.3 Identify the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) layers at which the following network components operate: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • NICs (Network Interface Card) • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) 2. function and use of the following protocols used in the TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) suite: • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) 4 Specialized Solutions. addressing schemes. antenna type and environmental factors). interoperability and naming conventions: • IPX / SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange / Sequence Packet Exchange) • NetBEUI (Network Basic Input / Output System Extended User Interface) • AppleTalk / AppleTalk over IP (Internet Protocol) • TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) 2.7 Identify the purpose of subnetting.1 Identify a MAC (Media Access Control) address and its parts.9 Identify and differentiate between the following IP (Internet Protocol) addressing methods: • Static • Dynamic • Self-assigned (APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing)) 2.7 Specify the general characteristics (For example: carrier speed.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model and their functions.0 – Protocols and Standards – 20% 2. 2. Inc.8 Identify the differences between private and public network addressing schemes.10 Define the purpose.4 Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing. . IPv6) and the required setting for connections across the Internet. 2.8 Identify factors which affect the range and speed of wireless service (For example: interference.6 Identify classful IP (Internet Protocol) ranges and their subnet masks (For example: Class A.11 (Frequency hopping spread spectrum) • 802. B and C).5 Identify the components and structure of IP (Internet Protocol) addresses (IPv4. 2. 2. 2. 2.11x (Direct sequence spread spectrum) • Infrared • Bluetooth 1. transmission type and topology) of the following wireless technologies: • 802. Domain 2.

AFP (Apple File Protocol). 2. ICS (Internet Connection Sharing).Introduction • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) • POP3 / IMAP4 (Post Office Protocol version 3 / Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • Telnet • SSH (Secure Shell) • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) • ARP / RARP (Address Resolution Protocol / Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) • NTP (Network Time Protocol) • NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) • IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) • LPR (Line Printer Remote) 2.14 Identify the basic characteristics (For example: speed. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). 5 .25 2. NAT (Network Address Translation).12 Identify the well-known ports associated with the following commonly used services and protocols: • 20 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 21 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 22 SSH (Secure Shell) • 23 Telnet • 25 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • 53 DNS (Domain Name Service) • 69 TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • 80 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • 110 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) • 119 NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • 123 NTP (Network Time Protocol) • 143 IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • 443 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) 2. Inc. Zeroconf (Zero configuration). SMB (Server Message Block). capacity and media) of the following WAN (Wide Area Networks) technologies: • Packet switching • Circuit switching • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) • T1 (T Carrier level 1) / E1 / J1 • T3 (T Carrier level 3) / E3 / J3 • OCx (Optical Carrier) • X. LPD (Line Printer Daemon) and Samba).15 Identify the basic characteristics of the following internet access technologies: • xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) • Broadband Cable (Cable modem) • POTS / PSTN (Plain Old Telephone Service / Public Switched Telephone Network) • Satellite • Wireless Specialized Solutions. 2. WINS (Windows Internet Name Service).11 Define the function of TCP / UDP (Transmission Control Protocol / User Datagram Protocol) ports. NFS (Network File System).13 Identify the purpose of network services and protocols (For example: DNS (Domain Name Service).

file and print services.9 Identify the main characteristics and purpose of extranets and intranets. 3. determine the impact on network functionality of a particular security implementation (For example: port blocking / filtering.18 Identify authentication protocols (For example: CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). PAP (Password Authentication Protocol). application support and security) of the following server operating systems to access network resources: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. media tester / certifier. authentication. Inc. benefits and characteristics of using a proxy service. benefits and characteristics of using a firewall. 3.8 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks). 6 Specialized Solutions. punch down tool or tone generator).16 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services: • RAS (Remote Access Service) • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) • PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) • VPN (Virtual Private Network) • RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) 2.7 Given a connectivity scenario. network protocols and peer and server services). Includes connection to the following servers: • UNIX / Linux / MAC OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3.6 Identify the purpose. MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). configure the connection. an authentication scheme. Domain 3.2 Identify the basic capabilities needed for client workstations to connect to and use network resources (For example: media.4 Given a remote connectivity scenario comprised of a protocol. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. 3. and physical connectivity. Kerberos and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)). 3.0 Network Implementation – 25% 3.1 Identify the basic capabilities (For example: client support. RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service). authentication and encryption). interoperability.17 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function: • IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Continued on the next page… Continued from the previous page… • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) • 802.3 Identify the appropriate tool for a given wiring task (For example: wire crimper.5 Identify the purpose.1x 2. 3. 3.

network hardware or environment). 3. interpret visual indicators (For example: link LEDs (Light Emitting Diode) and collision LEDs (Light Emitting Diode)) to determine the nature of a stated problem. identify the network area affected and the cause of the stated failure. identify the cause of a stated problem (For example: bad media.7 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology (For example: bus.8 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving an infrastructure (For example: wired or wireless) problem. determine the impact of modifying. protocol configuration. adding or removing network services (For example: DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). benefits and characteristics of using antivirus software.11 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance: • Power • Link redundancy • Storage • Services 3. physical connectivity and SOHO (Small Office / Home Office) router).5 Given a troubleshooting scenario between a client and the following server environments.6 Given a scenario.4 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a client accessing remote network services. mesh or ring) and including a network diagram. select the appropriate network utility from the following: • Tracert / traceroute • ping • arp • netstat • nbtstat • ipconfig / ifconfig • winipcfg • nslookup / dig 4. DNS (Domain Name Service) and WINS (Windows Internet Name Service)) for network resources and users.Introduction 3. identify the cause of a stated problem: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 4. interference. Inc. 4.10 Identify the purpose. 4.12 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery: • Backup / restore • Offsite storage • Hot and cold spares • Hot. 4. identify the cause of the problem (For example: file services.1). 4.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario. identify the utility and interpret the output. print services. 7 . authentication failure.0 Network Support – 35% 4. warm and cold sites Domain 4.3 Given a network scenario. Specialized Solutions. star. 4.2 Given output from a network diagnostic utility (For example: those utilities listed in objective 4.

Identify the results and effects of the solution 8. Identify the affected area 3. Document the solution and process 8 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. This strategy can include the following steps: 1.9 Given a network problem scenario. Inc. Establish what has changed 4. Select the most probable cause 5. select an appropriate course of action based on a logical troubleshooting strategy. Implement an action plan and solution including potential effects 6. . Test the result 7. Identify the symptoms and potential causes 2.

“My job is to understand the material so well that I can make it easier for my students to learn than it was for me to learn.” Specialized Solutions. 9 . Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding. Originally in technical sales and sales management with Sprint. MCP+I. In addition. MCSA. Bill now runs his own company as an independent contractor in Birmingham. MCSE. He is certified as an MCT. Your Video Instructor Your video instructor is Bill Ferguson. Hands-on experience is best. such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. Use the “Help” button where available.Introduction Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not extremely complicated. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented. Bill made his transition to Certified Technical Trainer in 1997 with ExecuTrain. and CCNA. it may seem so. Server+. as well as “Designing Security for Windows Server 2003 Network” for Exam Cram2. and Security+. Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. CCSI. To get the best results from your training. Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge. Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand. if this is your first exposure to networking. MCDST. However. teaching classes for most of the national training companies and some regional training companies. not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation. Alabama. results oriented computer specialist who has extensive knowledge of Microsoft networks. In addition he holds the CompTIA certifications of A+. Practice the function on your computer. Bill is an enthusiastic. Bill has been in the computer industry for over 15 years. Bill has written the “MCDST Study Guide” for Sybex Inc. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary. use a study plan. Bill says. Inc. Network+.

Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam. The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. You can take the test at any Virtual University Enterprises testing center (vue. There are no specific requirements.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book. You can also call VUE at 877-551-7587 or Thomson Prometric at 888-8956116. except payment of the test fee. Inc.com). How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam. but A+ certification is not required. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills. • • • How do you learn best (reading. French and Japanese. The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive. German. You may be surprised at how near you are to a testing center! Evaluate your learning aptitudes. YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Schedule the test for a few weeks from now so that you will have a guidepost that is constantly reminding you that you need to study the material.com) or any Thomson Prometric testing center (2test. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find. A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge. Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test. This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English. Since most of us learn in different ways. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs. You can locate a testing center and schedule the test on the web. CONGRATULATIONS. 1999. hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 10 Specialized Solutions. watching. there is no one method that will work for everyone. .

If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course. If you need to. 11 . Use the rewind button as often as necessary. Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). Review the video presentation one more time if necessary. At this time. you want to begin to understand. go though the entire course again. Specialized Solutions. Inc. It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point. Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time. Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises. Based on your time to learn (and your schedule). Re-read the test and review the video presentation. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). This workbook will make this task much easier.Introduction Make a plan to learn. You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through. • Complete the course a second time. just get a feel for it. Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read. What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through. set aside the time to learn. You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time. Make an appointment with yourself.

You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. Evaluate the questions you missed. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted. • • • • 12 Specialized Solutions. You will be asked to sign the form. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in. You will be required to show two forms of identification. You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam. If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams. Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam. (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam. it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature. . which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test. including one photo ID. Inc. It is a closed book exam.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test. The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form. Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam As you prepare for your certification exam it will be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure. All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam.

Keep track of the time and pace yourself.Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials. 13 . you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam. or if you are unclear about what you should do. It lists your score by objective. Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! About This Course This Specialized Solutions Network+ course is a multi-media. If the administrator does not do this. Specialized Solutions. which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass. mark a question or answer a question. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you. Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers. Before retaking the exam. Inc. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. guess. (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. If you’re not quite sure.) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. you are given the ability to skip a question. (such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test. mark it and come back to it. skip it.Introduction HINT . Do not read too much into the question. you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides. You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam. you can see which questions are not answered. put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. (You don’t need to send them the score report. At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered. If you don’t know the answer. Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions. marked or skipped. If you positively don’t know the answer. Usually. If you know the answer. You will have plenty of time as long as you use it wisely. answer the question. but be sure to read it in its entirety. a Network+ Training & Test Preparation Guide and a practice exam simulator. The course contains five instructor led CD-ROMs. Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system. ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam. self-study training system.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Video Chapters Include: CD 1: Introduction and Overview Network Topologies Network Technologies Cable Standards Media Connectors CD 2: Media Types Network Components Wireless Technologies Protocols and Standards The OSI Model IP Addressing CD 3: Ports Services WAN Internet Access Remote Access Security Protocols CD 4: Server Operating Systems Client Connectivity Tools for Networking Firewalls Proxy Service Network Connectivity Virtual Local Area Networks Antivirus Software Fault Tolerance Disaster Recovery CD 5: Troubleshooting Network Utilities Troubleshooting Network Services Troubleshooting Topologies Troubleshooting Strategy Preparation for a Certification Test 14 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Inc. Specialized Solutions. 15 .Introduction This study guide is divided into 11 chapters. It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course.

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and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net. This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment. It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than to purchase a printer for every user. Inc. You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN. But for our purposes. a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data.” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do. It is very important that. a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files. A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented.) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics. After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment. users can access programs. Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking. Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need. Through networking. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents. you understand exactly what a network is. An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?). files. Additionally. Specialized Solutions. and applications (resources). as a networking professional. Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage. Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources.” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking. 17 . peripherals.

Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information. The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits. Inc. A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network. The Internet is the world’s largest WAN. it is still considered a LAN. A WAN can connect networks from building to building or across the world. the speed of communication between the computers is typically much faster in a LAN. Also. or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. When LANs are connected they create a WAN. 18 Specialized Solutions. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function.

Also. or a mail server (E-mail). The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation. Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity. Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. The Internet has replaced most MANs today. Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. The advantages of this type of network are central administration. A mainframe will handle all the functions. if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access. and is a client. network security. A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network. efficiency in backing up the data. there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). These terms are not interchangeable. However. Inc. and expandability. Users. configuration and management may be more challenging. one for printing (print server). It is important to know what a MAN is. it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer. including hard disk space and RAM. also known as clients. The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. but they are not common. since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client). it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals There is actually a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). including applications. A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. 19 . A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or county. one for applications (application server). that access would cause the workstation to become a server. A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. when the user is getting information from the server. that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files. For example. log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. A large network may have more than one server.

. and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e.g.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers. In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal. This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved. Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network. a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand. Peer-to-Peer Network 20 Specialized Solutions. A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install. A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security. Inc. The computers are simply cabled together. Also. network security is unreliable. All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user.

the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce. if the cable breaks. The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other. you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network. scheme. Different topologies have different cabling requirements. An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. are all determined by the topology used. 21 . The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable. If not prevented. or topology. (Network Interface Cards. This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). In a Bus network. Devices only listen for data being transmitted. it prevents other devices from sending data. they do not move the transmissions along. the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other. connectors. Specialized Solutions. or diagram. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address). also called Network Adapter Cards).Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used. Inc. This cable is called a trunk. As a network professional. There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. However. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together. The Bus topology is a passive topology. and even how the cabling is run through a building. While the signal is bouncing back and forth. a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable. NICs. only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal. backbone. future growth needs. or segment. map. Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. design. To stop signal bounce. refers to its physical layout.

If the hub fails. but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down. The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network. the rest of the network will still continue to function. A disadvantage is that if one computer fails. The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Star Topology In a Star topology. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable. however. 22 Specialized Solutions. . There are no ends to terminate. It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology. The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. it can affect the entire network. Inc. Star Topology Ring Topology In a Ring topology. the entire network will go down. all devices are connected to a central point called a hub.

So far. we have been discussing physical topologies. they operate between the hubs like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus. you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology. Inc. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations. some Ethernet networks today are wired using a using multiple hubs. Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies. A logical topology. Also. the ring is actually in a special type of hub called a Multistation Access Unit (MSAU). These are the methods in which a network is actually wired. This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. a computer can fail and not prevent the network from functioning. In these networks. on the other hand. but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. Token Ring networks are physical stars and logical rings. is how the network actually works. 23 . However. This gives us a physical star topology. Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals With IBM Token Ring networks. You will be able to see a physical topology. The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. For example. Specialized Solutions. It consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. Before you can understand some of these special topologies. Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. These are known as Hybrid topologies.

24 Specialized Solutions. . The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter 4 of this book. Since each computer has its own connection to the wireless access point (WAP). . Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points. the topology of a wireless network is that of an “invisible star”.

Inc. 25 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Specialized Solutions.

Multiple Access means that more than one computer 26 Specialized Solutions. . We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token. they are called Token Ring and Ethernet. This is based on the media or wiring of the network. The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods. The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit. and the message is delivered. only one device at a time can communicate on the network. Since there is only one token. Inc. Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices. The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages. The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network. Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). With several devices connected to one media. we create kind of a “party line”.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected.

Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps. Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted). Specialized Solutions. Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original. Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals can be connected to the same cable. Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks. 27 .

Passive Hub – Patch Panel 28 Specialized Solutions. Today. Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only. Passive hubs do not require any electrical power to function. Just remember.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks. The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator. Essentially. Inc. With a Token Ring. not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified. Hubs can be classified as either passive or active. they are all the same. since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network. . they are called MSAUs (Multiple Station Access Units). hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function.

This type type of hub requires electrical power to function. They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected. Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity. 29 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs. Specialized Solutions. Inc. 2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available. 3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated. An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. 4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs.

. and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN. It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network. A WAN is not geographically limited and typically has greater speed of communication than a WAN. Inc. The three main types of topology are bus.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources. The two types of networks are LANs and WANs. Topology is a term we use to describe the logical shape of the connection of computers in a network. go back and review the chapter again. 30 Specialized Solutions. and ring. A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks. star. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 31 . Inc. Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition Specialized Solutions.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 32 Specialized Solutions.

Name some advantages of having centralized documents. 5.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Review Questions . 8. Name two media access methods. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. Inc. What is the main reason for networking computers? 3. Specialized Solutions. What are the key differences between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6. 7. 9.Chapter 1 1. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. 10. 11. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Name the three basic topologies. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12. 33 . What is a “sneaker net”? 4.

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what we are really talking about are network operating systems. we are referencing the built-in network operating system component. The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e.g. it is just a pile of metal and plastic. This chapter is all about the various operating systems with which a networking professional needs to be familiar. Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment. You can get it all set up and turn on the power. and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). spreadsheet. When we are talking about operating systems. Inc. We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities. What is an Operating System? Not that long ago. The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other. word-processing.Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking. processor time. Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe. Hardware resources such as RAM. 35 . but without an operating system. most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions. network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system. if you don’t have the software to run it.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 . Specialized Solutions. and database programs). hard disk space. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment. Most of today’s client and server operating systems have a built-in network operating system. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well. as well as the operating system. it will just sit there. In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems. When we refer to the operating system in this chapter. Today.

means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. It is used on all of the latest operating systems. 36 Specialized Solutions. put simply. Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. Preemptive multitasking began with Windows 95 and the Intel Pentium processor. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. Inc. . Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor. the processor is never taken away from a task. In non-preemptive multitasking. Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed. A true multitasking (multi-processing) operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs.

Windows 95/98 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems. Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. Instead. moving photos to the Web. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network. to communicate with other computers over a network. Novell NetWare. and you have a working network.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. 37 . Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems. Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network. and archiving music. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card. Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs. or a similar program. They use an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. Specialized Solutions. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system. All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. turning on the computer and answering questions. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. such as BSD UNIX. Windows 95/98 Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems that include a network operating system. all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. Then. Microsoft Client. Their new graphical interface and networking capabilities make them a vast improvement over their predecessors. It is well-suited for editing home movies. Inc.

multilingual support. IPsec and Kerberos support. Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across in real life but are unlikely to be on the test: 38 Specialized Solutions. which allows for safety when installing additional software or making changes to the computer’s configuration. Inc. like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here. peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT. It. remote OS installation. It allows for faster user switching. It also uses System Restore. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server. EFS (Encrypting File System). It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies. is equipped to be networked easily. Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is the newest edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users. It features file protection. a simplified visual design. driver certification. like ME.

it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment. In a Serverbased network.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability. However. This can also provide accessibility and security for all devices on a network. Inc. the computers act as both a client and a server. Inc. Specialized Solutions. 39 . Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network. Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (uses resources locally).

They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. Data Protection As we already discussed. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. Inc. if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task. Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords. At the very least. the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. Servers exist to serve. and to the server. most of the data is stored on the server. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. Some networks even cluster server so that more that one server can share a database of information. Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server. Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access). . The component that handles these requests is called the redirector. server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location. The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed. However. out onto the network. Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access. This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus. Server Software As their name implies. Unlike most client software. This 40 Specialized Solutions.

It does not need to know anything about networks. to resources. etc. Basically. This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer. The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs. called drive designators. Inc. It does this by assigning drive letters. 41 . If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server. which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) provides for load balancing of the server resources as well as fault tolerance if one server were to fail. If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus. it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests. or if they need to be redirected to the server. Specialized Solutions.

password. 486. messaging. Inc. copied. Organization of network resources such as users. as well as what kind of access they have. With NDS’ single point logon. Version 4. we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. Directory and file attributes are used to set the types of access for a file or directory such as viewed. In the past. or changed. which is a Windows-based utility. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. First.EXE. it was the most popular server operating system. It may be installed in either the client or server format. shared. It is Novell’s push to gain market share and is a way of creating an Intranet. and volumes is also handled with NDS. servers. Versions 3.2) was designed to operate on 286 machines. management. and account restrictions. and file and print services. non-shareable. NetWare Directory Services (NDS) NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. groups. In this section.11 operate on 386.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use. deleted. 42 Specialized Solutions. which is a DOS-based utility. The earliest version (2. NetWare provides more than adequate network security by using a combination of approaches. time.12 and 4. Version 6. login security provides authentication and verification of user name. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. NetWare is based upon the industry standard X500 directory architecture. Trustee rights regulate which directories and files a user can access. . a user may logon from anywhere on the network and gain access with all of their assigned rights and privileges intact. • NetWare’s popularity is due largely to its ability to provide services across multioperating system environments.5 is now on the market. or Pentium machines.11 is called IntranetWare. NetWare Security The purpose of a network may be to share resources. routing. or through NWADMIN. which is like the Internet but within a network or company. It is a reliable operating system that provides performance and security. web-publishing. name service. NetWare File Services The NetWare file server hard drive may be mapped to a client and the client machine will recognize the drive as a logical drive and be able to access it as it would any other drive in the computer. but there will always be data in any network to which access must be restricted. but it is losing market share to Microsoft servers every year. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. NetWare is administered through NetADMIN. Novell NetWare The NetWare operating system has been around for a long time.

Inc. NetWare Minimum Requirements The following are the minimum installation requirements as specified by Novell for installing their server software: Specialized Solutions. as well as others. Printers may be attached to the server. except an individual workstation. It is compatible with E-mail programs such as Novell’s GroupWise and Microsoft Mail. Print requests are first routed to the file server. You can send messages to individuals or to groups very easily. 43 . or directly to the network. You can even send messages to everyone in a group.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Print Services NetWare Print Services can support up to 256 printers. NetWare also provides a method of using simple commands to send messages to other users on the network. next to the print server. and finally to the printer. a workstation. NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS) MHS may be installed on any server and configured to be a network wide E-mail system. The file server and the print server can be the same computer.

1 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS MS Windows 3.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 4. Inc.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for Macintosh OS Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Version 2.1 or later (Standard or Extended Edition) and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 OS/2 2.5 MB 20 MB Client Software The client software may be installed on any computer running any of the following: • • • • • 44 DOS 3.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 5: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Pentium Class or higher 64 MB 550 MB 386 or higher 16 MB 105 MB 386 or higher 6 MB 30 MB 286 or higher 2.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 3.11 or OS/2 Warp and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 Macintosh 6.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS OS/2 1. .

Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. Windows combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. or No Access may be set on the directory. Specialized Solutions. Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments. The newest of these server operating systems. 45 . which as at the base of all Microsoft’s servers. The NT Kernel. As we’ve already discussed. Change. you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data. This type is performed by each workstation or server publicly sharing a directory on the network. but Windows NT contains services such as NWLink and Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW) that allow them to work together effectively. interoperability simply means the ability of an operating system to operate with other systems. actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2). NetWare is extremely efficient at operating with other systems. offer even more advantages and stronger security than their predecessors.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Interoperability As the word implies. Files in Windows may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network. and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier.File Allocation Table) during installation. its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows Servers. Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software). Today. The advanced security features of Windows are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT . Full Control. The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of Windows security features. It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of Microsoft’s server/workstation technology. The attributes such as Read. Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems. Problems do occur when trying to operate within the Windows NT domain. You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows network. the Windows servers may be configured to store each workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups. Windows File Services Like NetWare. Inc. The NetWare client can be installed with almost any other operating system. With this method. Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management. Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version. Unlike NetWare. In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows . but it does have several advantages. another security method must be utilized. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories.

Remember. . See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. Microsoft uses domains to control access and authenticate users and computers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows Server Security Security was a major concern in the development of Windows Servers. Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers. Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions). 46 Specialized Solutions. and resources with a shared security database. A domain is simply a group of users. Workstation Service is the redirector service. Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene.) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer. Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible. Even if you are installing a local printer. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network. This trend continued with the latest Windows server operating systems (Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. Inc. Windows Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in a Windows network. you are given the option to share it to the network. especially with the latest Windows Server 2003 family. (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource. At least one domain controller is assigned to each domain. Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service.. more than one printer can be installed to any machine. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer. permissions. and user rights.. computers. The following is a list of services included with Windows Server software to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between Microsoft and NetWare. Server Service provides access to network resources. Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in the domain. A domain controller is a server that maintains and manages all accounts. Windows Network Services There are many services available in Windows to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user.

UNIX is a Specialized Solutions. It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives.0). Windows Server 2003 offers a more secure Web Server (IIS 6. 47 . It allows Novell NDS computers to be managed just as Microsoft domain controllers. Installing CSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. This software is not included with Netware but can be purchased separately. Inc. Windows Server 2003 is the first Windows server that was built primarily with security in mind. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional. Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. and is. Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory.0) than the previous version in Windows 2000 (IIS 5. Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to Windows. This is necessary because all Microsoft client workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point. It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network.. Previous Microsoft server operating systems were built to serve and then had security features to protect them. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the Microsoft service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server.. used as such. In addition. Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 is the latest in the line of Microsoft server operating systems.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an Microsoft domain and the NetWare server.well serve. Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to Microsoft’s domain controller. FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access Microsoft file and print services. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators. In fact. In contrast. It can be installed on the Microsoft client to allow it to connect the Netware server directly. when using Windows Server 2003 you typically must remove or configure security boundaries in order to get the server to. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System. which govern what users can see and do on the network. but it adds many features that are designed exclusively for security. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases. Installing GSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. It provides all of the advantages of Windows 2000 Server. it has more “locked down” security templates that make it less likely that users will try to go around the security.

The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. many variations of Linux have been created over the years such as Caldera and Red Hat. UNIX. Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system. to convert the UNIX host into a file server. VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments. It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. UNIX is a multi-tasking. A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. Software is available. At its inception. and messaging services. Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows. multi-user. These terminals are not stand-alone computers. TCP/IP. as well as file and printer sharing. It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms. general-purpose operating system. but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. OS/2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide bulky operating system. Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX. security. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources. It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. . and many other features associated with an OS. 48 Specialized Solutions. Linux is open source. it was an extremely popular network operating system. as well as others. which means that it can be changed by a software programmer. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system. Like Novell NetWare. A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users. however. in fact the software is available for a free download. StreetTalk provides directory. The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS. Inc. At one time. Because of its open source nature.

In conjunction with Xerox. both at home and on the go. Inc. The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction with the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book).Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984. they developed what later became known as the mouse and the first GUI display. but users also use them personally. 49 . Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production. and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC. Specialized Solutions.

such as Novell NetWare and Windows server operating systems. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems. In a server-based network. A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare). Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems. Today. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. etc. Inc. and data backups. Banyan VINES. centralization of administration. The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly. the client computers rely on the server for their resources. Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. In a peer-to-peer network. Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely). 50 Specialized Solutions. . It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today.). With the redirector. and at least be familiar with others. The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security. an application is unaware that it is working from a network. (UNIX. the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer. the most popular network operating systems also function as the network operating system. There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system. Study through the chapter again if you need to. Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic.

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS)

KEYWORDS Exercise
Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition

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Review Questions
1. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system?

2.

What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking?

3.

What is the purpose of the redirector?

4.

NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments.

5.

What is NDS?

6.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5?

7.

Define interoperability.

8.

Unlike NetWare, Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one.

9.

What is NTFS?

10.

What is a domain?

11.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server?

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Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) 12. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.

13.

What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system?

14.

What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984?

15.

What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system?

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Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards

Chapter 3- The OSI Model and Communication Standards
In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, what it is and its primary function. You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles each function, and which devices function at each layer. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam.

The Seven Layers of Network Communication
The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. As a result, some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other, and how they will communicate if they are using different languages. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit; when not to transmit; and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected; how the data will flow (at what speed); and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications.

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The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you should notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers, depending upon their functions.

Seven Layers of the OSI Model
The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network. These services include file, print, and messaging services. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer. The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. This is not the actual application or program, simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail, transfer files across the network, or access a

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without duplication. 57 . and ending connections. In short. if the packets are too small. or full-duplex communication. managing. The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit. interpreting graphics commands. and when. Inc. and prepare it for its journey. Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure. The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence. The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. Sessions may be established using simplex. protocol conversion. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards network database. Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. The network redirector operates at this layer. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. Each connection is called a session. This layer is responsible for establishing. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. As its name implies. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. or receive. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network. add any addressing information and error correction information. The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them. they will be combined. and un-packaging the data for transport. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer. it presents data to the application layer. it will break the data into packets. bit ordering. The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer. and error free. If Specialized Solutions. etc. and data encryption. half-duplex. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local. This layer is also responsible for data compression. It provides a logical connection between the two devices. For example.) character set conversion. The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging.

The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission. Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards. UDP is a connectionless protocol. it will retransmit after a specified amount of time. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer.518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. Connectionless protocols are faster. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. segmentation information and routing information. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. Once the data is reassembled. When you are using a connection-oriented protocol. Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. error free manner. Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses. It receives a packet from the Network layer and packages it into what is called a frame. 58 Specialized Solutions. Routers and NICs function on this layer. they will be broken into smaller packets. all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. In an ideal world. Inc. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols. the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets. the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers. stripped of its addressing information. This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link. checked for errors. This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide they are too large. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. When the data is received. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. . Should an error occur. This controls network congestion. it will be un-packed.) It also includes control information such as frame type. When you are using a connectionless protocol. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination. but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. For example. however. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks. delivery of packets is not guaranteed.

Token Passing. If it is. This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel. When the sending computer does not receive and acknowledgement. If it is not. The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer. It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check).2 standard defines how this takes place. it will automatically resend the packet. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers. The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not. Although quite rare. The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. The following is an example of a MAC address: Specialized Solutions. and Demand Priority. It identifies a line protocol. (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host). The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. such as SDLC. NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements. it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards In addition. TCP/IP is somewhat “self healing”. the destination computer will not send an acknowledgement. The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address. the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions. In this way. then it discards the data. Inc. MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium. It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link. The way that a network shares the channel is called its carrier access method. They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers. If the calculation does not check out. The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer. The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame. The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). the data is sent out on the wire to all computers. The IEEE 802. it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer. Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers. it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame. 59 . In a broadcast network such as Ethernet.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 00-00-13-35-FD-AB The first 3 bytes (00-00-13) identify the manufacturer of the card. The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets. It identifies the NIC. Multipoint communication is the process of one device communicating with multiple devices on a network. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer. It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer. and determines when and how data may be transmitted. all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model. Inc. Repeaters. hubs and transceivers.iso. It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium. Switches. and what each one will do. Point-topoint communication is the process of one device communicating with one other device . it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals. The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames. data work at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. synchronizes the data. Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer. Note: For more information on the OSI Model. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. Point to point communication is often used between switches and routers on a network. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer. . The last 3 bytes (35FD-AB) are the Device ID that is unique to the associated Vendor ID. Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model. 60 Specialized Solutions. For example. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses. visit www.ch/.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. 61 . Inc.

the Application layer is not the actual application. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer. You are communicating directly with the Application layer. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. and provides services to the layer directly above it. protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. Inc. in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer.) The request is in the form of a packet. . As the packet travels up through the layers. For example: You send a request for services to the server. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted by you and the request is considered processed. The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message. The Physical layer does not add a header.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task. (Remember. In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. each layer is also responsible for adding or removing headers so that the data is ready to be interpreted by the next layer. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer. In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate. or suite. The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. In addition to reading the headers and performing the instructions. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions. When the destination computer receives the data. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. each layer reads and performs the tasks specified in its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture. These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task. 62 Specialized Solutions. This is called a protocol stack. the process of moving through the layers is reversed. Headers contain instructions for tasks that need to be performed at that level. over the network medium.

The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers. Because of this. but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Signals or Bits or Data Stream into Frames Frames into Packets Frames or Datagrams into Segments Segments into data Data Data Data into Data Files or Messages Specialized Solutions. 63 . Inc. they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model. By relating various protocols to the OSI model. This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol. . Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers. In fact. Inc. the OSI Model is not a protocol. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. it would not match. The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 64 Specialized Solutions. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections. Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer. Also. you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model. you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed.

The specifications describe how components are supposed to function. Without them we would not have as many software or hardware packages available to us. This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate. 65 . These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments. because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system. it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers. The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer. you do need to remember the different layers and the tasks for which each layer is responsible. Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task. etc. Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols. bridges. As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself. A repeater amplifies these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs. This weakening is known as attenuation. Repeaters. Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model. and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network. Routers are responsible for using logical addresses to move packets from one network to another and deliver them to a host. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT 66 Specialized Solutions. Data Link layer and the Network layer. Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X. etc. . They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination. routers. The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices. Inc. are going to be used when they write a program. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs. as well as where in the OSI model they operate.

but usually in the Application layer). Router tables can be entered manually by a network administrator or they can be dynamically updated using routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF. If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers. It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router. A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols or even different technologies. A popular example is an SNA Gateway. the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing. which can be used to connect an IBM mainframe computer to a Microsoft network. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. Inc. However. The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate. 67 . if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Each router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it.

100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards.2 802.10 802.11 802.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards.4 802. . but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible.3 802.5 802. a little surfing might be in order. Inc.8 802. Inc. February 1980).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. and if you would like more information on them. visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www.7 802.1 802.ieee.6 802.9 802. 68 Specialized Solutions. (IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs. The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802. These standards were prepared before the OSI standards. This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started.12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN.standards.

Inc. 69 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions.

This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver. This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer. and hence. However. It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver. the network. The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC. ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. Inc. the NIC also needs a device driver to function. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another). The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp. . which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols. Network 70 Specialized Solutions. NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another. which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks. and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments.

You have no confirmation (unless he calls you back) that he received the message. Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol. if TCP/IP is bound first. Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable. Routable vs. In a connectionless scenario. the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. and in full. Specialized Solutions. This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received. For example. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model. it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected using a router. 71 . It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function. Inc. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department. They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. In connection-oriented communication. Connectionless communication is faster. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. In today’s LANs however. but connection-oriented is more reliable. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on his answering machine. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. Connection-Oriented vs. Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network. Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless. There is no guarantee that the message was delivered. Protocol Binding In order to function. In a connectionless communication.) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. If that fails.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X. As a networking professional. Inc.25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet). you should be familiar with these protocol stacks and you should know the OSI layer in which their components function. It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable. 72 Specialized Solutions. Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks.

It uses the MAC address and is non-routable. It has been modified over the years and now contains the following components: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer. (If data must cross a router SPX is used. and handles file and print services. Inc. This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – Provides Application layer services for Macintosh. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment. This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite. AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – Manages file sharing at the Application layer AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – Provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer. LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers. It resides in the Network layer. Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – Provides transmission of packets across a network. this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP. 73 • • • • • • . It is a routable protocol. At the Presentation Specialized Solutions. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. It resides in the Network layer. NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model. NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. regardless of speed.) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol. IPX/ SPX This protocol is the proprietary protocol that was developed by Novell for Netware servers and clients. In addition to hop count.

UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. • Many companies use Netware with the TCP/IP protocol stack.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide layer it handles data translation. flow control. and connection-oriented error control services.1 and later installs TCP/IP by default. . We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. At the Session layer it establishes and controls sessions. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network. TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol. No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed. Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent. It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead. SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector. The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking). It is also layered on IP like TCP. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers. At the Transport layer it handles sequencing. FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system. Inc. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary. TCP and IP. • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server. 74 Specialized Solutions. while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections. SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems. APPC supports Transport and Session layer services. Novell Netware 5. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names.

It resides in the Network layer. without regard to speed. ARP will add the information to its table for future use. It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources. It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. 75 . ARP keeps a table of corresponding IP and MAC addresses that have been resolved in the previous 10 minutes. ARP will first check its table and if a matching address is not found. It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability. If you do not need to use passwords. then TFTP would be advisable over FTP. It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP. making it connectionless. this is also a Network layer protocol. Telnet can also be used for remote configuration of servers and network devices such as routers and switches. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server. but in addition. Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond to the broadcast by sending its MAC address. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP. Inc. It is an Application layer protocol. OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer. it will broadcast on the local subnet to determine the MAC address of the computer with the associated IP address. but in reverse. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system. The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP is responsible for resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses. RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. instead of only the number of hops.

DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Because of this. At each stop. This means that routes change as conditions change. This is the host on an X. This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN. It uses standard telephone lines and switches. X.25 is also an equipment specification. In addition. It is a DEC protocol used for interactive. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet. Instead. it is out of the administrator’s control. it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer. X. . This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits. The second part of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment). XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs. making X. which is the main reason that it is non-routable.25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization. It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP. This protocol is not used for data communication. but in between. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced).25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud. Inc. This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions. The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs.25 a very slow but very reliable protocol. It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers. Data goes in and comes out. only printing functions.25 network. It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer. the X. which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines. LAT (Local Area Transport) LAT does not have a Network layer. The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment). packets are re-examined to determine whether they are damaged. This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use. 76 Specialized Solutions. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end.25 X. Data is routed via the best connection at a given time.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide X.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model. 77 . which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems. It may be used with bridges. easy to configure and small. but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks. Specialized Solutions. Inc. It is fast.

PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer. DHCP. Like a traffic report on your radio. administration. and other protocols as well as TCP/IP. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. NetBEUI. and notifies upper layers to route around them. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely over the Internet. It does not support IPX. It maintains a database and provides hostname to IP address resolution. NetBEUI. Inc. It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. This database is typically dynamic in today’s modern networks. PPP supports IPX. It handles session establishment. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands. . but it can also be modified manually by the network administrator.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Other Protocols The following are other protocols with which you should be familiar: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. it detects congested areas and links that are down. RPC is used by the redirector to 78 Specialized Solutions. file transfers. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations. NWLink and NetBEUI. It also supports data encryption. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications. or DHCP. and connection release. SLIP is not used as much as PPP. It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures. ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it.

It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer. Inc. Specialized Solutions. Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards determine if a resource is local or on the network. 79 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter. 80 Specialized Solutions. but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other. you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three. if you can get to the server through a router. we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. For example. It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test. . The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional. Inc.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc. Keyword 802. 81 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition Specialized Solutions.

Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. managing. Which OSI layer is responsible for the MAC address? 8. and ending connections? 12. 3. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? 00-01-A5-D3-B4-01 82 Specialized Solutions. What is the function of the Application Layer? 9.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions – Chapter 3 1. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. Who developed the OSI model? 2. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11. 5. What is a MAC address? 13. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. Inc. . A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. 6. 10. 4. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. 7.

What are NDIS and ODI? 20. What is the function of a Gateway? 18. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 22. Will this work? Why or Why not? Specialized Solutions. Describe protocol binding. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 19. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 15. without duplication and error free? 16. 23. Name as many routable protocols as you can remember.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 14. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. 83 . 21. Which is faster. What are they? 17. Inc.

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it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. 85 . and other hardware and peripherals. Because it is shielded. Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install. Intel. Xerox). network adapter cards. but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand. It can transmit voice. Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet).Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 . The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. Specialized Solutions. There are numerous kinds of cable. How to properly configure and use network adapter cards. It is not often used in today’s networks. There are several cabling options. and the hardware aspect of network operations. which we will address here. a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover. Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. and how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter. Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential. It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC. The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable. or DIX (Digital. Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid.Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation. Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist. Inc. video. but may still be used in some temporary installations such as a construction trailer (although wireless would be a much more likely alternative). (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter). along with connectors. 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology.

As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. as well as how they are attached to the cables. They are specified based on their impedance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. it is not as easy to install. it has been replaced by twisted-pair cable and fiber optic cable. Inc. BNC Cable Connectors BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable. 86 Specialized Solutions. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. In the past. In today’s networks. . Thicknet was used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks. It is expressed in ohms. It is attached directly to the NIC but allows network signal to flow straight through it as well as to the NIC. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers.

The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together. It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection. It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver. This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable. N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet. A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium. Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. and is used to connect the device to the network. The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors). and an AUI cable. Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver. Inc. One of the terminators must be grounded. Specialized Solutions. BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. 87 . BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on.

It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types. Instead. most networking professionals used a clamp-on transceiver. . This types of connections have been largely replaced by newer cable methods such as twisted-pair and fiber optic cable. this was time-consuming and it absorbed signal so it was not the common approach. There are four pair strands in most twisted-pair cables. Inc. This cable type consists of insulated pair strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another. These clamp-on transceivers were often referred to as vampire taps because they utilized sharp teeth that punctured the cable to make the connection. Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today. The twist helps 88 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver.

The tighter the twist. Currently. UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per meter in each pair of wires. This results in less sensitivity to EMI. Since it is unshielded. Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP). UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular. Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 1000 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM and Gigabit Ethernet Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling. Inc. Twisted Pair Cabling Specialized Solutions. It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters. The following is a summary of UTP cables. Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. the faster the signal can be sent through the wires without crosstalk. 89 . there are six categories. it is more sensitive to EMI.

RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector. An RJ-11 jack has four connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight. Inc. They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 10 Gbps . These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. This is an excellent way to organize network cables. Wall plates are typically used to make the connection to the computers themselves. Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium. This gives the network administrator a greater degree of flexibility and provides fault tolerance for the network cabling system. The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a special tool punch down tool to make the proper connection by stripping the insulation from the wire without breaking the wire. The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location. . The front of the patch panel contains RJ-45 ports (a port is a female counterpart for the RJ-45 jack). The RJ-45 jack’s position can therefore be changed from patch panel to patch panel to use a different set of cables for the same connection.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations. An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger. Wall Plates for RJ-45 90 Specialized Solutions.

91 . This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber. which is easier to install.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking. It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). (The core can also be made up of plastic. it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength. The following is a summary of IBM Types: Specialized Solutions. Because of this feature. fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances. Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic).) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable. Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. Inc. the data cannot be tapped or stolen. which reduces signal loss. as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types. It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI. They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP. One strand transmits and one receives. IBM cabling is based on its Type. . IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks. However. it is therefore not as common as UTP.. but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses.

IBM Connector 92 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). . Contains a shield for use under carpets. Plenum grade. Six twisted pairs. Inc. An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite. These are very rarely used in today’s modern networks. The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors. Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Not Defined Two 62. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications. Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets.5/125-micron multimode fibers. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet).

Specialized Solutions. Inc. 93 .Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter.

The signal flow is uni-directional. Inc. Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps) or gigabits per second (Gbps). It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing). • Simplex vs. these fumes would circulate throughout a building in the event of a fire. An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time. Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways. Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions.Baseband vs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cabling Terms The following are terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. For example. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions. but cannot send a message. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire. Both you and the party you are talking to can talk and listen at the same time. Because this space does circulate air through a building. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). . This space is used to circulate air through a building. • Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above. fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge. The signal flow is bidirectional. As the AWG wire number decreases. If this type of cable were used in the plenum. Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum. (send and receive) but only one at a time. a pager can receive a message. PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. For example. Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only. PVC grade cable is less expensive than Plenum grade cable but it gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned. 94 Specialized Solutions. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. the wire thickness increases. For example. Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel.

shielded cable or fiber optic cable might be more appropriate. such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well. local fire codes will need to be addressed. the flexibility of the medium should be considered. Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes. A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling.) Will the cable be installed in “noisy” areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting. how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners. It is therefore specifically designed to be used in these circulation areas. For example.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals In contrast. Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network.) Specialized Solutions. 95 .) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum. Inc. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives.

) If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure. there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective. fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping. cost are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network. Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance.) Transmission speeds and. Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 96 Specialized Solutions. attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor. last but not least. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small. Inc. On the other hand.

Specialized Solutions. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves. Analog data has an infinite number of possible states. The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium. handles network addressing. Because these paths are side-by-side. This is known as serial communication. Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. which constantly vary in one or more values. Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. Inc.) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port. data is moved along in groups. This is known as parallel communication. Today. Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame. NICs are used to connect the computer to the network. We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later. or 0’s (off). Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side. most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit. It makes the physical connection to the network. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking. The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. Network cabling moves data in a single data stream. Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time. 97 . are also known as Network Adapter Cards. and controls the flow of data on the network. (And of course to translate it back again.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs.

Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the 98 Specialized Solutions. Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC. The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting. DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU. Inc. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer. This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters. Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC. they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. the NIC may need to be configured. The time intervals between data chunks. Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent. This makes transferring data much faster. Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC. DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium. the two cards start sending and receiving data. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs. The speed of the transmission. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. When this occurs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique MAC address. The amount of time between confirmations. . If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed. Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it.

The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available. 99 . With a DMA channel. The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems. Inc. DMA Channel Configuration of Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels is similar to IRQs. such as: IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU. The good news is that unlike an IRQ. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that typically no two devices can use the same interrupt. See Appendix A for common address assignments. and some are set using software. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments. In practice. not all devices need one. Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings. These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by a device. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. in this case the NIC.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses. DMA channels are used by devices that frequently need access to large amounts of memory. The device is constantly listening to this channel for commands from the processor. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned. Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. these devices can access the memory that they need without interrupting the processor. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line. Only devices like NIC cards that need this type of memory access are assigned DMA channels. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU. Specialized Solutions. certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. Other cards will need to be configured manually.

RJ-45. If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail. The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. or you may have to configure it manually. 100 Specialized Solutions. They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable. Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC. they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required. Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC. Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer. Inc. . or both). Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter.

The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus. Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus. 101 . Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers. Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus. They are generally 32-bit buses. Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much. but can be a 64-bit bus. including network connectivity. They are also called PC-Card Buses. Specialized Solutions. Inc. The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus. Today most buses are either EISA or PCI.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Performance Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance. . Without this feature. Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU. RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed. Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data. thereby improving network performance. Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data. it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally. Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer. but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. Inc. 102 Specialized Solutions. thereby bypassing the CPU. This type of card is expensive. Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data. the NIC would be a bottleneck. Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus. The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling. a user can access the network from anywhere in the building. With some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down. Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems.Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking. or on the road. Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created. Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems. Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations such as ocean dwelling oil platforms. Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. Mobile Computing . For example. but through the use of an infrared or radio medium. A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks. People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home. making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. With wireless systems. They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components.e. Extended Local Area Networks . • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective. Wireless networks use wireless access points (WAPs) to “connect” the network devices to each other. 103 . Inc.Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs. Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly. a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings. – hubs). They function just like other access points (i. Specialized Solutions. the office. Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN.

they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping. Infrared networks typically broadcast at about 10 Mbps. Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet. Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • 104 Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint Specialized Solutions. These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources. Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference. such as windows. This involves using infrared (below Red) light to carry signals to a receiver.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared You use infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control. and because the transmissions are tightly focused. . Inc.

Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. In the hopping method. The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls. 105 . which are then transmitted over separate frequencies.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. uses broadband technology. etc. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. until it reaches the receiver. Specialized Solutions. which then routes the signal appropriately. The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping. require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. It does. Inc. however. the message is broken into parts (called chips). as the name implies. the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time. ceilings. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps. In the direct sequence modulation method. or direct sequence modulation. the signal is beamed towards a central unit. Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint.

These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances. There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite. 106 Specialized Solutions. and only the destination device can receive and read the packet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts. Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally. Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. Inc. . Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver. It is used for line-of-sight communication. mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network. Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite. The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication.

107 . Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Specialized Solutions.

it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. AUI. As a network professional. . Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals. receives. 108 Specialized Solutions. You should know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. Radio. There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial. RJ-45. In addition. it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. and Fiber-Optic. The four basic wireless types are: Infrared. As a networking professional. It prepares. etc. and Microwave. Laser. Inc. you should know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type. we took a look at the future. and controls data flow over the network. Finally. This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network. Twisted Pair. transmits. Wireless networking is the trend of the future. After discussing at network cabling we then took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself. Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 109 . Inc. Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions Definition Specialized Solutions.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair 110 Specialized Solutions. Definition .

111 . Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword Vampire Tap Definition Specialized Solutions.

What is the most popular of the cable types? 10. Inc. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2. . What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7. What is the most expensive cable type? 13. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4. What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12. What is the least expensive of the cable types? 112 Specialized Solutions. How is a vampire tap connected? 6. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable.

15. What does AWG stand for and what is it?

16. Describe baseband.

17. Describe broadband.

18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication?

19. What is the function of a network adapter card?

20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available?

21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card?

22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network?

23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types?

24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network?

25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally?

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards
In previous chapters, we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed, along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets, or frames. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. In this chapter, we will discover how Ethernet works, as well as how Token-ring networks function. AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter. After completing this chapter, you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture, while not as popular as Ethernet, are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers, in this case, over a network. In Chapter 3, you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite, IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture, SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk

The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols; thus, they do not map directly to the OSI Model. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. Specialized Solutions, Inc. 115

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information, handle addressing, and check for errors. Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments.

A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card, also known as the network interface card (NIC), in order for it to be used with a network computer. In some instances, as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX, two protocols may be bound to one card. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC.

Access Methods
In a network, multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. If two or more computers were to send data at the same time, the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing

• Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free, it will send data. While there is data traveling on the cable, no computer will transmit data. Occasionally, however, two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. Naturally, the more users who are connected to a network, the denser network traffic becomes. Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method.

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. It is, however, the access method that works best with wireless connections; since the wireless channel can be verified before the data is sent. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. A token (a special type of packet) is circulated around the ring from computer to computer. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network, it must wait until it possesses the token. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. Data is transmitted in frames. The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. The trailer includes error control information. When the computer is ready, the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted, the frame would be resent. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. Because only one computer at a time may transmit, this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions. (Some more recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer, router, switch, or bridge. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes, addresses, and links are functioning. Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer, hub, and destination computer, instead of broadcasts over the entire network. Because of the cabling method used with this access method, (four pairs Specialized Solutions, Inc. 117

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of wires are used, which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time, but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously, the one with the highest priority is serviced first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests.

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information. Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Network Communications (Frames and Packets) As we’ve discussed previously. The data to be transmitted. Specialized Solutions. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files. Computer control data such as service requests and commands. The destination address of the receiving computer. Data files tend to be quite large. Error checking information such as Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) information. only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). if there is a transmission error. Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission.) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. or messages. Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection. 119 . (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably. but we will use the term packets. This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data. Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium. Also.

If there is a discrepancy. the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit. A Packet 120 Specialized Solutions. Depending upon the network. the calculation is run again. CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet. usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes. the source and destination addresses. packets can be various sizes.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet. the trailer contains the error checking information. and clocking information. Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. . The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted. Usually. the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact. Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network. Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission. When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer. Inc. If the results are the same.

121 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Specialized Solutions. Inc.

like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell). Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology). . we are going to look at different standards for networks. The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements. or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT). It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. in a railroad. There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards. as addressed previously.3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Standards Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network. The original version was a 2. is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. data (in this case passengers and freight) is moved in various cars. but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data). it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data). Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. Ethernet (802. There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points. It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2). Thicknet coaxial (10Base5).2) The Logical Link Control layer. In this section. but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol. and some are narrow gauge). some are diesel. Not all railroads are the same (some are electric. Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication. Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802. However. It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method. Inc.94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable.3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL 122 Specialized Solutions. For example. and typically transmits at 10 Mbps. Logical Link Control (802. These provide the standards for the railroads. some are wide gauge. The standards define the means of communications.

The minimum distance between nodes is . The actual maximum segment length. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30. The minimum distance between nodes is 2. The maximum number of nodes per network 90. and computer aided design. 123 . And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling. As its name implies.5 meters. it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. is 185 meters.5 meters. (There may be five segments but only three may be populated. 10BaseT uses the star topology. The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet Specialized Solutions. The maximum number of nodes per network 100.5 meters. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. indicating its maximum segment length. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2. The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps. meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters. The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters. it is most commonly created with UTP cable. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology. however. 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling. 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system. Inc. 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors. These applications include video. document and image storage. The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters. to name a few. repeaters can be used for longer distances. 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable. and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated.) This is referred to as the “5-4-3 Rule”. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs. If the segment must exceed this limitation. BNC connectors and a transceiver. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications.

but that will be referred to later in this book. the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable. When you see any of these terms. to some degree. and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets. Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable. It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. and AnyLAN. . It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN. 100BaseVG. 124 Specialized Solutions. with Gigabit Ethernet.12 is the standard that defines this technology. This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps. Inc.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard. Because of its intense speed. VG. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs). (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment. using the CSMA/CD access method.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet) 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade. The IEEE specification 802. ATM competes. There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know. although copper can be used with much shorter distances. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable. the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology. and the longest cable length is 250 meters. Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks. 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon. and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology. they are referring to the same thing.

Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP. Ethernet also works in the UNIX environment. It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance. 125 . Specialized Solutions. by joining with either a router or a bridge.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802. The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame. The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring. The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes. 2. The Token Ring access method. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. Like Ethernet. and 3). This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems. Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. more than the cable design. Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer. Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it. A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token. Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub. and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. 126 Specialized Solutions. Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished). It is not as popular as Ethernet. The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token. While the token is in use by a computer to send data. The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable. This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data.5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. it is known as a data frame. . The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1. Inc. but is still used today.5 standard. IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984. Actually. is what sets Token Ring apart. it uses the baseband technology. How it Works Basically.

As each new computer comes online. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted. Beaconing In a Token Ring environment. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity. The IEEE 802. The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time. The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring. the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address. Or. To accomplish this task. if there were errors. Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful. Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention. 127 Specialized Solutions. It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected. while IBM says counter-clockwise. The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network. Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. Inc. The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor. the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring. . the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing. This computer. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon. The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected.5 standards say it travels clockwise. called the active monitor. Message This is the data or file to be transmitted. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal. After encoding the data frame. as well as its own address.

the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters. as there are no male and female ends.5 meters. the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. it is only about 45 meters. Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. When a computer is connected. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters. Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. Using STP. . Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network. These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. Inc. Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters. IBM states that it is only 46 meters. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs. The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network. but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters. The Type 128 Specialized Solutions. This hub is known by a few names. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. but types 1 and 2 may also be used. each ring can connect up to 260 computers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. Each node is connected to the hub via a cable. Using STP. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network. Using UTP. Using UTP. In a pure token passing environment. MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. just as in other networks that use a hub. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another.

hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable. AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed. Type 6 may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub. 129 . Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper. Inc. Therefore. Patch panels are used to organize patch cables. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers. Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. Using a pair of repeaters. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. Specialized Solutions. care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub. therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software. Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable. The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters.

As such. This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses. LocalTalk performance is rather limited. A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it. TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers. AppleShare also provides a print server. 130 Specialized Solutions. EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers. When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable. and even some UNIX computers. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system. it is very inexpensive to initiate.5 Standard) environment. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer. it will store it to use each time it goes online. Apple has always been open to third-party development. It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices. LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network. the device assigns itself an address. Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones. Inc. or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. UTP. mainframe computers. This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. . If it is not being used by another computer. by using zones.

If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology. Just like other token-passing access method architectures. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data. the token still passes in numerical order. the token is passed in numerical order. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters. It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology. These packets contain the destination address. a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data. but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable. Obviously. It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2. called ARCNet Plus. ARCNet utilizes hubs. ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors. has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps. This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology. ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling. A later version. but it can be adequately charted to the 802. Specialized Solutions. active.5 Mbps. If using an active hub in a Star topology. this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order. the maximum cable distance is 244 meters. or smart. Inc.4 standards (Token Bus LAN). If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other. ARCNet transmits data in packets. These hubs may be passive. Instead of the token traveling around a ring. the source address and up to 508 bytes of data. 131 .

. The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well. 132 Specialized Solutions. Speeds up to 54 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific).11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology.11) IEEE 802. generally). Inc. Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four. Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802.

and the Trailer. 10Base5. The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. and 10BaseT. It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances. Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method. Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network. Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. Packets consist of three components: the Header. CSMA/CA. Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames). it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year. It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures. it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. Packets will include information to identify the source address. Specialized Solutions. Therefore. the Data. If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data. but as a networking professional you will encounter them. which is where the error checking calculation is located. etc. and clocking information. which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting. go back and review the chapter again. Be sure that you understand how this architecture works. 133 . AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future. As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. the source and destination addresses. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions.3 standards. Managing network data is all about traffic control.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Definition 134 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Token Ring TokenTalk Trailer Zones Definition Specialized Solutions. 135 .

Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. 5. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 136 Specialized Solutions. What are the three primary access methods? 2. 3. Inc. How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7. CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6.

Describe a MIC connector. Inc. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17. What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? Specialized Solutions. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. 22. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18. What is a SMAU? 21. 14. 19.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13. 137 . Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15. What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 138 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

this is a Macintosh-based company. you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever indebted to you. The size of the company and the portion of the network affected. You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them. etc. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation. The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. As a network professional. address. We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. we will consider hardware compatibility. you are not designing for yourself. in many cases. and goals. Even if this network is your own. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. However. 139 . (demographics). Inc. dislikes. your design will not work for them.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have. Finally. (If not. The customer’s likes. who has them. Specialized Solutions. There are two things that you will need to know. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have. you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. for example. are there any printers or scanners. pay attention to details. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network. The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. etc? If. Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks. The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. Most importantly. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office. you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows. rather than a client’s.

Inc. With this information in hand. if the file is compressed. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. Once you collect this information. files services. There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available. print services.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps. etc. you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale). . or as large as 8 GB. So. you must get a clear definition of goals of the network. only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network. This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint. at this time. You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility. or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources. you are not documenting your network. A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. 140 Specialized Solutions. Remember. the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB. The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later. prepare a design document. Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. For example. or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files.

Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 141 .

” That is. If you do not have this information go back and get it. As long as you have the original software disk (CD).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future). This sharing is on a directory level. all computers are equal. Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement. if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t. You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. In a peer-to-peer network. not all nodes may need the same level of security. The level of security required. you will have no problem. The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. if you have a printer connected to your computer. First. They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. Also. as generally it is not installed during a standard installation. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. you will need to start making some decisions. Skill level of the network users. The commitment of management and users. they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. You may need to install the software. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network). The most prominent are simplicity and cost. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network. This means that every 142 Specialized Solutions. . they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing. Inc. For example. may cause problems in the future. The first is the type of network you will be designing. You may have to add network cards and cabling. but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. This can range from none to very high. Likewise. The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it. The wrong choice now. The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future. Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server.

information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. administration can be a Specialized Solutions. Also. if employees need remote access. server-based networks are scaleable. Inc. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. Before you can use any resource. the network must operate transparent to them. instead of backing up individual workstations. While there are many advantages. the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older. 143 . if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. You can connect more workstations. is another advantage of a server-based network. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer). Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security. In small networks. all network resources are usually centralized. In large networks. etc. and expand as your needs expand. must less the workings of a network.Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. Since these computers are larger. This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server. have high-power processor. Also. In a server-based network. and lots of memory. the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. As for size. a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off. 24-hours per day. Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. you will also need to consider the disadvantages. When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations. Remember. Last but not least. they will also be using your processor to do their printing. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added. slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). In a peer-to-peer situation. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. For these people. this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts. such as your printer. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation. The more sophisticated the network. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. In a strict peer-topeer network.

get more.0.0.0 144 Specialized Solutions. present each case to the client and let them make the final decision. since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN. stick with it and move forward.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified network professional. When you are sitting on the fence.168.0 255. In some cases.0. A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet.32.168. Inc. Once you have made this decision.0. let us define the difference between the terms public and private network.255.0 255. If you are not sure you have enough information.255. with open access to the global community. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer). If all else fails.0 192. .0 . Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult. which would limit its access to those outside of the company. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design. 10.255 172. The only problem is that if your firewall were to come down. For this reason.255. For this reason. you can use any address that you want to use inside of your own network and behind your firewalls.255.0 -10.192.0. Actually.0 -172. it is highly recommended that you use these addresses for your private addressing.255.0. the answer will be very obvious. The use of these addresses will completely prevent the address conflict issue. A public network would be the Internet. then you might have an address conflict with another entity on the Internet. Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each.0.0.255 255.255. in others it could go either way. there are specific addresses that are filtered by the routers at the backbone of the Internet. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information.16. Public and Private networks In addition.

145 . Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

you can skip this section. Use it as a starting place to build your own. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has. . you must add new hardware. This form should identify the equipment and its specifications. if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. whether hardware or software. Inc. ask him or her to show you. That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you. Also. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation. 146 Specialized Solutions. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment. When taking this inventory. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software. The following is an example of an inventory sheet. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have. if all or part of a network already exists. The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like. On the other hand. Remember. this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: Computer Printer Telecommunication Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA. 147 . etc. Inc.) # of Free Slots Network Card Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Specialized Solutions. PCI.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function. Inc. 148 Specialized Solutions. Software: If this device uses software. Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary. describe each program. .

Inc. 149 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

By assigning them a number now. or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility. Inc. This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. make a drawing of the facility and each network node. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment. A Network Layout 150 Specialized Solutions. Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network. . and collect all of the documentation you have been working on. it will make future documentation easier. It is time to get out that pencil and paper.

In most environments this will be no problem. It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace. CAT 6 is the UTP of choice. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end). Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network. It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. repeaters and nodes. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small temporary LAN. if you are not sure if expansion is in your future.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly. On the high end. may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. 5-4-3 – If your installation is coaxial Ethernet. Realistically. Therefore. Specialized Solutions. In addition. but if this is a large facility. if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files. or just good common sense. The 100 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. However. hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. 151 . such as in an imaging environment. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. However. you might consider CAT 3. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). For example. you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub. (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics. The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the performance criteria of the network. you will need to install CAT 5e or CAT 6 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 1000 Mbps speed. consider Thinnet coaxial cable. Cable lengths must be considered. These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments. a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 5 UTP cables. Cable Grade – Local fire codes. the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3. Inc. and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5e or CAT 6 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years.

such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference. On the other hand. you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. which requires the use of routers. As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. The non-routable protocols. but are not limited. These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. it will work. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. . and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment. Fiber optics are also a good alternative when the manufacturing environment cannot allow for any possibility of even a small spark. are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. on the surface. and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source. Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment. Like us. which can generate damaging ESD. low-humidity. they are sensitive to temperature changes. high-humidity. and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise). The equipment should be shielded from ESD. the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers. since they don’t use electricity to transmit a signal. It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. EMI. which can cause corrosion. with a relative humidity of 30 percent. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. Fortunately. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. and RFI. Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment in which the computers will be operating. such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. 152 Specialized Solutions. it doesn’t really matter. Therefore. Inc. However. or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). Variable temperatures. it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows 2000/2003. but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 153 . Inc.

All the cables will be brought to one location. To keep these organized. The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet. you will most likely need to install a wall outlet. So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables. Inc. it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding. The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it. The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable. In most cases. if using CAT 5 or CAT 6. One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable. This way you can identify each location. is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable. the cables are connected to a patch panel. Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends. There are a few more components that need to be installed. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room. Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. . This way. 154 Specialized Solutions. These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub. This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. One advantage of using CAT 5 or CAT 6 cable in a star topology from a hub.

Once that is done. Inc. we must select a card that is compatible with both. 155 . Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. Therefore you must know the requirements of each. there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC Specialized Solutions.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network. Actually. That part is the network adapter card. This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media. there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 156 Specialized Solutions. .

157 . If you are installing a Token Ring network. An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network. and expansion projects. you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots. In general. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. two. The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. will change. a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). Not all cards are the same. and PCI). Resolving these issues is actually quite simple. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection. Depending on the vintage of the computer. and therefore the speed at which data can be moved. the speed of the card is important. which can be a useful tool. This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. These are little LEDs (one. the card must be compatible with the computer. Also. you must have Token Ring cards. there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. Micro Channel. The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. administration. but only at 10 Mbps. but only at 10 Mbps. Therefore. but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. a Specialized Solutions. Inc. For example. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus. EISA. Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting. Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple. This section will look at compatibility issues. or three) that indicate the status of the card. Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network. In addition to being compatible with the network. There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA. The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look. also called PC Cards. Before purchasing a network card. Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network. the number of connectors. Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards.

Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. Inc. it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot. Each card must be configured for a different network. If you must do this manually. be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using. you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. In addition. Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course. Physically install the card. Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards. Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light indicates that data is being transferred. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches. Drivers are usually supplied with the network card. If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver. Now the network adapter card is installed. You need to configure the card to work with your network software. If your system is not Plug-n-Play. Connect the network cabling. if you upgrade your operating system. If there are any conflicts. Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. 158 Specialized Solutions. In most cases with a new card. the computer may not boot or the conflicting devices might not be able to work simultaneously. The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer). Install the appropriate drivers for the card. but you are not finished yet. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use. Finally. Note: If you must remove the case. you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. . the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card. Configure the IRQ and I/O address.

and possibly three. For example. Inc. some manufacturers will provide two. However. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector. If you encounter this type of situation. Specialized Solutions. Some STP cards require special connectors. the card should have an RJ-45 connector. For example. These types of problems can be more personal in nature. To increase marketability of their cards. 159 . it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. the engineering department may be PC-based. Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on. In the case of UTP. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector. the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines. as well as possible solutions. different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. For Thinnet or Thicknet.

You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots. As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards. boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software. Standards Earlier in this training course. you will need to establish the standards for your network. if installed. and detail both its hardware and software. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them. and knowledge of the network operating system. With this done. each component will work with the others. that were identically configured. we learned about network protocols and standards. 160 Specialized Solutions. This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card. With this information in hand. Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. . Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. By defining the standards to which the network must comply. Inc. with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier. As the network designer or administrator. you are going to have your work cut out for you. Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network. Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system. hard work and standards.

Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems. all you need to do is install the Windows XP drivers for the offending hardware. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. the Internet is the answer. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. you find that your modem. but your proficiency will be very low. the system will not run. More than likely. A good example is Windows 95. For example. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems. have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind. This is a true statement. The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system.Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are. 161 . you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. Inc. These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system. there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. you will need to upgrade. You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device. Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system. If drivers exist. you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. however. In this case. network card and/or printer no longer work. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements. when upgrading from Windows 98 to Windows XP. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers. Specialized Solutions. you probably do not have the necessary drivers. Also.

Here you will find the latest information about hardware and software that is Designed for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 or at least tested to be compatible with these operating systems. Inc. you will need to check the HCL for that product. . It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware. This is part of the Windows Logo program. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists an example of the minimum requirements for three operating systems: HCL and Windows 2000 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs. it most likely will not work with Windows 2000. or hardware compatibility lists.com/windows/catalog. You can also look for the corresponding logos on the boxes of hardware and software that you are considering purchasing for your network. If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary. This list will ship with the 2000 package (on the CD-ROM) and 2000 will make a check during installation. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with Windows 2000. 162 Specialized Solutions. especially with the newest operating systems such as Windows XP and Windows Server 2003.microsoft. If you want the latest list. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000 is hardware dependent. Microsoft Windows Catalog Still another web site to check for compatibility of hardware and software. is the Microsoft Windows Catalog at www.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc. 163 .

Inc. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. However. 7. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? 164 Specialized Solutions. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5. but they are not all the same. . What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. he intends to expand the network in the future. Was this a good purchase? 9. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 6 1.

An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals).” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive. Specialized Solutions. In addition to being called “hubs. sooner or later. There are several different types of hubs. A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Chapter 7 . it may be too small.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network. This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network. For example. Expanding a LAN with Hubs A common method for expanding networks is to use a hub. Inc. Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series. 165 . Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location. you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network. from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices. to larger hubs that can connect many more computers.

you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. but has one additional feature. 166 Specialized Solutions. have increased response times. They do not translate or filter any information. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network. You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. Depending on the objectives of the LAN. Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. amplify the signal. . such as databases. Traffic-generating applications.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater. Long waits to access a printer or file. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. the simple hub just won’t do the job. Fortunately. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths. Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network. They do however. Inc. Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model. thus reducing the traffic for each segment.

167 . Specialized Solutions. Inc. It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. For example. Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. Not all network protocols will work with a router. Routers work at the Network layer of the OSI model.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge. Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. the NetBEUI protocol is not routable. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language.

An example of such a system is the telephone company. or dedicated. The second choice is leased. but connecting at this rate is rare. there are two levels of service to consider. the distance the data must travel. microwave. With dial-up networking. Be careful when choosing a carrier. Inc. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances. Just because the cost looks good. 168 Specialized Solutions. each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. They are providing the cabling. lines. When considering which connection service to use. These are our standard telephone connections. When thinking of telephone lines. . Typically. and the cost of the service.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway Connection Services When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries. we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system. and satellite connections. Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs. does not mean that it is the best value. When thinking of a carrier. The first is public dial-up network lines. Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection. these connections are slow and not very reliable. be sure to take into account your throughput. Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates.

if necessary. The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN. Inc. It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity. These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. and deals with timing issues. Specialized Solutions. There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines. It can regenerate the signal.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded. Most WANs are a collection of LANs. The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with. routers and communications services are used to create a WAN. 169 . items such as bridges. as well as those transmitted to it. A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN. WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs.

The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. Voice and data over private lines. Voice and data over trunks between computers. Dedicated lines are far more expensive.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Basic voice. The down-side of these lines is that you will have to pay for them 100% of the time instead of on an “as used” basis. Voice/radio with tone conditioning. more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection. they can be justified. Voice and data over trunk circuits. This is because you lease the line 100% of the time and therefore do not have to dial-in. Voice and video. but if you have sufficient traffic. Basic data. Digital Connectivity When you need a faster. Application relays. Data applications below 1200 bps. Inc. . Dedicated analog lines provide an instant connection. Voice with some quality control. you need DDS (Digital Data Service). 170 Specialized Solutions.

544 Mbps transmissions.544 Mbps 44. 171 . Inc.048 Mbps 34. and video signals.520 or 622. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line. whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard. data.080 (can reach 10 Gbps) OC-1 OC-3 ATM 1 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A The T1 and the T3 standard are American.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP.8 Mbps 155. faster download than upload 51.52 Mbps Either 155. It can be used to transmit digital voice. The following table lists the most common connection types: Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A Voice Channels DATA RATE (MBPS) 24 672 32 512 N/A 1.736 Mbps 2. It is capable of 1.

POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network. be used for somewhat secure remote access by employing the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) and tunneling protocols. These lines can. Standard PSTN lines have a very limited bandwidth of less than 56 Kbps. 172 Specialized Solutions. however. Inc. This made for a very reliable and very slow connection. all of which are considered reliable. . A packet switched network provides multiple paths that packets could travel from source to destination. For this reason. each packet was examined at each step in the path to determine whether it was damaged. and reliable network messaging. With Frame Relay. Today’s networks use a different technology referred to as Frame Relay. since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet. In older. convenient. this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs. Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast. X.25 based packet switched networks. Frame Relay does not check the packet at each step in its route. a packet may be sent over multiple permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). Obviously.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. so it can be both reliable and fast.

173 . or any other logical means.) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically. Inc. adding computers or adjusting resources. printers. which lays out hosts (computers. This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN.” Specialized Solutions. An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within his company. or by the specific use of the computers. etc. without having to change the physical picture of the network.

FDDI . ATM can be used with FAX. video. Inc.Asynchronous transfer mode uses fixed length (53 byte) cells instead of packets. has two 64 Kbps 174 Specialized Solutions. it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference. It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles). in actuality. it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds. and imaging.2 Gbps. Because it is fiber optic-based. or fiber optic. However. while using copper telephone wires.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN. audio. which is intended for use in the home or small business. These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1.Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication. These cells can speed communication because the network always know exactly what to expect in regard the size of the next cell. ATM . ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential. As well as the common voice and data. It is. ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial. twisted pair. While not a good choice for WANs. . and focuses on the home and business market. however. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services. It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network. you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies. they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps. One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need. media limited. ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface).

ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface).6). much like E1 is to T1.84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768). SMDS SMDS .544 Mbps). like OCx with SONET. a call.Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. Specialized Solutions. SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps). It carries all the bits from say. Internationally. It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx). which is intended for use by large businesses. within one transmission frame. has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1. To be more precise. it is the European equivalent of SONET. SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media. The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps). 175 . It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM). Inc. it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network. It is capable of transmitting voice. This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802. data and video at rates ranging from 51. and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control. and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control.

400 High-speed version of the V.400 bps. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. With early modems. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines. The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication. Today. the term Baud has disappeared and been replaced with bps. or over long distances. A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable. Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56. times as fast as the Baud rate. Modems transmit data at various speeds. network cards. Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud.600 bps. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56. The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V. To increase our network beyond a few computers. . Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions.32bis bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard. there is a limit of 2400 Baud. and media. etc. a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems. Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data. 14.32 standard.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections. With this change. 176 Specialized Solutions. Therefore. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion. the Baud rate was equal to the bps.22bis V. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. Inc.600 bps.32 V. FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate. Modems are classified by a “V” rating. 8. These speeds are measured as bits per second. However. connecting a few computers to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards. 4. due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of transmitting signals over long distances. As we have already learned.

800 Improved V. modems – error correction standard.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards. 177 .FastClass.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network V. Specialized Solutions.32terbo. modems.90 19. Backwards compatible with earlier V.42 V. 57. Will only communicate with another V.600 Backwards compatible with earlier V. Inc.34 V.32terbo V.200 Not officially a standard yet. 56. 28.

This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem. For example. Windows XP has an feature called a direct cable connection. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors. or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. By running Network Connections Wizard and following the simple 178 Specialized Solutions. the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number. while a true server like Windows Server 2003 will allow 256 inbound connections. A system running Windows XP or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection. . the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication. both of these terms mean the same thing. The difference between a simple computer (Windows XP or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows Server 2003) is the number of inbound connections. so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. or directly via COM ports and a cable. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building). either via modems and telephone lines. With RAS. Inc. RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. You must use a Null-Modem cable. Actually. Also. In addition. Any two computers can be connected. all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer. The difference is how each computer is being utilized. the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. Let’s first look at connecting two computers. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). Since the two computers are directly connected. when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client. On the other hand.

you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number. both computers must be using the same protocol. Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking. 179 . you will use a modem to establish the connection. With this in place. The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network. Normally. On the client side. RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work. the RAS software must be installed and running. On the server side. but is still in use with some systems. the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network instructions provided. While this was the protocol of choice for a Specialized Solutions. This is a relatively old standard (1984). Inc. you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection. the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software. From this accessory. These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). in this case. your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server. RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security. Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but.

PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today. Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks. It can be used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private 180 Specialized Solutions. It provides data compression and error control. AppleTalk. It supports only TCP/IP. Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications. It transmits in text only. • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the Network layer of the OSI model. RAS and Security. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) provides for a secure encrypted tunnel for communication through the Internet. Inc. This is accomplished by encapsulating one protocol with another protocol. . in today’s networks it has several disadvantages. and DECnet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide long time. It cannot encrypt logon information. IPX. Many organizations are using tunnels. It provides security. the limits of SLIP caused many problems. created by PPTP and other tunneling protocols. Encrypted Connections. NetBEUI. Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP. as a less explensive alternative to costly leased lines. such that only the sender and the receiver can accurately interpret the data that is being sent. It’s only supported by RAS clients. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. It supports encrypted passwords. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. VPN (Virtual Private Networks). It enables highly private network links over the public Internet.

TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL. Specialized Solutions. IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header). It is based on an end-to-end security model. It does not provide authorization.. most relating to higher security. It is transparent to the user.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network. . usually a user’s credit card number. it only establishes the user’s identity. SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server. or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server. discussed here in the next chapter. L2TP offers many advantages over PPTP. ICA can be used with Windows. certificates (like X. authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well. Unlike PPTP. It uses a key to encrypt the data. Kerberos V5.509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec. UNIX. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission. it does not require IP connectivity. 181 . and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 Active Directory use this type of security by default. limited RAM. Inc. a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE). ESP. and Macintosh computers. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket. AH only authenticates the user. L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the latest version of the tunneling protocol. It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). Linux. It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP. which is the highest security method. Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs. Thin clients are computers with no hard drive. both sending and receiving. as does Novell Directory Services (NDS). meaning that the computers. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS.

All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly. you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. The type of communication port you intend to configure. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server. the modem configuration. In addition. As with all security measures. . you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. RAS provides several layers of security. If another software package has “control” of the modem. Before installation. This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on. Security Host (Bastion Host) A security host or bastion host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. installing RAS can be frustrating. Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. If it does not work the first time. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration. 182 Specialized Solutions. This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary. and thus more security. This provides for additional authentication.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to providing remote sharing of information. By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection. and any other software that might use the modem. you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller. Inc. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system.

183 . you want to keep the costs down. You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps. Specialized Solutions. As a networking professional. and you don’t need a fulltime connection. you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. it is not always the solution for every network. Inc. The latest Microsoft server operating systems such as Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 have wizards that make installing an RAS server much simpler.

Inc. Definition . Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH 184 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

25 Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X. 185 .

4. 9. Name three advanced WAN environments. and a gateway.544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6. Name four forms of RAS security. Define a repeater. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. Inc. . What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. a bridge.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 7 1. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2. 7. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. a router. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. 10. What is analog communication? 5. Name three RAS protocols. 186 Specialized Solutions.

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and is in fact. Specialized Solutions. known as BSD UNIX. Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress). TCP/IP. the recognized standard for internetworking altogether. TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project. TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. and the Internet. From this beginning. Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. The four layers are: Application. as well as Internet standards. It is also used with Ethernet networks. Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX. some are considered to be Internet standards. such as SMTP. These standards. SNMP. TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol). intranets. which will be discussed later in the chapter. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). and FTP.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is an internet (between network) protocol. Internet and Network Interface. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor. RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP. it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers. It is important for the networking professional to know that TCP/IP is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. 189 . and is usually seen in the combination. TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard. Inc. and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. Transport. This is the most common protocol suite with which a networking professional works. these protocols were available on UNIX early on. TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board). Also.

There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model. Inc. These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP.Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 190 Specialized Solutions. .

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The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 192 Specialized Solutions. there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier. TCP breaks data into tiny chunks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP. . Let’s take a look at how this works. the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports. It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission. A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams. It then routes the information to its destination. they can be retransmitted in a timely manner. Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine. Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. called packets. Inc. Let’s take a look at them. Should lost or corrupted packets be detected. and reassembles the data. This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. However. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model. and for the Network+ exam. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. On a TCP/IP network.

meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information. and specify a certain protocol. a port is different from a socket. The addresses. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model.535. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. nor does it check for errors. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. HTTP. IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. the protocol number. Inc. IP is connectionless. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number. This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received.. TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination. Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet. The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535. Although the terms. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned. etc. When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet. Telnet.e. The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses. If the transmission has not been successful. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably. FTP. This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines. but does not acknowledge delivery. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. IP merely routes the data. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point. TCP will retransmit the data. and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted. The port number identifies the application associated with the data. i. For each packet sent. UDP transports data. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer. consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65. 193 . or port numbers. and a Specialized Solutions. UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide checksum. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer. To be more specific, the checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. When the data arrives at the destination computer, the receiving computer performs the calculation. If the checksum is the same, the data is assumed to have arrived intact. The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network, it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. Time to Live – provides TTL data. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. This cache contains a list of all the devices with which it is communicating. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five, TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server, run searches, or access multiple mail servers. 194 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet, which is what you use when you send out mail. SMTP is server to server, whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers, usually over the Internet. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People.” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files, by typing in a user name, or the word “anonymous.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents, such as web pages. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts, using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP, allowing access to a secure Web server. It uses port 443, the secure SSL port instead of port 80, the HTTP port. HTTPS, as well as SSL, allow for the use of X.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user.

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Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials

Naming Systems
Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. Remember, we are working in two worlds, the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names. Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking. DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates hostnames to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. DNS functions like a telephone directory. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers. For example, the domain bigcompany.com may have an IP address of 192.49.238.33. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose, such as government, education, commerce, or interest. Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC, also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. These domains require suffixes such as .com for businesses or .edu for educational institutions. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains:

.com .net .edu .org .gov .mil .biz .pro .info .xx

Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance, Big Company Inc. in Italy might be http://www.Bigcompany.com.it or in Australia www.Bigcompany.com.au. Also, .tv is gaining in popularity. Tuvalu is a small country, which receives financial benefit from the registration fees.

WINS In a Windows-based network, the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network. NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode, leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application. A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast), P-node (peer-peer), M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). 198 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. It predates DNS. It must be manually created and changed. LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. It must be manually created and changed. IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. For example, it could connect a LAN to the Internet. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet, it must be assigned a static IP address. This means that it is permanently assigned. It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers, sooner or later we will run out of numbers. In smaller isolated networks, IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. However, as the number of addresses required increases, you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. To resolve this, IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. That is, assigned on an “as needed” basis. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. When not needed, the address can be leased to another host. To accomplish this, you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address, subnet mask, and a default gateway if needed. Notice that the IP addresses are leased. This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. A lease can be renewed. When the term of the lease is at 50%, the client will send a request for renewal. If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available), the lease will be renewed without interruption. If not renewed, the client will attempt to contact the DHCP server that issued it the IP address directly about every 5 minutes until it reaches 87.5% of the lease, at which time the client will broadcast a request to obtain an address from any available DHCP server. If all addresses are being used or a DHCP server does not respond, the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user. In this case, the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

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it serves many clients through only one connection.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (public IP address). The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client. but it is most often used between a private network and the networks public address or addresses. In the case of a proxy server. a NAT is just a device or program that translates one set of IP addresses to another set of IP addresses. It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses. IP Proxy Servers Earlier. since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. Actually. The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. 200 Specialized Solutions. NAT. It contains DHCP. who think they are communicating directly with one another. Inc. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other. NAT also acts as a type of firewall. . depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time. to share a single connection to the Internet. Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network. like a LAN. It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. and DNS. ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time. The proxy server is actually making a connection to another network or to the Internet on behalf of the client. The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties. i. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers.e. the proxy server.

Inc.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions. 201 .

To simplify these addresses. Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them. Although that is easy for a computer. Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39. The result is called a dotted decimal number. the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique). Internet IP addresses. 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8. Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256. let’s now take a look at IP address numbers. A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001. however.8.11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------16 8 2 1 128 64 32 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet.194. An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names. Inc. it is not easy for us. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes. are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes. This IP address is a 32-bit binary number.2 billion) different numbers.00001000.967.294. A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet.00100111. 202 Specialized Solutions. . So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33.296 (4.39. they are broken down into four octets.

194. (A host may be any device on the network. The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33. The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191.8.39. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000). The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID). An example of a Class C IP address would be 193. the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID. The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39. The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID.) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126. you should pay special attention the Classes A. In this case 129. Within classes. 203 . the network is divided into classes. only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID). Inc. For the Network+ exam. 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) Specialized Solutions. The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000). The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000). The class can be determined by the value of the first octet.39. The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223.194 would be the Host ID.39.194. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use. The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID).39 would be the Network ID and 8. Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large. An example of a Class B IP address would be 129.194 where the Network ID would be 193.8.8 and the Host ID would be 194. Depending on the assignment.8.39. Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks.8. In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID.194 would be an example of a Class A address.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components. Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks. There are five common classes: A through E. B and C. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID.

Class C . there are only 65. Likewise. there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and for multicasting and are not available for normal host addresses.0. Class B uses two octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID. (For example.214 possible Host ID numbers.0. there are 16. 204 Specialized Solutions. Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs. Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time. Class C IP addresses are still available. so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts. if a network is going to be connected to the Internet. Class B . Inc. the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic. and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses.1) Class A .777. Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID. As we mentioned earlier. Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A. This organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center). Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 . This is the loopback address.534 possible Host ID numbers.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts.used for medium-sized networks. .126 128 . All in use and no longer available. Also. B or C address.223 In addition. specifically 127.191 192 . with the least number of Network IDs. You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts. Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available.used by very large networks. you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address.

however. An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address. which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits. then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme. It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4. The address types are Unicast. however. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot. IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers (0 to 9. A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. It uses 128-bit addressing. Unicast is an address for a single host. demand high bandwidth. For example. Inc. Anycast. to define the address type. as compared to IPv4. Rather than having “classes” like IPv4. Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Specialized Solutions. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field. It does. This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP). which only uses 32-bit addressing. The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic.net.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. as well as ease of configuration and security built right in. You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example. 205 . It would make it unclear as to what was represented. and Multicast.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address. . just like 127. 206 Specialized Solutions. Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address. Finally. is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix.0. IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking. All in all. Site-local address. since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain. An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1. which replaces broadcast.1 with IPv4.0. A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses. Multicast. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one. Inc.

By using a concept called anding. 207 . Anding is the binary addition that the router uses to make this determination. the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class).255.0. Default Subnet Masks 255. a large university may have a network spread over several buildings and perhaps remote campuses. The number of 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network. Since a router connects each subnet.255. You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet. A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) in which all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address. all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of creating more than one private network from one public network address by customizing your subnet mask.0 In regard to classful addressing . lets look at subnet masks.11111111.255.0 255.0 (Class B).216 hosts) Class B (65. you can reduce the overall network traffic.0 (Class A).0. This is done with binary addition (anding). Before looking at anding.534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s.0. Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask. Inc. If you “and” the IP address to the subnet mask.0.777. The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address. only the traffic that is not local will pass through.0.0 255.0.255. By using subnets. a router can determine which addresses are local and which addresses are for other subnets within the network. For example. or 225.0 (Class C). which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address. a subnet mask can be 255. You must however.255. For example: 11111111. have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right. In this example.255.00000000 or 255.00000000.0. Specialized Solutions.255.0 Class A (16. separating it from the host portion of the address. 255.

thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network. .39.11100000. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7. 00100001.00001000.194) 11111111.7. Any local addresses will not pass through.0. let’s and it to the subnet mask of 255.0.0. Inc. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33.00100111.8. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remember. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment.00000000 (33. while the Host ID 0. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now.39.194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask.224. and through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33.0. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet.00000000 (255.8.224. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet.00000000. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 208 Specialized Solutions.11000010 (33.8.32 and the Host ID is 7.194.8.0.32. Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33.0) equals 00100001.00000000. By using this method.32. it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones.194.194.0.32.8.00100000. using our previous example of 33.

0.b.777.b.a.152 Number of Hosts 16.b.097.0. A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card.255.c to 223.b. There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required.255. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner. • • • • Connect physically remote local networks.0 255.0.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001.255.b. Inc. it will require an address for each subnet. 209 .255.0 255.255.a.c to 126. Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment.0.0 255. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet.c 128.c Default Subnet Mask 255.c 192. Specialized Solutions.0. If a router is connected to two subnets.0 Number of Networks 126 16.0 255.a.0.c to 191.384 2. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring). Be sure to include some room for growth of the network.255. A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network.a.216 65.0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255. Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate.b.a.a. Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet.

255.255.0 255. We use this formula to determine the number of subnets that will be created by borrowing bits from the hosts.255.0.255.192. To begin this process. We will use an InterNIC ID of 191. You should remember the formula 2n-2 where n is the number of bits borrowed. As we begin to subnet. First. you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC.255.0 255.224.248 255. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign.0 255. The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255.255.255.000 hosts. we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host. Inc.255.224 255.255.0.128 255.240 255.0 255.255.0 255.255.255.255.382 Hosts N/A 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 210 Specialized Solutions.0 255.255.255.255. With this number.255.255.36.0 255. we have one network with approximately 65.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16.254.248.255. Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255.255.192 255.240.255.252.

For this example.255.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 Hosts N/A 30 14 6 2 To make this easy. Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator).248 255. 1. 2. the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements.192 255. We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID. Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected.255. let’s add 4 more for future expansions.36 as assigned to us by InterNIC. Just to be on the safe side. we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs.255. Change the mode to binary (Bin). you can use the scientific calculator supplied with any Windows operating system. Inc. Specialized Solutions.240 255.255. The number 18 will now be in binary (10010). lets keep our network ID of 191.255.224 255.255.255. giving us a total requirement of 18. 211 . 3. Enter the value of 18.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255.255.255. Now we get out our Windows calculator.255.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets. Count the number of binary digits (5). you can determine the available Network IDs.255. Had we needed to add a new subnet. . This will be the number of bits required for the third octet.255. instead of selecting the next subnet on our list. This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2. the subnet mask would be 255. To keep things simple. The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 212 Specialized Solutions.224.0. Inc. Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth). let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255. For this example. we would have had to reconfigure the entire network.248. Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask.36.0 and the network address of 192.000 hosts each.

96 192. The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network.36.255.36.128 192.0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255. If it is different.255. A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255. In dotted-decimal format.255.0.000 or . indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively. 213 .255.36. This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address.36. on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255.64 192. The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID. The only restrictions are that you cannot use .0. or one that is located on a remote network.36.32 192. Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network.160 192.36 (overall network address) 192. the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery.0. and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet.36.) Specialized Solutions.192 Determine the Host IDs The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001).Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192. they are on the same network. these are reserved for broadcast addresses.0.001 in the last octet. up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID. (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask. Inc.0. this means that the number starts with . For example.

0.255.0 CLASS ID 1 .0 255.0 255.0.223 214 Specialized Solutions. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255.191 192 . .126 128 .0.255.255.

other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window. On some screens. in addition to other hardware and software configurations. Inc. Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor. or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically. Next. Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways. click the Protocols tab. you will need to type in the specified default gateway. The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using. and click Properties. and enter the information in the appropriate fields. However. DNS You can enable or disable DNS. This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information. Specialized Solutions. Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. IP Address Here.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. right-click on TCP/IP Protocol. you may specify a particular IP address.” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server. 215 . Click the radio button to enable DNS.

Inc. This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients. default gateway. It also includes the DNS configuration. WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology. 216 Specialized Solutions. and subnet mask configuration.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 217 . Inc.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet Definition Specialized Solutions.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword POP3 Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 218 Specialized Solutions.

219 . How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3. What is a domain? 7. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Specialized Solutions.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Review Questions Chapter 8 1. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. What is the purpose of DNS? 5. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2. 12. 4. Inc. 10. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups. What is an FQDN and give an example? 6. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 220 Specialized Solutions. .

you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device. From the database and the software interface. Specialized Solutions. The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base). 221 . In addition. Network Managers . the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network.SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks. Using one of these products. Inc.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network. you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network. The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator. It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data.

Inc. Set: sends a configuration value to a device. Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network. This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager. Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager). . therefore providing a level of security.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device. 222 Specialized Solutions. The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents. It will respond to commands issued by the management software. Get-next: request the next value in a sequence. A community can also restrict access. An additional SNMP command is the trap. The three commands are: Get: request data from the device. These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt.

Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. serious (!). TRACERT. Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics. shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination. Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports. Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names. ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it. Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred). Specialized Solutions. Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses. Inc. NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. but did not cause a stop. and TCP/IP events and errors. NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. and normal (i). Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table. Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. 223 . Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table. This includes critical system errors. Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis.

224 Specialized Solutions. clicking Run. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar. . and typing in either cmd or command.

NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain. and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot. IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu.1. and will display the current configuration of a computer. PING The lowest level test to find out if you have connectivity to a remote host. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain. 225 . Inc. IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host. Specialized Solutions.12. NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified. NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address. For example. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address. Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain. Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device.168. Ping works at the IP level. NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain. the IP of a host might be 192.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer. RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 226 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 227 . Inc. Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition Specialized Solutions.

You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. List as many as you can. 228 Specialized Solutions. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 9 1. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network. each device will need to be _________ compliant. 3. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2. .

Therefore. There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change. before you set up the network. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. Specialized Solutions. The best time to set up your network security. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. or anyone who has access to your network for that matter. or at least have your plan intact. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access. Password practices and procedures. from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. creating chaos and costing thousands. A disgruntled employee.Chapter 10 – Network Security Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. or an irresponsible prank. the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network. Very few users will have access to administrative features. Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company. unless safeguards are built in. can deliberately damage your network. Inc. of dollars. As you might have already deduced. Most users will also be able to access shared files. she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of her particular network. Users should be held accountable for the security of their individual workstations. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created). 229 . motivated by curiosity. you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems. anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. Whether the sabotage is malicious. Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user. is right up front. the results can be devastating. data encryption. depending on the roles they play in your company. or even millions. A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords.

and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality. passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users. where the administrator can easily retrieve it. while the original file remains intact. A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process. such as a template or another type of file. Password protection is. 230 Specialized Solutions. the user will be inclined to be less attentive to personal security. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. . should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required. Inc. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. However. The user can edit the file as necessary. The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model. a gesture of respect for the user and the system. among other things. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. Users can access a shared resource. In a manner similar to the signature on a document. Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file.

Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Security Specialized Solutions. 231 . Inc.

you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs. This needs to be handled in such a way that production will not be interrupted. if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information. Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. For example. and even more often on larger networks. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. you would block port 80. and work at the application level. at the very least. or auditing. Inc. Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter. As the system administrator. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network. Files need to be backed up daily. you will most likely be using E-mail. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. 232 Specialized Solutions. Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network. and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. they can be host-based. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system. Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs. It is an important part of a network security plan. . or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. by forwarding application traffic through the firewall. If you are accessing the Internet from your network.

While planning your backup strategy. offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other. Specialized Solutions. It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. range from 1. it is still a viable option. Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. There are several options available. As a computer professional. This backup medium is suitable for small companies. you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data. If anything happens to one. the other can take over without compromising network operations. Inc. so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). those who fail to plan. how the backup information will be tested. rather than one larger server. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available. As you might guess. 233 . which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs. These multiple disks are called disk arrays. called the backup medium. Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. Floppy disk capacities today. you must answer important questions about what to backup. the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk. and how often backups will be performed. Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. and are more commonly known as RAID. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups. Although slower than RAID. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. In addition. and the procedure to follow for recovery.Chapter 10 – Network Security It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers. Remember. so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations. for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity. Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today.44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. the second server should serve as a backup to the first. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk. plan to fail. Ideally.

will backup all selected data on the network. the last full backup and all of the incremental backup tapes will be needed. . When recovering from a failure. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup. but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. both the last differential backup tape copy and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used. This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed. Differential. Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations. To restore. despite the presence of hardware or software failures. is called fault tolerance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient. as its name implies. Inc. and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full. Differential and Incremental. This usually involves some degree of redundancy. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk. but will be the easiest to restore. The Full backup. and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups.. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server. This method will take the largest amount of storage media. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space. 234 Specialized Solutions. as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk. Full. This type of backup is usually performed weekly.

Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 . administrators are alerted when one disk fails so that they can “regenerate” the RAID set before another disk has a chance to fail. Inc. This. a copy of the data is spread across all of the disks based on a mathematical formula such that any one disk in the set can be lost and the other disks will have a copy of all of the information that it contained. The same data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure. Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies.Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 . then the data in the entire array is also lost. such as a single file. this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent. however. which provides for even more fault tolerance. so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping. if anything happens to one of the drives.Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 . RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme.) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk.Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 . and is a standard feature of RAID systems. is not being used commercially at the moment to an Specialized Solutions.Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 . Several operating systems. 235 . this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful.Chapter 10 – Network Security The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 . including Novell NetWare. If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up.” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data. However. support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing. With this method. (Provides no fault tolerance. the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved. This technique may be applied in either software or hardware.Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. If more than one disk is lost. Typically.

RAID-53. and sags in the power supply. and each type provides power for a different length of time. Like RAID-10. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests. surges. It functions faster. allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. . An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. 236 Specialized Solutions. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. These types of RAID are not as commonly used and are not as likely to be on the test. it offers better performance. but at a greater cost. The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide large degree. There are different types of UPS devices. SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. Inc. since it is not dependent on another computer. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. as you might guess. which allows for better performance. such as battery time remaining. Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. is an issue. A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI). In this case. SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array). but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity. RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. also called surge suppressors. Cost. are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes. is like RAID-10.

If the network administrator needs to use the workstation. The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters and use a combination of letters. should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there. and troubleshoot before the trouble starts. In order for this policy to be effective. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy. but are easy enough that users can remember them. Some “classified” networks require password changes every day. Passwords should be changed more frequently in high-security networks. This is known as a security audit. no matter who they are. and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas. There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files. an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis. Inc. etc. Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them.” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents. he or she will know how to accomplish the task. include characters. symbols.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network. 237 . So. Specialized Solutions. away. and numbers. personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. numbers and symbols. No one. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being applied. This holds users accountable for their actions on the network. Users working with sensitive information such as budgets.

Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. the Internet is not the most secure of environments. and Leonard Adleman. The name comes from their first initials. A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. other than the person for whom the message was intended. RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used. and is used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem. Inc. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). can understand the message. It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest. Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient. Even with encryption. 238 Specialized Solutions. . The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. Adi Shamir. This method uses a 56-bit private key. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data.

the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. It is similar to DES. Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip. As the name implies. Specialized Solutions. The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. but they are less secure. The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. and bulletin boards. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability. There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run. The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key. Symmetric Keys can also be used. but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. Viruses can be spread by various sources including: shareware. which is used to encrypt data and to decrypt it. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages. is called a digital signature. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off. Prevention should also be addressed in the plan. both on location and at backup sites. it is not a completely secure encryption method. Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters. Many viruses are simple annoyances. files downloaded from the Internet. Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. If the receiver wishes to respond. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method. will ensure a much quicker recovery. much less a day.000 known viruses. Inc. They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed. With this method of encryption both parties have the same key. 239 . software from unknown origins.Chapter 10 – Network Security Extra data appended to a message. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex. It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. There are over 60.

Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs. Inc. With this in mind. there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market. Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. . Hundreds of viruses are written each month. many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet. Use extreme caution when you download files. It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document. enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing a new operating system. they will go to work on the system. but when loaded. Make sure it is compatible with all of the operating systems that you use. they mean that when you open a document you are running a program. Macro Virus: These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened. 240 Specialized Solutions. (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail). Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine. Keep your anti-virus program updated. just from running a program. Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines. The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files). (prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk). Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world. If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes. These days. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site.

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. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 242 Specialized Solutions. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Inc. 243 . What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2. What is the function of a firewall? 4. The acronym RAID stands for __________. In a share level model. passwords are assigned to __________. What are the three common levels of RAID? 6. 3. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Specialized Solutions.Chapter 10 – Network Security Review Questions Chapter 10 1. 5.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause. you must be organized. if you are the expert. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. implement a solution.Conclusion Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. it seems well defined by the person who calls and complains! But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. identify the affected area. To make matters worse. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software. select the most probable cause. In most cases. a pen (or pencil). and progress with some specific tools that you can employ to simplify the process. a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you.” is really just the symptom and not the true cause. but they often hold the keys to the problem. Inc. or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now. computers never fail at a convenient time. so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. test the result. The user of the computer or network is your best source of information. What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. you will most likely be called when there is a problem. It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier. For those who must endure the struggle. “as reported. Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. while for others it is a struggle. Specialized Solutions. If fact. Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. not when all is well. you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. you are looking for the cause. 245 . not the symptom. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution. The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks. In order to do this. The eight parts are as follows: establish the symptoms. troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. Remember. establish what has changed. and good listening skills. As a troubleshooter. Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem. They always fail in the middle of a job. Remember. This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems. Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper. After all.

The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that caused the failure. do not intimidate the user. however. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever. lights. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of the failure. The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work toward the more complex. You will need to create your own list based on the situation. You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure. it is important to observe how it is created. as well as the results. If it is an operatorinduced problem. have someone demonstrate the failure to you. Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation. This will take time and patience. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before. recent software upgrade. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience. Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem.) Show me how to create the error. the failure occurs. If possible. network or computer moved. With a little experience. For example. and when. and most importantly. have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory. Do not make the questions too technical. These never seem to occur when you are present. One thing that might 246 Specialized Solutions. Inc. but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure. Be sure to observe the failure yourself. Describe any changes in the computer (noise. The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works. Sometimes. or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred. You may. Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones. the process of elimination is all that you can do. and so forth). screen changes.

but you cannot receive any E-mail. For example. then you know for sure that the network is physically working. but to call you. If for example. write them down. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. Do not make any assumptions. Starting from the top. Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up. you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood.Conclusion help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. Once a plan is created. It requires two simple steps. You may have to refer back to them later. If you must make any assumptions. 247 . create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. Inc. Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems. If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be). but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration. Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. In the case of a network problem. The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly. That way the “evidence” is not disturbed. and move forward. it is important to follow it through. isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user Specialized Solutions. Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made. Document every action and its results. make a plan and follow it.

Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. repair or replacement is usually all that is needed. the problem may be caused by the operator. It is important to use another operator. you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. Implement the solution. . Note: If the problem is software-oriented. either repair or replace the defect. 248 Specialized Solutions. For example. and not the hardware or the system. you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. if the problem is software or configuration related. This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome. no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed. Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work). be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes. Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems. This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how. you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem). if an operator is afraid of computers in general.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Once the search has been narrowed. it may require some additional effort. To resolve these types of problems. start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not. In these situations. Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures. In these cases. However. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures. as well as the one that is causing problems. With hardware. Inc.

there is no substitute for experience. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms. 249 . In troubleshooting. Document the solution Finally. The basis for this policy is that once the system is running. and the repair. Specialized Solutions. maintain. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user. you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem. or a follow up call just to make sure all is well. the problem. Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again. You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience. Inc. You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction.Conclusion Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. and share experience. Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists. This is one way to build. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle. document the problem and the repair.

Punch Down Tool 250 Specialized Solutions. Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician. Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack. Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools. let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling. a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier. The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire. Inc. They secure the connection between the wires and the block. Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network.

resistance. Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires. very easy to troubleshoot. it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other. If your meter does not have a continuity setting. The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe. Since it is made up of wires. Specialized Solutions. We will start by looking at a multimeter. Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. If the wire is broken. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured.Conclusion Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. With it you can test various electronic components. Network cabling is. When working with network cabling. the circuit is broken. as well as the electrical power in the computer. it is still possible to test for continuity. The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters. you can have only one of two problems. You can test for AC and DC voltage. Some meters will let you test for current as well. In a wire for example. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up. If the test is negative (no light or noise). a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red). in principle. A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other. Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. and continuity. whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted). 251 . a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete. All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device. we will have to know how to test for continuity. which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps). For example. When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing. Inc.

this is not a problem. Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. to find pairs of wires in a bundle. The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. If both ends are in the same location. it will emit a tone. Inc. This applies a signal on the wires. these tools are often called a fox and a hound. When used together. The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). called tone generators and tone locators. . The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky. if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician should have one. testing for continuity will require an additional wire. The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator. However. You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end. thus locating the wires. and test at the other end. there are more often than not. 252 Specialized Solutions. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. However. several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel).

capture packets and generate reports. Inc. you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning. there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment. It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. It has the transmit and receive wires connected. Specialized Solutions. They will monitor network traffic. A loopback cable is just what the name implies.Conclusion Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable. Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters. Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic. 253 . are usually a PC with a special network card. Be careful when using a crossover cable. and therefore back to the network card. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa). If you are able to send a signal and have it return. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions. The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling. but is double-ended. A crossover cable is similar to a loopback. By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. the location of any break or short can be determined. These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable. Software analyzers. also called packet sniffers. Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire.

OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back. Inc. but used for fiber optic cabling. . 254 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR.

but can be caused by a disconnected cable. Inc. It could be the processor. Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam. You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so. Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security. Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords. A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact. The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network. This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. Therefore. the traffic is not moving. you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail. If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. the network. Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. 255 . For some reason. due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck.Conclusion Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors. Some passwords are case-sensitive. or a disk resource.

tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves. Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 256 Specialized Solutions. You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives. These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours. When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it. As networks grow. the network slows down. . Inc. You must defragment the drive. and moves information. If slow loading persists even after defragmenting. For example. so does the traffic. deletes. check for memory bottlenecks.

This will test the protocol stack in the computer. If you are using TCP/IP.Conclusion Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network. you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu. but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card.0. you will use it often. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities. On a Windows 95/98 computer. These commands work from a command prompt. It also lets you know the time that it takes. The loopback address is 127. 257 . because as a network professional. On a Macintosh system. Specialized Solutions.1. Inc. This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS. Remember this address. PING. PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation.0. TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination. The first step is to PING the loopback address. and TRACERT commands to test the network. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on your intranet or on the Internet your packet is going. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG.

2000. Inc. WINIPCFG.48.55. WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly. If you are using Windows. This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195. your dialog box will look like the following. or 2003 system. 258 Specialized Solutions. XP.6.

Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: Specialized Solutions. With each step. and so on. they must be okay. 259 . PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer. the server. you will be testing a larger portion of the network. For the IPX/SPX networks. Usually this means you have the wrong IP address. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol.Conclusion PING 195. you receive a message like the following. Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t.55.6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation. you have encountered a problem. Inc. use the ipxping command. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday. If at any stage.48. It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network. then there is a problem with the protocol. Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems.

If there is a sudden change in performance. Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa. You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address. or hosts. have two names. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution. If these files are being used. while green lights indicate that all is well. the first thing to do is find out what has changed. Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem. we learned that workstations. Beyond that. Earlier. In general. 260 Specialized Solutions. To resolve this problem. you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup. but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow.” With nslookup. If present. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer. . respectively. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name. Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS. you can be sure that the network is not being detected. These are text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses. Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files. suspect a loose or disconnected cable. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause. If no lights are on.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. we need to look at four limiting factors on performance. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. Inc. The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details. you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory. That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server). One is the IP address number. they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network.

The speed limit. if you are experiencing slow printing. Just like our highway. The answer lies in creating a performance baseline. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation. Then. you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory. it can send data at a faster than rated speed. Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information. Specialized Solutions. Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays. after you identify the problem. and average time to print the document. This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache. for the most part. adding to the network load. Therefore. you will know the high. you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now. if the traffic gets too congested. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. Latency delays. Latency Small delays in packet movement that are caused by devices is called latency. The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system.Conclusion Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing. This means that for a small amount of time. but are interrelated. Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. at a later date. you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed. 261 . the more packets that can be moved). are negligible. it will affect the entire network. slow. Inc. The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps). From this information. everything slows down. Resolving performance problems can be easy. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request. is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). To create a baseline. if any one component is performing poorly. For example. For example. This can slow down data transfer. or maximum speed that traffic can move. but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks.

Windows Performance Monitor 262 Specialized Solutions. Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. With this tool. etc. you will be able to monitor such events as processor time. To collect these statistics.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events. Windows has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools. available memory. percent of network utilization. Inc. . etc. you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself. Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network. With this activated.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition Specialized Solutions. 263 .Conclusion KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc.

What is the loopback IP address? 7. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. You have just connected a workstation to the network. You have located the cable in question #3. Inc. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slowly. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9. What tool would you need to find the short? 5. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2. . What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Conclusion 264 Specialized Solutions. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4. and think it might be shorted. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10. After repairing a problem.

Remember. you are ready to sit for your certification exam. Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs. When you are ready to schedule your exam. Specialized Solutions. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. and don’t forget to use the Glossary. After taking a practice exam. and as often.Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. To measure your retention of these materials. the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. 265 . we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. We love to hear from our students. When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range. start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course. so if you have any questions. our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. be sure to review any areas that need improvement. at Specialized Solutions. Inc. or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material. be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site. as you like.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 266 Specialized Solutions.

you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. Inc. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network.Appendix A – Tech Summary Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing coaxial Ethernet cabling. Maximum of 4 repeaters. They are specified based on their impedance. Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. 267 . It is expressed in ohms. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Specialized Solutions. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. Only 3 segments can contain nodes. • • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series.

Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core. Broadband transmission. Inc. Length (meters) Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment Max Segments Max. but also used for broadband transmissions. ArcNet networks. such as cable television. Description Stranded wire core. Military specification of RG-58 A/U. RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max. . Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 10Base5 Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Bus 500 10 100 5 4 10Base2 Bus 185 10 30 5 4 3 268 Specialized Solutions.

Inc. 269 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps. Six twisted pairs. Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG. Specialized Solutions. Two STP –26 AWG wire.Appendix A – Tech Summary UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps.5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch. Same as type 1. Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch. but adds voice capability along with data. IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks. Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Plenum grade. Voice-grade cable. Contains a shield for use under carpets. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). Data grade up to 100 Mbps. Not Defined Two 62. Two STP – 26 AWG wire.

7 802.11 802.4 802.1 802.5 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802.x Standard 802. They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls.2 802.9 802.6 802.12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 270 Specialized Solutions.8 802. 802. .3 802.10 802.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model. Inc.

Appendix A – Tech Summary IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer. Inc. 271 . there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed. however. COM4 COM1. COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs. No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually Specialized Solutions. The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2.

.LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 272 Specialized Solutions. Inc.LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address. The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F .

Inc. 273 .Appendix A – Tech Summary 3A0 to 3AF 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model Specialized Solutions.

097.x.255.0. x.x.x.x to 126.0 Number of Networks 126 16.x to 223. .x 128.384 2.152 Number of Host 16.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Gateways Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Brouter Bridges Switches NICs.214 65.x. Hubs.534 254 274 Specialized Solutions.x.777.x Default Subnet Mask 255.x.0. x.255.x to 191.0 255.x. Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001.x. Repeaters Computers Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address. Inc.x.0 255.0.x.x 192.255.

Uses a MAC address to find an IP address.0. Inc. the subnet address. Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks. Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses). it will return. PING ARP RARP Specialized Solutions.Appendix A – Tech Summary TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. If all is well. Sends a test packet to a specified address. Use the loopback address (127.0. Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the Linux user’s network interface configuration. the subnet mask.1) to test the IP architecture and configuration. 275 . and default gateway. Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address.

Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents. In a star topology. (Pronounced Trace Route. all computers are connected in a series. ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries. Used to verify the route to a remote host. all computers are connected to a hub.) Used to verify entries on a DNS server. Used to check the resolution of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses. Inc. NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it. 276 Specialized Solutions. . Used to check the status of current IP connections.

all computers are logically connected in a circle. In a mesh topology. all computers are connected to each other. Specialized Solutions.Appendix A – Tech Summary In a ring topology. Inc. 277 .

Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry. An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals. Can also be used for precise voltage measurements. TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. Protocol Analyzer 278 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages. . Inc. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks. resistance. Also called a network analyzer.

Used to provide information for network baselines. Inc. Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers. Displays or prints a list of events. 279 .Appendix A – Tech Summary Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations. Event Viewer SNMP Specialized Solutions. servers. and bridges). and networks. routers. hubs. interface cards.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 280 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

cnet. 281 .microsoft.com Specialized Solutions.Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www.com Other Helpful Sites http://www.novell.com Novell http://www. Inc.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 282 Specialized Solutions. .

This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry. Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes. This is a common code for basic characters and numbers. Specialized Solutions. Inc. let alone the networking industry. For additional information. ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below). EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. In the computing industry. As its name implies. search for these organizations on the Internet. 283 . Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector. it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set.Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry. it is responsible for establishing standards for communication. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards. It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee.

its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language. As long as both are SQL compliant. Since they cover a wide variety of equipment.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model. Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused. Inc. 284 Specialized Solutions. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards. Inc. These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model. As you may guess from its name. the IEEE is subdivided into committees. This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another. See Appendix A for a summary of the 802. . The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802.x sub-committees.x committee. the data can be smoothly transferred.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment. ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product.

Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time. Date you wish to take the test. Payment must be made each time you take the test. 285 .2test. Payment is made at the time of registration.vue. or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer.com for VUE.Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE.com for Prometric or www. Method of payment. credit card or voucher. either by credit card. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like. go to www. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers. When you call. Inc. and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE. please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number. Prices subject to change without notice. Specialized Solutions. To register via the Internet.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 286 Specialized Solutions. .

Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. these three terms are often used interchangeably. Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. A dedicated server for applications. Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. so they can communicate with other applications or nodes. The Apple networking protocol. The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies. 287 . The highest layer of the OSI Model. Inc. or computers on the network (nodes). Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. program.Appendix E – Glossary Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. or bits per second (bps). or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). Software. opposite of digital. it supplies functions to applications. A continuously variable signal. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. The file server on an AppleTalk network.

Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC. Hardware that connects one network with another. A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems. A bus driver. such as Microsoft.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. such as IBM. Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals). GM. An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. Inc. these are all in use at the present time. . A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. IP Address used by medium-sized networks. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. IP Address used by very large networks. The signal flow is uni-directional. Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address 288 Specialized Solutions. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. A form of mobile computing. or DEC. Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances.

from computer or network to another. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. or language. The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable. which is. Inc. Data that is encoded for security reasons. at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level. using a specific protocol. or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. Software used by the client. 289 . Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption Specialized Solutions. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation. called a server. A form of multitasking. is a number derived from. Same as a hub. The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. to allow other tasks to run. or Cyclic redundancy Code. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor.Appendix E – Glossary Client Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable User computer “being served” by another computer. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. Cyclic Redundancy Check. stored. itself.

which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks. Also called data striping. . the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk. in a round-robin fashion.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. such as an individual file. this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data. A limited form of bus mastering. If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it.) Being able to recover data from a disaster. Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency. When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly. This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol .A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients. The Data Link layer splits data into frames. It also receives acknowledgement frames. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives. DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. Inc. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. for sending on the Physical layer. so that one can take over for the other if it fails. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one. Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 290 Specialized Solutions. (Simple “on” or “off” signal.

Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits. A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received. A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. A group of bits containing address information. An improved version of X. File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once. sent over a communications channel. A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard. A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network. A network’s central computer.25 packet switching technology. Specialized Solutions. Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. and other control information.Appendix E – Glossary DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. 291 DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex . error detection. Inc. with a very large amount of storage space for shared files.

defined in STD 5. and informational messages related to IP. Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). is usually represented in dotted decimal notation. Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture. The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses. HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. RFC 791. or ring topologies. using different protocols.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway A computer that acts as a translator. star. that enables two networks. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. and other information. but only one at a time. . is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages. GSNW Half-Duplex Header HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address 292 Specialized Solutions. test packets. Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. It precedes the actual data. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5. Inc. RFC 792. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol. A network topology that combines bus. even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. to communicate with each other.

293 ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU . across a network connection. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver. Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator. Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. Inc. Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer. A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. and video data sources. Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC. Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer. A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data. data. it’s “hardware address.Appendix E – Glossary IPCONFIG IPsec IRQ DOS command that tells you the IP address for your computer. a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology.” Server used for E-mail. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network. internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring. Specialized Solutions.

The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X. Inc. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission. Provides the physical connection to the network cable. A type of hub. a 32-bit bus. protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources. Also known as a network interface card. Much like your local radio station.400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS). introduced by IBM for its PS/2 computer line. totally incompatible with the original PC bus. among others. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide MCA Bus Micro Channel Architecture. Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS. Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card 294 Specialized Solutions. . and is used by CompuServe. Single Frequency Radio. A method of data transmission. Performing multiple tasks simultaneously. One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting.

A generic term used to describe a unit of data.Appendix E – Glossary Network Administrator Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network. A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards. Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model. Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network. They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. depending on the protocol. Inc. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. Specialized Solutions. 295 Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card . A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network. including network connectivity. The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. Acts as a connection point only. A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network.

Although included as part of Windows NT. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer. The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Peer-to-Peer Performance Monitor All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network. used to circulate air through a building. Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3. A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server.1. such as a printer or scanner. Inc. which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. and even if a process takes full control. The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time. Defines a channel between a device and the processor. Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 296 Specialized Solutions. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning.5 of Windows 3. Dedicated server for printing. depending upon the needs of the user. The space between the ceiling and the floor above. other processes will still run. The Presentation layer formats data exchange. and running on TCP/IP. converting character sets and encrypting data. . many third-party applications are available. this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking. A hardware device.

A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network. For example. Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. Used to increase cable distances in network environments. Connector used with UTP and STP network cables. including support for dialup and logon. Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. A device that forwards packets between networks.e. the devices are connected in a continuous loop. to be accessed via a modem. A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. 297 . In Token-Ring networks. i. Redirects a call from one port to another. which then routes the signal appropriately. Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors. The services or peripherals that are shared over the network. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN Specialized Solutions. Inc. the proxy server. For example. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. The signal is beamed towards a central unit.Appendix E – Glossary Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection. In a Ring topology. Connector used with standard telephone wire. the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps.

Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol. the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15. is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP). data transfer. normally used on Ethernet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. Simple Network Management Protocol. to be used over a serial link. Transmission rates are slower with this type. A computer on a network that provides services to other computers. . A uni-directional data channel. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. Inc. SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP 298 Specialized Solutions. Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another. was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use. as opposed to duplex. The Session layer handles such things as security authentication. Software that resides on a server. RFC 1157. as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. until it reaches the receiver. ceilings. A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. defined in RFC 1055. connection establishment and release. etc. acknowledgments (ACK). usually over Ethernet.

This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing. Inc. so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. Specialized Solutions.5 Standard) environment. Maximum segment length is 500 meters. rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms. that uses a large diameter. measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). 299 SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk . The maximum speed that “traffic” can move. An access method used in a Token Ring topology. Using binary addition. An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings. such as bodies of water or deserts. Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol. Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. The process of subdividing a network into logical units. If the hub fails. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. the official protocol of the Internet. A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters. the entire network goes down.Appendix E – Glossary SONET Spread-Spectrum Radio Synchronous Optical Network Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. or across large flat open areas.

Tool for stripping and cutting wire Tone Locator TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 300 Specialized Solutions. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport. User Datagram Protocol. A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments.” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface. it will emit a tone. RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol. is layered on top of IP. . which. A device that transmits and receives data. this applies a signal on the wires. The “hound. defined in STD 6. Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer. Inc.” A receiver set to the frequency of the generator. thus locating the wires. like TCP. Used on transceivers. Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments. and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information. The “fox. Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding.

resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address. A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. using zones Zones Specialized Solutions. 301 . such as Token Ring. Inc.Appendix E – Glossary WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks.

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Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net. 7. No security. Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security). What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet. What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use. like one office). Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. 4. It is confined to a limited area. Files are easily accessed by all users. A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. 2. What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers. and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less). Review Questions Chapter 1 1. 6. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server). A WAN is not geographically limited. loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations. Specialized Solutions. and peripheral devices. What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. Simple to install. such as data. 303 . LANs typically also have much faster communication speed than WANs. applications. 3. 5. data backups can be more easily and routinely performed. Inc. configure.

10. 11. 12. What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. and Demand Priority. They represent what the topology looks like. Centralized location of resources (server). Review Questions Chapter 2 1. and Ring.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 8. Inc. 304 Specialized Solutions. more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). . Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see. More difficult to install and configure. Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. Can be expanded as network grows. Name the three basic topologies. Centralized administration. Increased performance on large networks. Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). 9. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. Star. File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. Some NOSs function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. Token Passing. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. Ease of data backups. 2. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. The three basic topologies are: Bus.

Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. web-publishing. It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments. and volumes is also handled with NDS. Unlike NetWare. servers. What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. 7. 550 MB of free hard drive space. What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. name service. NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security. Specialized Solutions.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. management. messaging. 9. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. 8. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. redirecting them to the server. 4. 64 MB RAM. and file and print services. Define interoperability. 6. 5. 305 . groups. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. routing. Organization of network resources such as users. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. Inc.

1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network. 11. 12. Review Questions Chapter 3 1. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare. Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. Data Link. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. 125 MB free hard drive space. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 14. 13. Presentation. Transport. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). and Physical 3. 16 MB RAM. What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU. What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 15. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 306 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Session. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 10. 2. FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services.What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. . Application. Network.

13. What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. Inc. Presentation layer 7. 307 . It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer. It is a computer’s physical address. This is not the actual application or program. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. managing. Physical 10. Which OSI layer is responsible the MAC address? The Data Link layer 8. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. 11. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? D3-B4-01 14. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. Network Layer 6. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. and ending connections? The Session layer 12. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. 9. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer Specialized Solutions. Data Link layer 5.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 4. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 15. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence, without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 16. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 17. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. 18. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802.2 19. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. They are incompatible with each other. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com, while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. 20. Describe protocol binding. In order to function, a protocol must be bound to the NIC. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 21. Which is faster, connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster, but connection-oriented communication is more reliable. 22. . Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. AppleTalk, DECnet, IPX/SPX, PPP, PPTP, SLIP, SMB, SNA, TCP/IP, UDP, X.25, XNS 23.. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Will this work? Why or Why not? 308

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol.

Review Questions Chapter 4

1. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. 5. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. 6. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above, which is used to circulate air in a building). Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned, which would end up being circulated throughout the building. 7. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 10. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs, which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. 11. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. However, it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. 13. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths, segment lengths of up to several miles, and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. 15. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. 16. Describe baseband. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. 17. Describe broadband. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable, making the signal flow unidirectional. 18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way, can receive but not send. For example, a pager. Half-duplex communication can send or receive, but not at the same time. For example, a CB radio. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. For example, the telephone. 310 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 19. What is the function of a network adapter card? Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network. (They make the physical connection to the network.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. 20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers, including network connectivity. 22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network, to backup a cable-based network, to provide a mobile network environment, for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly, outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform. 23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared, Laser, Radio, and Microwave 24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. 25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally; Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances.

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority Specialized Solutions, Inc. 311

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). Specialized Solutions, Inc. 313

This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer. 21. The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function. while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise. . Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? The IEEE 802. Inc. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. 314 Specialized Solutions. It can be either depending upon how it is set up. Describe a MIC connector. data collisions are avoided.3 standard 15. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token. It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise. IEEE 802.5 standard 16. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends. 18. It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds. Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data. 20. They are also called hermaphrodite connectors. 19. however.5 says it travels clockwise. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately.

What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. 24. Specialized Solutions. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. it stores it to use each time it connects to the network.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 22. Inc. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper. 2. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. Review Questions Chapter 6 1. 25. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. 315 . etc. 3. It also provides a print server. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2. If no other computer is using the address. 23. NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. 4. 5.

Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. It will be less costly to install CAT 6 now than to replace the CAT 5 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps to handle the higher traffic. but not enough to run it efficiently. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. 2. . Inc. 9. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? Check the Windows Catalog on the web at www. 316 Specialized Solutions. 7. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network. An active hub requires some input power. Review Questions Chapter 7 1. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS. he intends to expand the network in the future.microsoft. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths. Why should you refuse this offer? First.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 6. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks. but they are not all the same. you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. Also. However. Passive hubs are used only to make connections. 8.com/windows/catalog.

Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. 10. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. For example. a bridge. ISDN. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. 8.A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment. and SONET 7. Security host. Auditing. Name three advanced WAN environments. They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment. and PPTP filtering. a router. Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model.A router has all the features of a bridge.Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Name three RAS protocols. In older modems. Inc. BAUD and bps were the same thing. A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem. PPTP and L2TP 9. NetBEUI is not routable. Repeater . Gateway . Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. SLIP. and a gateway. 5. Frame Relay. They do not translate or filter any information.A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature. 4. BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem. amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables. 317 . Name four forms of RAS security. PPP. Not all network protocols will work with a router. Router . Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. Specialized Solutions. They do however. Define a repeater. Callback Security.544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network. Bridge . What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking).

com. ICMP. 4. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1. SNMP. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names. SMTP. 8. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. Internet and Network Interface. IP. and ARP. 5. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9. 3. An example is http://www. UDP. Transport. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP. What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3. FTP. 32 10. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 318 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11) Specialized Solutions.microsoft. 2. . 7. HTU UTH 6. What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses. and HTTP.

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3. ROUTE. Specialized Solutions. Event Viewer. U U U U 12. NETSTAT and TRACERT. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status. each device will need to be _________ compliant. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups. Inc. 319 . 2. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment Review Questions Chapter 9 1. List as many as you can. NBTSTAT. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow.

. 2. The acronym RAID stands for____________? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. 320 Specialized Solutions. Resources 3. What are the three most common levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 5 Striped array with parity 6. In a share level model. What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password. What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. passwords are assigned to __________.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1. 4. 5. Inc.

Isolate the Problem. WINIPCFG from the RUN command. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows.0. After repairing a problem. 2. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 11 1. 6. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. and think it might be shorted. 3. 5. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. You have just connected a workstation to the network. 8. 321 . and Repair the Problem. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. What is the loopback IP address? 127. The fox and hound. Specialized Solutions. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator.0. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network. You have located the cable in question #3. Inc. 4.1 7.

What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slow. Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. 10. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 322 Specialized Solutions. .

77 Computer compatibility. 114 10BaseT. 217 ATM. 92 Boot Sector. 34 DECnet. 191 BRI.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Index 1 100BaseX. 78. 65 continuity. 39 Circuit-switched. 86 B backbone. 108. 121 Application Layer. 114 A access method. 79 backup utility. 50 application server. 67 demand priority. 90 DLC. 196 Class B. 60 Broadband. 38 Client Software. 166 attenuation. 86 Beaconing. 323 . 40. 114 10Base5. 122 AppleTalk. 164 Class A. 24 Address Resolution Protocol. 226 Bandwidth. 70 DMA. 40 Specialized Solutions. 109 DES (Data Encryption Standard). 116 10Base2. 61 C Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD. 52 Data Protection. 13 Clocking. 186 Analog. 98 Change. 167 bridge. 119 binding. 69. 89 AppleShare. 78. 196 client software. 91 domain. 108 Active Directory. 13 ARCNet. 160 Category 3. 78 Boot Prom’s. 109 CSNW. 231 BOOTP. 60 attributes. 243 CSMA/CD. 41 CSU/DSU. 70 coaxial cable. 114 10BaseFL. 111 D Data Link Layer. 67. 116 100VG-AnyLAN. 42 base memory address. 123 ARP. 86 Broadband Optical Telepoint. 91 Baseband. 253 Banyan VINES. 96 brouter. 39 AUI connector. 230 Differential backup. 65 BNC. 42 active hubs. 226 Digital. 16. 196 Class C. 161 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC). Inc. 151 connection-oriented. 79 AWG. 34 clients. 89 Direct Memory Access (DMA). 81 Category 5. 89 cloud. 81 Cellular Networking. 21 Carriers. 189 domain controller.

231 EISA. 191 dynamic routers. 96 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 56 324 Specialized Solutions. 42 Headers. 187 HTTPS. 167 ISDN adapters. 186 Incremental backup. 226 Full Control. Inc. 42 GSNW. 41 Frame Relay. 91 IBM cabling.. 116 ground probe. K Kerberos. 86 headers. 93 EMI.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Domain Name Service (DNS). 191 gateways. 39 Full-Duplex. 174 LAN. 194 IPCONFIG. 96 Linux. 41 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). 217. 70 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol. 226 Infrared. 185 interoperability. 122 Event Viewer. 114 EtherTalk. 41 H Half-Duplex. 185 IP address. 39 IP. 174 IPv6. 174 Line-of-Sight Infrared. 71 ICS. 192 IFCONFIG. 91 ISA.Fiber Distributed Data. 245 DSMN. 96 LAT. 93 ISDN. 226 FDDI . 166 fiber-optic. 157 hybrid topologies. 39 fault tolerance. 224 FPNW. 61 Gateways. 68. 159 Gigabit Ethernet. 83 File Infectors. 112 HOSTS file. 62 Internet Control Message Protocol. 68. 161 . 60 E EES. 167 FTP. Inc. 187 Full backup. (IEEE). 186 Internet Protocol (IP). 217 IMAP4. 191 HTTP. 174 ICMP. 86 G gateway. 86 firewall. 144 Ethernet. 187 hubs. 243 Group policies. 120 ICA. 12 Laser. 174 L L2TP. 21. 197 IPX. 67 IRQ. 231 fire codes. 189 Domain Reflectometer (TDR). 249 IPsec. 18 I I/O port number. 81 environment. 22 FAT. 83 IBM Type 3 UTP. 215 F Fast Ethernet.

71. 191 NBTSTAT. 86 PPP. 217 PING. 37 NetWare security. 157 MAUs . 114 LMHOSTS. 107 protocols. 120. 89 passive hub. 70 NETBIOS. 39 NOS – Network Operating System. 249 plenum. 164 Packet-Radio Networking. 190 NETSTAT. Inc. 93 PDC . 30 PRI. 49. 243 mesh topology. 32 P Packet switching. 191 LocalTalk. 30 N NAT. 41. 64 Open Systems Interface (OSI). 36 NetWare Client32 for DOS. 36 NetWare file server. 120 Multimeter. 36 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95. 67 NDIS. 217 NTFS. 215 NetWare.Primary Domain Controller. 29 NSLOOKUP. 34 MAU. 18 Ping. 71. 96 MLID. 172 PPTP. 228 NFS. 43 Macro Virus. 231 physical topologies. 89 Network Layer. 215 NCP. 13 peer-to-peer.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers LLC. 213 MIC (Media Interface Connectors). 69 NLSP. 67 No Access. 171 NWLink. 157 PCI. 18 LSL. 67 modem. 172 Preemptive multitasking. 64 proxy server. 69 Network-attached storage (NAS). 18 MHS. 39 Null-Modem. 23 Passwords. 36 NetWare Client32 for OS/2. 37 Network Adapter Cards. 122 logical topology. 242 325 Specialized Solutions. 37 NetWare Print Services. 21 Media Compatibility. 243 multitasking. 93 PCMCIA. 111 parallel communication. 151 Media Tester. 23 media access methods. 168 MSAU. 67 M Macintosh.Multiple Access Units. 192 Punch Down Tool. 232 Managing User Accounts. 120 Microwave. 167 protocol. 31 Network standards. 29 OS/2. 36 NetBEUI. 64 NDS (NetWare Directory Services). 52 Network Neighborhood. 36 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh. 98 packets. 37 MIB (Management Information Base). 68 O ODI. 49 operating system. 229 Patch Panel. 14 Peer-to-peer LANs. 31 PGP. . 114 Network Time Protocol (NTP).

68 SMDS. 217 Read. 21. 16 TRACERT. 79 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 71. 174 Standards. 79 Transport Layer. 187 Software analyzers. 215. 167 SPX. 65 RPC. 227 RARP. 158 requester. 249 Trailer. sneaker net. 215 router. 69 ROUTE. 237 trunk. 187 SNA. 71 RSA. 182 UNIX. 68 326 Specialized Solutions. 13 sharing applications. 118 topology. 16. 34 server-based network. 16 twisted-pair. Inc. 144 Remote Access Server or RAS. 35 Reflective Infrared. 167 security. 33 servers. 79 thicknet. 34. 67 SSL. 144 Server Software. 42 User Datagram Protocol (UDP). 68. 245 SONET. 89 Server room. 228 STP. 185 UTP. 159 routers. 225 removable optical disk. 69 terminator. 60. 175 Security. 17 static routers. 221 segment. 60. 167 SMTP. 86 SLIP. 96 SDH. 120 SMB. 98 Scatter Infrared. 80 U UDP. 184 Telnet. 77 Thinnet. 96 relative humidity. 213 Simplex. 51 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 232 troubleshooting. 77 throughput. 81 Subnetting. 109 token ring. 230 S SAP. 13 Server-based network. 67. 152 star topology. 68 Trojan Horses.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide R Radio. 69. 112 transceiver. 16. 68 Satellite Station Networking. 17 RIP. 58 . 225 repeater. 11 SNMP. 199 T tape backup. 253 TLS. 225 TCP. 80 V vampire taps. 96 RAID. 68. 172 SMAU. 60 Storage Area Network (SAN). 11 signal bounce. 171 removable disks. 71. 39 redirector. 80 virtual connections. 174 token passing. 35 ring topology. 16 serial communication.

92 workstation. 19. 31 Windows NT Print Servers.25. 95 Wireless NICs. 13 X X. Inc. 71 XNS. 190 Wire Crimper. 124 wireless network. 166 XDR. 327 . 165 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks). 69. 242 Wireless. 70 Specialized Solutions. 154 Windows 95/98. 230 W WAN. 40 U U WINS. 231 VLAN. 12 Warp Connect. 32 Windows 2000. 31 Windows for Workgroups.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Viruses.

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