Network+ 2005 Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network+

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Copyright© 2004 by Specialized Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 338 East Tarpon Street, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. Publisher: Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Contributing Writers: Bill Ferguson Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Editor: Bill Ferguson

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Suggestions/Comments Please forward all comments or suggestions to: Specialized Solutions, Inc. 338 East Tarpon St. Tarpon Springs, FL 34689

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... I

ABOUT SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS ...........................................................IX
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+ .............................................................2005 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ..................................................................................................9 YOUR VIDEO INSTRUCTOR .................................................................................................9 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST ..................................................................................................10 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................10 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................10 ABOUT THIS COURSE .......................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS ..................................................17 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING ....................................................................................17 Benefits of Networking Computers .............................................................................17 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) .................................18 The Client/Server Relationship ...................................................................................19 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................19 Peer-to-Peer Networking ............................................................................................20 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).....................................................................21 Bus Topology ..............................................................................................................21 Star Topology..............................................................................................................22 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................22 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES ......................................................................................................23 Hybrid Topologies ......................................................................................................23 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................23 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................24 NETWORK ACCESS ...........................................................................................................26 Token Passing .............................................................................................................26 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................26 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................27 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS ...........................................................................................28 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................28 Active Hubs .................................................................................................................29 Hub-Based Networks ..................................................................................................29 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................30 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................31 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1 ....................................................................................33 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS) ....................................35 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? ..................................................................................35 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking .............................................................36 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)? ........................................................37 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................37 Server/Client Software ................................................................................................39 NOS PACKAGES...............................................................................................................42 Specialized Solutions, Inc. i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Novell NetWare .......................................................................................................... 42 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System................................................... 45 Windows NT Minimum Requirements ...........................Error! Bookmark not defined. UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................ 47 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service)................................................ 48 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 50 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................. 51 REVIEW QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................ 52 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS.......... 55 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION ..................................................... 55 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL ................................................................................ 56 Application Layer ....................................................................................................... 56 Presentation Layer ..................................................................................................... 57 Session Layer.............................................................................................................. 57 Transport Layer.......................................................................................................... 57 Network Layer ............................................................................................................ 58 Data Link Layer.......................................................................................................... 58 Logical Link Control (LLC) ....................................................................................... 59 Media Access Control (MAC) .................................................................................... 59 Physical Layer............................................................................................................ 60 PROTOCOL STACKS ......................................................................................................... 62 Communication Between Peer Layers ....................................................................... 62 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD ............................................................................................ 64 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL ....................................................................................... 66 Repeaters .................................................................................................................... 66 Bridges........................................................................................................................ 66 Routers........................................................................................................................ 66 Brouters ...................................................................................................................... 67 Gateways .................................................................................................................... 67 IEEE 802 STANDARDS .................................................................................................... 68 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL ...................................................................... 70 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)......................................................... 70 ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ................................................................................ 70 PROTOCOLS AND OSI ...................................................................................................... 70 Protocol Binding ........................................................................................................ 71 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless ................................................................... 71 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols ........................................................................ 71 Networking Protocols and Stacks............................................................................... 72 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................... 73 DECnet ....................................................................................................................... 73 IPX/ SPX..................................................................................................................... 73 SMB (Server Message Block) ..................................................................................... 74 SNA (Systems Network Architecture) ......................................................................... 74 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ....................................................................... 74 IP (Internet Protocol)................................................................................................. 74 UDP (User Datagram Protocol)................................................................................ 74 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) ..................................................................................... 74 ii Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Table of Contents Telnet...........................................................................................................................75 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................75 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................75 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................75 NTP (Network Time Protocol) ....................................................................................75 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) ...............................................................................75 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................75 X.25 .............................................................................................................................76 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................76 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................76 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................76 LAT (Local Area Transport) .......................................................................................76 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................77 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................78 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................78 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) ...................................................................................78 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) ................................................................78 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) ........................................................78 ISO/OSI Standard .......................................................................................................78 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ...............................................................78 DNS (Domain Name System) ......................................................................................78 XDR (External Data Representation) .........................................................................78 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................78 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................80 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................81 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................82 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................85 NETWORK CABLING .........................................................................................................85 Coaxial Cable .............................................................................................................85 Coaxial Connectors ....................................................................................................86 Twisted-Pair Cable .....................................................................................................88 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................91 Summary of Cabling ...................................................................................................93 CABLING TERMS ..............................................................................................................94 AWG (American Wire Gauge) ....................................................................................94 Bandwidth ...................................................................................................................94 Plenum Grade Cabling ...............................................................................................94 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................95 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)..............................................................................97 Preparing the Data .....................................................................................................97 Signals and Clocking ..................................................................................................97 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel) .................................................................................98 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................98 Configurable Options..................................................................................................98 Wireless NICs............................................................................................................100 Specialized Solutions, Inc. iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Fiber-Optic NICs...................................................................................................... 100 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................ 101 Standard Bus Types .................................................................................................. 101 Laptops ..................................................................................................................... 101 NETWORK PERFORMANCE ............................................................................................. 102 WIRELESS NETWORKS ................................................................................................... 103 Why Wireless? .......................................................................................................... 103 Wireless Transmission Methods............................................................................... 104 Radio Transmission.................................................................................................. 105 Satellite Station Networking..................................................................................... 106 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 108 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 109 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.................................................................................... 112 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS .................................. 115 ACCESS METHODS......................................................................................................... 116 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) .................... 116 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) ................... 117 Token Passing........................................................................................................... 117 Demand Priority....................................................................................................... 117 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS) ............................................... 119 Packet Structure ....................................................................................................... 119 Packet Components .................................................................................................. 120 NETWORK STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 122 Logical Link Control (802.2).................................................................................... 122 Ethernet (802.3)........................................................................................................ 122 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................. 129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)................................................... 131 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 133 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 134 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.................................................................................... 136 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.......................................................................... 139 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT ................................................................................... 139 The Customer ........................................................................................................... 139 The Network Goals................................................................................................... 140 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE ......................................................................................... 142 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer.................................................................................. 142 When to Choose Client/Server ................................................................................. 143 Making the Choice.................................................................................................... 144 Public and Private networks .................................................................................... 144 DESIGN THE NETWORK.................................................................................................. 150 Media Selection ........................................................................................................ 151 Environmental Concerns.......................................................................................... 152 NOS Selection........................................................................................................... 152 Protocol Selection .................................................................................................... 152 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER ............................................................................................ 154 Cable to Computer ................................................................................................... 154 iv Specialized Solutions, Inc.

.....197 Specialized Solutions......................................................184 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 .189 RFC (Request For Comments).........157 Media Compatibility .......................................192 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols ......................... Inc.170 Circuit-switched Networks.................................................................................................................168 WAN Overview.....................164 CHAPTER 7 .......................169 Digital Connectivity ......174 MODEMS ......................................................166 Repeaters...........................................................................................................................159 PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................197 DNS .................167 Gateway ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................176 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS) ................................................................................................................155 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY .................................................................172 Packet Switching Networks....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................165 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL ..................................................................................162 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 ......................................................................................................................................................................................168 Carriers........................................................................................................178 Connecting Two Computers.................................................................Table of Contents Cable to Hub ............178 RAS Protocols .....................................................................................................................194 NAMING SYSTEMS ...............................................................................................................................................................167 CONNECTION SERVICES ...................................................................................................................................................183 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ...........................................................................161 Minimum Requirements .........................................................................169 Analog Connectivity.....EXPANDING A NETWORK ........................................................................................................................154 Network Adapter Cards .160 Standards ....172 VLAN.........................................................................................................................................................165 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS...189 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS .........................................................................................................................................................................................166 Bridges ..............................................................160 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS .................189 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP........................................................................186 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................192 Other TCP/IP Protocols ...................160 Hard Work ...................................166 Routers ............................. v ...........................................................................182 Limitations of RAS ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................179 Installing and Configuring RAS...............................................................................................................................................................................182 Troubleshooting a RAS setup..................................................................................................................................................................159 Computer Compatibility................161 HCL and Windows 2000 ................................173 Advanced WAN Environments ...........................................157 Adapter Card Compatibility ....................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 209 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS .............................................................. 200 IP Proxy Servers............................................ 205 SUBNETTING ........................................................................ 225 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG .......................................................................... 225 RARP............................................................................................................................................. 199 DHCP .................................................................... 200 ICS ...............SNMP ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 198 NETBIOS ...................................................................................................................................................... 215 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ..................................................................................................................... 221 Management Software........................................................................................................................................................................... 202 IP Addresses ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 223 NETSTAT ................. 225 ARP ............. 229 USER AND SHARE LEVEL ..................................................... 203 Class D and Class E Addresses..................................................... 199 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES .............................................................................................................................. 228 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 229 vi Specialized Solutions............. 222 EVENT VIEWER .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 225 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .......................................................................................................... 225 IFCONFIG....................................................................................................................................................... 199 BOOTP .......................................................... 203 Class A Addresses ..................................................................................................................... 225 PING.................................................................... 223 TRACERT........................ 200 TCP/IP ADDRESSING........................................................................................................................... 222 Communities........................................... 198 HOSTS file................ 203 Class C Addresses .... 203 IPv6 (IP Next Generation) ............................................................................................................................................................... 221 Agent Software ...................................................................................................................................................... 203 Class B Addresses ................................................... 225 NSLOOKUP........................................................................................................................................................................... 202 IPv4 ............................. 223 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ............................ 199 IP Gateway .............................................................. 217 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8.............................................. Inc................................ 227 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9..................................................................................... 207 How to Subdivide a Network ........................... 223 ROUTE.......................................................................................... 199 LMHOSTS file ............................................................................................................................. 200 NAT................................................................................................. 219 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES........................................................................................ 221 NETWORK MANAGERS ................................................................................................................................. 223 NBTSTAT ............ 222 VALIDATION TOOLS ................................................ .........................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS....................

......................259 NIC Indicator Lights .....260 Performance.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents User-level Security.........................................................................................271 OSI MODEL ........250 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools.......................................................................................................267 ETHERNET CABLING ................................................................................................275 Specialized Solutions...................................................................................................................................................................239 Viruses................................................260 Name Resolution ...............................................................238 Disaster Recovery ..................................................................................232 Blocking Port Numbers...274 TCP/IP PORTS .......................................................................237 Encryption..............................................229 Share-level Security ............................................245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ..................................................................................................................................255 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS .................................................264 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................264 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY .........................................260 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................................................................234 Fault Tolerance and RAID............. Inc..........................................................................................250 Hardware Networking Tools..............................232 Backing up Data ................................................................................230 SECURITY TECHNIQUES .....................................251 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS ..............................267 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES ..............................................269 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING) ......................................................................................................232 Firewalls ..........................................................................268 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES ......................................269 IEEE 802..................270 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS .............................................245 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING........................................275 TCP/IP UTILITIES .......................................234 Volumes........................................................................232 Backup Options...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................263 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11 ...............................................................................................................................................273 SUBNET MASKING .....................................................................................................................................243 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK ........267 5-4-3 RULE ...................................................... vii ..............................................................................................................................................................................................257 Cable Problems................................................................................................ and Incremental Backups ....................................................................................239 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................242 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................257 Misbehaving Protocols ......................................................................X STANDARDS..............................234 Full..................................................................................................................................... Differential..............................236 PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES ....................................................................................................................................................................................233 Backup Software .............................................................................................................................................................................................................234 Fault Tolerance and Power ............................................................

....... 284 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM...........................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TOPOLOGY REVIEW ..... 276 TRANSMISSION MEDIA ..... 306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4...................................................................................... 284 ISO.................................................................................................. 316 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8...... 320 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11........ 281 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10...................................................................... 278 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES ............................................................................................... 315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7............................................................................................................................................................................................ 318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9......................................................................... 281 NOVELL ......................................................................................................... 281 MICROSOFT: ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 285 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS ...................................................................................................................................................... 284 SAG ................... 311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6...... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1.................................................................................... 285 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY............................................. 323 viii Specialized Solutions................................................... 278 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ....... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED..................................................................... 321 INDEX ................................................ 283 ANSI.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 281 COMPUSERVE ................................................................................................................................. Inc........................................................................................................................................................................................... 287 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS .................................. 283 CCITT ............................................................................. 309 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2..... 283 IEEE .................................................................. ............................................................ 304 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3.............................. 283 EIA .................................... OTHER HELPFUL SITES ..............

About Specialized Solutions About Specialized Solutions Welcome to Specialized Solutions. Specialized Solutions. Inc. Inc. is dedicated to providing the computer professional the highest level of self-study training and certification materials the industry has to offer. We are committed to always be on the leading edge of new computer environment training products. To see other Specialized Solutions. One hundred percent customer satisfaction and unmatched customer service is always our commitment to the computer professional.’s Network+ training and certification course. Inc. We strive to provide training programs that far exceed the expectations of our customers. We will always provide a quality product to customers at a price that is within reach of most computer professionals. ix .com Specialized Solutions. please visit us at: www. Our highly skilled staff of computer and educational professionals are dedicated to delivering high quality. course offerings. cost-effective programs that are customized to suit your needs. We thank you for choosing our company as your resource for Information Technology SelfStudy Training.specializedsolutions. Inc.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide x Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals. 1 . We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! Specialized Solutions. as a stand-alone textbook. We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program. Network+ video training series. and Digital Video Studio Professionals. Inc. It can be used in conjunction with the Specialized Solutions. our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. Remember. easy to follow format. at Specialized Solutions.Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives. Technical Writers. We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical. or as a textbook in a classroom environment. Computer Graphics Experts. Inc. Technical Editors.

0 Network Support Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 25% 35% 100% 2 Specialized Solutions.” The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1.” “This examination includes blueprint weighting. Inc. test objectives and example content. The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey. Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination.0 Protocols & Standards 3.0 Network Implementation 4.0 Media & Topologies 2.

3 Specify the characteristics (For example: speed. 3 . length.2 Specify the main features of 802.11 (wireless). features and functions of the following network components: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • Gateways • CSU / DSU (Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit) Specialized Solutions. topology. Inc.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a diagram.Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: Domain 1. 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX • 10 GBASE-SR. including: • Speed • Access method (CSMA / CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) and CSMA / CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection)) • Topology • Media 1. 5.0 . 5e.3 (Ethernet). schematic or description: • Star • Bus • Mesh • Ring 1. 802. and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) networking technologies. 802. 1000BASE-CX. and cable type) of the following cable standards: • 10BASE-T and 10BASE-FL • 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX • 1000BASE-T.5 (token ring). and 6 • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) • STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) • Coaxial cable • SMF (Single Mode Fiber) optic cable • MMF (Multimode Fiber) optic cable 1.2 (Logical Link Control). 10 GBASE-LR and 10 GBASE-ER 1.5 Recognize the following media types and describe their uses: • Category 3.4 Recognize the following media connectors and describe their uses: • RJ-11 (Registered Jack) • RJ-45 (Registered Jack) • F-Type • ST (Straight Tip) • SC (Subscriber Connector or Standard Connector) • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) • Fiber LC (Local Connector) • MT-RJ (Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack) • USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1.Media and Topologies – 20% 1. 802.6 Identify the purposes.

2. antenna type and environmental factors).8 Identify factors which affect the range and speed of wireless service (For example: interference.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model and their functions. Inc.5 Identify the components and structure of IP (Internet Protocol) addresses (IPv4.10 Define the purpose. Domain 2. 2. addressing schemes. frequency.11x (Direct sequence spread spectrum) • Infrared • Bluetooth 1. IPv6) and the required setting for connections across the Internet. 2. function and use of the following protocols used in the TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) suite: • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) 4 Specialized Solutions.9 Identify and differentiate between the following IP (Internet Protocol) addressing methods: • Static • Dynamic • Self-assigned (APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing)) 2. transmission type and topology) of the following wireless technologies: • 802. 2. interoperability and naming conventions: • IPX / SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange / Sequence Packet Exchange) • NetBEUI (Network Basic Input / Output System Extended User Interface) • AppleTalk / AppleTalk over IP (Internet Protocol) • TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) 2. . 2. 2.4 Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • NICs (Network Interface Card) • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) adapters • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) • Modems • Transceivers (media converters) • Firewalls 1.11 (Frequency hopping spread spectrum) • 802.0 – Protocols and Standards – 20% 2. B and C).7 Identify the purpose of subnetting.1 Identify a MAC (Media Access Control) address and its parts.6 Identify classful IP (Internet Protocol) ranges and their subnet masks (For example: Class A.8 Identify the differences between private and public network addressing schemes.7 Specify the general characteristics (For example: carrier speed.3 Identify the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) layers at which the following network components operate: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • NICs (Network Interface Card) • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) 2.

WINS (Windows Internet Name Service). 2. NAT (Network Address Translation).25 2.12 Identify the well-known ports associated with the following commonly used services and protocols: • 20 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 21 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 22 SSH (Secure Shell) • 23 Telnet • 25 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • 53 DNS (Domain Name Service) • 69 TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • 80 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • 110 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) • 119 NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • 123 NTP (Network Time Protocol) • 143 IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • 443 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) 2. Zeroconf (Zero configuration). SMB (Server Message Block).Introduction • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) • POP3 / IMAP4 (Post Office Protocol version 3 / Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • Telnet • SSH (Secure Shell) • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) • ARP / RARP (Address Resolution Protocol / Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) • NTP (Network Time Protocol) • NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) • IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) • LPR (Line Printer Remote) 2. LPD (Line Printer Daemon) and Samba). ICS (Internet Connection Sharing).13 Identify the purpose of network services and protocols (For example: DNS (Domain Name Service). NFS (Network File System). 5 . SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol).14 Identify the basic characteristics (For example: speed. 2.11 Define the function of TCP / UDP (Transmission Control Protocol / User Datagram Protocol) ports. AFP (Apple File Protocol). Inc. capacity and media) of the following WAN (Wide Area Networks) technologies: • Packet switching • Circuit switching • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) • T1 (T Carrier level 1) / E1 / J1 • T3 (T Carrier level 3) / E3 / J3 • OCx (Optical Carrier) • X.15 Identify the basic characteristics of the following internet access technologies: • xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) • Broadband Cable (Cable modem) • POTS / PSTN (Plain Old Telephone Service / Public Switched Telephone Network) • Satellite • Wireless Specialized Solutions.

17 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function: • IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Continued on the next page… Continued from the previous page… • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) • 802. authentication. PAP (Password Authentication Protocol). and physical connectivity.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. 3. determine the impact on network functionality of a particular security implementation (For example: port blocking / filtering.9 Identify the main characteristics and purpose of extranets and intranets.5 Identify the purpose.8 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks).1x 2.1 Identify the basic capabilities (For example: client support.0 Network Implementation – 25% 3. 3. Kerberos and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)). punch down tool or tone generator).16 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services: • RAS (Remote Access Service) • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) • PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) • VPN (Virtual Private Network) • RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) 2.6 Identify the purpose. configure the connection. Inc. authentication and encryption).3 Identify the appropriate tool for a given wiring task (For example: wire crimper. MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). interoperability. 3. 3. Domain 3. media tester / certifier. Includes connection to the following servers: • UNIX / Linux / MAC OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. 3. application support and security) of the following server operating systems to access network resources: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. benefits and characteristics of using a firewall. an authentication scheme. file and print services.2 Identify the basic capabilities needed for client workstations to connect to and use network resources (For example: media. 6 Specialized Solutions.18 Identify authentication protocols (For example: CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). benefits and characteristics of using a proxy service. . 3. network protocols and peer and server services). RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service).4 Given a remote connectivity scenario comprised of a protocol.7 Given a connectivity scenario.

select the appropriate network utility from the following: • Tracert / traceroute • ping • arp • netstat • nbtstat • ipconfig / ifconfig • winipcfg • nslookup / dig 4. 4.5 Given a troubleshooting scenario between a client and the following server environments. mesh or ring) and including a network diagram.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario. Specialized Solutions.Introduction 3. physical connectivity and SOHO (Small Office / Home Office) router). benefits and characteristics of using antivirus software. print services. 7 .11 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance: • Power • Link redundancy • Storage • Services 3.4 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a client accessing remote network services. 4. identify the cause of a stated problem (For example: bad media. 4.12 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery: • Backup / restore • Offsite storage • Hot and cold spares • Hot.7 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology (For example: bus. 4.3 Given a network scenario. identify the cause of the problem (For example: file services. protocol configuration.0 Network Support – 35% 4.10 Identify the purpose. identify the network area affected and the cause of the stated failure.1).2 Given output from a network diagnostic utility (For example: those utilities listed in objective 4.6 Given a scenario. star. determine the impact of modifying. 4. adding or removing network services (For example: DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). interference. network hardware or environment). interpret visual indicators (For example: link LEDs (Light Emitting Diode) and collision LEDs (Light Emitting Diode)) to determine the nature of a stated problem. Inc. authentication failure. DNS (Domain Name Service) and WINS (Windows Internet Name Service)) for network resources and users. warm and cold sites Domain 4. 3.8 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving an infrastructure (For example: wired or wireless) problem. identify the cause of a stated problem: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 4. identify the utility and interpret the output.

Inc. Implement an action plan and solution including potential effects 6. Select the most probable cause 5. Identify the results and effects of the solution 8. Document the solution and process 8 Specialized Solutions. Identify the affected area 3. Test the result 7. select an appropriate course of action based on a logical troubleshooting strategy.9 Given a network problem scenario. Identify the symptoms and potential causes 2. . This strategy can include the following steps: 1.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. Establish what has changed 4.

Hands-on experience is best. In addition. and CCNA.” Specialized Solutions. MCSA. Bill is an enthusiastic. Server+. Network+. Originally in technical sales and sales management with Sprint. results oriented computer specialist who has extensive knowledge of Microsoft networks. Bill has written the “MCDST Study Guide” for Sybex Inc. Inc. In addition he holds the CompTIA certifications of A+. Use the “Help” button where available. such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. Alabama. Practice the function on your computer. However. Bill made his transition to Certified Technical Trainer in 1997 with ExecuTrain. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented. as well as “Designing Security for Windows Server 2003 Network” for Exam Cram2. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary. use a study plan. Bill has been in the computer industry for over 15 years. To get the best results from your training. MCP+I. Bill now runs his own company as an independent contractor in Birmingham. Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding. Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge. He is certified as an MCT. 9 . CCSI.Introduction Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not extremely complicated. Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand. MCDST. teaching classes for most of the national training companies and some regional training companies. and Security+. MCSE. it may seem so. Your Video Instructor Your video instructor is Bill Ferguson. “My job is to understand the material so well that I can make it easier for my students to learn than it was for me to learn. not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation. if this is your first exposure to networking. Bill says.

. except payment of the test fee. A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge. The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. There are no specific requirements. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English. 1999. CONGRATULATIONS. but A+ certification is not required.com) or any Thomson Prometric testing center (2test. German. • • • How do you learn best (reading. How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam. You can locate a testing center and schedule the test on the web. YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Schedule the test for a few weeks from now so that you will have a guidepost that is constantly reminding you that you need to study the material. Since most of us learn in different ways. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills. The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry. Inc. Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam.com). French and Japanese. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive. You can take the test at any Virtual University Enterprises testing center (vue. Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs. Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test. hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 10 Specialized Solutions. This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. You can also call VUE at 877-551-7587 or Thomson Prometric at 888-8956116. You may be surprised at how near you are to a testing center! Evaluate your learning aptitudes. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book. there is no one method that will work for everyone. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. watching.

It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point. You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through. Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time. You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time. Specialized Solutions. Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. 11 . What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through. Make an appointment with yourself. Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read. you want to begin to understand.Introduction Make a plan to learn. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises. Use the rewind button as often as necessary. Re-read the test and review the video presentation. Review the video presentation one more time if necessary. Inc. If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course. If you need to. Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). set aside the time to learn. At this time. • Complete the course a second time. Based on your time to learn (and your schedule). go though the entire course again. just get a feel for it. Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). This workbook will make this task much easier.

It is a closed book exam.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test. The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted. Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam As you prepare for your certification exam it will be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure. Inc. You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. You will be required to show two forms of identification. • • • • 12 Specialized Solutions. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them. If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams. All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in. Evaluate the questions you missed. . (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam. The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer. You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam. You will be asked to sign the form. it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test. including one photo ID. Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam.

but be sure to read it in its entirety. you are given the ability to skip a question. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides. or if you are unclear about what you should do. Usually. Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam. mark a question or answer a question. you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam. If you’re not quite sure. self-study training system. ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam. 13 . you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score. (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. The course contains five instructor led CD-ROMs. If you don’t know the answer. Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! About This Course This Specialized Solutions Network+ course is a multi-media. Keep track of the time and pace yourself. If the administrator does not do this. Specialized Solutions. you can see which questions are not answered.Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials. Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. Do not read too much into the question. If you positively don’t know the answer. (such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test. Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers. put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. It lists your score by objective. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you.Introduction HINT . Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions. mark it and come back to it. You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. answer the question. (You don’t need to send them the score report.) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. marked or skipped. Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system. which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass. guess. a Network+ Training & Test Preparation Guide and a practice exam simulator. At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered. If you know the answer. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. skip it. Inc. Before retaking the exam. You will have plenty of time as long as you use it wisely.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Video Chapters Include: CD 1: Introduction and Overview Network Topologies Network Technologies Cable Standards Media Connectors CD 2: Media Types Network Components Wireless Technologies Protocols and Standards The OSI Model IP Addressing CD 3: Ports Services WAN Internet Access Remote Access Security Protocols CD 4: Server Operating Systems Client Connectivity Tools for Networking Firewalls Proxy Service Network Connectivity Virtual Local Area Networks Antivirus Software Fault Tolerance Disaster Recovery CD 5: Troubleshooting Network Utilities Troubleshooting Network Services Troubleshooting Topologies Troubleshooting Strategy Preparation for a Certification Test 14 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

Inc. 15 .Introduction This study guide is divided into 11 chapters. It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course. Specialized Solutions.

.

Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking. and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net. An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?). a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data. Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources. Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking. Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need.) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics.” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do. But for our purposes. This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment. Inc.” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service. a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files. files. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents. You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN. Through networking. and applications (resources). you understand exactly what a network is. Specialized Solutions. It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than to purchase a printer for every user. Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage. After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment. A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented. It is very important that. 17 . as a networking professional. users can access programs. peripherals. Additionally.

it is still considered a LAN. A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network. A WAN can connect networks from building to building or across the world. Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information. or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. 18 Specialized Solutions. The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits. When LANs are connected they create a WAN. Inc. the speed of communication between the computers is typically much faster in a LAN.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function. Also. . The Internet is the world’s largest WAN.

For example. The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. Also. The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer. one for printing (print server). log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. Specialized Solutions. These terms are not interchangeable. Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. configuration and management may be more challenging. and is a client. or a mail server (E-mail). A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or county. Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files. The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access. It is important to know what a MAN is. Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity. A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. but they are not common. A mainframe will handle all the functions. and expandability. The Internet has replaced most MANs today. it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. A large network may have more than one server. A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The advantages of this type of network are central administration. Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals There is actually a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). including hard disk space and RAM. The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation. including applications. A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network. 19 . since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client). However. Users. when the user is getting information from the server. there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). that access would cause the workstation to become a server. one for applications (application server). also known as clients. network security. efficiency in backing up the data.

a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand. . network security is unreliable. In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal. and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e. This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved. Also. Peer-to-Peer Network 20 Specialized Solutions. A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers. A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install. Inc. All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user. The computers are simply cabled together. Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network.g.

or segment. the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce. design. The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable. The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other. There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). To stop signal bounce. 21 . An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. Specialized Solutions. are all determined by the topology used. how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). refers to its physical layout. A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address). scheme. Devices only listen for data being transmitted. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together. if the cable breaks. However. While the signal is bouncing back and forth. NICs. Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. In a Bus network. they do not move the transmissions along. a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable. The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used. backbone. map. (Network Interface Cards. Different topologies have different cabling requirements. also called Network Adapter Cards). it prevents other devices from sending data. or topology.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. This cable is called a trunk. connectors. If not prevented. As a network professional. the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other. future growth needs. only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal. and even how the cabling is run through a building. Inc. The Bus topology is a passive topology. and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. or diagram.

The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network. A disadvantage is that if one computer fails. however. The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network. The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. Star Topology Ring Topology In a Ring topology. If the hub fails. the entire network will go down. the rest of the network will still continue to function. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable. Inc. all devices are connected to a central point called a hub. There are no ends to terminate. It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology. but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down. it can affect the entire network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Star Topology In a Star topology. 22 Specialized Solutions. .

Inc. the ring is actually in a special type of hub called a Multistation Access Unit (MSAU). is how the network actually works. For example. However. but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. Specialized Solutions. Before you can understand some of these special topologies. Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies. on the other hand. Also. some Ethernet networks today are wired using a using multiple hubs. we have been discussing physical topologies. 23 . they operate between the hubs like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus. In these networks. The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. You will be able to see a physical topology.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals With IBM Token Ring networks. It consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies. you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology. So far. This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. Token Ring networks are physical stars and logical rings. These are the methods in which a network is actually wired. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations. This gives us a physical star topology. Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. A logical topology. a computer can fail and not prevent the network from functioning. These are known as Hybrid topologies.

. The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter 4 of this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points. Inc. 24 Specialized Solutions. Since each computer has its own connection to the wireless access point (WAP). . the topology of a wireless network is that of an “invisible star”.

25 . Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Specialized Solutions.

they are called Token Ring and Ethernet. and the message is delivered. We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards. only one device at a time can communicate on the network. The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages. The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected. Multiple Access means that more than one computer 26 Specialized Solutions. The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods. This is based on the media or wiring of the network. Since there is only one token. Inc. we create kind of a “party line”.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. With several devices connected to one media. . A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit. It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token. Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices. Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD).

Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals can be connected to the same cable. Inc. Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks. Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original. Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted). 27 . Specialized Solutions. Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps.

Passive Hub – Patch Panel 28 Specialized Solutions. Essentially. Just remember. Passive hubs do not require any electrical power to function. With a Token Ring. . Today. The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator. hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function. since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network. they are all the same. not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks. they are called MSAUs (Multiple Station Access Units). Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only. Hubs can be classified as either passive or active. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified.

2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available. 3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated. 4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs. Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity. This type type of hub requires electrical power to function. Inc. An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. Specialized Solutions. They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected. 29 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs.

Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. Topology is a term we use to describe the logical shape of the connection of computers in a network. 30 Specialized Solutions. star.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. The three main types of topology are bus. The two types of networks are LANs and WANs. A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks. It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. go back and review the chapter again. A WAN is not geographically limited and typically has greater speed of communication than a WAN. . and ring. and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN. Inc. We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network.

Inc. Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition Specialized Solutions. 31 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 32 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

Name two media access methods. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. Specialized Solutions. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12. What are the key differences between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6. 8.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Review Questions . 10. 33 . Name some advantages of having centralized documents. Inc. 9. 7. Name the three basic topologies.Chapter 1 1. 11. 5. What is a “sneaker net”? 4. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. What is the main reason for networking computers? 3.

.

Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking. hard disk space. Hardware resources such as RAM.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 . Today. processor time. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well. we are referencing the built-in network operating system component. The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other. Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe. Specialized Solutions. The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e. In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems. and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). This chapter is all about the various operating systems with which a networking professional needs to be familiar. word-processing. network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system. Most of today’s client and server operating systems have a built-in network operating system. and database programs). but without an operating system. Inc. Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment. what we are really talking about are network operating systems. When we are talking about operating systems. You can get it all set up and turn on the power. When we refer to the operating system in this chapter. We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities. spreadsheet. it is just a pile of metal and plastic. most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions. it will just sit there. 35 . if you don’t have the software to run it. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment. as well as the operating system.g. What is an Operating System? Not that long ago.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs. . Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. Inc. 36 Specialized Solutions. the processor is never taken away from a task. Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor. In non-preemptive multitasking. Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed. put simply. A true multitasking (multi-processing) operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors. Preemptive multitasking began with Windows 95 and the Intel Pentium processor. It is used on all of the latest operating systems.

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. Windows 95/98 Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems that include a network operating system. It is well-suited for editing home movies. or a similar program. moving photos to the Web. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. They use an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). Their new graphical interface and networking capabilities make them a vast improvement over their predecessors. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network. and archiving music. Microsoft Client. and you have a working network. Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems. Novell NetWare. Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. Inc. Then. 37 . All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card. Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration. It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. such as BSD UNIX. all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. Specialized Solutions. Windows 95/98 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. turning on the computer and answering questions. to communicate with other computers over a network. Instead.

It features file protection. like ME. driver certification. like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here. It allows for faster user switching. which allows for safety when installing additional software or making changes to the computer’s configuration. It. . multilingual support. Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is the newest edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users. It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies. remote OS installation. It also uses System Restore. peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT. IPsec and Kerberos support. is equipped to be networked easily. Inc. a simplified visual design. Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across in real life but are unlikely to be on the test: 38 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server. EFS (Encrypting File System).

it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment. the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability. 39 . Inc. the computers act as both a client and a server. Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (uses resources locally). In a Serverbased network. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. This can also provide accessibility and security for all devices on a network. Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network. However. Inc.

Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access). Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server. . Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access. Server Software As their name implies. the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. This 40 Specialized Solutions. At the very least. The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed. Servers exist to serve. However. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. Inc. Unlike most client software. Some networks even cluster server so that more that one server can share a database of information. server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location. and to the server. Data Protection As we already discussed. if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. The component that handles these requests is called the redirector.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task. most of the data is stored on the server. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus. out onto the network. the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS).

The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs. This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer. If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server. Inc. It does this by assigning drive letters.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) provides for load balancing of the server resources as well as fault tolerance if one server were to fail. It does not need to know anything about networks. etc. Specialized Solutions. or if they need to be redirected to the server. which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer. it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests. called drive designators. The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server. Basically. If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus. 41 . to resources.

Trustee rights regulate which directories and files a user can access. and volumes is also handled with NDS. and file and print services. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. Organization of network resources such as users. groups. name service. Directory and file attributes are used to set the types of access for a file or directory such as viewed. time. Novell NetWare The NetWare operating system has been around for a long time.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use. First.5 is now on the market. or through NWADMIN. Version 6. • NetWare’s popularity is due largely to its ability to provide services across multioperating system environments.12 and 4. Version 4. NetWare Directory Services (NDS) NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. non-shareable.11 operate on 386. a user may logon from anywhere on the network and gain access with all of their assigned rights and privileges intact. routing. It is Novell’s push to gain market share and is a way of creating an Intranet. which is a DOS-based utility. It is a reliable operating system that provides performance and security. messaging. 42 Specialized Solutions. Inc. NetWare is based upon the industry standard X500 directory architecture. password. management. . servers. NetWare Security The purpose of a network may be to share resources. or Pentium machines. and account restrictions. With NDS’ single point logon. deleted. NetWare is administered through NetADMIN. NetWare provides more than adequate network security by using a combination of approaches.EXE. shared. or changed.11 is called IntranetWare. copied. NetWare File Services The NetWare file server hard drive may be mapped to a client and the client machine will recognize the drive as a logical drive and be able to access it as it would any other drive in the computer. as well as what kind of access they have. login security provides authentication and verification of user name. 486. which is a Windows-based utility. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. web-publishing. In this section. but it is losing market share to Microsoft servers every year. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. which is like the Internet but within a network or company. In the past. The earliest version (2. we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. but there will always be data in any network to which access must be restricted.2) was designed to operate on 286 machines. it was the most popular server operating system. It may be installed in either the client or server format. Versions 3.

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Print Services NetWare Print Services can support up to 256 printers. You can even send messages to everyone in a group. or directly to the network. The file server and the print server can be the same computer. You can send messages to individuals or to groups very easily. except an individual workstation. Printers may be attached to the server. and finally to the printer. Inc. 43 . Print requests are first routed to the file server. next to the print server. NetWare Minimum Requirements The following are the minimum installation requirements as specified by Novell for installing their server software: Specialized Solutions. as well as others. a workstation. It is compatible with E-mail programs such as Novell’s GroupWise and Microsoft Mail. NetWare also provides a method of using simple commands to send messages to other users on the network. NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS) MHS may be installed on any server and configured to be a network wide E-mail system.

1 or later (Standard or Extended Edition) and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 OS/2 2.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 5: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Pentium Class or higher 64 MB 550 MB 386 or higher 16 MB 105 MB 386 or higher 6 MB 30 MB 286 or higher 2.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for Macintosh OS Specialized Solutions.5 MB 20 MB Client Software The client software may be installed on any computer running any of the following: • • • • • 44 DOS 3.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS OS/2 1.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Version 2. Inc.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 3.1 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS MS Windows 3. .11 or OS/2 Warp and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 Macintosh 6.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 4.

its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows Servers. actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2). which as at the base of all Microsoft’s servers. The NetWare client can be installed with almost any other operating system. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories. Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software). Inc.File Allocation Table) during installation. or No Access may be set on the directory. offer even more advantages and stronger security than their predecessors. The newest of these server operating systems. Full Control. but Windows NT contains services such as NWLink and Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW) that allow them to work together effectively. another security method must be utilized. Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. Today. NetWare is extremely efficient at operating with other systems. but it does have several advantages. The NT Kernel. The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of Windows security features. Windows File Services Like NetWare. Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version. This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments. The advanced security features of Windows are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT . the Windows servers may be configured to store each workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups. It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows network. With this method. This type is performed by each workstation or server publicly sharing a directory on the network. you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. Change. Unlike NetWare. Files in Windows may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network. Specialized Solutions. As we’ve already discussed. The attributes such as Read. Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows . Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems. Problems do occur when trying to operate within the Windows NT domain. 45 . and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier. interoperability simply means the ability of an operating system to operate with other systems. Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. Windows combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of Microsoft’s server/workstation technology. Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Interoperability As the word implies.

This trend continued with the latest Windows server operating systems (Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003.. Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers. permissions. . more than one printer can be installed to any machine. Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene. Even if you are installing a local printer. 46 Specialized Solutions. especially with the latest Windows Server 2003 family. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network. A domain is simply a group of users. Inc. The following is a list of services included with Windows Server software to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between Microsoft and NetWare. Remember. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer. Workstation Service is the redirector service. and resources with a shared security database. computers. Server Service provides access to network resources. Microsoft uses domains to control access and authenticate users and computers.) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer. Windows Network Services There are many services available in Windows to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows Server Security Security was a major concern in the development of Windows Servers. and user rights. Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions). A domain controller is a server that maintains and manages all accounts. Windows Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in a Windows network.. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. At least one domain controller is assigned to each domain. (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource. you are given the option to share it to the network. Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible. Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in the domain. Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service.

it has more “locked down” security templates that make it less likely that users will try to go around the security. Windows Server 2003 offers a more secure Web Server (IIS 6. It provides all of the advantages of Windows 2000 Server. 47 . Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be. Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory. In fact. In contrast. which govern what users can see and do on the network. used as such. This software is not included with Netware but can be purchased separately. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System. Installing GSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases. when using Windows Server 2003 you typically must remove or configure security boundaries in order to get the server to. It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network. Installing CSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. Previous Microsoft server operating systems were built to serve and then had security features to protect them. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators. It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives. This is necessary because all Microsoft client workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point. In addition. Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to Windows..Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an Microsoft domain and the NetWare server. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional..0) than the previous version in Windows 2000 (IIS 5. It can be installed on the Microsoft client to allow it to connect the Netware server directly. Windows Server 2003 is the first Windows server that was built primarily with security in mind.well serve. FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access Microsoft file and print services. Inc.0). Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to Microsoft’s domain controller. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the Microsoft service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. It allows Novell NDS computers to be managed just as Microsoft domain controllers. but it adds many features that are designed exclusively for security. Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 is the latest in the line of Microsoft server operating systems. and is. Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. UNIX is a Specialized Solutions. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems.

The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. At its inception. Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS. security. It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide bulky operating system. It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top. Inc. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system. which means that it can be changed by a software programmer. and messaging services. OS/2. Like Novell NetWare. as well as others. A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. in fact the software is available for a free download. Software is available. Linux is open source. . These terminals are not stand-alone computers. multi-user. general-purpose operating system. Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system. UNIX is a multi-tasking. Because of its open source nature. StreetTalk provides directory. UNIX. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. TCP/IP. It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows. and many other features associated with an OS. Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX. At one time. to convert the UNIX host into a file server. it was an extremely popular network operating system. 48 Specialized Solutions. as well as file and printer sharing. however. A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users. many variations of Linux have been created over the years such as Caldera and Red Hat. VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments.

they developed what later became known as the mouse and the first GUI display. but users also use them personally. The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction with the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book). Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production. Inc. In conjunction with Xerox.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984. and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC. both at home and on the go. 49 . Specialized Solutions.

and at least be familiar with others. Today. centralization of administration. Study through the chapter again if you need to. Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems. Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic. The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security. In a server-based network. the client computers rely on the server for their resources. Banyan VINES. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. (UNIX. the most popular network operating systems also function as the network operating system. and data backups. With the redirector. The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems. There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system. Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. In a peer-to-peer network. Inc. such as Novell NetWare and Windows server operating systems. It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today. the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network). an application is unaware that it is working from a network. 50 Specialized Solutions. A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare). .). etc. Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely).

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS)

KEYWORDS Exercise
Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

51

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

Review Questions
1. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system?

2.

What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking?

3.

What is the purpose of the redirector?

4.

NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments.

5.

What is NDS?

6.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5?

7.

Define interoperability.

8.

Unlike NetWare, Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one.

9.

What is NTFS?

10.

What is a domain?

11.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server?

52

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) 12. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.

13.

What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system?

14.

What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984?

15.

What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system?

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

53

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

54

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards

Chapter 3- The OSI Model and Communication Standards
In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, what it is and its primary function. You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles each function, and which devices function at each layer. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam.

The Seven Layers of Network Communication
The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. As a result, some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other, and how they will communicate if they are using different languages. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit; when not to transmit; and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected; how the data will flow (at what speed); and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications.

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

55

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you should notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers, depending upon their functions.

Seven Layers of the OSI Model
The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network. These services include file, print, and messaging services. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer. The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. This is not the actual application or program, simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail, transfer files across the network, or access a

56

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. This layer is also responsible for data compression. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer. Inc. Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure. they will be combined. This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local. Sessions may be established using simplex. protocol conversion. etc. As its name implies. In short. This layer is responsible for establishing. Each connection is called a session. if the packets are too small. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them. add any addressing information and error correction information. it presents data to the application layer. It provides a logical connection between the two devices. managing. bit ordering. or receive. For example. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh. and ending connections. and un-packaging the data for transport. 57 . The network redirector operates at this layer. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network. and prepare it for its journey. or full-duplex communication. it will break the data into packets.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards network database. The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging. The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network. and error free. and data encryption. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. without duplication. half-duplex.) character set conversion. These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. interpreting graphics commands. The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit. If Specialized Solutions. and when.

The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. Routers and NICs function on this layer. checked for errors. Inc. This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks. however. especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination.518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. For example. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. Should an error occur. the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission.) It also includes control information such as frame type. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. When you are using a connection-oriented protocol. it will retransmit after a specified amount of time. the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets. Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. error free manner. it will be un-packed. Once the data is reassembled. This controls network congestion. When you are using a connectionless protocol. Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards. but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. delivery of packets is not guaranteed. they will be broken into smaller packets.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide they are too large. When the data is received. This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link. all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer. 58 Specialized Solutions. stripped of its addressing information. In an ideal world. UDP is a connectionless protocol. . Connectionless protocols are faster. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses. segmentation information and routing information. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. It receives a packet from the Network layer and packages it into what is called a frame.

Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel. They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers. When the sending computer does not receive and acknowledgement. The way that a network shares the channel is called its carrier access method.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards In addition. If it is. The IEEE 802.2 standard defines how this takes place. The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). then it discards the data. The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link. it will automatically resend the packet. (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host). Inc. The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address. Although quite rare. If it is not. The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame. Token Passing. the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium. In this way. It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not. and Demand Priority. TCP/IP is somewhat “self healing”. The following is an example of a MAC address: Specialized Solutions. This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer. NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements. it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. If the calculation does not check out. it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer. The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer. It identifies a line protocol. 59 . such as SDLC. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers. The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards. The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers. the destination computer will not send an acknowledgement. In a broadcast network such as Ethernet. The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. the data is sent out on the wire to all computers. It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer. MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized.

Bridges operate at the Data Link layer. Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer. Inc.ch/. data work at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Point to point communication is often used between switches and routers on a network. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer. Note: For more information on the OSI Model. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium. Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses. an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable. Switches. visit www. It identifies the NIC. hubs and transceivers. It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets.iso. For example. and determines when and how data may be transmitted. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. synchronizes the data. all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model. The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 00-00-13-35-FD-AB The first 3 bytes (00-00-13) identify the manufacturer of the card. it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals. and what each one will do. The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets. It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. The last 3 bytes (35FD-AB) are the Device ID that is unique to the associated Vendor ID. 60 Specialized Solutions. Multipoint communication is the process of one device communicating with multiple devices on a network. Repeaters. Point-topoint communication is the process of one device communicating with one other device .

Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. 61 .

protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions. and provides services to the layer directly above it. Headers contain instructions for tasks that need to be performed at that level. The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. In addition to reading the headers and performing the instructions. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted by you and the request is considered processed. For example: You send a request for services to the server. Inc. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack. These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task. each layer reads and performs the tasks specified in its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. over the network medium. the Application layer is not the actual application. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. . The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. (Remember. it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer. the process of moving through the layers is reversed. The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message. or suite. In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate. This is called a protocol stack. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers. in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers. You are communicating directly with the Application layer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task. In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. The Physical layer does not add a header.) The request is in the form of a packet. When the destination computer receives the data. This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture. each layer is also responsible for adding or removing headers so that the data is ready to be interpreted by the next layer. As the packet travels up through the layers. 62 Specialized Solutions. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer.

63 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers. they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers. but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Signals or Bits or Data Stream into Frames Frames into Packets Frames or Datagrams into Segments Segments into data Data Data Data into Data Files or Messages Specialized Solutions. The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers. Inc. Because of this.

we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model. In fact. This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. Inc. The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 64 Specialized Solutions. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. the OSI Model is not a protocol.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. Also. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections. you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program. . as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol. you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed. By relating various protocols to the OSI model. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model. Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer. it would not match. Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers.

Without them we would not have as many software or hardware packages available to us. 65 . you do need to remember the different layers and the tasks for which each layer is responsible. Specialized Solutions. because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system. This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate. etc. it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work. The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer. The specifications describe how components are supposed to function. Inc. Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task. These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers.

you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer. Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. . These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. This weakening is known as attenuation. are going to be used when they write a program. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. routers. Data Link layer and the Network layer. As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself. Inc. etc. Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. A repeater amplifies these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X. Routers are responsible for using logical addresses to move packets from one network to another and deliver them to a host.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT 66 Specialized Solutions. and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network. bridges. They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination. Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model. as well as where in the OSI model they operate. Repeaters. It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs. The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices.

67 . if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI. the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing. If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. However. The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate. Router tables can be entered manually by a network administrator or they can be dynamically updated using routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF. but usually in the Application layer). A popular example is an SNA Gateway. Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers. Specialized Solutions. A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols or even different technologies. Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. Inc. which can be used to connect an IBM mainframe computer to a Microsoft network. It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Each router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it.

4 802. and if you would like more information on them.3 802. February 1980). but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible. 68 Specialized Solutions.2 802. This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started. visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www. (IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. a little surfing might be in order.ieee.6 802.standards.5 802.9 802.1 802. These standards were prepared before the OSI standards. Inc.11 802.8 802. Inc. 100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards.7 802.12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN. The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802. .10 802.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. Inc. 69 .

the network. This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments. and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp. This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC. It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver. which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver. Network 70 Specialized Solutions. However.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer. Inc. NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another. the NIC also needs a device driver to function. Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver. which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols. ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. . This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another). and hence. Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers.

It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function. Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party. You have no confirmation (unless he calls you back) that he received the message. If that fails. In a connectionless scenario. Protocol Binding In order to function. They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model. but connection-oriented is more reliable. In today’s LANs however. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received. Specialized Solutions. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on his answering machine.) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. Connectionless communication is faster. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions. Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless. In connection-oriented communication. Inc. It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. Routable vs. it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol. the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected using a router. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. In a connectionless communication. For example. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data. Connection-Oriented vs. Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable. if TCP/IP is bound first. There is no guarantee that the message was delivered. 71 . Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network. and in full.

. you should be familiar with these protocol stacks and you should know the OSI layer in which their components function. Inc. 72 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X. Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks. As a networking professional. It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable.25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet).

It uses the MAC address and is non-routable. this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP.) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol. regardless of speed. In addition to hop count. NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – Provides transmission of packets across a network. IPX/ SPX This protocol is the proprietary protocol that was developed by Novell for Netware servers and clients. LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers. At the Presentation Specialized Solutions. 73 • • • • • • . Inc. AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – Manages file sharing at the Application layer AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – Provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer. It resides in the Network layer. DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack. It resides in the Network layer. and handles file and print services. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination. It has been modified over the years and now contains the following components: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite. NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol. This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – Provides Application layer services for Macintosh. It is a routable protocol. (If data must cross a router SPX is used.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment.

Inc. • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server. APPC supports Transport and Session layer services.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide layer it handles data translation. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol. At the Session layer it establishes and controls sessions. At the Transport layer it handles sequencing. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers.1 and later installs TCP/IP by default. 74 Specialized Solutions. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. . No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed. SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector. Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent. FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system. SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems. flow control. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network. so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. Novell Netware 5. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP. It is also layered on IP like TCP. and connection-oriented error control services. while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols. TCP and IP. • Many companies use Netware with the TCP/IP protocol stack. The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking). It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with. We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names.

OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer. It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources. Specialized Solutions. 75 . ARP keeps a table of corresponding IP and MAC addresses that have been resolved in the previous 10 minutes. without regard to speed. ARP will add the information to its table for future use. this is also a Network layer protocol. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP is responsible for resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses. It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. Inc. but in reverse. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. it will broadcast on the local subnet to determine the MAC address of the computer with the associated IP address. then TFTP would be advisable over FTP. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server. It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond to the broadcast by sending its MAC address. If you do not need to use passwords. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP. but in addition. It is an Application layer protocol. making it connectionless. ARP will first check its table and if a matching address is not found. instead of only the number of hops. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability. Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely. It resides in the Network layer. Telnet can also be used for remote configuration of servers and network devices such as routers and switches. NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system. RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function.

The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment). asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable. This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP. It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer. but in between. . At each stop. This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use. It uses standard telephone lines and switches. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet. LAT (Local Area Transport) LAT does not have a Network layer. Instead. In addition. This protocol is not used for data communication. This means that routes change as conditions change. which is the main reason that it is non-routable.25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization. The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs. Data goes in and comes out. DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs. making X.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide X. This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits.25 network. X. X.25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud. Data is routed via the best connection at a given time. it is out of the administrator’s control. The second part of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment). This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions. It is a DEC protocol used for interactive. packets are re-examined to determine whether they are damaged. 76 Specialized Solutions. only printing functions. Inc. It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers. Because of this. which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines. This is the host on an X.25 is also an equipment specification. it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end.25 X.25 a very slow but very reliable protocol. the X.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced).

It is fast. It may be used with bridges. Specialized Solutions. easy to configure and small.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model. which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems. Inc. 77 . but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks.

file transfers. or DHCP. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. and connection release. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures. SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. SLIP is not used as much as PPP. and notifies upper layers to route around them. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications. PPP supports IPX. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely over the Internet. It handles session establishment. and other protocols as well as TCP/IP. ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. It also supports data encryption. It does not support IPX. Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Other Protocols The following are other protocols with which you should be familiar: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. This database is typically dynamic in today’s modern networks. DHCP. administration. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. NetBEUI. but it can also be modified manually by the network administrator. NetBEUI. NWLink and NetBEUI. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. It maintains a database and provides hostname to IP address resolution. it detects congested areas and links that are down. RPC is used by the redirector to 78 Specialized Solutions. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol. . Like a traffic report on your radio. It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. Inc.

Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text. Inc.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards determine if a resource is local or on the network. 79 . Specialized Solutions. It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer.

if you can get to the server through a router. For example. . The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter. 80 Specialized Solutions. It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test. you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three. we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. Inc. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other. but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. Keyword 802. 81 .

A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. 6.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions – Chapter 3 1. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. 3. 7. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model. What is a MAC address? 13. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? 00-01-A5-D3-B4-01 82 Specialized Solutions. and ending connections? 12. 5. managing. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. 4. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. . Name the seven layers of the OSI model. What is the function of the Application Layer? 9. Which OSI layer is responsible for the MAC address? 8. Who developed the OSI model? 2. Inc. 10. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing.

Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 15. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. Describe protocol binding.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 14. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What is the function of a Gateway? 18. What are they? 17. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 22. 21. 83 . Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 19. Which is faster. Will this work? Why or Why not? Specialized Solutions. 23. Inc. without duplication and error free? 16. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. What are NDIS and ODI? 20.

.

or DIX (Digital. It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable. Because it is shielded. The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. It is not often used in today’s networks. 85 . It can transmit voice. most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. along with connectors.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 . and other hardware and peripherals. It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. video. but may still be used in some temporary installations such as a construction trailer (although wireless would be a much more likely alternative). it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. Specialized Solutions. Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. Intel. It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC. How to properly configure and use network adapter cards. The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. Inc. which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector. and the hardware aspect of network operations. network adapter cards. There are numerous kinds of cable. Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install.Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter). There are several cabling options. a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation. Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist. 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology. which we will address here. Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid. Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet). Xerox). and how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter. Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential. but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand.

Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. In today’s networks. In the past. Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. BNC Cable Connectors BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable. it is not as easy to install. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. Thicknet was used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers. as well as how they are attached to the cables. Inc. It is attached directly to the NIC but allows network signal to flow straight through it as well as to the NIC. . it has been replaced by twisted-pair cable and fiber optic cable. They are specified based on their impedance. It is expressed in ohms. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses. 86 Specialized Solutions.

Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. Specialized Solutions. This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable. It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection. 87 . BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on. Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver. A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together. It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver. Inc. and an AUI cable. One of the terminators must be grounded. and is used to connect the device to the network. BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet. The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function. The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors).

Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today. Inc. There are four pair strands in most twisted-pair cables. This cable type consists of insulated pair strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another. most networking professionals used a clamp-on transceiver. this was time-consuming and it absorbed signal so it was not the common approach.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver. This types of connections have been largely replaced by newer cable methods such as twisted-pair and fiber optic cable. It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types. Instead. These clamp-on transceivers were often referred to as vampire taps because they utilized sharp teeth that punctured the cable to make the connection. The twist helps 88 Specialized Solutions. .

The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per meter in each pair of wires. The tighter the twist. Currently. 89 . Inc. The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling. it is more sensitive to EMI. It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters. There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP). UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular. The following is a summary of UTP cables.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 1000 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM and Gigabit Ethernet Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. the faster the signal can be sent through the wires without crosstalk. there are six categories. UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs. Since it is unshielded. This results in less sensitivity to EMI. Twisted Pair Cabling Specialized Solutions. Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps.

The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a special tool punch down tool to make the proper connection by stripping the insulation from the wire without breaking the wire.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors. The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations. Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium. . This is an excellent way to organize network cables. RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector. These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. The RJ-45 jack’s position can therefore be changed from patch panel to patch panel to use a different set of cables for the same connection. An RJ-11 jack has four connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight. The front of the patch panel contains RJ-45 ports (a port is a female counterpart for the RJ-45 jack). Wall plates are typically used to make the connection to the computers themselves. This gives the network administrator a greater degree of flexibility and provides fault tolerance for the network cabling system. Inc. An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger. They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 10 Gbps . Wall Plates for RJ-45 90 Specialized Solutions.

Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic).Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking. The following is a summary of IBM Types: Specialized Solutions. 91 . fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances. but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. Inc. However. Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. which reduces signal loss. SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses. IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks. it is therefore not as common as UTP. which is easier to install. (The core can also be made up of plastic. IBM cabling is based on its Type. They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP. . It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types.) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable. This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber. it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength.. the data cannot be tapped or stolen. Because of this feature. One strand transmits and one receives. It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite. Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Not Defined Two 62. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Plenum grade. Six twisted pairs. IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications. . Inc. Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). These are very rarely used in today’s modern networks. The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors. Contains a shield for use under carpets. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. IBM Connector 92 Specialized Solutions. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet).5/125-micron multimode fibers.

93 . Specialized Solutions.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter. Inc.

Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only. a pager can receive a message.Baseband vs. It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing). Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. the wire thickness increases. • Simplex vs. . Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. As the AWG wire number decreases. Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cabling Terms The following are terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. (send and receive) but only one at a time. Both you and the party you are talking to can talk and listen at the same time. these fumes would circulate throughout a building in the event of a fire. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions. If this type of cable were used in the plenum. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps) or gigabits per second (Gbps). fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. but cannot send a message. For example. Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge. Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways. An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time. This space is used to circulate air through a building. Inc. For example. • Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above. 94 Specialized Solutions. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire. The signal flow is bidirectional. For example. Because this space does circulate air through a building. The signal flow is uni-directional. PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions. PVC grade cable is less expensive than Plenum grade cable but it gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned.

how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners. shielded cable or fiber optic cable might be more appropriate.) Will the cable be installed in “noisy” areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting. A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling. such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well.) Specialized Solutions. It is therefore specifically designed to be used in these circulation areas. Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals In contrast. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives. Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes. For example. 95 .) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum. local fire codes will need to be addressed. the flexibility of the medium should be considered. Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network.

fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping.) If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure. last but not least. On the other hand. Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance.) Transmission speeds and. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small. Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 96 Specialized Solutions. there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective. attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor. Inc. cost are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network.

which constantly vary in one or more values.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs. It makes the physical connection to the network. Specialized Solutions.) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port. most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit. (And of course to translate it back again. data is moved along in groups. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. Analog data has an infinite number of possible states. Today. The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium. The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. or 0’s (off). Because these paths are side-by-side. and controls the flow of data on the network. NICs are used to connect the computer to the network. Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). are also known as Network Adapter Cards. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking. Network cabling moves data in a single data stream. Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame. Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses. Inc. Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time. 97 . Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side. We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later. Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves. This is known as serial communication. handles network addressing. This is known as parallel communication. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives.

If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. Inc. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. The speed of the transmission. Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the 98 Specialized Solutions. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer. The amount of time between confirmations. Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC. The time intervals between data chunks. This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters. the two cards start sending and receiving data. DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium. When this occurs. The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed. they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs. the NIC may need to be configured. Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent. Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. This makes transferring data much faster. Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique MAC address. . Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it.

certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. DMA Channel Configuration of Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels is similar to IRQs. Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available. Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses. Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. The device is constantly listening to this channel for commands from the processor. This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address. Inc. Only devices like NIC cards that need this type of memory access are assigned DMA channels. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line. Other cards will need to be configured manually. such as: IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments. The good news is that unlike an IRQ. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that typically no two devices can use the same interrupt. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. not all devices need one. Specialized Solutions. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned. DMA channels are used by devices that frequently need access to large amounts of memory. 99 . See Appendix A for common address assignments. in this case the NIC. With a DMA channel. In practice. These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor. and some are set using software. these devices can access the memory that they need without interrupting the processor. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by a device.

or both). Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer. RJ-45. or you may have to configure it manually. Inc. If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail. Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC. they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required. Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter. Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards. 100 Specialized Solutions. . They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. They are generally 32-bit buses. Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus. 101 . The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus. including network connectivity. Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus. With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs. Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much. but can be a 64-bit bus. The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus. They are also called PC-Card Buses. Today most buses are either EISA or PCI. Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers. Inc. Specialized Solutions.

it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally. . Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. Inc. The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks. thereby bypassing the CPU. Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data. thereby improving network performance. Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data. RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed. Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU. but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer. This type of card is expensive. Without this feature. Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Performance Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance. This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus. the NIC would be a bottleneck. 102 Specialized Solutions.

Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking. Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations such as ocean dwelling oil platforms. • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective. Inc. This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created. Specialized Solutions. A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks. Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly. the office. a user can access the network from anywhere in the building. This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components.e. Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home. With some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down. making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. For example.Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs. – hubs). 103 . Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems. Wireless networks use wireless access points (WAPs) to “connect” the network devices to each other.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling. Extended Local Area Networks . a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings. but through the use of an infrared or radio medium. They function just like other access points (i. Mobile Computing . but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN. With wireless systems. They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. or on the road. Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems.

Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping. The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet. . These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources. and because the transmissions are tightly focused. Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference. such as windows. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared You use infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control. Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • 104 Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint Specialized Solutions. Infrared networks typically broadcast at about 10 Mbps. This involves using infrared (below Red) light to carry signals to a receiver.

until it reaches the receiver. or direct sequence modulation. ceilings. the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. Specialized Solutions. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. as the name implies. however. require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping. The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls. the signal is beamed towards a central unit. In the hopping method. Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint. Inc. etc. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. which then routes the signal appropriately. the message is broken into parts (called chips). but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. 105 . Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. uses broadband technology. In the direct sequence modulation method. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps. It does. Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. which are then transmitted over separate frequencies. Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls.

or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts. Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings. Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite. These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information. 106 Specialized Solutions. It is used for line-of-sight communication. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities. Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver. . Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication. Inc. and only the destination device can receive and read the packet. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally. mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network.

Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Specialized Solutions. 107 .

transmits. it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks. Laser. . Twisted Pair. Wireless networking is the trend of the future. This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network. it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. AUI. After discussing at network cabling we then took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself. and controls data flow over the network. Inc. There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial. RJ-45. Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet. etc. Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). In addition.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. Finally. receives. we took a look at the future. you should know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type. The four basic wireless types are: Infrared. 108 Specialized Solutions. You should know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. As a networking professional. Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals. and Fiber-Optic. and Microwave. As a network professional. It prepares. Radio.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions Definition Specialized Solutions. 109 .

Definition .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair 110 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword Vampire Tap Definition Specialized Solutions. 111 .

What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4. What is the most popular of the cable types? 10. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. . What is the most expensive cable type? 13. Inc. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9. How is a vampire tap connected? 6. What is the least expensive of the cable types? 112 Specialized Solutions. What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable.

15. What does AWG stand for and what is it?

16. Describe baseband.

17. Describe broadband.

18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication?

19. What is the function of a network adapter card?

20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available?

21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card?

22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network?

23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types?

24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network?

25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally?

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

113

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

114

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards
In previous chapters, we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed, along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets, or frames. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. In this chapter, we will discover how Ethernet works, as well as how Token-ring networks function. AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter. After completing this chapter, you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture, while not as popular as Ethernet, are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers, in this case, over a network. In Chapter 3, you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite, IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture, SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk

The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols; thus, they do not map directly to the OSI Model. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. Specialized Solutions, Inc. 115

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information, handle addressing, and check for errors. Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments.

A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card, also known as the network interface card (NIC), in order for it to be used with a network computer. In some instances, as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX, two protocols may be bound to one card. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC.

Access Methods
In a network, multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. If two or more computers were to send data at the same time, the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing

• Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free, it will send data. While there is data traveling on the cable, no computer will transmit data. Occasionally, however, two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. Naturally, the more users who are connected to a network, the denser network traffic becomes. Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method.

116

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. It is, however, the access method that works best with wireless connections; since the wireless channel can be verified before the data is sent. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. A token (a special type of packet) is circulated around the ring from computer to computer. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network, it must wait until it possesses the token. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. Data is transmitted in frames. The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. The trailer includes error control information. When the computer is ready, the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted, the frame would be resent. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. Because only one computer at a time may transmit, this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions. (Some more recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer, router, switch, or bridge. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes, addresses, and links are functioning. Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer, hub, and destination computer, instead of broadcasts over the entire network. Because of the cabling method used with this access method, (four pairs Specialized Solutions, Inc. 117

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of wires are used, which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time, but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously, the one with the highest priority is serviced first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests.

118

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. Error checking information such as Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) information. The destination address of the receiving computer. Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission. Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data. or messages.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Network Communications (Frames and Packets) As we’ve discussed previously. Data files tend to be quite large. 119 . Inc. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. but we will use the term packets. Specialized Solutions. only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium. The data to be transmitted. Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably. Computer control data such as service requests and commands.) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files. Also. Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection. information. if there is a transmission error.

CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet. Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. . Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission. When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet. the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact. A Packet 120 Specialized Solutions. the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit. packets can be various sizes. The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted. the calculation is run again. usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes. the source and destination addresses. If the results are the same. Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network. Usually. Depending upon the network. the trailer contains the error checking information. If there is a discrepancy. and clocking information. Inc.

121 . Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Specialized Solutions.

Ethernet (802. as addressed previously. like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell). Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802. in a railroad. Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points. The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL 122 Specialized Solutions. Logical Link Control (802. Thicknet coaxial (10Base5). It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2). but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol. is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology). but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data). and some are narrow gauge). These provide the standards for the railroads. The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements. data (in this case passengers and freight) is moved in various cars. In this section. Inc. we are going to look at different standards for networks. The original version was a 2. it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data). . some are diesel.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Standards Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network. It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. and typically transmits at 10 Mbps. However.94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable. Not all railroads are the same (some are electric.3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs. There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards.3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. The standards define the means of communications. For example. some are wide gauge.2) The Logical Link Control layer. It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method. or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT). Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication.

and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated. These applications include video. The maximum number of nodes per network 100. BNC connectors and a transceiver. Inc. 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable. however. As its name implies. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. The minimum distance between nodes is . indicating its maximum segment length.5 meters. 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable. 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications. to name a few. The maximum number of nodes per network 90.5 meters. If the segment must exceed this limitation.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2. 123 . The actual maximum segment length. The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters. The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters. and computer aided design. And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling. The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet Specialized Solutions.) This is referred to as the “5-4-3 Rule”. The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology. 10BaseT uses the star topology. is 185 meters. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs. The minimum distance between nodes is 2. While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling. repeaters can be used for longer distances. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system.5 meters. 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. (There may be five segments but only three may be populated. it is most commonly created with UTP cable. 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors. document and image storage. meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters.

although copper can be used with much shorter distances. It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets. It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN. using the CSMA/CD access method. The IEEE specification 802. they are referring to the same thing. 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards. but that will be referred to later in this book. Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks. with Gigabit Ethernet. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs). 124 Specialized Solutions. Inc. 100BaseVG. Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable. It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. VG.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet) 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade. and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps. to some degree. ATM competes. the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology. When you see any of these terms. Because of its intense speed. and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). and the longest cable length is 250 meters. the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable. (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment. It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology. . and AnyLAN. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon. There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know.12 is the standard that defines this technology.

It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance. Specialized Solutions. Ethernet also works in the UNIX environment. Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP. by joining with either a router or a bridge. 125 .

A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token. The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1. The Token Ring access method. The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes. It is not as popular as Ethernet. Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. 2. This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data. While the token is in use by a computer to send data. IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984. more than the cable design. . Like Ethernet. How it Works Basically. The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable. The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token. it uses the baseband technology. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems.5 standard. is what sets Token Ring apart. This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data. Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer. but is still used today. Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished). The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring. and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. Inc. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token. it is known as a data frame. 126 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802.5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame. and 3). The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame. Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. Actually.

Inc. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network. The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted. Beaconing In a Token Ring environment. The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. . the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity. while IBM says counter-clockwise. Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention. Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful. After encoding the data frame.5 standards say it travels clockwise. It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected. Or. the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address. 127 Specialized Solutions. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. To accomplish this task. the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring. This computer. Message This is the data or file to be transmitted. The IEEE 802. the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon. As each new computer comes online.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor. if there were errors. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected. as well as its own address. Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring. called the active monitor.

Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. Using UTP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. each ring can connect up to 260 computers. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs. . The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. Using UTP. In a pure token passing environment. just as in other networks that use a hub. The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters. Each node is connected to the hub via a cable. These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters. When a computer is connected. but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters. MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails. the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. it is only about 45 meters. Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable.5 meters. Using STP. This hub is known by a few names. IBM states that it is only 46 meters. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters. The Type 128 Specialized Solutions. Using STP. Inc. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another. but types 1 and 2 may also be used. as there are no male and female ends.

therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers. Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable. A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed. Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments. Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper. Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters. Specialized Solutions. care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible. hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers. AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. Patch panels are used to organize patch cables. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software. The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. Therefore. Inc. 129 . Type 6 may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures. Using a pair of repeaters.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps.

LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP. by using zones. Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers. This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses. EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable.5 Standard) environment. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings. LocalTalk performance is rather limited. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system. the device assigns itself an address. If it is not being used by another computer. Inc. UTP. TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it. When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. Apple has always been open to third-party development. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer. and even some UNIX computers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. AppleShare also provides a print server. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers. or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare. it will store it to use each time it goes online. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring. As such. it is very inexpensive to initiate. EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones. It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices. This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. mainframe computers. 130 Specialized Solutions. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network. .

Inc. but it can be adequately charted to the 802.5 Mbps. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors. a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data. ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. the token still passes in numerical order. Instead of the token traveling around a ring. These packets contain the destination address. the token is passed in numerical order. Specialized Solutions. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters. It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2. the source address and up to 508 bytes of data. active. It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology. or smart. These hubs may be passive. Obviously. ARCNet utilizes hubs. If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors.4 standards (Token Bus LAN). the maximum cable distance is 244 meters. A later version. this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order. 131 . called ARCNet Plus. Just like other token-passing access method architectures. If using an active hub in a Star topology. ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling. This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology. has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps. but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology. If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data. ARCNet transmits data in packets.

11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology. generally).11) IEEE 802. The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802. Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four. Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range. . Inc. Speeds up to 54 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific). 132 Specialized Solutions.

Packets consist of three components: the Header. and the Trailer. but as a networking professional you will encounter them. CSMA/CA. which is where the error checking calculation is located. If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames). it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network. As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. Specialized Solutions. go back and review the chapter again. 10Base5. the source and destination addresses. Managing network data is all about traffic control. Be sure that you understand how this architecture works. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year. which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting. the Data. Inc. etc. AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring. and 10BaseT. Packets will include information to identify the source address.3 standards. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD. 133 . The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. Therefore. destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted. and clocking information. Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet. It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Definition 134 Specialized Solutions. . Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

135 . Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Token Ring TokenTalk Trailer Zones Definition Specialized Solutions.

Inc. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11. CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7. Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. What are the three primary access methods? 2. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12. 5. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10. . Describe the difference between the two different contention methods. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 136 Specialized Solutions. 3.

137 . 22.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13. What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18. 14. Describe a MIC connector. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17. 19. Inc. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? Specialized Solutions. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20. What is a SMAU? 21. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 138 Specialized Solutions. .

and goals. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. Even if this network is your own. The size of the company and the portion of the network affected. However. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation. you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. Inc. rather than a client’s. (If not. you are not designing for yourself. are there any printers or scanners. Specialized Solutions. etc? If. dislikes. 139 . The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network. whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever indebted to you. (demographics). you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. address. Most importantly. We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have. we will consider hardware compatibility. for example. The customer’s likes. This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks. how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them. pay attention to details. The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. Finally. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. this is a Macintosh-based company. The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have. who has them. You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. in many cases. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. your design will not work for them. This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office. There are two things that you will need to know. etc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows. As a network professional.

Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. if the file is compressed.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. 140 Specialized Solutions. you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. For example. A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility. or as large as 8 GB. There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available. at this time. So. you must get a clear definition of goals of the network. Once you collect this information. etc. files services. Remember. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint. or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale). This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components. Inc. or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files. With this information in hand. The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later. . the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB. or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network. prepare a design document. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps. you are not documenting your network. print services. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources.

141 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc.

may cause problems in the future. Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server. This can range from none to very high. The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. As long as you have the original software disk (CD). you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it. Also. Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. you will need to start making some decisions. This means that every 142 Specialized Solutions. The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. This sharing is on a directory level. They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. In a peer-to-peer network. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. You may need to install the software. The wrong choice now. You may have to add network cards and cabling. if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network. but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network). You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future. Likewise. all computers are equal. they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future). The commitment of management and users. Skill level of the network users. Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. if you have a printer connected to your computer. The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. The level of security required. Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. For example. they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing. . The most prominent are simplicity and cost. Inc. you will have no problem. The first is the type of network you will be designing. not all nodes may need the same level of security.” That is. First. Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. as generally it is not installed during a standard installation. If you do not have this information go back and get it.

and expand as your needs expand. Also. have high-power processor. This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. server-based networks are scaleable. 24-hours per day. In a peer-to-peer situation. must less the workings of a network. This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation. Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security. etc. you will also need to consider the disadvantages. Remember. The more sophisticated the network. The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network. any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. Last but not least. if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. administration can be a Specialized Solutions. this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts. Before you can use any resource. all network resources are usually centralized. In a server-based network. This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations. and lots of memory. 143 . a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network. they will also be using your processor to do their printing. Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. if employees need remote access. Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off. Also. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer). a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added. You can connect more workstations. In a strict peer-topeer network. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. In large networks. This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older. In small networks. While there are many advantages. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. As for size. For these people. only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). Inc. such as your printer.Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. is another advantage of a server-based network. the network must operate transparent to them. the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. Since these computers are larger. This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. instead of backing up individual workstations.

0. A public network would be the Internet. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified network professional. 10. since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN.255.255 255.0.0. it is highly recommended that you use these addresses for your private addressing. The only problem is that if your firewall were to come down. which would limit its access to those outside of the company. For this reason. Actually. A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet.0 255.255. the answer will be very obvious.255. then you might have an address conflict with another entity on the Internet. there are specific addresses that are filtered by the routers at the backbone of the Internet. If you are not sure you have enough information.0 -10. in others it could go either way.255 172.0 192. get more.0.0. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information.32. let us define the difference between the terms public and private network. .16.0 -172. stick with it and move forward. Once you have made this decision. When you are sitting on the fence.192. The use of these addresses will completely prevent the address conflict issue. Public and Private networks In addition.255.0. In some cases. If all else fails.0 .255. Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each.0 255.0. present each case to the client and let them make the final decision. you can use any address that you want to use inside of your own network and behind your firewalls.0.168. with open access to the global community. Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult.0 144 Specialized Solutions.255. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design. Inc. For this reason.168.

145 . Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

This form should identify the equipment and its specifications. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form. That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you. The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like. Inc. The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks. When taking this inventory. whether hardware or software. if all or part of a network already exists. On the other hand. Use it as a starting place to build your own. you can skip this section. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software. ask him or her to show you. 146 Specialized Solutions. if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have. you must add new hardware. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation. Also. . Remember. The following is an example of an inventory sheet.

PCI. 147 . Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: Computer Printer Telecommunication Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA. etc.) # of Free Slots Network Card Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Specialized Solutions.

Inc. Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary. Software: If this device uses software.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function. describe each program. 148 Specialized Solutions. .

149 . Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

It is time to get out that pencil and paper. or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility. A Network Layout 150 Specialized Solutions. make a drawing of the facility and each network node. Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network. and collect all of the documentation you have been working on.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment. By assigning them a number now. This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. it will make future documentation easier. . Inc.

where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. CAT 6 is the UTP of choice. if you are not sure if expansion is in your future. It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. In most environments this will be no problem. you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation. For example. the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. such as in an imaging environment. However. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5e or CAT 6 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years. Inc. The 100 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files. or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. Realistically. repeaters and nodes. The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the performance criteria of the network. On the high end. Cable Grade – Local fire codes. 151 . hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. Cable lengths must be considered. and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). but if this is a large facility. you will need to install CAT 5e or CAT 6 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 1000 Mbps speed. Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network. It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments. Therefore. In addition. However. If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small temporary LAN.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly. Specialized Solutions. consider Thinnet coaxial cable. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. or just good common sense. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end). you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub. (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics. 5-4-3 – If your installation is coaxial Ethernet. a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 5 UTP cables. you might consider CAT 3.

since they don’t use electricity to transmit a signal. low-humidity. it doesn’t really matter. Like us. Fiber optics are also a good alternative when the manufacturing environment cannot allow for any possibility of even a small spark. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. which can generate damaging ESD. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network. which requires the use of routers. It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. Fortunately. and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. they are sensitive to temperature changes. The equipment should be shielded from ESD. on the surface. Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment in which the computers will be operating. are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers. Inc. 152 Specialized Solutions. These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. high-humidity. Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise). which can cause corrosion. However. EMI. can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically. such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference. with a relative humidity of 30 percent. Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. and RFI. it will work. If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. The non-routable protocols. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. On the other hand. such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. . but are not limited. it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows 2000/2003. and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source. which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment. but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). Variable temperatures. Therefore.

Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 153 . Inc.

These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network. the cables are connected to a patch panel.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. This way. In most cases. All the cables will be brought to one location. The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable. The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it. One advantage of using CAT 5 or CAT 6 cable in a star topology from a hub. it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room. 154 Specialized Solutions. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding. One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable. . Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable. you will most likely need to install a wall outlet. There are a few more components that need to be installed. Inc. Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub. This way you can identify each location. This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors. if using CAT 5 or CAT 6. So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables. is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet. Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. To keep these organized.

Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed. Once that is done. there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC Specialized Solutions. Therefore you must know the requirements of each.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network. we must select a card that is compatible with both. This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media. Inc. 155 . That part is the network adapter card. Actually.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 156 Specialized Solutions.

Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance. and therefore the speed at which data can be moved. 157 . also called PC Cards. If you are installing a Token Ring network.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. These are little LEDs (one. The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. two. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. and PCI). and expansion projects. the number of connectors. Inc. Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network. Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture. or three) that indicate the status of the card. The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network. Resolving these issues is actually quite simple. Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards. Micro Channel. there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. administration. There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA. Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple. you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots. but only at 10 Mbps. a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). Also. For example. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection. you must have Token Ring cards. Not all cards are the same. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus. a Specialized Solutions. Therefore. The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. In general. will change. In addition to being compatible with the network. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look. Depending on the vintage of the computer. Before purchasing a network card. This section will look at compatibility issues. the card must be compatible with the computer. the speed of the card is important. This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. which can be a useful tool. but only at 10 Mbps. EISA.

Drivers are usually supplied with the network card. the computer may not boot or the conflicting devices might not be able to work simultaneously. but you are not finished yet. you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. Connect the network cabling. . Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use. Inc. Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards. The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. If there are any conflicts. 158 Specialized Solutions. Install the appropriate drivers for the card. you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using. Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. Now the network adapter card is installed. If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver. Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer. Finally. If your system is not Plug-n-Play. Physically install the card. You need to configure the card to work with your network software. the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card. this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. If you must do this manually.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light indicates that data is being transferred. be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. In most cases with a new card. Each card must be configured for a different network. if you upgrade your operating system. Configure the IRQ and I/O address. Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. Note: If you must remove the case. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer). Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. In addition. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches. Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot.

AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector. it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. These types of problems can be more personal in nature. To increase marketability of their cards. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector. Inc. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. 159 . If you encounter this type of situation. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario. For example. Specialized Solutions. some manufacturers will provide two. However. different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. as well as possible solutions. the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based. Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. the engineering department may be PC-based. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on. and possibly three. the card should have an RJ-45 connector. For Thinnet or Thicknet. For example. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day. In the case of UTP. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it. Some STP cards require special connectors.

As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards. Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system. and knowledge of the network operating system. that were identically configured. Inc. Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. 160 Specialized Solutions. You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots. each component will work with the others. and detail both its hardware and software. Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network. boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software. hard work and standards. As the network designer or administrator. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them. you will need to establish the standards for your network. you are going to have your work cut out for you. we learned about network protocols and standards. if installed. This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card. with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier. By defining the standards to which the network must comply. Standards Earlier in this training course. With this done. . Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. With this information in hand.

Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system.Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. If drivers exist. you find that your modem. you will need to upgrade. A good example is Windows 95. Inc. 161 . In this case. network card and/or printer no longer work. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. when upgrading from Windows 98 to Windows XP. For example. there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system. You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. the Internet is the answer. have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. but your proficiency will be very low. however. you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems. The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements. all you need to do is install the Windows XP drivers for the offending hardware. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system. Specialized Solutions. the system will not run. The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind. you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site. Also. you probably do not have the necessary drivers. This is a true statement. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. More than likely. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems.

It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware. . 162 Specialized Solutions. you will need to check the HCL for that product. Microsoft Windows Catalog Still another web site to check for compatibility of hardware and software. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision. This is part of the Windows Logo program. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with Windows 2000.com/windows/catalog. Inc. You can also look for the corresponding logos on the boxes of hardware and software that you are considering purchasing for your network. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000 is hardware dependent. it most likely will not work with Windows 2000. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. or hardware compatibility lists.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists an example of the minimum requirements for three operating systems: HCL and Windows 2000 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs. Here you will find the latest information about hardware and software that is Designed for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 or at least tested to be compatible with these operating systems. is the Microsoft Windows Catalog at www. especially with the newest operating systems such as Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. If you want the latest list.microsoft. If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary. This list will ship with the 2000 package (on the CD-ROM) and 2000 will make a check during installation.

163 . Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions.

What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2. he intends to expand the network in the future. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 6 1. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. but they are not all the same. 7. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. Was this a good purchase? 9. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3. Inc. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? 164 Specialized Solutions. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6. . You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. However.

For example.” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive. This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network. Inc. An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals). In addition to being called “hubs. There are several different types of hubs. Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location. 165 . sooner or later. Specialized Solutions. A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Chapter 7 . Expanding a LAN with Hubs A common method for expanding networks is to use a hub. it may be too small. Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series. from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices. you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network. to larger hubs that can connect many more computers.

Depending on the objectives of the LAN. Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model. you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. They do not translate or filter any information.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. They do however. such as databases. the simple hub just won’t do the job. Inc. Traffic-generating applications. thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths. . When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater. You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. Fortunately. Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network. have increased response times. Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. amplify the signal. but has one additional feature. Long waits to access a printer or file. 166 Specialized Solutions.

Inc. Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Specialized Solutions. For example. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. Not all network protocols will work with a router.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge. the NetBEUI protocol is not routable. Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment. Routers work at the Network layer of the OSI model. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. 167 .

and the cost of the service. When thinking of a carrier. 168 Specialized Solutions. these connections are slow and not very reliable. lines.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway Connection Services When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries. Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps. does not mean that it is the best value. These are our standard telephone connections. microwave. Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps. Typically. The first is public dial-up network lines. Be careful when choosing a carrier. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates. The second choice is leased. each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. An example of such a system is the telephone company. and satellite connections. the distance the data must travel. Just because the cost looks good. Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs. When thinking of telephone lines. Inc. . we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. there are two levels of service to consider. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances. be sure to take into account your throughput. it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system. They are providing the cabling. but connecting at this rate is rare. When considering which connection service to use. With dial-up networking. or dedicated. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection.

Specialized Solutions. The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN. It can regenerate the signal. as well as those transmitted to it. The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. 169 . Inc. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with. Most WANs are a collection of LANs.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded. if necessary. and deals with timing issues. There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines. routers and communications services are used to create a WAN. items such as bridges. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity. A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN. WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs. These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back.

but if you have sufficient traffic. The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. Voice with some quality control. Application relays. more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection. This is because you lease the line 100% of the time and therefore do not have to dial-in. 170 Specialized Solutions. Voice and video. Inc. Voice and data over private lines. Voice and data over trunk circuits. Digital Connectivity When you need a faster. they can be justified. Voice/radio with tone conditioning. Voice and data over trunks between computers. Dedicated analog lines provide an instant connection. The down-side of these lines is that you will have to pay for them 100% of the time instead of on an “as used” basis. Basic data. Dedicated lines are far more expensive.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Basic voice. Data applications below 1200 bps. . you need DDS (Digital Data Service).

faster download than upload 51. 171 .736 Mbps 2.8 Mbps 155. It can be used to transmit digital voice.52 Mbps Either 155.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line.544 Mbps 44.048 Mbps 34. whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard. The following table lists the most common connection types: Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A Voice Channels DATA RATE (MBPS) 24 672 32 512 N/A 1. data. Inc.520 or 622.080 (can reach 10 Gbps) OC-1 OC-3 ATM 1 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A The T1 and the T3 standard are American. Specialized Solutions.544 Mbps transmissions. and video signals. It is capable of 1.

be used for somewhat secure remote access by employing the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) and tunneling protocols. Frame Relay does not check the packet at each step in its route. since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet. X. This made for a very reliable and very slow connection. Obviously.25 based packet switched networks. so it can be both reliable and fast. Standard PSTN lines have a very limited bandwidth of less than 56 Kbps. With Frame Relay. For this reason. each packet was examined at each step in the path to determine whether it was damaged. In older. a packet may be sent over multiple permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network. Today’s networks use a different technology referred to as Frame Relay. A packet switched network provides multiple paths that packets could travel from source to destination. convenient. 172 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. and reliable network messaging. Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast. however. this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs. all of which are considered reliable. . These lines can. Inc.

An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within his company. adding computers or adjusting resources.) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically. or any other logical means. etc.” Specialized Solutions. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN. without having to change the physical picture of the network. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN. This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment. 173 . which lays out hosts (computers. or by the specific use of the computers.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment. Inc. printers.

It is. you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies. however. While not a good choice for WANs. . It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. which is intended for use in the home or small business. However. Inc. video. they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps.2 Gbps.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN. has two 64 Kbps 174 Specialized Solutions. FDDI . twisted pair. and focuses on the home and business market. It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles). audio. and imaging. in actuality. ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface). while using copper telephone wires. it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds. One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need. ATM . As well as the common voice and data. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services. This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network. ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial.Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication.Asynchronous transfer mode uses fixed length (53 byte) cells instead of packets. ATM can be used with FAX. Because it is fiber optic-based. it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference. These cells can speed communication because the network always know exactly what to expect in regard the size of the next cell. media limited. ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential. These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1. or fiber optic.

Specialized Solutions. like OCx with SONET. SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media. It carries all the bits from say.84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768). It is capable of transmitting voice. a call. and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control. data and video at rates ranging from 51. and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control. The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps). within one transmission frame.Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. which is intended for use by large businesses. much like E1 is to T1. Inc. it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network. It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM). it is the European equivalent of SONET. This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802.6). ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface).Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps). SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices. SMDS SMDS . 175 . has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1. It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx).544 Mbps). To be more precise. Internationally.

The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication. Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud.32 standard. a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2. However. Inc. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56. To increase our network beyond a few computers. the Baud rate was equal to the bps. 14. Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions.400 High-speed version of the V. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. Modems are classified by a “V” rating. 8. 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data. network cards. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines.32bis bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard. or over long distances. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56. A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable.400 bps.22bis V. Therefore. there is a limit of 2400 Baud. FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14. designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle. the term Baud has disappeared and been replaced with bps. With this change. These speeds are measured as bits per second. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines.32 V. . times as fast as the Baud rate. With early modems. The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V. etc.600 bps. As we have already learned. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion. 176 Specialized Solutions.600 bps. due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of transmitting signals over long distances. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate. Modems transmit data at various speeds. connecting a few computers to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards. Today. and media.

600 Backwards compatible with earlier V.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network V. 177 . Will only communicate with another V. Inc. 57.90 19.42 V. Specialized Solutions.FastClass.200 Not officially a standard yet.32terbo V.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards.32terbo. 56. Backwards compatible with earlier V.34 V.800 Improved V. modems – error correction standard. modems. 28.

You must use a Null-Modem cable. With RAS. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. The difference between a simple computer (Windows XP or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows Server 2003) is the number of inbound connections. so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection. Windows XP has an feature called a direct cable connection. Inc. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building). when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. both of these terms mean the same thing. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem. or directly via COM ports and a cable. or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. . By running Network Connections Wizard and following the simple 178 Specialized Solutions. Also. there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number. For example. Actually. Let’s first look at connecting two computers. The difference is how each computer is being utilized. Since the two computers are directly connected.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. Any two computers can be connected. either via modems and telephone lines. In addition. RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. while a true server like Windows Server 2003 will allow 256 inbound connections. the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication. On the other hand. all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer. the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. A system running Windows XP or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors.

the RAS software must be installed and running. the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user. you will use a modem to establish the connection. 179 . While this was the protocol of choice for a Specialized Solutions. but is still in use with some systems. in this case. the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software. On the server side. The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network. Inc. On the client side. This is a relatively old standard (1984). Normally.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network instructions provided. These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection. RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work. With this in place. your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server. Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but. RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security. you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number. From this accessory. Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking. both computers must be using the same protocol.

Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications. AppleTalk. It cannot encrypt logon information. RAS and Security. Many organizations are using tunnels. and DECnet. It transmits in text only. created by PPTP and other tunneling protocols. This is accomplished by encapsulating one protocol with another protocol. such that only the sender and the receiver can accurately interpret the data that is being sent. VPN (Virtual Private Networks). It supports only TCP/IP. . Inc. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the Network layer of the OSI model. It enables highly private network links over the public Internet. It supports encrypted passwords. It’s only supported by RAS clients. the limits of SLIP caused many problems. Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP. PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today. Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks. in today’s networks it has several disadvantages. It provides security. IPX.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide long time. as a less explensive alternative to costly leased lines. NetBEUI. It can be used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private 180 Specialized Solutions. It provides data compression and error control. Encrypted Connections. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) provides for a secure encrypted tunnel for communication through the Internet.

Unlike PPTP. It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). it only establishes the user’s identity. Specialized Solutions. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission. L2TP offers many advantages over PPTP. ESP.509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec. AH only authenticates the user. Thin clients are computers with no hard drive. It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS. UNIX. It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs. Inc. it does not require IP connectivity. TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL. Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the latest version of the tunneling protocol. ICA can be used with Windows. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. Linux. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket. SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server. most relating to higher security. It uses a key to encrypt the data. certificates (like X. Kerberos V5. both sending and receiving. or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server. and Macintosh computers. and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header).Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network. limited RAM. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 Active Directory use this type of security by default. It is transparent to the user. 181 . It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP.. as does Novell Directory Services (NDS). authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well. meaning that the computers. discussed here in the next chapter. . usually a user’s credit card number. a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE). which is the highest security method. It does not provide authorization. It is based on an end-to-end security model.

In addition. This provides for additional authentication. The type of communication port you intend to configure. you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. As with all security measures. 182 Specialized Solutions. you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one. you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call. If another software package has “control” of the modem. . you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server. RAS provides several layers of security.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to providing remote sharing of information. Inc. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly. Security Host (Bastion Host) A security host or bastion host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary. At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system. This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. and any other software that might use the modem. Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server. the modem configuration. If it does not work the first time. and thus more security. By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection. This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. installing RAS can be frustrating. Before installation.

Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. As a networking professional. you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses. you want to keep the costs down. it is not always the solution for every network. Inc. The latest Microsoft server operating systems such as Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 have wizards that make installing an RAS server much simpler. Specialized Solutions. 183 . and you don’t need a fulltime connection. You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps.

Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH 184 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Definition .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X.25 Definition Specialized Solutions. 185 . Inc.

4. What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. a bridge. 186 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Define a repeater. a router. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. Name three advanced WAN environments.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 7 1. 7.544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6. 9. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. Name four forms of RAS security. 10. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. Name three RAS protocols. . What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2. and a gateway. What is analog communication? 5.

Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Specialized Solutions. Inc. 187 .

.

are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board). and FTP. These standards. TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers. some are considered to be Internet standards. RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP. Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor. as well as Internet standards. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). Specialized Solutions. and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. and is in fact. 189 . TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol). It is also used with Ethernet networks. The four layers are: Application. TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX. It is important for the networking professional to know that TCP/IP is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. known as BSD UNIX. Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress). intranets. From this beginning. the recognized standard for internetworking altogether. and the Internet. TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is an internet (between network) protocol. Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. Transport. Also. which will be discussed later in the chapter. This is the most common protocol suite with which a networking professional works. it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. SNMP. TCP/IP. and is usually seen in the combination. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. Internet and Network Interface. TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard. Inc. these protocols were available on UNIX early on. such as SMTP.

Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 190 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model. There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections. These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions. Inc. 191 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. On a TCP/IP network. TCP breaks data into tiny chunks. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets. they can be retransmitted in a timely manner. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 192 Specialized Solutions. called packets. Let’s take a look at how this works. Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine. It then routes the information to its destination. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP. It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission. the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports. there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model. Let’s take a look at them. This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. and for the Network+ exam. However. The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier. and reassembles the data. A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams. Inc. . Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others. Should lost or corrupted packets be detected.

IP is connectionless.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number. or port numbers. FTP. The port number identifies the application associated with the data. This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023. TCP will retransmit the data. When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet. Although the terms. This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines. i. 193 . UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type.e. IP merely routes the data. TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned. HTTP.535. The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses. The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535. Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet. For each packet sent. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. and specify a certain protocol. a port is different from a socket. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number. Inc. consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65. but does not acknowledge delivery. The addresses. meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information. Telnet. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point. the protocol number. etc. nor does it check for errors. IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP. and a Specialized Solutions. UDP transports data.. If the transmission has not been successful. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide checksum. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer. To be more specific, the checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. When the data arrives at the destination computer, the receiving computer performs the calculation. If the checksum is the same, the data is assumed to have arrived intact. The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network, it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. Time to Live – provides TTL data. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. This cache contains a list of all the devices with which it is communicating. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five, TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server, run searches, or access multiple mail servers. 194 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet, which is what you use when you send out mail. SMTP is server to server, whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers, usually over the Internet. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People.” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files, by typing in a user name, or the word “anonymous.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents, such as web pages. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts, using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP, allowing access to a secure Web server. It uses port 443, the secure SSL port instead of port 80, the HTTP port. HTTPS, as well as SSL, allow for the use of X.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user.

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

195

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

196

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials

Naming Systems
Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. Remember, we are working in two worlds, the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names. Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking. DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates hostnames to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. DNS functions like a telephone directory. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers. For example, the domain bigcompany.com may have an IP address of 192.49.238.33. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose, such as government, education, commerce, or interest. Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC, also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. These domains require suffixes such as .com for businesses or .edu for educational institutions. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you.

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

197

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains:

.com .net .edu .org .gov .mil .biz .pro .info .xx

Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance, Big Company Inc. in Italy might be http://www.Bigcompany.com.it or in Australia www.Bigcompany.com.au. Also, .tv is gaining in popularity. Tuvalu is a small country, which receives financial benefit from the registration fees.

WINS In a Windows-based network, the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network. NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode, leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application. A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast), P-node (peer-peer), M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). 198 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. It predates DNS. It must be manually created and changed. LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. It must be manually created and changed. IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. For example, it could connect a LAN to the Internet. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet, it must be assigned a static IP address. This means that it is permanently assigned. It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers, sooner or later we will run out of numbers. In smaller isolated networks, IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. However, as the number of addresses required increases, you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. To resolve this, IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. That is, assigned on an “as needed” basis. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. When not needed, the address can be leased to another host. To accomplish this, you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address, subnet mask, and a default gateway if needed. Notice that the IP addresses are leased. This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. A lease can be renewed. When the term of the lease is at 50%, the client will send a request for renewal. If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available), the lease will be renewed without interruption. If not renewed, the client will attempt to contact the DHCP server that issued it the IP address directly about every 5 minutes until it reaches 87.5% of the lease, at which time the client will broadcast a request to obtain an address from any available DHCP server. If all addresses are being used or a DHCP server does not respond, the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user. In this case, the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

199

since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time. to share a single connection to the Internet. a NAT is just a device or program that translates one set of IP addresses to another set of IP addresses. In the case of a proxy server. The proxy server is actually making a connection to another network or to the Internet on behalf of the client. Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network. the proxy server. NAT. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other. It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses. 200 Specialized Solutions. and DNS. like a LAN.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (public IP address). IP Proxy Servers Earlier. it serves many clients through only one connection. NAT also acts as a type of firewall. . Inc. The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. but it is most often used between a private network and the networks public address or addresses. i. ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time. It contains DHCP. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers. who think they are communicating directly with one another. Actually. It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties. The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client.e.

Inc. 201 .Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions.

296 (4. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8. are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes. Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address.2 billion) different numbers. Although that is easy for a computer. Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256. however.39.294. A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001.00001000.967. they are broken down into four octets. let’s now take a look at IP address numbers. it is not easy for us. 202 Specialized Solutions.00100111. An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets. This IP address is a 32-bit binary number. Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39. Inc. A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4. The result is called a dotted decimal number. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes.8.11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------16 8 2 1 128 64 32 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names. . the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique). 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194.194. So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33. Internet IP addresses. To simplify these addresses.

Depending on the assignment. The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000). 203 .39 would be the Network ID and 8.8.194 where the Network ID would be 193. you should pay special attention the Classes A.194 would be the Host ID.39.39.8 and the Host ID would be 194.) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126. The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39. In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID. the network is divided into classes. The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID). The class can be determined by the value of the first octet. the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID. 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) Specialized Solutions. The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000). For the Network+ exam.8. In this case 129.39. Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large. The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID). The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223. The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33. (A host may be any device on the network. Within classes. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000). An example of a Class B IP address would be 129. The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID.194.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use. Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks.8. B and C. An example of a Class C IP address would be 193. Inc. There are five common classes: A through E.39.194 would be an example of a Class A address. only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID).194.8. Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks.

0.126 128 . there are only 65. All in use and no longer available.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. As we mentioned earlier. Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs. Also. This organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center). Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID. and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses. you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address.used for medium-sized networks.191 192 .223 In addition. This is the loopback address.534 possible Host ID numbers. Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available. if a network is going to be connected to the Internet. so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts. the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic. specifically 127. Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 . . there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and for multicasting and are not available for normal host addresses.used by very large networks. Likewise. Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time.777. Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A.1) Class A .0. Class B . Class C IP addresses are still available.214 possible Host ID numbers. with the least number of Network IDs. B or C address. (For example. Class B uses two octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID. Class C . 204 Specialized Solutions. Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID. there are 16. You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts.

IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP). The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. For example. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot. An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. Anycast. It uses 128-bit addressing. A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. which only uses 32-bit addressing. Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Specialized Solutions. as compared to IPv4. IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits. 205 . however. to define the address type. Rather than having “classes” like IPv4. then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme. It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4. It does. and Multicast. Inc. use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers (0 to 9. as well as ease of configuration and security built right in. It would make it unclear as to what was represented. You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example. VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic. demand high bandwidth. however. Unicast is an address for a single host.net. This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. The address types are Unicast.

An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address. just like 127. Multicast. Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link.0. Site-local address. since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain. All in all. IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking. . A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses. Inc. which replaces broadcast. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one.0.1 with IPv4. 206 Specialized Solutions. is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix. Finally.

only the traffic that is not local will pass through. For example: 11111111.00000000 or 255.255. For example. which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address. 207 .0. or 225. Anding is the binary addition that the router uses to make this determination.0 (Class C).255. This is done with binary addition (anding).Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of creating more than one private network from one public network address by customizing your subnet mask.255. the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class). separating it from the host portion of the address. a large university may have a network spread over several buildings and perhaps remote campuses.0 255.255. a router can determine which addresses are local and which addresses are for other subnets within the network.0 (Class A).0 (Class B). have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right.0. Since a router connects each subnet. If you “and” the IP address to the subnet mask. 255. lets look at subnet masks.0. Inc. all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet.216 hosts) Class B (65.0 Class A (16. Default Subnet Masks 255. By using subnets. By using a concept called anding. You must however. In this example. you can reduce the overall network traffic. The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address. A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) in which all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address.255. Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask.00000000.0.255. a subnet mask can be 255.0.0 In regard to classful addressing . The number of 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network.0.255.777.0 255.0.534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s.11111111. Specialized Solutions. You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet. Before looking at anding.

00000000.32. it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address.194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask.00000000. .0.8.39. By using this method.0.11100000.39. Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33.194.00001000.0. let’s and it to the subnet mask of 255.0) equals 00100001. 00100001. Any local addresses will not pass through.00100111. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7.224.194.00000000 (33.00000000 (255.194) 11111111.194.0.32. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID.32. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 208 Specialized Solutions.11000010 (33.8. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remember. and through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33.0. thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network.8.224.0.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones. while the Host ID 0. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now.32 and the Host ID is 7. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment.8. using our previous example of 33.8.7. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33.00100000.

b.0 255.b.b.0.b. A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card.a.255. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet.097.a. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring).c to 191.255.c to 223. Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate.0.0.384 2. Specialized Solutions.0 255. Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet. Be sure to include some room for growth of the network.0.0.777. A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network.255. it will require an address for each subnet.a.0 255.255. If a router is connected to two subnets.a.0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255.c Default Subnet Mask 255.0 Number of Networks 126 16. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner.c 192.a. • • • • Connect physically remote local networks.152 Number of Hosts 16.0.a.216 65. 209 .Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001.b.b. There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required. Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment. Inc.c 128.255.255.c to 126.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking.0 255.

Inc.255.382 Hosts N/A 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 210 Specialized Solutions.255.0 255.000 hosts. You should remember the formula 2n-2 where n is the number of bits borrowed.255. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign.255.255.0 255.255. you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16. .0.254.0 255. Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255.248 255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet.255.240 255.255.255.255.255.255. First.224.252. We will use an InterNIC ID of 191. With this number. We use this formula to determine the number of subnets that will be created by borrowing bits from the hosts. we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host.0 255.248.255. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255.224 255.255.0 255.36.255. To begin this process.0 255. The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network.255.240.255.255.0.192 255.255. we have one network with approximately 65.128 255. As we begin to subnet.192.255.255.0 255.

2.248 255.255. giving us a total requirement of 18.255. you can use the scientific calculator supplied with any Windows operating system. 1.255. Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator). Enter the value of 18.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255.255.255. We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID. For this example. 211 . let’s add 4 more for future expansions. Now we get out our Windows calculator.224 255.255.255.255.36 as assigned to us by InterNIC. we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs. The number 18 will now be in binary (10010). Just to be on the safe side. 3.255. the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements. Inc. Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected.240 255.255. lets keep our network ID of 191.192 255.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 Hosts N/A 30 14 6 2 To make this easy. Change the mode to binary (Bin). Specialized Solutions.

To keep things simple. This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2. you can determine the available Network IDs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. For this example.36. Had we needed to add a new subnet. the subnet mask would be 255. we would have had to reconfigure the entire network. let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255. Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask. This will be the number of bits required for the third octet. Count the number of binary digits (5). .0 and the network address of 192. our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets.255. instead of selecting the next subnet on our list.255. The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 212 Specialized Solutions.0. Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth).224. Inc.000 hosts each.248.

128 192. the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery.255. 213 .64 192.0. For example.160 192.0.36.001 in the last octet.36. This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address. these are reserved for broadcast addresses.36 (overall network address) 192. and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet.36.36.255. this means that the number starts with .32 192. indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively.0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255.255.0.96 192.0. (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask.192 Determine the Host IDs The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001). up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID. Inc.36. they are on the same network.255.0. The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID. Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network. on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255. In dotted-decimal format.36.) Specialized Solutions.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192.000 or . A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255. The only restrictions are that you cannot use . If it is different. or one that is located on a remote network. The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255.126 128 . Inc.0.223 214 Specialized Solutions.191 192 .255.255.0 255.255.0.0.0 CLASS ID 1 .0 255.

Inc. 215 . This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information. Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways. other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window. or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically. and enter the information in the appropriate fields. you may specify a particular IP address. The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using. Click the radio button to enable DNS. Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor. right-click on TCP/IP Protocol. and click Properties. IP Address Here. in addition to other hardware and software configurations. However.” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. click the Protocols tab. Next. On some screens. Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. you will need to type in the specified default gateway. DNS You can enable or disable DNS.

WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses. default gateway. and subnet mask configuration.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology. It also includes the DNS configuration. . DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients. 216 Specialized Solutions. This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration. Inc.

Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 217 .Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword POP3 Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 218 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. What is a domain? 7. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9. 12.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Review Questions Chapter 8 1. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Specialized Solutions. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3. 10. Inc. 219 . What is the purpose of DNS? 5. 4. What is an FQDN and give an example? 6. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 220 Specialized Solutions.

you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device. Using one of these products. The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator. The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base). From the database and the software interface.SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks. Inc. the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network. 221 . you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network. Network Managers .Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network. Specialized Solutions. It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data. In addition.

An additional SNMP command is the trap. The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents. The three commands are: Get: request data from the device. These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt. 222 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device. Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager). This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager. Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network. A community can also restrict access. Inc. . Set: sends a configuration value to a device. Get-next: request the next value in a sequence. It will respond to commands issued by the management software. therefore providing a level of security.

NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names. This includes critical system errors. and normal (i). Inc. Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table. serious (!). Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics. Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred). ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it. Specialized Solutions. Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis. and TCP/IP events and errors. 223 . TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. TRACERT. but did not cause a stop. Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports. Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses. shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination.

Inc. clicking Run.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar. . and typing in either cmd or command. 224 Specialized Solutions.

Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same. IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration. NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device. PING The lowest level test to find out if you have connectivity to a remote host. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain. NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address.12. For example. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer. the IP of a host might be 192. and will display the current configuration of a computer. Specialized Solutions. NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain. NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified. Inc. 225 . Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once. IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain.1. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host. Ping works at the IP level. and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot.168. RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address. Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 226 Specialized Solutions.

227 . Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. each device will need to be _________ compliant. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network. . What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. 3. List as many as you can.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 9 1. 228 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Chapter 10 – Network Security Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. or anyone who has access to your network for that matter. motivated by curiosity. 229 . the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network. Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company. Most users will also be able to access shared files. Therefore. User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access. or even millions. you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent. from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files. The best time to set up your network security. Inc. or an irresponsible prank. As you might have already deduced. Whether the sabotage is malicious. the results can be devastating. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems. There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change. is right up front. or at least have your plan intact. A disgruntled employee. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created). Very few users will have access to administrative features. can deliberately damage your network. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. of dollars. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. Users should be held accountable for the security of their individual workstations. data encryption. creating chaos and costing thousands. she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of her particular network. before you set up the network. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. Specialized Solutions. A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords. unless safeguards are built in. Password practices and procedures. depending on the roles they play in your company. Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user.

and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security. where the administrator can easily retrieve it.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality. among other things. However. A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process. 230 Specialized Solutions. should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. while the original file remains intact. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model. Inc. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place. Users can access a shared resource. . the user will be inclined to be less attentive to personal security. The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system. passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file. such as a template or another type of file. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. In a manner similar to the signature on a document. Password protection is. a gesture of respect for the user and the system. The user can edit the file as necessary. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source.

Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Security Specialized Solutions. Inc. 231 .

This needs to be handled in such a way that production will not be interrupted. or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. As the system administrator. 232 Specialized Solutions. and even more often on larger networks. Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. by forwarding application traffic through the firewall. Inc. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. Files need to be backed up daily. but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information. they can be host-based. or auditing. Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs. Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. It is an important part of a network security plan. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. and work at the application level. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system. . you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter. If you are accessing the Internet from your network. you would block port 80. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network. you will most likely be using E-mail. at the very least. if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. For example.

how the backup information will be tested. 233 . those who fail to plan. rather than one larger server. There are several options available. Although slower than RAID. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. If anything happens to one. range from 1.Chapter 10 – Network Security It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers. it is still a viable option. the other can take over without compromising network operations. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). you must answer important questions about what to backup. In addition. Inc. the second server should serve as a backup to the first. the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk. As you might guess. called the backup medium. As a computer professional. Remember. offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other. Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available.44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. and how often backups will be performed. Floppy disk capacities today. so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk. which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs. for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity. Specialized Solutions. you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data. Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. and are more commonly known as RAID. plan to fail. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. Ideally. It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. These multiple disks are called disk arrays. so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security. Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today. This backup medium is suitable for small companies. While planning your backup strategy. and the procedure to follow for recovery. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups.

This method will take the largest amount of storage media. This usually involves some degree of redundancy. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server. . Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations. but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. This type of backup is usually performed weekly. When recovering from a failure. 234 Specialized Solutions. Differential and Incremental. both the last differential backup tape copy and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used. as its name implies. Differential. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup. and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full. and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level. The Full backup. Full. is called fault tolerance. but will be the easiest to restore. Inc. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups. To restore. despite the presence of hardware or software failures. as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk..Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk. will backup all selected data on the network. the last full backup and all of the incremental backup tapes will be needed. This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed.

if anything happens to one of the drives. Several operating systems. is not being used commercially at the moment to an Specialized Solutions. the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved. If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up. However. This technique may be applied in either software or hardware.Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 .Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks.” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data. which provides for even more fault tolerance. then the data in the entire array is also lost. Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies. RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme. administrators are alerted when one disk fails so that they can “regenerate” the RAID set before another disk has a chance to fail. Typically. If more than one disk is lost.Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 . so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping. and is a standard feature of RAID systems. (Provides no fault tolerance. This. support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing. such as a single file. a copy of the data is spread across all of the disks based on a mathematical formula such that any one disk in the set can be lost and the other disks will have a copy of all of the information that it contained. Inc. this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful. With this method.Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 .Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 .) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk. this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent. including Novell NetWare.Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 .Chapter 10 – Network Security The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 . The same data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure. 235 . however.

are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes. RAID-53. Inc. since it is not dependent on another computer. surges. 236 Specialized Solutions. as you might guess. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. Cost. the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. it offers better performance. The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. and each type provides power for a different length of time. Like RAID-10. which allows for better performance. Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. is an issue. SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached. It functions faster. In this case. and sags in the power supply. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power. but at a greater cost. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests. is like RAID-10. such as battery time remaining. RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide large degree. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. also called surge suppressors. . SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. These types of RAID are not as commonly used and are not as likely to be on the test. A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI). A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN. There are different types of UPS devices. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity.

This is known as a security audit. Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others. but are easy enough that users can remember them. 237 . The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters and use a combination of letters. If the network administrator needs to use the workstation. etc. Some “classified” networks require password changes every day. should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there. personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. no matter who they are. Specialized Solutions. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them. Inc. There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy. and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days.” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents. So. and troubleshoot before the trouble starts. No one. include characters. an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis. he or she will know how to accomplish the task.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network. Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being applied. symbols. Users working with sensitive information such as budgets. away. This holds users accountable for their actions on the network. numbers and symbols. and numbers. Passwords should be changed more frequently in high-security networks. In order for this policy to be effective.

238 Specialized Solutions. Adi Shamir. The name comes from their first initials. This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem. . the Internet is not the most secure of environments. Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used. It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest. RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. and Leonard Adleman. These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. and is used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking. and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message. A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. Even with encryption. This method uses a 56-bit private key. Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. other than the person for whom the message was intended. Inc. can understand the message.

but they are less secure. both on location and at backup sites. There are over 60. will ensure a much quicker recovery. much less a day. the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. 239 . Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip. Viruses can be spread by various sources including: shareware. which is used to encrypt data and to decrypt it. The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex. software from unknown origins. and bulletin boards. Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters. There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run. Specialized Solutions. which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption. The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key.000 known viruses. With this method of encryption both parties have the same key. If the receiver wishes to respond. but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. is called a digital signature. Symmetric Keys can also be used. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). As the name implies. Prevention should also be addressed in the plan.Chapter 10 – Network Security Extra data appended to a message. it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed. files downloaded from the Internet. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities. It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. Inc. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages. The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. it is not a completely secure encryption method. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. Many viruses are simple annoyances. It is similar to DES. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method.

just from running a program. Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks. but when loaded. enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing a new operating system. Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine. These days. Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines. Hundreds of viruses are written each month. they mean that when you open a document you are running a program. If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site. they will go to work on the system. (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail). . With this in mind. Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world. Make sure it is compatible with all of the operating systems that you use. Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet. Keep your anti-virus program updated. It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document. there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs. Macro Virus: These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened. 240 Specialized Solutions. Use extreme caution when you download files. Inc. The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files). (prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk).

Inc. 241 .Chapter 10 – Network Security Specialized Solutions.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 242 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. .

5. Inc. In a share level model. passwords are assigned to __________. 243 . What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2. The acronym RAID stands for __________. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Specialized Solutions. 3. What are the three common levels of RAID? 6.Chapter 10 – Network Security Review Questions Chapter 10 1. What is the function of a firewall? 4.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

” is really just the symptom and not the true cause. If fact. and good listening skills. you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. As a troubleshooter. Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper. but they often hold the keys to the problem. 245 . identify the affected area. troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier. “as reported. a pen (or pencil). After all. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution. This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems.Conclusion Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. while for others it is a struggle. The eight parts are as follows: establish the symptoms. The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks. so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. and progress with some specific tools that you can employ to simplify the process. you must be organized. or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now. Remember. test the result. implement a solution. Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem. In most cases. Remember. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. They always fail in the middle of a job. Specialized Solutions. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. In order to do this. Inc. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software. if you are the expert. a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. you are looking for the cause. Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause. computers never fail at a convenient time. Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. For those who must endure the struggle. Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned. select the most probable cause. it seems well defined by the person who calls and complains! But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. establish what has changed. you will most likely be called when there is a problem. What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. To make matters worse. not when all is well. not the symptom. The user of the computer or network is your best source of information.

This will take time and patience. have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory. You will need to create your own list based on the situation. Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure. The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work toward the more complex. recent software upgrade. If possible. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation. lights. as well as the results. or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred. but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure. You may. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of the failure. and most importantly. Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones. the process of elimination is all that you can do. the failure occurs. do not intimidate the user. . have someone demonstrate the failure to you. Do not make the questions too technical. Be sure to observe the failure yourself. Describe any changes in the computer (noise. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before. You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. With a little experience. One thing that might 246 Specialized Solutions. If it is an operatorinduced problem. Sometimes. Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know. network or computer moved. For example. and when. The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that caused the failure. These never seem to occur when you are present. Inc. and so forth). it is important to observe how it is created. screen changes.) Show me how to create the error. Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem. however.

Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made.Conclusion help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally. Once a plan is created. Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. 247 . You may have to refer back to them later. In the case of a network problem. That way the “evidence” is not disturbed. but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration. If for example. It requires two simple steps. is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly. For example. Do not make any assumptions. Starting from the top. make a plan and follow it. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be). Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems. but to call you. you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. and move forward. Document every action and its results. If you must make any assumptions. Inc. it is important to follow it through. write them down. then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. but you cannot receive any E-mail. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up. create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user Specialized Solutions. then you know for sure that the network is physically working.

248 Specialized Solutions. This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome. Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures. as well as the one that is causing problems. and not the hardware or the system. This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how. It is important to use another operator. be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes. it may require some additional effort.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Once the search has been narrowed. Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures. if an operator is afraid of computers in general. With hardware. start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not. repair or replacement is usually all that is needed. . To resolve these types of problems. Implement the solution. no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed. you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. However. In these situations. either repair or replace the defect. you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem). In these cases. For example. Note: If the problem is software-oriented. Inc. if the problem is software or configuration related. you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work). the problem may be caused by the operator. Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities.

or a follow up call just to make sure all is well. 249 . You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience. maintain. Inc. In troubleshooting. document the problem and the repair. Specialized Solutions. Document the solution Finally. Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems. the problem. You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem.Conclusion Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. This is one way to build. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. there is no substitute for experience. The basis for this policy is that once the system is running. and the repair. The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again. and share experience. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle. Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists.

Inc. Punch Down Tool 250 Specialized Solutions. The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire. They secure the connection between the wires and the block. Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals. Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network. Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack. a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier. let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician. Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools.

whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. Specialized Solutions. Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. For example. With it you can test various electronic components. in principle. Network cabling is. you can have only one of two problems. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured. If your meter does not have a continuity setting. the circuit is broken. the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. Since it is made up of wires. we will have to know how to test for continuity. All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device. resistance. We will start by looking at a multimeter. Inc. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps). A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires. When working with network cabling. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other. The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters. which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound. 251 . These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. In a wire for example. and continuity. A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other. it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. Some meters will let you test for current as well. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up. as well as the electrical power in the computer. The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. it is still possible to test for continuity. The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe. If the wire is broken. a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red). which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete.Conclusion Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. If the test is negative (no light or noise). very easy to troubleshoot. Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. You can test for AC and DC voltage. These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted). When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing.

if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building. to find pairs of wires in a bundle. Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. testing for continuity will require an additional wire. If both ends are in the same location. You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end. thus locating the wires.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician should have one. there are more often than not. The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator. Inc. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. these tools are often called a fox and a hound. The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. However. and test at the other end. This applies a signal on the wires. However. . called tone generators and tone locators. several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel). When used together. The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). it will emit a tone. The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky. 252 Specialized Solutions. this is not a problem.

and therefore back to the network card. The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling. It has the transmit and receive wires connected. 253 . capture packets and generate reports. A crossover cable is similar to a loopback. It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. are usually a PC with a special network card. Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters. Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable.Conclusion Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions. Specialized Solutions. but is double-ended. Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire. If you are able to send a signal and have it return. These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. Software analyzers. the location of any break or short can be determined. Be careful when using a crossover cable. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa). also called packet sniffers. Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic. there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment. A loopback cable is just what the name implies. you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning. Inc. because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable. By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. They will monitor network traffic.

254 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR. . but used for fiber optic cabling. Inc. OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back.

You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so.Conclusion Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. but can be caused by a disconnected cable. and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors. If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate. A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. the network. Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security. Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam. or a disk resource. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail. due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck. 255 . Some passwords are case-sensitive. It could be the processor. This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. Therefore. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors. Inc. For some reason. The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords. the traffic is not moving.

tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night. so does the traffic. You must defragment the drive. check for memory bottlenecks. For example. deletes. You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives. Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 256 Specialized Solutions. . the network slows down. These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves. If slow loading persists even after defragmenting. When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it. Inc. and moves information. As networks grow.

The loopback address is 127. On a Windows 95/98 computer. Inc. and TRACERT commands to test the network. If you are using TCP/IP. This will test the protocol stack in the computer. PING. The first step is to PING the loopback address.1. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG. Remember this address. because as a network professional. These commands work from a command prompt. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on your intranet or on the Internet your packet is going. PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation.0. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities.0. Specialized Solutions. On a Macintosh system.Conclusion Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network. This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS. It also lets you know the time that it takes. you will use it often. you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu. 257 . TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination. but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card.

6. or 2003 system. . 2000.48.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195. Inc. If you are using Windows.55. WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly. This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT. WINIPCFG. XP. your dialog box will look like the following. 258 Specialized Solutions.

you have encountered a problem. It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network. you will be testing a larger portion of the network. use the ipxping command. and so on. then there is a problem with the protocol. Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: Specialized Solutions. you receive a message like the following. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol.55. Usually this means you have the wrong IP address. With each step. Inc. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday. If at any stage. Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems. For the IPX/SPX networks. PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer. they must be okay.48. 259 .Conclusion PING 195. Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t.6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation. the server.

Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files.” With nslookup. One is the IP address number. we learned that workstations. Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. we need to look at four limiting factors on performance. These are text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses. In general.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause. The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer. 260 Specialized Solutions. If these files are being used. you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup. Beyond that. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS. have two names. How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution. You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address. If no lights are on. you can be sure that the network is not being detected. they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network. That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server). but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow. To resolve this problem. Earlier. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. Inc. suspect a loose or disconnected cable. Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. the first thing to do is find out what has changed. If present. while green lights indicate that all is well. you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory. . they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem. If there is a sudden change in performance. or hosts. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector. respectively.

are negligible. You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information. but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks. Latency Small delays in packet movement that are caused by devices is called latency. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request. A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache. you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. Specialized Solutions. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation. if the traffic gets too congested. 261 . for the most part. Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory.Conclusion Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing. This means that for a small amount of time. Latency delays. The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system. you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. or maximum speed that traffic can move. after you identify the problem. The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps). if you are experiencing slow printing. From this information. Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. Therefore. An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. the more packets that can be moved). you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed. The answer lies in creating a performance baseline. is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). slow. it can send data at a faster than rated speed. The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now. Inc. For example. This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. at a later date. To create a baseline. adding to the network load. you will know the high. everything slows down. Resolving performance problems can be easy. This can slow down data transfer. Just like our highway. and average time to print the document. For example. it will affect the entire network. if any one component is performing poorly. Then. The speed limit. Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. but are interrelated.

With this activated. Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network. To collect these statistics. etc. you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself. Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. Windows Performance Monitor 262 Specialized Solutions. With this tool. Windows has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events. percent of network utilization. you will be able to monitor such events as processor time. . available memory. etc. Inc.

263 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Conclusion KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc.

You are troubleshooting a cable problem. You have located the cable in question #3. You have just connected a workstation to the network. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9. . What is the loopback IP address? 7. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8. After repairing a problem. Inc. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Conclusion 264 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1. What tool would you need to find the short? 5. and think it might be shorted. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slowly.

you are ready to sit for your certification exam. Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs. After taking a practice exam. our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. Inc.Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. be sure to review any areas that need improvement. as you like. Remember. or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. 265 . the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. at Specialized Solutions. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material. Specialized Solutions. When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range. To measure your retention of these materials. and as often. be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site. we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. so if you have any questions. We love to hear from our students. and don’t forget to use the Glossary. start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course. When you are ready to schedule your exam.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 266 Specialized Solutions.

267 . you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule. Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same. It is expressed in ohms. • • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Specialized Solutions. Maximum of 4 repeaters. In order for the network to operate at peak performance.Appendix A – Tech Summary Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing coaxial Ethernet cabling. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. They are specified based on their impedance. Only 3 segments can contain nodes. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. Inc.

Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59. Description Stranded wire core. RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max. Length (meters) Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment Max Segments Max. . but also used for broadband transmissions. Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 10Base5 Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Bus 500 10 100 5 4 10Base2 Bus 185 10 30 5 4 3 268 Specialized Solutions. Military specification of RG-58 A/U. Broadband transmission. such as cable television. ArcNet networks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core. Inc.

Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). Not Defined Two 62. Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps. Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Specialized Solutions.5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. Two STP – 26 AWG wire. Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets.Appendix A – Tech Summary UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps. but adds voice capability along with data. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG. Contains a shield for use under carpets. Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch. Plenum grade. Two STP –26 AWG wire. Inc. Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch. Six twisted pairs. Data grade up to 100 Mbps. 269 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch. Same as type 1. IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Voice-grade cable.

Inc.10 802.x Standard 802.4 802.1 802. .3 802.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model.7 802.2 802.9 802.6 802. They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802.8 802. 802.11 802.5 802.12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 270 Specialized Solutions.

COM4 COM1. Inc. COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs. however. No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually Specialized Solutions.Appendix A – Tech Summary IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer. 271 . The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2. there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address.LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 272 Specialized Solutions.LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F . The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F . Inc. .

Appendix A – Tech Summary 3A0 to 3AF 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model Specialized Solutions. Inc. 273 .

214 65. .0 255.255.x. x.x.x.x to 126.777.x. Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001.x.0 255.255.x to 223. Hubs.0.x to 191.097.x.152 Number of Host 16.534 254 274 Specialized Solutions.0 Number of Networks 126 16. Inc.x 128.0.x.x.x Default Subnet Mask 255.x. x.255.x. Repeaters Computers Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address.x 192.384 2.0.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Gateways Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Brouter Bridges Switches NICs.

If all is well. Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks. the subnet address.0. Sends a test packet to a specified address. Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address.1) to test the IP architecture and configuration.0. Inc. Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the Linux user’s network interface configuration. Use the loopback address (127. Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses). and default gateway.Appendix A – Tech Summary TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. it will return. 275 . the subnet mask. PING ARP RARP Specialized Solutions.

all computers are connected in a series. all computers are connected to a hub.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it. Used to verify the route to a remote host.) Used to verify entries on a DNS server. In a star topology. (Pronounced Trace Route. 276 Specialized Solutions. Used to check the status of current IP connections. Inc. Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents. . NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology. Used to check the resolution of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses. ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries.

Inc. all computers are logically connected in a circle. 277 . In a mesh topology. Specialized Solutions. all computers are connected to each other.Appendix A – Tech Summary In a ring topology.

resistance. Inc. An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals. Protocol Analyzer 278 Specialized Solutions. TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks. and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry. Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. Also called a network analyzer. Can also be used for precise voltage measurements. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages.

Inc. hubs. and bridges). interface cards.Appendix A – Tech Summary Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations. Used to provide information for network baselines. Event Viewer SNMP Specialized Solutions. routers. 279 . servers. and networks. Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers. Displays or prints a list of events.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 280 Specialized Solutions.

com Other Helpful Sites http://www.com Specialized Solutions.Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www. 281 .novell.microsoft.cnet.com Novell http://www. Inc.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 282 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. In the computing industry. ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below). it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set. Inc. let alone the networking industry. This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry. search for these organizations on the Internet. CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry. As its name implies. 283 . It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. Specialized Solutions. Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes. For additional information. it is responsible for establishing standards for communication. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards. Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector. This is a common code for basic characters and numbers.

Inc. See Appendix A for a summary of the 802. This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards. 284 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. the IEEE is subdivided into committees.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model. the data can be smoothly transferred. . its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language.x sub-committees. Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused. As you may guess from its name. Since they cover a wide variety of equipment. Inc. These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model. As long as both are SQL compliant.x committee. ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product. The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802.

Payment is made at the time of registration. Method of payment.2test. either by credit card. To register via the Internet. When you call. Prices subject to change without notice. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers. go to www. or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer.com for Prometric or www.com for VUE. 285 .Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE. and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE. Date you wish to take the test. Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like. Specialized Solutions. please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number.vue. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test. Inc. credit card or voucher. Payment must be made each time you take the test.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 286 Specialized Solutions.

so they can communicate with other applications or nodes. The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies. The file server on an AppleTalk network. Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. or bits per second (bps). opposite of digital. American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases.Appendix E – Glossary Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. The highest layer of the OSI Model. Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. or computers on the network (nodes). these three terms are often used interchangeably. The Apple networking protocol. Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. A continuously variable signal. Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). program. 287 . Inc. A dedicated server for applications. it supplies functions to applications. or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. Software.

Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals). IP Address used by very large networks. British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. A bus driver. The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. IP Address used by medium-sized networks. A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems. Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address 288 Specialized Solutions. . Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. Inc. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. these are all in use at the present time. or DEC. The signal flow is uni-directional. A form of mobile computing. such as Microsoft. GM. Hardware that connects one network with another. An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. such as IBM.

stored. or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. A form of multitasking. to allow other tasks to run. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation. or language. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor.Appendix E – Glossary Client Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable User computer “being served” by another computer. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. which is. Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption Specialized Solutions. Cyclic Redundancy Check. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media. at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level. Data that is encoded for security reasons. Inc. is a number derived from. Software used by the client. or Cyclic redundancy Code. from computer or network to another. The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable. 289 . Same as a hub. itself. called a server. The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. using a specific protocol.

in a round-robin fashion. for sending on the Physical layer. DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks. The Data Link layer splits data into frames. this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data. It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly. A limited form of bus mastering. (Simple “on” or “off” signal.A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. Inc. This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency. Also called data striping. so that one can take over for the other if it fails. If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk. so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives. .) Being able to recover data from a disaster. It also receives acknowledgement frames. Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 290 Specialized Solutions. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. such as an individual file.

sent over a communications channel. 291 DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex . error detection. A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received. A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard.Appendix E – Glossary DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. Inc. A network’s central computer. File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once. A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits. Specialized Solutions. Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network. A group of bits containing address information. An improved version of X. with a very large amount of storage space for shared files. A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors.25 packet switching technology. and other control information.

The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses. Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. RFC 791. test packets. or ring topologies. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway A computer that acts as a translator. star. but only one at a time. Inc. GSNW Half-Duplex Header HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address 292 Specialized Solutions. that enables two networks. Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture. A network topology that combines bus. . It precedes the actual data. and informational messages related to IP. defined in STD 5. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5. HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. to communicate with each other. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. using different protocols. is usually represented in dotted decimal notation. RFC 792. and other information. Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages.

Specialized Solutions. a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology. data. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver. Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator. and video data sources. Inc. Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer. Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer. across a network connection. internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring.” Server used for E-mail. A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. it’s “hardware address. 293 ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU . A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network.Appendix E – Glossary IPCONFIG IPsec IRQ DOS command that tells you the IP address for your computer. Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC.

Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card 294 Specialized Solutions. Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS. A method of data transmission.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide MCA Bus Micro Channel Architecture. introduced by IBM for its PS/2 computer line. protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources. among others. Inc. Much like your local radio station. Performing multiple tasks simultaneously. Provides the physical connection to the network cable. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission. Also known as a network interface card. a 32-bit bus. The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. and is used by CompuServe. . One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting.400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS). MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems. totally incompatible with the original PC bus. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. A type of hub. Single Frequency Radio.

depending on the protocol. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. Acts as a connection point only. Inc. A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards. They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet. A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources.Appendix E – Glossary Network Administrator Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network. including network connectivity. Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network. A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network. Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network. Specialized Solutions. 295 Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card . PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. A generic term used to describe a unit of data.

Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 296 Specialized Solutions. A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server. such as a printer or scanner. Although included as part of Windows NT. Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning. Defines a channel between a device and the processor. The space between the ceiling and the floor above. and even if a process takes full control. many third-party applications are available. and running on TCP/IP. other processes will still run. depending upon the needs of the user. this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking. A hardware device. The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack. converting character sets and encrypting data. Inc. Dedicated server for printing.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Peer-to-Peer Performance Monitor All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server.1. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer. . The Presentation layer formats data exchange. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model. The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time. which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. used to circulate air through a building. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network.5 of Windows 3. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer.

In Token-Ring networks. In a Ring topology. including support for dialup and logon. 297 . Inc. Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. i. Connector used with UTP and STP network cables. A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network. The services or peripherals that are shared over the network.Appendix E – Glossary Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection. Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. the proxy server. Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors. For example. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. A device that forwards packets between networks. Redirects a call from one port to another.e. For example. A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN Specialized Solutions. to be accessed via a modem. The signal is beamed towards a central unit. which then routes the signal appropriately. Used to increase cable distances in network environments. the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. the devices are connected in a continuous loop. Connector used with standard telephone wire.

. Simple Network Management Protocol. SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP 298 Specialized Solutions. Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. connection establishment and release. was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. usually over Ethernet. the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15. is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP). Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another. normally used on Ethernet. RFC 1157. A computer on a network that provides services to other computers. A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol. acknowledgments (ACK). data transfer. A uni-directional data channel. The Session layer handles such things as security authentication. ceilings. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. defined in RFC 1055. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use. Software that resides on a server.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. etc. as opposed to duplex. Inc. until it reaches the receiver. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. Transmission rates are slower with this type. to be used over a serial link.

299 SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk . A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. the entire network goes down. Specialized Solutions. Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol.5 Standard) environment. If the hub fails. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. Using binary addition. that uses a large diameter. measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). An access method used in a Token Ring topology. A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings. Inc. Maximum segment length is 500 meters. or across large flat open areas. such as bodies of water or deserts. An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5. the official protocol of the Internet.Appendix E – Glossary SONET Spread-Spectrum Radio Synchronous Optical Network Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. The process of subdividing a network into logical units. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters. The maximum speed that “traffic” can move. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub. so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing.

The “fox. and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol.” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface. Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments. Used on transceivers. defined in STD 6. The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport. A device that transmits and receives data. which.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). The “hound. The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information. . Inc. A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. User Datagram Protocol. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. it will emit a tone.” A receiver set to the frequency of the generator. is layered on top of IP. Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding. this applies a signal on the wires. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. Tool for stripping and cutting wire Tone Locator TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 300 Specialized Solutions. like TCP. thus locating the wires. Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer.

resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks. using zones Zones Specialized Solutions. A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. Inc. such as Token Ring. 301 .Appendix E – Glossary WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 302 Specialized Solutions.

2. What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources. Review Questions Chapter 1 1. Files are easily accessed by all users. Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security). A WAN is not geographically limited. 5. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. such as data. like one office). data backups can be more easily and routinely performed. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet. applications. Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area. Specialized Solutions. 303 . 4. LANs typically also have much faster communication speed than WANs. No security. It is confined to a limited area. configure. 7. loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations. Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net. A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. and peripheral devices. 6. and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less). What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers. Inc. 3. Simple to install. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server).

File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access. 304 Specialized Solutions. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. Review Questions Chapter 2 1. Token Passing. more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). Centralized location of resources (server). 12. Centralized administration. Increased performance on large networks. Can be expanded as network grows.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 8. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. . The three basic topologies are: Bus. and Ring. Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). and Demand Priority. Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment. Ease of data backups. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. Star. 9. 2. Inc. 11. More difficult to install and configure. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU. What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. They represent what the topology looks like. Some NOSs function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. Name the three basic topologies. 10.

It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. 6. web-publishing.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. 4. What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. and volumes is also handled with NDS. Unlike NetWare. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security. 8. 7. routing. Specialized Solutions. and file and print services. 64 MB RAM. groups. It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments. name service. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. redirecting them to the server. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. management. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. 9. 305 . messaging. Organization of network resources such as users. 550 MB of free hard drive space. Inc. servers. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. Define interoperability. What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. 5.

Inc. Presentation. Network. Data Link. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. 2. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. Review Questions Chapter 3 1. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 14. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems. and Physical 3. 125 MB free hard drive space. What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals. Session. Transport. Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT.What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. 11.1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network. 12. 16 MB RAM. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare. FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. Application. Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). . What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 15. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 10. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 306 Specialized Solutions. 13.

Physical 10. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? D3-B4-01 14. Presentation layer 7.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 4. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. managing. 11. What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. and ending connections? The Session layer 12. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. This is not the actual application or program. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. It is a computer’s physical address. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer Specialized Solutions. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. 9. Which OSI layer is responsible the MAC address? The Data Link layer 8. Data Link layer 5. Network Layer 6. 13. Inc. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. 307 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 15. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence, without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 16. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 17. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. 18. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802.2 19. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. They are incompatible with each other. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com, while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. 20. Describe protocol binding. In order to function, a protocol must be bound to the NIC. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 21. Which is faster, connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster, but connection-oriented communication is more reliable. 22. . Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. AppleTalk, DECnet, IPX/SPX, PPP, PPTP, SLIP, SMB, SNA, TCP/IP, UDP, X.25, XNS 23.. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Will this work? Why or Why not? 308

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol.

Review Questions Chapter 4

1. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. 5. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. 6. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above, which is used to circulate air in a building). Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned, which would end up being circulated throughout the building. 7. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

309

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 10. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs, which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. 11. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. However, it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. 13. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths, segment lengths of up to several miles, and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. 15. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. 16. Describe baseband. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. 17. Describe broadband. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable, making the signal flow unidirectional. 18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way, can receive but not send. For example, a pager. Half-duplex communication can send or receive, but not at the same time. For example, a CB radio. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. For example, the telephone. 310 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 19. What is the function of a network adapter card? Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network. (They make the physical connection to the network.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. 20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers, including network connectivity. 22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network, to backup a cable-based network, to provide a mobile network environment, for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly, outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform. 23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared, Laser, Radio, and Microwave 24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. 25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally; Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances.

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority Specialized Solutions, Inc. 311

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

312

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). Specialized Solutions, Inc. 313

If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist. Describe a MIC connector. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network. 21. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? The IEEE 802. . Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802. data collisions are avoided. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. 19. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17.3 standard 15. This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer. IEEE 802. 18. however. They are also called hermaphrodite connectors. 314 Specialized Solutions. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds.5 standard 16. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token. while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends. Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately.5 says it travels clockwise. Inc. It can be either depending upon how it is set up. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14. 20. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions.

Review Questions Chapter 6 1. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No. 2. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it. NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers. 24. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. 5. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. It also provides a print server. If no other computer is using the address. Specialized Solutions. 23. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. Inc. 315 . 4. etc.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 22. it stores it to use each time it connects to the network. 3. 25.

Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. Passive hubs are used only to make connections. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks. An active hub requires some input power. 316 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 6. . 8. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. 9. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? Check the Windows Catalog on the web at www. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. Inc. Why should you refuse this offer? First. he intends to expand the network in the future. 7. but not enough to run it efficiently. Review Questions Chapter 7 1. but they are not all the same. Also.microsoft. However.com/windows/catalog. It will be less costly to install CAT 6 now than to replace the CAT 5 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps to handle the higher traffic. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network. 2. you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network.

Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network. In older modems. BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. ISDN. Name three advanced WAN environments. What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking). Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. NetBEUI is not routable. Gateway . 8.A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature. 317 . Auditing.A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment. Inc. SLIP. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem. PPP. and SONET 7. Callback Security. Define a repeater. Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model.544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. BAUD and bps were the same thing. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. Name three RAS protocols.A router has all the features of a bridge. They do however. Specialized Solutions. and PPTP filtering. Router . A form of digital line that is capable of 1. Not all network protocols will work with a router. 4. Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model. PPTP and L2TP 9. a router. They do not translate or filter any information.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3.Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. 10. Frame Relay. They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment. Name four forms of RAS security. Security host. Bridge . A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem. and a gateway. Repeater . For example. amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables. 5. a bridge.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1. . How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP. ICMP. Internet and Network Interface. IP. 8. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9. 2. SNMP.com. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. Transport. 7. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. HTU UTH 6. 5. What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses. 4. Inc. What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 318 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11) Specialized Solutions.microsoft. 32 10. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application. and HTTP. FTP. 3. SMTP. UDP. and ARP. An example is http://www.

2. each device will need to be _________ compliant. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. U U U U 12. List as many as you can. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network. NBTSTAT. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups. Inc. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment Review Questions Chapter 9 1. Event Viewer. NETSTAT and TRACERT. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. 319 . Specialized Solutions. ROUTE. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1. The acronym RAID stands for____________? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet. Resources 3. passwords are assigned to __________. What are the three most common levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 5 Striped array with parity 6. 5. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. In a share level model. What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password. 4. 320 Specialized Solutions. 2.

WINIPCFG from the RUN command. What is the loopback IP address? 127.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 11 1. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. 3. Specialized Solutions. you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network.0. 321 . 4. and Repair the Problem. After repairing a problem. 2. Inc. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution.0. You have just connected a workstation to the network. 8. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. You have located the cable in question #3. You need to know the IP address of a workstation.1 7. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. The fox and hound. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows. and think it might be shorted. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. 6. Isolate the Problem. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables. 5.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slow. 10. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 322 Specialized Solutions. Inc. . What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time. Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted.

70 DMA. 42 base memory address. 91 domain. 253 Banyan VINES. 90 DLC. 39 AUI connector. 123 ARP. 114 10BaseFL. 40. 81 Cellular Networking. 226 Digital. 77 Computer compatibility. 323 . Inc. 78 Boot Prom’s. 89 AppleShare. 196 Class C. 243 CSMA/CD. 196 Class B. 69. 91 Baseband. 86 B backbone. 42 active hubs. 189 domain controller. 38 Client Software. 122 AppleTalk. 34 DECnet. 79 backup utility. 160 Category 3. 96 brouter. 116 10Base2. 52 Data Protection. 161 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC). 114 10Base5. 81 Category 5. 67 demand priority. 13 ARCNet. 191 BRI. 109 CSNW. 121 Application Layer. 41 CSU/DSU. 196 client software. 78. 40 Specialized Solutions. 92 Boot Sector. 186 Analog. 151 connection-oriented. 79 AWG. 13 Clocking. 164 Class A. 108 Active Directory. 166 attenuation. 70 coaxial cable. 167 bridge. 78. 89 cloud. 109 DES (Data Encryption Standard). 16. 65 continuity.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Index 1 100BaseX. 231 BOOTP. 114 A access method. 116 100VG-AnyLAN. 24 Address Resolution Protocol. 230 Differential backup. 98 Change. 114 10BaseT. 217 ATM. 67. 111 D Data Link Layer. 86 Beaconing. 65 BNC. 34 clients. 60 Broadband. 86 Broadband Optical Telepoint. 50 application server. 89 Direct Memory Access (DMA). 39 Circuit-switched. 21 Carriers. 119 binding. 226 Bandwidth. 108. 61 C Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD. 60 attributes.

231 EISA. 187 Full backup. 67 IRQ. 112 HOSTS file. 91 IBM cabling. 226 FDDI . 167 FTP. 62 Internet Control Message Protocol. 21. 144 Ethernet..Fiber Distributed Data. 39 IP. 185 interoperability. 71 ICS. 86 firewall. 41 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). 157 hybrid topologies. 39 Full-Duplex. 174 LAN. 191 dynamic routers. 91 ISA. 166 fiber-optic. 217. 192 IFCONFIG. 68. 187 hubs. 215 F Fast Ethernet. 12 Laser. 96 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 197 IPX. 41 H Half-Duplex. 226 Full Control. 231 fire codes. 18 I I/O port number. 60 E EES. 41 Frame Relay. (IEEE). 83 File Infectors. 116 ground probe. 70 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol. Inc. 167 ISDN adapters. 224 FPNW. 249 IPsec. 159 Gigabit Ethernet. 185 IP address. 243 Group policies. 42 Headers. 22 FAT. 174 L L2TP. 83 IBM Type 3 UTP. 96 Linux. Inc. 174 Line-of-Sight Infrared. 114 EtherTalk. 217 IMAP4. 226 Infrared. 191 gateways. 174 ICMP. 39 fault tolerance. 174 IPv6. 191 HTTP. 189 Domain Reflectometer (TDR). 186 Incremental backup. 120 ICA. 81 environment. 56 324 Specialized Solutions. 42 GSNW. 93 ISDN. 96 LAT. 93 EMI.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Domain Name Service (DNS). K Kerberos. 186 Internet Protocol (IP). 122 Event Viewer. 61 Gateways. 245 DSMN. 194 IPCONFIG. 86 headers. 68. 86 G gateway. 161 . 187 HTTPS.

71. 21 Media Compatibility. 243 multitasking. 52 Network Neighborhood. Inc. 151 Media Tester. 43 Macro Virus. 232 Managing User Accounts. 32 P Packet switching. 37 MIB (Management Information Base). 217 PING.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers LLC. 215 NetWare. 231 physical topologies. 71. 64 proxy server. 67 M Macintosh. 37 NetWare security. 69 NLSP. 229 Patch Panel.Multiple Access Units. 172 Preemptive multitasking. 37 Network Adapter Cards. 23 Passwords. 18 Ping. 249 plenum. 167 protocol. 111 parallel communication. 64 Open Systems Interface (OSI). 36 NetWare Client32 for DOS. 29 OS/2. 13 peer-to-peer. 70 NETBIOS. 39 Null-Modem. 29 NSLOOKUP. 49. 67 No Access. 41. 31 Network standards. 191 NBTSTAT. 192 Punch Down Tool. 191 LocalTalk. 89 Network Layer. 34 MAU. 114 LMHOSTS. 168 MSAU. 213 MIC (Media Interface Connectors). 30 N NAT. 98 packets. 36 NetWare file server. 67 modem. 64 NDS (NetWare Directory Services). 36 NetBEUI. 93 PCMCIA. 164 Packet-Radio Networking. 37 NetWare Print Services. 157 MAUs . 120 Multimeter. . 23 media access methods. 36 NetWare Client32 for OS/2. 36 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95. 217 NTFS. 122 logical topology. 107 protocols. 69 Network-attached storage (NAS). 18 MHS. 49 operating system. 31 PGP. 114 Network Time Protocol (NTP).Primary Domain Controller. 14 Peer-to-peer LANs. 18 LSL. 39 NOS – Network Operating System. 190 NETSTAT. 86 PPP. 243 mesh topology. 228 NFS. 172 PPTP. 157 PCI. 89 passive hub. 120. 242 325 Specialized Solutions. 120 Microwave. 96 MLID. 67 NDIS. 171 NWLink. 68 O ODI. 215 NCP. 30 PRI. 36 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh. 93 PDC .

174 Standards. 51 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 60. 34. 65 RPC. 167 SMTP. sneaker net. 232 troubleshooting. 13 Server-based network. 245 SONET. 39 redirector. 69 ROUTE. 215. 182 UNIX. 71. 34 server-based network. 68 SMDS. 21. 171 removable disks. 158 requester. 11 signal bounce. 16. 68 Trojan Horses. 11 SNMP. 249 Trailer. 96 SDH. 199 T tape backup. 71 RSA. 118 topology. 80 virtual connections. 79 Transport Layer. 60 Storage Area Network (SAN). 98 Scatter Infrared. 227 RARP. 184 Telnet. 67 SSL. 71. 175 Security. 187 SNA. 77 Thinnet. 81 Subnetting. 35 ring topology. 16. 217 Read. 185 UTP. 42 User Datagram Protocol (UDP). 58 . 68. 17 static routers. 16 serial communication. 187 Software analyzers. 16 twisted-pair. 89 Server room. 35 Reflective Infrared. 120 SMB. 225 removable optical disk. 159 routers. 215 router.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide R Radio. 79 thicknet. 96 RAID. 80 U UDP. 68 326 Specialized Solutions. 69. 174 token passing. 16 TRACERT. 68. 79 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 86 SLIP. 228 STP. 144 Server Software. 221 segment. 152 star topology. 33 servers. 69 terminator. 167 SPX. 213 Simplex. 230 S SAP. 17 RIP. 167 security. 225 repeater. 67. 96 relative humidity. 253 TLS. 112 transceiver. 68 Satellite Station Networking. 60. 237 trunk. 172 SMAU. 144 Remote Access Server or RAS. 109 token ring. Inc. 13 sharing applications. 225 TCP. 80 V vampire taps. 77 throughput.

242 Wireless. 92 workstation. 70 Specialized Solutions. 165 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks). 124 wireless network. 32 Windows 2000. 69. Inc. 231 VLAN. 19. 12 Warp Connect. 31 Windows for Workgroups.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Viruses. 154 Windows 95/98. 13 X X. 40 U U WINS. 95 Wireless NICs. 31 Windows NT Print Servers. 166 XDR.25. 71 XNS. 230 W WAN. 327 . 190 Wire Crimper.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful