Network+ 2005 Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network+

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Copyright© 2004 by Specialized Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 338 East Tarpon Street, Tarpon Springs, FL 34689. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. Publisher: Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Contributing Writers: Bill Ferguson Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Editor: Bill Ferguson

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Suggestions/Comments Please forward all comments or suggestions to: Specialized Solutions, Inc. 338 East Tarpon St. Tarpon Springs, FL 34689

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... I

ABOUT SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS ...........................................................IX
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+ .............................................................2005 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ..................................................................................................9 YOUR VIDEO INSTRUCTOR .................................................................................................9 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST ..................................................................................................10 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................10 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................10 ABOUT THIS COURSE .......................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS ..................................................17 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING ....................................................................................17 Benefits of Networking Computers .............................................................................17 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) .................................18 The Client/Server Relationship ...................................................................................19 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................19 Peer-to-Peer Networking ............................................................................................20 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).....................................................................21 Bus Topology ..............................................................................................................21 Star Topology..............................................................................................................22 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................22 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES ......................................................................................................23 Hybrid Topologies ......................................................................................................23 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................23 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................24 NETWORK ACCESS ...........................................................................................................26 Token Passing .............................................................................................................26 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................26 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................27 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS ...........................................................................................28 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................28 Active Hubs .................................................................................................................29 Hub-Based Networks ..................................................................................................29 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................30 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................31 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1 ....................................................................................33 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS) ....................................35 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? ..................................................................................35 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking .............................................................36 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)? ........................................................37 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................37 Server/Client Software ................................................................................................39 NOS PACKAGES...............................................................................................................42 Specialized Solutions, Inc. i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Novell NetWare .......................................................................................................... 42 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System................................................... 45 Windows NT Minimum Requirements ...........................Error! Bookmark not defined. UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................ 47 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service)................................................ 48 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 50 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................. 51 REVIEW QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................ 52 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS.......... 55 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION ..................................................... 55 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL ................................................................................ 56 Application Layer ....................................................................................................... 56 Presentation Layer ..................................................................................................... 57 Session Layer.............................................................................................................. 57 Transport Layer.......................................................................................................... 57 Network Layer ............................................................................................................ 58 Data Link Layer.......................................................................................................... 58 Logical Link Control (LLC) ....................................................................................... 59 Media Access Control (MAC) .................................................................................... 59 Physical Layer............................................................................................................ 60 PROTOCOL STACKS ......................................................................................................... 62 Communication Between Peer Layers ....................................................................... 62 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD ............................................................................................ 64 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL ....................................................................................... 66 Repeaters .................................................................................................................... 66 Bridges........................................................................................................................ 66 Routers........................................................................................................................ 66 Brouters ...................................................................................................................... 67 Gateways .................................................................................................................... 67 IEEE 802 STANDARDS .................................................................................................... 68 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL ...................................................................... 70 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)......................................................... 70 ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ................................................................................ 70 PROTOCOLS AND OSI ...................................................................................................... 70 Protocol Binding ........................................................................................................ 71 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless ................................................................... 71 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols ........................................................................ 71 Networking Protocols and Stacks............................................................................... 72 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................... 73 DECnet ....................................................................................................................... 73 IPX/ SPX..................................................................................................................... 73 SMB (Server Message Block) ..................................................................................... 74 SNA (Systems Network Architecture) ......................................................................... 74 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ....................................................................... 74 IP (Internet Protocol)................................................................................................. 74 UDP (User Datagram Protocol)................................................................................ 74 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) ..................................................................................... 74 ii Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Table of Contents Telnet...........................................................................................................................75 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................75 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................75 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................75 NTP (Network Time Protocol) ....................................................................................75 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) ...............................................................................75 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................75 X.25 .............................................................................................................................76 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................76 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................76 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................76 LAT (Local Area Transport) .......................................................................................76 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................77 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................78 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................78 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) ...................................................................................78 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) ................................................................78 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) ........................................................78 ISO/OSI Standard .......................................................................................................78 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ...............................................................78 DNS (Domain Name System) ......................................................................................78 XDR (External Data Representation) .........................................................................78 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................78 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................80 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................................................................................................81 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................82 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................85 NETWORK CABLING .........................................................................................................85 Coaxial Cable .............................................................................................................85 Coaxial Connectors ....................................................................................................86 Twisted-Pair Cable .....................................................................................................88 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................91 Summary of Cabling ...................................................................................................93 CABLING TERMS ..............................................................................................................94 AWG (American Wire Gauge) ....................................................................................94 Bandwidth ...................................................................................................................94 Plenum Grade Cabling ...............................................................................................94 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................95 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)..............................................................................97 Preparing the Data .....................................................................................................97 Signals and Clocking ..................................................................................................97 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel) .................................................................................98 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................98 Configurable Options..................................................................................................98 Wireless NICs............................................................................................................100 Specialized Solutions, Inc. iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Fiber-Optic NICs...................................................................................................... 100 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................ 101 Standard Bus Types .................................................................................................. 101 Laptops ..................................................................................................................... 101 NETWORK PERFORMANCE ............................................................................................. 102 WIRELESS NETWORKS ................................................................................................... 103 Why Wireless? .......................................................................................................... 103 Wireless Transmission Methods............................................................................... 104 Radio Transmission.................................................................................................. 105 Satellite Station Networking..................................................................................... 106 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 108 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 109 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.................................................................................... 112 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS .................................. 115 ACCESS METHODS......................................................................................................... 116 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) .................... 116 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) ................... 117 Token Passing........................................................................................................... 117 Demand Priority....................................................................................................... 117 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS) ............................................... 119 Packet Structure ....................................................................................................... 119 Packet Components .................................................................................................. 120 NETWORK STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 122 Logical Link Control (802.2).................................................................................... 122 Ethernet (802.3)........................................................................................................ 122 AppleTalk.................................................................................................................. 129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)................................................... 131 SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 133 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 134 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.................................................................................... 136 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.......................................................................... 139 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT ................................................................................... 139 The Customer ........................................................................................................... 139 The Network Goals................................................................................................... 140 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE ......................................................................................... 142 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer.................................................................................. 142 When to Choose Client/Server ................................................................................. 143 Making the Choice.................................................................................................... 144 Public and Private networks .................................................................................... 144 DESIGN THE NETWORK.................................................................................................. 150 Media Selection ........................................................................................................ 151 Environmental Concerns.......................................................................................... 152 NOS Selection........................................................................................................... 152 Protocol Selection .................................................................................................... 152 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER ............................................................................................ 154 Cable to Computer ................................................................................................... 154 iv Specialized Solutions, Inc.

....................................................................Table of Contents Cable to Hub .............................................................166 Routers .............................................................................................................................................................169 Analog Connectivity.......192 Other TCP/IP Protocols ...............................................................................................................168 Carriers................160 Standards ................................................186 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS ................197 Specialized Solutions.....................173 Advanced WAN Environments ................................................................................194 NAMING SYSTEMS .......................................................................................................................................................................159 PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................167 CONNECTION SERVICES .......................................................................................................................................................189 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS ....................................161 HCL and Windows 2000 .........................................................................................................................176 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS) ............................................................166 Repeaters.............................................................................................182 Limitations of RAS ................................178 Connecting Two Computers..164 CHAPTER 7 .....................................................................................169 Digital Connectivity ........................................................................................157 Media Compatibility ..........................................................................................................................................174 MODEMS .....................................................................................................................161 Minimum Requirements .............................. v ..............................................166 Bridges .................................................................................................................... Inc..155 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY ........................................................................................................................................................179 Installing and Configuring RAS.............................172 VLAN................................................167 Gateway .............................................................183 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ........................197 DNS .................................172 Packet Switching Networks................................................................................................................................................................................................................178 RAS Protocols .........................................................................160 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ...................................189 RFC (Request For Comments).........................................................................170 Circuit-switched Networks.........................................................165 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS....................................................................................................................................168 WAN Overview........................160 Hard Work .............................................................................................................EXPANDING A NETWORK ......................................................................................................................................................................................159 Computer Compatibility...........................................162 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 ...............................182 Troubleshooting a RAS setup...............................................................154 Network Adapter Cards ..........................................................................................................................................................189 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP.................................................................................................................................................................................184 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 ......................................................................................192 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................157 Adapter Card Compatibility .......................................................................................165 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL ..

................ 199 IP Gateway ............................ Inc............................................ 225 IFCONFIG............... 203 Class D and Class E Addresses.................................................... 221 Management Software.............................................................. 228 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY .................................................... 200 IP Proxy Servers..................................................... 198 HOSTS file..................................................................................................... 200 TCP/IP ADDRESSING.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 229 USER AND SHARE LEVEL ..................................... 217 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8........................................................................................... 219 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES.................................. 200 ICS ............................................... 202 IPv4 ... 229 vi Specialized Solutions......................... 200 NAT................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 225 PING............................................... 203 Class B Addresses ....................................................... 199 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES ......................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS................................................ 223 NETSTAT ................................................................................................................................................. 223 ROUTE.................. 223 TRACERT.................. 198 NETBIOS ........................................................................................................................................... 209 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................SNMP ........................................................................................................... 202 IP Addresses .......................................................... 223 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ..................... 225 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG .. 203 IPv6 (IP Next Generation) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 225 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .................... 207 How to Subdivide a Network ................................................................... 223 NBTSTAT ...... 199 DHCP .................................................................................................................................................................................. 225 NSLOOKUP.......... 225 ARP ....................................................................................................................................................... 203 Class A Addresses ................................. 199 LMHOSTS file ......................................................................................... ........................ 222 Communities............................................................. 215 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ................................................................................................. 203 Class C Addresses ........................................................ 205 SUBNETTING ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 199 BOOTP ........................................... 221 NETWORK MANAGERS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 227 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9.......................................................................................................................... 221 Agent Software ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 222 EVENT VIEWER .......................................................................... 222 VALIDATION TOOLS ................................................................................................................................................................................... 225 RARP.................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................234 Volumes.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................234 Fault Tolerance and Power ................................................................264 CONCLUSION ..255 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS ....................................................................230 SECURITY TECHNIQUES ................................................................................................................245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .................................................................................................................................................................242 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10 ........... Differential................................................................................................................................. Inc...............................................................................................................................232 Backing up Data ..250 Hardware Networking Tools........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... vii ......251 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS .............273 SUBNET MASKING ........................270 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS ...............................................................................243 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK ....................................................................................................................234 Full........................................................................................................................................................................................232 Firewalls .............................................257 Cable Problems...............................................239 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ....................................................................................................................229 Share-level Security .............................239 Viruses..............................259 NIC Indicator Lights ..260 Name Resolution ..............275 TCP/IP UTILITIES .................................238 Disaster Recovery .............................................................268 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES ......................................232 Backup Options................................................................................232 Blocking Port Numbers.............................................237 Encryption..............................................................267 5-4-3 RULE ............................................................................................................................................................................................236 PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES .........................................................................................264 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY ................X STANDARDS.................................................................................269 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING) ........................................................................................................................................ and Incremental Backups ...........................................................................................................................................................................................267 ETHERNET CABLING ...............................................................................274 TCP/IP PORTS ......................................................................271 OSI MODEL .....................263 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11 ...............................................................257 Misbehaving Protocols ............Table of Contents User-level Security........................................................................................................................260 Performance.............................................245 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING............................................275 Specialized Solutions..................................................234 Fault Tolerance and RAID.........................................260 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ...............................................................................................................267 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES .......................................................................233 Backup Software ....................................................................250 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools..................................................................................................................................................................................269 IEEE 802......................................................................................................................................................................................

....................... 276 TRANSMISSION MEDIA ............ 311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6.............................................. 284 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM........................................................... 283 ANSI..................................................................... 309 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.................................................................................................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED........ ........................................................ 316 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8............................................................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2................................................................ 284 SAG ............................... 281 NOVELL ....................................................................................................... 303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1.............................. 323 viii Specialized Solutions................................................................................................... 281 MICROSOFT: .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 285 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS .................................................................................................................................................................... 281 COMPUSERVE ................................................................................................................... 318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9...... 304 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3............ 284 ISO................... 281 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS ................................................................................................................................................................ 319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10...................................... 321 INDEX ........................................................................ 320 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11............................................................ 283 IEEE ................................................................ Inc........................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TOPOLOGY REVIEW .................................. 283 EIA ................................................... 287 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS .. OTHER HELPFUL SITES ................................................................................................................. 306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4....... 285 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY.. 278 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7................... 278 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 283 CCITT ............................................

Inc.About Specialized Solutions About Specialized Solutions Welcome to Specialized Solutions. We thank you for choosing our company as your resource for Information Technology SelfStudy Training. course offerings.com Specialized Solutions. please visit us at: www. One hundred percent customer satisfaction and unmatched customer service is always our commitment to the computer professional. We strive to provide training programs that far exceed the expectations of our customers. We will always provide a quality product to customers at a price that is within reach of most computer professionals. Inc. Our highly skilled staff of computer and educational professionals are dedicated to delivering high quality. We are committed to always be on the leading edge of new computer environment training products. Inc. To see other Specialized Solutions. Specialized Solutions. cost-effective programs that are customized to suit your needs. Inc.’s Network+ training and certification course. is dedicated to providing the computer professional the highest level of self-study training and certification materials the industry has to offer. ix .specializedsolutions.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide x Specialized Solutions.

We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical. Computer Graphics Experts. at Specialized Solutions. Inc. and Digital Video Studio Professionals. our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. It can be used in conjunction with the Specialized Solutions. We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! Specialized Solutions. Network+ video training series.Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives. Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals. Technical Editors. Remember. as a stand-alone textbook. Inc. We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program. Technical Writers. or as a textbook in a classroom environment. easy to follow format. 1 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey. test objectives and example content.0 Network Implementation 4. The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content.0 Media & Topologies 2.” “This examination includes blueprint weighting. Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination. Inc. .” The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1.0 Protocols & Standards 3.0 Network Support Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 25% 35% 100% 2 Specialized Solutions.

topology. and cable type) of the following cable standards: • 10BASE-T and 10BASE-FL • 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX • 1000BASE-T. 5e.3 Specify the characteristics (For example: speed.Media and Topologies – 20% 1. length.0 . including: • Speed • Access method (CSMA / CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) and CSMA / CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection)) • Topology • Media 1.4 Recognize the following media connectors and describe their uses: • RJ-11 (Registered Jack) • RJ-45 (Registered Jack) • F-Type • ST (Straight Tip) • SC (Subscriber Connector or Standard Connector) • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) • Fiber LC (Local Connector) • MT-RJ (Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack) • USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1.5 (token ring). Inc. 802.Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: Domain 1. 802. schematic or description: • Star • Bus • Mesh • Ring 1.3 (Ethernet). 1000BASE-CX. 802.6 Identify the purposes. and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) networking technologies.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a diagram. 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX • 10 GBASE-SR. features and functions of the following network components: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • Gateways • CSU / DSU (Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit) Specialized Solutions.11 (wireless).5 Recognize the following media types and describe their uses: • Category 3. 3 . and 6 • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) • STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) • Coaxial cable • SMF (Single Mode Fiber) optic cable • MMF (Multimode Fiber) optic cable 1. 5. 10 GBASE-LR and 10 GBASE-ER 1.2 (Logical Link Control).2 Specify the main features of 802.

9 Identify and differentiate between the following IP (Internet Protocol) addressing methods: • Static • Dynamic • Self-assigned (APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing)) 2. function and use of the following protocols used in the TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) suite: • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) 4 Specialized Solutions.8 Identify factors which affect the range and speed of wireless service (For example: interference. .0 – Protocols and Standards – 20% 2. interoperability and naming conventions: • IPX / SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange / Sequence Packet Exchange) • NetBEUI (Network Basic Input / Output System Extended User Interface) • AppleTalk / AppleTalk over IP (Internet Protocol) • TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) 2.5 Identify the components and structure of IP (Internet Protocol) addresses (IPv4.3 Identify the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) layers at which the following network components operate: • Hubs • Switches • Bridges • Routers • NICs (Network Interface Card) • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) 2.6 Identify classful IP (Internet Protocol) ranges and their subnet masks (For example: Class A. 2.10 Define the purpose. antenna type and environmental factors). Domain 2. addressing schemes. B and C). 2. IPv6) and the required setting for connections across the Internet.11x (Direct sequence spread spectrum) • Infrared • Bluetooth 1.7 Identify the purpose of subnetting. frequency. transmission type and topology) of the following wireless technologies: • 802.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model and their functions.1 Identify a MAC (Media Access Control) address and its parts.4 Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • NICs (Network Interface Card) • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) adapters • WAPs (Wireless Access Point) • Modems • Transceivers (media converters) • Firewalls 1.7 Specify the general characteristics (For example: carrier speed.8 Identify the differences between private and public network addressing schemes. 2. 2. 2. 2. Inc.11 (Frequency hopping spread spectrum) • 802.

11 Define the function of TCP / UDP (Transmission Control Protocol / User Datagram Protocol) ports. AFP (Apple File Protocol). 2. NFS (Network File System). ICS (Internet Connection Sharing).12 Identify the well-known ports associated with the following commonly used services and protocols: • 20 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 21 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • 22 SSH (Secure Shell) • 23 Telnet • 25 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • 53 DNS (Domain Name Service) • 69 TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • 80 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • 110 POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) • 119 NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • 123 NTP (Network Time Protocol) • 143 IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • 443 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) 2.15 Identify the basic characteristics of the following internet access technologies: • xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) • Broadband Cable (Cable modem) • POTS / PSTN (Plain Old Telephone Service / Public Switched Telephone Network) • Satellite • Wireless Specialized Solutions. Zeroconf (Zero configuration).25 2.13 Identify the purpose of network services and protocols (For example: DNS (Domain Name Service). LPD (Line Printer Daemon) and Samba). WINS (Windows Internet Name Service). SMB (Server Message Block).Introduction • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) • POP3 / IMAP4 (Post Office Protocol version 3 / Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) • Telnet • SSH (Secure Shell) • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) • ARP / RARP (Address Resolution Protocol / Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) • NTP (Network Time Protocol) • NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) • SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) • IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) • LPR (Line Printer Remote) 2. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). 2.14 Identify the basic characteristics (For example: speed. Inc. 5 . NAT (Network Address Translation). capacity and media) of the following WAN (Wide Area Networks) technologies: • Packet switching • Circuit switching • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) • T1 (T Carrier level 1) / E1 / J1 • T3 (T Carrier level 3) / E3 / J3 • OCx (Optical Carrier) • X.

Inc. 3.1x 2. MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol).5 Identify the purpose. application support and security) of the following server operating systems to access network resources: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3.9 Identify the main characteristics and purpose of extranets and intranets. authentication and encryption).17 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function: • IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Continued on the next page… Continued from the previous page… • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) • 802.3 Identify the appropriate tool for a given wiring task (For example: wire crimper. authentication. 6 Specialized Solutions. network protocols and peer and server services).18 Identify authentication protocols (For example: CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. 3. interoperability.8 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks). Includes connection to the following servers: • UNIX / Linux / MAC OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 3. 3. Kerberos and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)). an authentication scheme. 3. 3. benefits and characteristics of using a firewall.6 Identify the purpose. 3.2 Identify the basic capabilities needed for client workstations to connect to and use network resources (For example: media. and physical connectivity. file and print services.4 Given a remote connectivity scenario comprised of a protocol. Domain 3.16 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services: • RAS (Remote Access Service) • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) • PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) • VPN (Virtual Private Network) • RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) 2.7 Given a connectivity scenario.1 Identify the basic capabilities (For example: client support. media tester / certifier. RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service). .0 Network Implementation – 25% 3. PAP (Password Authentication Protocol). configure the connection. benefits and characteristics of using a proxy service. determine the impact on network functionality of a particular security implementation (For example: port blocking / filtering. punch down tool or tone generator).

identify the cause of the problem (For example: file services. warm and cold sites Domain 4.4 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a client accessing remote network services.5 Given a troubleshooting scenario between a client and the following server environments. select the appropriate network utility from the following: • Tracert / traceroute • ping • arp • netstat • nbtstat • ipconfig / ifconfig • winipcfg • nslookup / dig 4.Introduction 3.0 Network Support – 35% 4. Inc. 4. 3.8 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving an infrastructure (For example: wired or wireless) problem. star. Specialized Solutions. interpret visual indicators (For example: link LEDs (Light Emitting Diode) and collision LEDs (Light Emitting Diode)) to determine the nature of a stated problem.3 Given a network scenario.2 Given output from a network diagnostic utility (For example: those utilities listed in objective 4.6 Given a scenario. adding or removing network services (For example: DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). authentication failure.7 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology (For example: bus. identify the network area affected and the cause of the stated failure. 4. print services. network hardware or environment). identify the utility and interpret the output. identify the cause of a stated problem (For example: bad media. DNS (Domain Name Service) and WINS (Windows Internet Name Service)) for network resources and users. 7 .1 Given a troubleshooting scenario. mesh or ring) and including a network diagram. 4.11 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance: • Power • Link redundancy • Storage • Services 3. 4.12 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery: • Backup / restore • Offsite storage • Hot and cold spares • Hot. benefits and characteristics of using antivirus software. protocol configuration. interference. physical connectivity and SOHO (Small Office / Home Office) router). determine the impact of modifying. identify the cause of a stated problem: • UNIX / Linux / Mac OS X Server • Netware • Windows • Appleshare IP (Internet Protocol) 4.1). 4.10 Identify the purpose.

Select the most probable cause 5. Establish what has changed 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. Identify the results and effects of the solution 8. Implement an action plan and solution including potential effects 6. Identify the affected area 3. select an appropriate course of action based on a logical troubleshooting strategy. .9 Given a network problem scenario. Inc. Identify the symptoms and potential causes 2. Test the result 7. Document the solution and process 8 Specialized Solutions. This strategy can include the following steps: 1.

“My job is to understand the material so well that I can make it easier for my students to learn than it was for me to learn. Bill has been in the computer industry for over 15 years. Your Video Instructor Your video instructor is Bill Ferguson. Bill now runs his own company as an independent contractor in Birmingham. Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. CCSI. as well as “Designing Security for Windows Server 2003 Network” for Exam Cram2. Practice the function on your computer. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary. and Security+. teaching classes for most of the national training companies and some regional training companies. Inc. Bill is an enthusiastic. Bill made his transition to Certified Technical Trainer in 1997 with ExecuTrain. MCP+I. such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented. MCDST. Originally in technical sales and sales management with Sprint. Hands-on experience is best. To get the best results from your training. Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding. if this is your first exposure to networking. Network+. it may seem so. Bill has written the “MCDST Study Guide” for Sybex Inc. and CCNA. In addition. Alabama. Use the “Help” button where available. not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation. He is certified as an MCT. use a study plan. Bill says. In addition he holds the CompTIA certifications of A+. MCSA. results oriented computer specialist who has extensive knowledge of Microsoft networks. Server+. 9 . Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand.” Specialized Solutions. MCSE. Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge.Introduction Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not extremely complicated. However.

The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam. Since most of us learn in different ways. The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry.com).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book. You can also call VUE at 877-551-7587 or Thomson Prometric at 888-8956116. This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. . You can locate a testing center and schedule the test on the web. except payment of the test fee. Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test. there is no one method that will work for everyone. Inc. French and Japanese. How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam.com) or any Thomson Prometric testing center (2test. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills. There are no specific requirements. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive. 1999. You can take the test at any Virtual University Enterprises testing center (vue. • • • How do you learn best (reading. You may be surprised at how near you are to a testing center! Evaluate your learning aptitudes. but A+ certification is not required. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. watching. A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge. hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 10 Specialized Solutions. German. YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING SPECIALIZED SOLUTIONS TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Schedule the test for a few weeks from now so that you will have a guidepost that is constantly reminding you that you need to study the material. Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs. CONGRATULATIONS. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English.

Use the rewind button as often as necessary. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through. Specialized Solutions. just get a feel for it. Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). Make an appointment with yourself. Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises. You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through. Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. If you need to. you want to begin to understand. set aside the time to learn. Inc. Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). go though the entire course again. This workbook will make this task much easier. Re-read the test and review the video presentation. • Complete the course a second time. 11 . If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course. It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point. Based on your time to learn (and your schedule). Review the video presentation one more time if necessary. You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time. Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read. Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time. At this time.Introduction Make a plan to learn.

You will be required to show two forms of identification. You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam. If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them. Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted. • • • • 12 Specialized Solutions. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in. Evaluate the questions you missed.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam. which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test. Inc. . it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature. The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer. The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form. including one photo ID. Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam As you prepare for your certification exam it will be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure. (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam. You will be asked to sign the form. It is a closed book exam.

a Network+ Training & Test Preparation Guide and a practice exam simulator. (such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test. Usually. It lists your score by objective. Do not read too much into the question. Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! About This Course This Specialized Solutions Network+ course is a multi-media. you can see which questions are not answered. At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered. If the administrator does not do this. If you don’t know the answer. or if you are unclear about what you should do.Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials.Introduction HINT . put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions.) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you. mark it and come back to it. Before retaking the exam. Specialized Solutions. Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers. You will have plenty of time as long as you use it wisely. Inc. Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. marked or skipped. The course contains five instructor led CD-ROMs. self-study training system. ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. mark a question or answer a question. you are given the ability to skip a question. you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam. (You don’t need to send them the score report. answer the question. If you know the answer. You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass. 13 . Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system. skip it. Keep track of the time and pace yourself. If you positively don’t know the answer. (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides. If you’re not quite sure. but be sure to read it in its entirety. guess.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Video Chapters Include: CD 1: Introduction and Overview Network Topologies Network Technologies Cable Standards Media Connectors CD 2: Media Types Network Components Wireless Technologies Protocols and Standards The OSI Model IP Addressing CD 3: Ports Services WAN Internet Access Remote Access Security Protocols CD 4: Server Operating Systems Client Connectivity Tools for Networking Firewalls Proxy Service Network Connectivity Virtual Local Area Networks Antivirus Software Fault Tolerance Disaster Recovery CD 5: Troubleshooting Network Utilities Troubleshooting Network Services Troubleshooting Topologies Troubleshooting Strategy Preparation for a Certification Test 14 Specialized Solutions.

It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course. 15 .Introduction This study guide is divided into 11 chapters. Inc. Specialized Solutions.

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Specialized Solutions. files.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking. peripherals. But for our purposes. Through networking. Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources. It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than to purchase a printer for every user. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents. 17 . a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data.” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do.) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics. users can access programs. Additionally. You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN. An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?). as a networking professional. a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files. It is very important that. you understand exactly what a network is. This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment. Inc. Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage. Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need. A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented. After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment. and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net. and applications (resources).” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service. Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking.

When LANs are connected they create a WAN. it is still considered a LAN. Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information. A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network. The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function. Inc. . 18 Specialized Solutions. the speed of communication between the computers is typically much faster in a LAN. or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. A WAN can connect networks from building to building or across the world. The Internet is the world’s largest WAN. Also.

including hard disk space and RAM. one for printing (print server). These terms are not interchangeable. when the user is getting information from the server. that access would cause the workstation to become a server. Specialized Solutions. A large network may have more than one server. The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer. Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity. However. A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. Also. A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network. The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation. since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client). Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. 19 . A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or county. The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. Inc. it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. efficiency in backing up the data. one for applications (application server). Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. or a mail server (E-mail). It is important to know what a MAN is. log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. For example. if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals There is actually a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). and expandability. it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. but they are not common. Users. and is a client. that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files. The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. configuration and management may be more challenging. including applications. The advantages of this type of network are central administration. A mainframe will handle all the functions. also known as clients. The Internet has replaced most MANs today. network security.

This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved. Also.g. a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand. A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install. The computers are simply cabled together. All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user. Inc. and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e. network security is unreliable. In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal. Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network. A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers. . Peer-to-Peer Network 20 Specialized Solutions.

If not prevented. The Bus topology is a passive topology. However. In a Bus network. also called Network Adapter Cards). Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. 21 . connectors. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together. (Network Interface Cards. refers to its physical layout. design. how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other. only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal. backbone. The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable. Specialized Solutions. Different topologies have different cabling requirements. Inc. and even how the cabling is run through a building. or topology. and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. map. While the signal is bouncing back and forth. As a network professional. or diagram. you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network. the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce. Devices only listen for data being transmitted. it prevents other devices from sending data. There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). future growth needs. they do not move the transmissions along. The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used. scheme.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. are all determined by the topology used. The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other. NICs. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address). This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. To stop signal bounce. a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable. A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. if the cable breaks. or segment. An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. This cable is called a trunk.

The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network. It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology. however. The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. A disadvantage is that if one computer fails. it can affect the entire network. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable. Inc. all devices are connected to a central point called a hub. The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network. . Star Topology Ring Topology In a Ring topology. the entire network will go down. 22 Specialized Solutions. but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down. If the hub fails. There are no ends to terminate. the rest of the network will still continue to function.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Star Topology In a Star topology.

Also.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals With IBM Token Ring networks. These are known as Hybrid topologies. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations. Specialized Solutions. Before you can understand some of these special topologies. Token Ring networks are physical stars and logical rings. It consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies. is how the network actually works. the ring is actually in a special type of hub called a Multistation Access Unit (MSAU). This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. You will be able to see a physical topology. but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology. So far. some Ethernet networks today are wired using a using multiple hubs. on the other hand. we have been discussing physical topologies. a computer can fail and not prevent the network from functioning. In these networks. Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies. These are the methods in which a network is actually wired. This gives us a physical star topology. 23 . Inc. Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. A logical topology. they operate between the hubs like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus. However. For example.

The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter 4 of this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points. 24 Specialized Solutions. Since each computer has its own connection to the wireless access point (WAP). . . the topology of a wireless network is that of an “invisible star”. Inc.

Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Specialized Solutions. Inc. 25 .

Since there is only one token. only one device at a time can communicate on the network. We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards. The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. Multiple Access means that more than one computer 26 Specialized Solutions. A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit. Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). and the message is delivered. The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token. Inc. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods. With several devices connected to one media. we create kind of a “party line”. Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages. The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected. they are called Token Ring and Ethernet.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network. This is based on the media or wiring of the network. . Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices.

Specialized Solutions.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals can be connected to the same cable. Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps. Inc. Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted). Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks. Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original. 27 .

not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network. they are all the same. Inc. hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function. Just remember. The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator. Today. . Passive hubs do not require any electrical power to function. since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network. With a Token Ring. they are called MSAUs (Multiple Station Access Units).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks. Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only. Hubs can be classified as either passive or active. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified. Essentially. Passive Hub – Patch Panel 28 Specialized Solutions.

Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs. They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected. 2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available. 4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs. 3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated. Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity. 29 . Inc. Specialized Solutions. This type type of hub requires electrical power to function. An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through.

. go back and review the chapter again. A WAN is not geographically limited and typically has greater speed of communication than a WAN.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources. Inc. star. and ring. The two types of networks are LANs and WANs. We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network. The three main types of topology are bus. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks. Topology is a term we use to describe the logical shape of the connection of computers in a network. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN. 30 Specialized Solutions.

31 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Inc.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition Specialized Solutions.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 32 Specialized Solutions.

33 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Review Questions . Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. 10. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12. 8. Name two media access methods. What is a “sneaker net”? 4.Chapter 1 1. What are the key differences between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2. What is the main reason for networking computers? 3. 7. Inc. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6. Name the three basic topologies. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. 11. 9. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. Specialized Solutions. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. 5.

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processor time. as well as the operating system. most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions. and database programs). In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems. network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system.Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking. You can get it all set up and turn on the power.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 . word-processing. Inc. hard disk space. it will just sit there. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment. The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well. Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment. what we are really talking about are network operating systems. spreadsheet. and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). When we are talking about operating systems. Most of today’s client and server operating systems have a built-in network operating system. Hardware resources such as RAM. but without an operating system. This chapter is all about the various operating systems with which a networking professional needs to be familiar. Specialized Solutions. The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other. 35 . Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe. We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities.g. When we refer to the operating system in this chapter. Today. if you don’t have the software to run it. it is just a pile of metal and plastic. we are referencing the built-in network operating system component. What is an Operating System? Not that long ago.

. Preemptive multitasking began with Windows 95 and the Intel Pentium processor. It is used on all of the latest operating systems. 36 Specialized Solutions. means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs. A true multitasking (multi-processing) operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor. put simply. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. the processor is never taken away from a task. Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed. Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. Inc. In non-preemptive multitasking.

Their new graphical interface and networking capabilities make them a vast improvement over their predecessors. Windows 95/98 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems. Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. Instead. all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network. to communicate with other computers over a network. Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs. turning on the computer and answering questions. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. or a similar program. Inc. They use an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. 37 . Then. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network. Windows 95/98 Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems that include a network operating system. Specialized Solutions. Microsoft Client. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. It is well-suited for editing home movies. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system. moving photos to the Web. such as BSD UNIX. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices. Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration. and archiving music. and you have a working network. Novell NetWare. All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network.

It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies. EFS (Encrypting File System). Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is the newest edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users. driver certification. Inc. a simplified visual design. remote OS installation. It features file protection.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server. IPsec and Kerberos support. Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across in real life but are unlikely to be on the test: 38 Specialized Solutions. It also uses System Restore. . is equipped to be networked easily. It. like ME. It allows for faster user switching. peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT. multilingual support. which allows for safety when installing additional software or making changes to the computer’s configuration. like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here.

This can also provide accessibility and security for all devices on a network.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. In a Serverbased network. the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability. Inc. Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network. the computers act as both a client and a server. it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment. Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (uses resources locally). 39 . Inc. However. Specialized Solutions.

the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. This 40 Specialized Solutions. if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. However. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus. Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. . server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server. Some networks even cluster server so that more that one server can share a database of information. most of the data is stored on the server. Data Protection As we already discussed. Server Software As their name implies. the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Servers exist to serve. Unlike most client software. The component that handles these requests is called the redirector. and to the server. At the very least. Inc. They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed. This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. out onto the network. Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task. Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access.

it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests. Basically. called drive designators. This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer. If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus. It does this by assigning drive letters. to resources. which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer. Inc. 41 . The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server. If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) provides for load balancing of the server resources as well as fault tolerance if one server were to fail. It does not need to know anything about networks. etc. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs. or if they need to be redirected to the server. Specialized Solutions.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use. or changed. Directory and file attributes are used to set the types of access for a file or directory such as viewed. NetWare is based upon the industry standard X500 directory architecture. but there will always be data in any network to which access must be restricted. . In the past. or through NWADMIN. non-shareable. Version 6. and file and print services.11 operate on 386. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. NetWare is administered through NetADMIN. It is Novell’s push to gain market share and is a way of creating an Intranet. password. it was the most popular server operating system.EXE. or Pentium machines. and account restrictions. • NetWare’s popularity is due largely to its ability to provide services across multioperating system environments. 486. In this section. Inc.2) was designed to operate on 286 machines. messaging. which is a DOS-based utility. web-publishing. NetWare File Services The NetWare file server hard drive may be mapped to a client and the client machine will recognize the drive as a logical drive and be able to access it as it would any other drive in the computer. which is like the Internet but within a network or company. With NDS’ single point logon. deleted. time. Versions 3.5 is now on the market. a user may logon from anywhere on the network and gain access with all of their assigned rights and privileges intact. but it is losing market share to Microsoft servers every year.12 and 4. management. which is a Windows-based utility. It may be installed in either the client or server format. we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. Version 4. shared. It is a reliable operating system that provides performance and security. Novell NetWare The NetWare operating system has been around for a long time. NetWare provides more than adequate network security by using a combination of approaches. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. login security provides authentication and verification of user name. NetWare Security The purpose of a network may be to share resources. Organization of network resources such as users. servers. and volumes is also handled with NDS. NetWare Directory Services (NDS) NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. name service. groups. First. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. 42 Specialized Solutions. copied. routing.11 is called IntranetWare. as well as what kind of access they have. Trustee rights regulate which directories and files a user can access. The earliest version (2.

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Print Services NetWare Print Services can support up to 256 printers. 43 . The file server and the print server can be the same computer. It is compatible with E-mail programs such as Novell’s GroupWise and Microsoft Mail. You can even send messages to everyone in a group. or directly to the network. NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS) MHS may be installed on any server and configured to be a network wide E-mail system. You can send messages to individuals or to groups very easily. next to the print server. as well as others. and finally to the printer. Printers may be attached to the server. NetWare also provides a method of using simple commands to send messages to other users on the network. Print requests are first routed to the file server. except an individual workstation. NetWare Minimum Requirements The following are the minimum installation requirements as specified by Novell for installing their server software: Specialized Solutions. Inc. a workstation.

X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 4.1 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS MS Windows 3.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 3.X: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Version 5: CPU RAM Free Hard Drive Space Pentium Class or higher 64 MB 550 MB 386 or higher 16 MB 105 MB 386 or higher 6 MB 30 MB 286 or higher 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Version 2.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for Macintosh OS Specialized Solutions.11 or OS/2 Warp and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 Macintosh 6.1 or later (Standard or Extended Edition) and the NetWare Client32 for OS/2 OS/2 2. Inc.0 or later and the NetWare Client32 for DOS OS/2 1.5 MB 20 MB Client Software The client software may be installed on any computer running any of the following: • • • • • 44 DOS 3. .

With this method. or No Access may be set on the directory. Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. Windows combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of Windows security features. but it does have several advantages. As we’ve already discussed. and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier. Files in Windows may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network. 45 .Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NetWare Interoperability As the word implies. you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data. but Windows NT contains services such as NWLink and Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW) that allow them to work together effectively. Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems. Full Control. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories. Inc. actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2). Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of Microsoft’s server/workstation technology. This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments. It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. Windows File Services Like NetWare. The newest of these server operating systems. Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version. Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management. In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows . Unlike NetWare. Problems do occur when trying to operate within the Windows NT domain. The NT Kernel. This type is performed by each workstation or server publicly sharing a directory on the network. another security method must be utilized. Specialized Solutions. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. interoperability simply means the ability of an operating system to operate with other systems. The advanced security features of Windows are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT . the Windows servers may be configured to store each workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups. offer even more advantages and stronger security than their predecessors. which as at the base of all Microsoft’s servers. Change. NetWare is extremely efficient at operating with other systems. The NetWare client can be installed with almost any other operating system. Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software). You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows network. Today. its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows Servers.File Allocation Table) during installation. Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. The attributes such as Read.

This trend continued with the latest Windows server operating systems (Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. and resources with a shared security database. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. Remember. computers. A domain is simply a group of users. Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service. Even if you are installing a local printer. and user rights. A domain controller is a server that maintains and manages all accounts. (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource. Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in the domain. 46 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows Server Security Security was a major concern in the development of Windows Servers. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer.. Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions). The following is a list of services included with Windows Server software to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between Microsoft and NetWare. Server Service provides access to network resources. Microsoft uses domains to control access and authenticate users and computers. Workstation Service is the redirector service.. permissions. especially with the latest Windows Server 2003 family. At least one domain controller is assigned to each domain. more than one printer can be installed to any machine. Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene. Inc. Windows Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in a Windows network. you are given the option to share it to the network.) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer. Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible. Windows Network Services There are many services available in Windows to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user. Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers. .

DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems.. Windows Server 2003 offers a more secure Web Server (IIS 6. This is necessary because all Microsoft client workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an Microsoft domain and the NetWare server. Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be. In contrast.0). which govern what users can see and do on the network. It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives. 47 . Installing CSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well.. In addition. and is. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System. Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators. Inc. This software is not included with Netware but can be purchased separately. it has more “locked down” security templates that make it less likely that users will try to go around the security. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional. It allows Novell NDS computers to be managed just as Microsoft domain controllers. Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to Microsoft’s domain controller. Installing GSNW automatically installs the NWLink protocol as well. used as such. Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to Windows. It provides all of the advantages of Windows 2000 Server. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases. when using Windows Server 2003 you typically must remove or configure security boundaries in order to get the server to.0) than the previous version in Windows 2000 (IIS 5. In fact. It can be installed on the Microsoft client to allow it to connect the Netware server directly.well serve. Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access Microsoft file and print services. Previous Microsoft server operating systems were built to serve and then had security features to protect them. Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 is the latest in the line of Microsoft server operating systems. but it adds many features that are designed exclusively for security. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the Microsoft service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network. Windows Server 2003 is the first Windows server that was built primarily with security in mind. UNIX is a Specialized Solutions.

. It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide bulky operating system. A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. UNIX is a multi-tasking. security. as well as others. Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system. It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms. Linux is open source. Inc. At one time. Software is available. however. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system. These terminals are not stand-alone computers. OS/2. multi-user. in fact the software is available for a free download. many variations of Linux have been created over the years such as Caldera and Red Hat. and many other features associated with an OS. Like Novell NetWare. 48 Specialized Solutions. UNIX. It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS. and messaging services. as well as file and printer sharing. Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources. StreetTalk provides directory. Because of its open source nature. At its inception. A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. it was an extremely popular network operating system. VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top. TCP/IP. to convert the UNIX host into a file server. general-purpose operating system. but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows. which means that it can be changed by a software programmer. VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments. Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX.

Inc. 49 . both at home and on the go. but users also use them personally. and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC. Specialized Solutions. The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction with the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book). Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production. they developed what later became known as the mouse and the first GUI display.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984. In conjunction with Xerox.

etc. centralization of administration. Inc. such as Novell NetWare and Windows server operating systems. Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare). an application is unaware that it is working from a network. In a peer-to-peer network. Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic. 50 Specialized Solutions. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems. In a server-based network. Study through the chapter again if you need to. the client computers rely on the server for their resources. and at least be familiar with others. With the redirector. the most popular network operating systems also function as the network operating system. and data backups. Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems. The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly. There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer. the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network). The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security.). Today. . (UNIX. Banyan VINES. The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely).

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS)

KEYWORDS Exercise
Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition

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Review Questions
1. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system?

2.

What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking?

3.

What is the purpose of the redirector?

4.

NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments.

5.

What is NDS?

6.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5?

7.

Define interoperability.

8.

Unlike NetWare, Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one.

9.

What is NTFS?

10.

What is a domain?

11.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server?

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Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) 12. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare.

13.

What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system?

14.

What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984?

15.

What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system?

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Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards

Chapter 3- The OSI Model and Communication Standards
In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, what it is and its primary function. You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles each function, and which devices function at each layer. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam.

The Seven Layers of Network Communication
The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. As a result, some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other, and how they will communicate if they are using different languages. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit; when not to transmit; and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected; how the data will flow (at what speed); and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications.

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The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you should notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers, depending upon their functions.

Seven Layers of the OSI Model
The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network. These services include file, print, and messaging services. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer. The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. This is not the actual application or program, simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail, transfer files across the network, or access a

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they will be combined. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. and ending connections. add any addressing information and error correction information. For example. In short. 57 . or full-duplex communication. This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local. If Specialized Solutions. and data encryption. The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them. half-duplex. The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer. if the packets are too small. The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit. Sessions may be established using simplex. and error free. managing. Inc. without duplication. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer. protocol conversion. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network. This layer is also responsible for data compression. and when. This layer is responsible for establishing. and un-packaging the data for transport. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. interpreting graphics commands. These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. etc. The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging. The network redirector operates at this layer. It provides a logical connection between the two devices. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. Each connection is called a session. it will break the data into packets. As its name implies.) character set conversion.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards network database. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh. The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. it presents data to the application layer. and prepare it for its journey. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure. bit ordering. The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence. or receive. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network. Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data.

UDP is a connectionless protocol. but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. error free manner.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide they are too large. Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side. however. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. Once the data is reassembled. stripped of its addressing information. especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. Connectionless protocols are faster. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer. all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly. When you are using a connection-oriented protocol. The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission. It receives a packet from the Network layer and packages it into what is called a frame. This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. When you are using a connectionless protocol. Inc. they will be broken into smaller packets.518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses. Routers and NICs function on this layer. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. When the data is received. it will be un-packed. In an ideal world. the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. This controls network congestion. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. 58 Specialized Solutions. . it will retransmit after a specified amount of time. delivery of packets is not guaranteed. the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. segmentation information and routing information.) It also includes control information such as frame type. Should an error occur. checked for errors. For example.

then it discards the data. The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer. The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame. When the sending computer does not receive and acknowledgement.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards In addition. Although quite rare. it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer. it will automatically resend the packet. The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards. The way that a network shares the channel is called its carrier access method. The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions. the data is sent out on the wire to all computers. They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers. and Demand Priority. If it is. The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer. In this way. The IEEE 802. This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. If it is not. TCP/IP is somewhat “self healing”. such as SDLC. The following is an example of a MAC address: Specialized Solutions. (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host). Inc. The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium. It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). 59 . NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements. The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). the destination computer will not send an acknowledgement. It identifies a line protocol. If the calculation does not check out. Token Passing. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame. The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers. In a broadcast network such as Ethernet. It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not. It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link.2 standard defines how this takes place. The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address. it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer. MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers.

It identifies the NIC. Inc. hubs and transceivers. The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames. it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 00-00-13-35-FD-AB The first 3 bytes (00-00-13) identify the manufacturer of the card. Point to point communication is often used between switches and routers on a network. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer. Switches. Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model. For example. 60 Specialized Solutions.iso. It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer. all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets. Note: For more information on the OSI Model. Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer. Point-topoint communication is the process of one device communicating with one other device . The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets. . The last 3 bytes (35FD-AB) are the Device ID that is unique to the associated Vendor ID. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium. an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable. Repeaters. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network.ch/. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer. and what each one will do. visit www. Multipoint communication is the process of one device communicating with multiple devices on a network. and determines when and how data may be transmitted. data work at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. synchronizes the data.

Inc. 61 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions.

it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. You are communicating directly with the Application layer.) The request is in the form of a packet. Inc. . each layer is also responsible for adding or removing headers so that the data is ready to be interpreted by the next layer. or suite. The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. each layer reads and performs the tasks specified in its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer. In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. For example: You send a request for services to the server. in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. This is called a protocol stack. 62 Specialized Solutions. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted by you and the request is considered processed. Headers contain instructions for tasks that need to be performed at that level. This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers. The Physical layer does not add a header. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message. (Remember. and provides services to the layer directly above it. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer. the Application layer is not the actual application. In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate. The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. In addition to reading the headers and performing the instructions. These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task. As the packet travels up through the layers. over the network medium. When the destination computer receives the data. protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. the process of moving through the layers is reversed.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer.

but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Signals or Bits or Data Stream into Frames Frames into Packets Frames or Datagrams into Segments Segments into data Data Data Data into Data Files or Messages Specialized Solutions. The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers. they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers. Because of this. Inc. 63 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers.

This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model. as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol. Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer. This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. In fact. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections. By relating various protocols to the OSI model. . Also.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed. the OSI Model is not a protocol. we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. it would not match. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program. The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 64 Specialized Solutions. you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model. Inc.

This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate. These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments. etc. Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers. 65 . Without them we would not have as many software or hardware packages available to us. Inc. it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work. you do need to remember the different layers and the tasks for which each layer is responsible. because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system. The specifications describe how components are supposed to function. The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer. Specialized Solutions.

etc. They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination. . As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself. Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. This weakening is known as attenuation. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X. bridges. Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. Data Link layer and the Network layer. routers.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT 66 Specialized Solutions. Routers are responsible for using logical addresses to move packets from one network to another and deliver them to a host. you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer. It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs. Inc. The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices. These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change. are going to be used when they write a program. Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. A repeater amplifies these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. Repeaters. and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network. as well as where in the OSI model they operate.

The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate. A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols or even different technologies. A popular example is an SNA Gateway. if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Each router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it. Specialized Solutions. Inc. It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router. 67 . If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing. which can be used to connect an IBM mainframe computer to a Microsoft network. However. Router tables can be entered manually by a network administrator or they can be dynamically updated using routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF. Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers. but usually in the Application layer). A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks.

5 802. a little surfing might be in order. This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards. February 1980).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802.9 802. These standards were prepared before the OSI standards.7 802.8 802. Inc. 100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards.4 802.ieee. 68 Specialized Solutions. (IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs.11 802.1 802.10 802.3 802.6 802. visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www.2 802.12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN. Inc. but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible. and if you would like more information on them.standards. .

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Specialized Solutions. 69 . Inc.

which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments. However. This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC. and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. Network 70 Specialized Solutions. The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC. the network. which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks. It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver. Inc. The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer. This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another). the NIC also needs a device driver to function. . This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers. NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp. and hence.

and in full. Specialized Solutions. it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected using a router. You have no confirmation (unless he calls you back) that he received the message. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. Protocol Binding In order to function. Inc. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network. Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless. Connectionless communication is faster.) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received. Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party. Connection-Oriented vs. it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol. In today’s LANs however. the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent. Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. In connection-oriented communication. It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on his answering machine. Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model. In a connectionless scenario. if TCP/IP is bound first. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. but connection-oriented is more reliable. Routable vs. Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable. For example. If that fails. In a connectionless communication. There is no guarantee that the message was delivered. They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department. 71 .

Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks.25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet). . Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X. As a networking professional. you should be familiar with these protocol stacks and you should know the OSI layer in which their components function. 72 Specialized Solutions. It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable.

LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers. At the Presentation Specialized Solutions. Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – Provides transmission of packets across a network. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. In addition to hop count. This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – Provides Application layer services for Macintosh. this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination. regardless of speed. (If data must cross a router SPX is used. It has been modified over the years and now contains the following components: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. and handles file and print services. It is a routable protocol. NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment. NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model. It resides in the Network layer. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces. It uses the MAC address and is non-routable.) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol. 73 • • • • • • . AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – Manages file sharing at the Application layer AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – Provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer. This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite. DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack. IPX/ SPX This protocol is the proprietary protocol that was developed by Novell for Netware servers and clients. Inc. It resides in the Network layer. It chooses the route with the fewest hops.

It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary. FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system. flow control. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network. At the Transport layer it handles sequencing. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP. SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector. 74 Specialized Solutions. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network. while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections.1 and later installs TCP/IP by default. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols. The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking). Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent. TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol. TCP and IP. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. and connection-oriented error control services. No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed. • Many companies use Netware with the TCP/IP protocol stack. SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide layer it handles data translation. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead. Novell Netware 5. It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with. . APPC supports Transport and Session layer services. • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server. We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol. At the Session layer it establishes and controls sessions. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers. Inc. It is also layered on IP like TCP.

Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond to the broadcast by sending its MAC address. ARP will first check its table and if a matching address is not found. OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer. The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely. It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. without regard to speed. then TFTP would be advisable over FTP. RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function. it will broadcast on the local subnet to determine the MAC address of the computer with the associated IP address. It is an Application layer protocol. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. Inc. but in addition. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. Specialized Solutions. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP. It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP. NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources. making it connectionless. If you do not need to use passwords. It resides in the Network layer. this is also a Network layer protocol. ARP keeps a table of corresponding IP and MAC addresses that have been resolved in the previous 10 minutes. instead of only the number of hops. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server. Telnet can also be used for remote configuration of servers and network devices such as routers and switches. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP is responsible for resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses. but in reverse.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). 75 . It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond. ARP will add the information to its table for future use.

This means that routes change as conditions change. It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP. X. XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs. which is the main reason that it is non-routable.25 a very slow but very reliable protocol. This is the host on an X. but in between. This protocol is not used for data communication. It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer. The second part of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment).25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud. Because of this. The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment). packets are re-examined to determine whether they are damaged. It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers. The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs. Data goes in and comes out. which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines. 76 Specialized Solutions. DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. LAT (Local Area Transport) LAT does not have a Network layer. Inc. This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. It uses standard telephone lines and switches. In addition. it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer. . This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions.25 network. the X. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end. X.25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization. This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use. Instead. It is a DEC protocol used for interactive. At each stop. making X.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide X. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable. only printing functions. asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN.25 is also an equipment specification.25 X. This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits. it is out of the administrator’s control. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet. Data is routed via the best connection at a given time.

It is fast. which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems. Inc. Specialized Solutions. but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks. 77 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model. easy to configure and small. It may be used with bridges.

It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. . It handles session establishment. NetBEUI. ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it. DHCP. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications. It also supports data encryption. It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures. file transfers. SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. Inc. or DHCP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Other Protocols The following are other protocols with which you should be familiar: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. administration. and notifies upper layers to route around them. and connection release. SLIP is not used as much as PPP. It does not support IPX. This database is typically dynamic in today’s modern networks. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol. It maintains a database and provides hostname to IP address resolution. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes. RPC is used by the redirector to 78 Specialized Solutions. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model. PPP supports IPX. it detects congested areas and links that are down. NetBEUI. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. and other protocols as well as TCP/IP. It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely over the Internet. NWLink and NetBEUI. Like a traffic report on your radio. but it can also be modified manually by the network administrator.

Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text. It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer. Specialized Solutions. Inc. 79 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards determine if a resource is local or on the network.

80 Specialized Solutions. Inc. The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional. we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. . It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test. but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network. you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three. if you can get to the server through a router. For example. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary In this chapter.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition Specialized Solutions.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword 802. 81 . Inc.

What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11. 6. What is a MAC address? 13. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. 3. and ending connections? 12. 4. managing. 7. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions – Chapter 3 1. 10. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. 5. Which OSI layer is responsible for the MAC address? 8. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? 00-01-A5-D3-B4-01 82 Specialized Solutions. . Who developed the OSI model? 2. What is the function of the Application Layer? 9. Inc. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model.

Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 15. Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. without duplication and error free? 16. What are NDIS and ODI? 20. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 19. 83 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 14. Describe protocol binding. Will this work? Why or Why not? Specialized Solutions. 23. Which is faster. 21. What is the function of a Gateway? 18. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 22. What are they? 17. Inc. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence.

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it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. along with connectors. 85 . 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology. It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC. It is not often used in today’s networks. and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand. (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter). Inc. which we will address here. It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable. It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps.Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. video. a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover. and other hardware and peripherals. or DIX (Digital. but may still be used in some temporary installations such as a construction trailer (although wireless would be a much more likely alternative). There are numerous kinds of cable. Xerox). and how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter. Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential. Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet). Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation. Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install. network adapter cards. There are several cabling options. and the hardware aspect of network operations. Specialized Solutions.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 . which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector. Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid. It can transmit voice. How to properly configure and use network adapter cards. Because it is shielded. The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. Intel. The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist.

In today’s networks. Inc. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. In the past. as well as how they are attached to the cables. 86 Specialized Solutions. it is not as easy to install. . Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. It is attached directly to the NIC but allows network signal to flow straight through it as well as to the NIC. BNC Cable Connectors BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable. They are specified based on their impedance. it has been replaced by twisted-pair cable and fiber optic cable. Thicknet was used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks. As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. In order for the network to operate at peak performance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. It is expressed in ohms.

Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. Inc. 87 . This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable. It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver. and an AUI cable. BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet. BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on. It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection. Specialized Solutions. The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function. One of the terminators must be grounded. The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors). Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver. and is used to connect the device to the network. A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together.

These clamp-on transceivers were often referred to as vampire taps because they utilized sharp teeth that punctured the cable to make the connection.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver. Inc. This types of connections have been largely replaced by newer cable methods such as twisted-pair and fiber optic cable. . this was time-consuming and it absorbed signal so it was not the common approach. Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today. This cable type consists of insulated pair strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another. most networking professionals used a clamp-on transceiver. Instead. The twist helps 88 Specialized Solutions. There are four pair strands in most twisted-pair cables. It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types.

Twisted Pair Cabling Specialized Solutions. The tighter the twist. The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per meter in each pair of wires. Currently. This results in less sensitivity to EMI. UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs. the faster the signal can be sent through the wires without crosstalk. 89 .Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP). It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters. Since it is unshielded. Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 1000 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM and Gigabit Ethernet Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling. Inc. The following is a summary of UTP cables. Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. it is more sensitive to EMI. UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular. Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. there are six categories.

These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. . The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location. They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 10 Gbps . Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors. Inc. The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a special tool punch down tool to make the proper connection by stripping the insulation from the wire without breaking the wire. An RJ-11 jack has four connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight. This is an excellent way to organize network cables. The front of the patch panel contains RJ-45 ports (a port is a female counterpart for the RJ-45 jack). Wall plates are typically used to make the connection to the computers themselves. The RJ-45 jack’s position can therefore be changed from patch panel to patch panel to use a different set of cables for the same connection. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations. Wall Plates for RJ-45 90 Specialized Solutions. This gives the network administrator a greater degree of flexibility and provides fault tolerance for the network cabling system. RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector. An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger.

One strand transmits and one receives. fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances. which is easier to install.. Because of this feature. The following is a summary of IBM Types: Specialized Solutions. Inc. IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks. Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic). which reduces signal loss. IBM cabling is based on its Type. the data cannot be tapped or stolen. However. as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types. but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. it is therefore not as common as UTP. SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses.) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable. They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP. It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI. 91 . (The core can also be made up of plastic. it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength. . This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking.

IBM Connector 92 Specialized Solutions. Not Defined Two 62. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. These are very rarely used in today’s modern networks. Contains a shield for use under carpets. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data. The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors. An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite. Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications. Inc. . two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet).5/125-micron multimode fibers. Six twisted pairs. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Plenum grade.

Specialized Solutions. 93 .Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter. Inc.

• Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above. Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge. 94 Specialized Solutions. Inc. Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions. Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways.Baseband vs. a pager can receive a message. but cannot send a message. The signal flow is uni-directional. Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum. It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cabling Terms The following are terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. As the AWG wire number decreases. • Simplex vs. fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only. PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. these fumes would circulate throughout a building in the event of a fire. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. If this type of cable were used in the plenum. (send and receive) but only one at a time. Both you and the party you are talking to can talk and listen at the same time. the wire thickness increases. An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time. PVC grade cable is less expensive than Plenum grade cable but it gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned. Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps) or gigabits per second (Gbps). For example. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. This space is used to circulate air through a building. For example. For example. . Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire. The signal flow is bidirectional. Because this space does circulate air through a building.

such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well. Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network. shielded cable or fiber optic cable might be more appropriate.) Will the cable be installed in “noisy” areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting. local fire codes will need to be addressed. 95 .) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum. how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners. Inc. It is therefore specifically designed to be used in these circulation areas.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals In contrast.) Specialized Solutions. A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling. For example. the flexibility of the medium should be considered. Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives.

) Transmission speeds and.) If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure. Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 96 Specialized Solutions. cost are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network. Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small. Inc. . there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective. last but not least. On the other hand. fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping. attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor.

This is known as serial communication. and controls the flow of data on the network. Today. Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time. handles network addressing. Specialized Solutions. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking. The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. Network cabling moves data in a single data stream.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs. NICs are used to connect the computer to the network. data is moved along in groups.) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port. Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. 97 . or 0’s (off). are also known as Network Adapter Cards. Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. This is known as parallel communication. Because these paths are side-by-side. most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit. Inc. (And of course to translate it back again. Analog data has an infinite number of possible states. The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium. Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later. which constantly vary in one or more values. Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame. Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side. It makes the physical connection to the network. Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves.

The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. . Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC. The time intervals between data chunks. they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the 98 Specialized Solutions. Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC. This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters. When this occurs. Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent. Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. This makes transferring data much faster. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. The speed of the transmission. the NIC may need to be configured. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer. How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs. The amount of time between confirmations. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique MAC address. DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium. the two cards start sending and receiving data. Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer. Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it. If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. Inc. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC. DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU.

Only devices like NIC cards that need this type of memory access are assigned DMA channels. These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that typically no two devices can use the same interrupt. these devices can access the memory that they need without interrupting the processor. certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. In practice. in this case the NIC. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses. Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. The device is constantly listening to this channel for commands from the processor. Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems. This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address. With a DMA channel. Other cards will need to be configured manually. This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. Specialized Solutions. DMA Channel Configuration of Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels is similar to IRQs. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. 99 . Inc. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. not all devices need one. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available. DMA channels are used by devices that frequently need access to large amounts of memory. such as: IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU. See Appendix A for common address assignments.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. and some are set using software. The good news is that unlike an IRQ. Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by a device.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC. RJ-45. or both). 100 Specialized Solutions. Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer. they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required. Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards. Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC. If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail. or you may have to configure it manually. . They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable. Inc. The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter.

Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much. They are also called PC-Card Buses. Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers. 101 . Inc. Specialized Solutions. Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus. but can be a 64-bit bus. With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus. The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus. Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus. They are generally 32-bit buses. including network connectivity. Today most buses are either EISA or PCI.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Performance Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance. thereby improving network performance. but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. 102 Specialized Solutions. Inc. the NIC would be a bottleneck. . This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus. This type of card is expensive. Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer. Without this feature. Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data. RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed. The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks. thereby bypassing the CPU. Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data. Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU. Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data. it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally.

Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems. 103 .Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking. Inc.Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs. a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings. With some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down. • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective. They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly.e. a user can access the network from anywhere in the building. Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. Mobile Computing . – hubs). Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations such as ocean dwelling oil platforms. Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems. or on the road. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. but through the use of an infrared or radio medium. For example. Extended Local Area Networks . Wireless networks use wireless access points (WAPs) to “connect” the network devices to each other. With wireless systems. the office. This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components. but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN. People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home. making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems. This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks. Specialized Solutions. They function just like other access points (i.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling. Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created.

they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping. Inc. . Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. Infrared networks typically broadcast at about 10 Mbps. Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • 104 Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint Specialized Solutions. These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources. and because the transmissions are tightly focused. The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet. Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference. such as windows.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared You use infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control. This involves using infrared (below Red) light to carry signals to a receiver.

until it reaches the receiver. Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station. however. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. Inc. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. ceilings. 105 . Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems. the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time. which then routes the signal appropriately. as the name implies. Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. or direct sequence modulation. etc. the message is broken into parts (called chips). The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. uses broadband technology. The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. which are then transmitted over separate frequencies. Specialized Solutions. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. In the direct sequence modulation method. the signal is beamed towards a central unit. It does. but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. In the hopping method. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps.

Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver. There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite. and only the destination device can receive and read the packet. 106 Specialized Solutions. It is used for line-of-sight communication. These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally. Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite. mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities. or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts. The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication. Inc. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances. Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings. .

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and Fiber-Optic. Twisted Pair. As a network professional. The four basic wireless types are: Infrared. Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet. Laser. transmits. There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. we took a look at the future. Finally. It prepares. This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network. 108 Specialized Solutions. You should know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. Wireless networking is the trend of the future. it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks. As a networking professional. After discussing at network cabling we then took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself. Radio. RJ-45. . and Microwave. receives. it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. In addition. you should know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type. AUI. Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals. Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). Inc. etc. and controls data flow over the network.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 109 . Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions Definition Specialized Solutions.

Inc. Definition .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair 110 Specialized Solutions.

Inc.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword Vampire Tap Definition Specialized Solutions. 111 .

What is the least expensive of the cable types? 112 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2. What is the most popular of the cable types? 10. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9. What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12. Inc. How is a vampire tap connected? 6. What is the most expensive cable type? 13. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. . What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable.

15. What does AWG stand for and what is it?

16. Describe baseband.

17. Describe broadband.

18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication?

19. What is the function of a network adapter card?

20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available?

21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card?

22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network?

23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types?

24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network?

25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally?

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards
In previous chapters, we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed, along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets, or frames. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. In this chapter, we will discover how Ethernet works, as well as how Token-ring networks function. AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter. After completing this chapter, you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture, while not as popular as Ethernet, are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers, in this case, over a network. In Chapter 3, you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite, IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture, SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk

The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols; thus, they do not map directly to the OSI Model. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. Specialized Solutions, Inc. 115

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information, handle addressing, and check for errors. Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments.

A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card, also known as the network interface card (NIC), in order for it to be used with a network computer. In some instances, as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX, two protocols may be bound to one card. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC.

Access Methods
In a network, multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. If two or more computers were to send data at the same time, the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing

• Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free, it will send data. While there is data traveling on the cable, no computer will transmit data. Occasionally, however, two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. Naturally, the more users who are connected to a network, the denser network traffic becomes. Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method.

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. It is, however, the access method that works best with wireless connections; since the wireless channel can be verified before the data is sent. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. A token (a special type of packet) is circulated around the ring from computer to computer. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network, it must wait until it possesses the token. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. Data is transmitted in frames. The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. The trailer includes error control information. When the computer is ready, the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted, the frame would be resent. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. Because only one computer at a time may transmit, this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions. (Some more recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer, router, switch, or bridge. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes, addresses, and links are functioning. Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer, hub, and destination computer, instead of broadcasts over the entire network. Because of the cabling method used with this access method, (four pairs Specialized Solutions, Inc. 117

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of wires are used, which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time, but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously, the one with the highest priority is serviced first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests.

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) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. Inc. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files. Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection. Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission. data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. 119 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Network Communications (Frames and Packets) As we’ve discussed previously. or messages. The destination address of the receiving computer. The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. Specialized Solutions. Computer control data such as service requests and commands. if there is a transmission error. Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. Data files tend to be quite large. Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data. but we will use the term packets. Also. information. All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. The data to be transmitted. Error checking information such as Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) information. (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably.

the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit. Usually. and clocking information. CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet. the source and destination addresses. Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes. the trailer contains the error checking information. the calculation is run again. the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact. A Packet 120 Specialized Solutions. packets can be various sizes. . Depending upon the network. Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network. If there is a discrepancy. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet. When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer. If the results are the same. Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission. The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted.

121 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Ethernet (802. it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data). There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points. Not all railroads are the same (some are electric. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology). The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements. . some are diesel.2) The Logical Link Control layer. Thicknet coaxial (10Base5). In this section. It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2). in a railroad. It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method. There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards. but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data). However. and typically transmits at 10 Mbps. Inc. data (in this case passengers and freight) is moved in various cars. or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT). These provide the standards for the railroads.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Standards Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network. Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802. It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. some are wide gauge. as addressed previously. The standards define the means of communications. and some are narrow gauge). The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL 122 Specialized Solutions.3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. Logical Link Control (802.3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs. Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication. but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol. we are going to look at different standards for networks. Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. For example. like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell).94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable. The original version was a 2. is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium.

The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters. And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling. indicating its maximum segment length. The actual maximum segment length. The minimum distance between nodes is . It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters. it is most commonly created with UTP cable. document and image storage. to name a few. The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling. The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters. (There may be five segments but only three may be populated.5 meters.) This is referred to as the “5-4-3 Rule”. 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications. The maximum number of nodes per network 100. Inc. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30.5 meters. These applications include video. it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. 10BaseT uses the star topology. 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs. 123 . The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system. 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable. repeaters can be used for longer distances. As its name implies. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated. however. The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet Specialized Solutions. 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors. and computer aided design.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps. is 185 meters. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology. meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters. If the segment must exceed this limitation. BNC connectors and a transceiver. The minimum distance between nodes is 2. The maximum number of nodes per network 90. 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2.5 meters.

Because of its intense speed. Inc. to some degree. using the CSMA/CD access method. Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks. Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable. and the longest cable length is 250 meters. and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs). It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN. 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards. and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet) 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade. the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology. although copper can be used with much shorter distances. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable. VG. It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets. the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable. and AnyLAN. they are referring to the same thing. It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology.12 is the standard that defines this technology. There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know. with Gigabit Ethernet. . 124 Specialized Solutions. 100BaseVG. The IEEE specification 802. ATM competes. but that will be referred to later in this book. When you see any of these terms. (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment. This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard.

It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance. Ethernet also works in the UNIX environment. Specialized Solutions. by joining with either a router or a bridge.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP. Inc. 125 .

and 3).5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. Inc. The Token Ring access method. Actually. Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1. This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data. This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data. The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame. The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems. .5 standard. is what sets Token Ring apart. Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it. While the token is in use by a computer to send data. 2. IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802. it uses the baseband technology. but is still used today. How it Works Basically. more than the cable design. Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame. 126 Specialized Solutions. and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. it is known as a data frame. It is not as popular as Ethernet. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub. Like Ethernet. Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished). The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token. The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token. A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token. Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer. The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes.

while IBM says counter-clockwise. the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity. The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address. the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing. if there were errors. Or. The IEEE 802. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful. The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. After encoding the data frame. as well as its own address.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted. Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. 127 Specialized Solutions. The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon. This computer. the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring. As each new computer comes online. Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention. called the active monitor. It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected. Beaconing In a Token Ring environment.5 standards say it travels clockwise. The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. Message This is the data or file to be transmitted. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network. . The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. Inc. To accomplish this task.

The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network. Using UTP. Using UTP. . Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters. MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails. the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another. IBM states that it is only 46 meters. just as in other networks that use a hub. each ring can connect up to 260 computers. Using STP. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. Each node is connected to the hub via a cable. The Type 128 Specialized Solutions. When a computer is connected. The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. This hub is known by a few names. Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. but types 1 and 2 may also be used. Inc. Using STP. but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters. as there are no male and female ends. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network. Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network.5 meters. it is only about 45 meters. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs. In a pure token passing environment.

The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. Specialized Solutions. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers. Patch panels are used to organize patch cables. Using a pair of repeaters. Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters. Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable. Therefore. Type 6 may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub. care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible. AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment. therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers. A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. Inc. Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper. hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable. All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. 129 . Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub.

Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring. It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices. This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. As such. or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology. Apple has always been open to third-party development. AppleShare also provides a print server. UTP. Inc. Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings. 130 Specialized Solutions. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address. A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it. the device assigns itself an address. If it is not being used by another computer. it is very inexpensive to initiate. . LocalTalk performance is rather limited. mainframe computers. When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers. by using zones. TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare. it will store it to use each time it goes online. and even some UNIX computers. LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system.5 Standard) environment. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network. This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC.

or smart. the token is passed in numerical order. Instead of the token traveling around a ring. ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. 131 . has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps. this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order. A later version. ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling. called ARCNet Plus. It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology. If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other.4 standards (Token Bus LAN). These packets contain the destination address. If using an active hub in a Star topology. the token still passes in numerical order. Specialized Solutions. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology. ARCNet utilizes hubs. ARCNet transmits data in packets. This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology. Inc. a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data. Just like other token-passing access method architectures. but it can be adequately charted to the 802. If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors. active. These hubs may be passive. the source address and up to 508 bytes of data. but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable. Obviously. the maximum cable distance is 244 meters.5 Mbps. It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2.

132 Specialized Solutions.11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology. Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four. generally). . Speeds up to 54 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific). Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802.11) IEEE 802. Inc. The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well.

If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data. The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. Packets consist of three components: the Header. but as a networking professional you will encounter them. and 10BaseT. 10Base5. the source and destination addresses. As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames). Specialized Solutions. and clocking information. and the Trailer. Managing network data is all about traffic control. which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. Inc. it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. which is where the error checking calculation is located. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future. Packets will include information to identify the source address.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. etc. CSMA/CA. the Data. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method. It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures. 133 . it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year. AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances. Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network.3 standards. Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet. go back and review the chapter again. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. Be sure that you understand how this architecture works. Therefore.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. . Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Definition 134 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc.

135 . Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Token Ring TokenTalk Trailer Zones Definition Specialized Solutions.

3. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 136 Specialized Solutions. . What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6. What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. What are the three primary access methods? 2. 5. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1. Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7. CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods. Inc.

Describe a MIC connector. What is a SMAU? 21. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17. Inc.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13. 22. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. 19. What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? Specialized Solutions. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15. What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25. 14. 137 . Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20.

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 138 Specialized Solutions. .

The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. your design will not work for them. The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. Most importantly. dislikes. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation. you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. However. Even if this network is your own. and goals. pay attention to details. The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have. This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. 139 . rather than a client’s. (demographics). For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. we will consider hardware compatibility. etc. you are not designing for yourself. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office. who has them. You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. in many cases. The customer’s likes. etc? If. Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks. how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them. The size of the company and the portion of the network affected. Specialized Solutions. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. Inc. (If not. whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever indebted to you. this is a Macintosh-based company. As a network professional. address. There are two things that you will need to know. Finally. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. are there any printers or scanners. for example.

With this information in hand. There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files. . 140 Specialized Solutions. print services. the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB. For example. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint. or as large as 8 GB. You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility. A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components. at this time. if the file is compressed. Once you collect this information. files services. Remember. you must get a clear definition of goals of the network. Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources. or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD. Inc. you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later. you are not documenting your network. So. etc. only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network. prepare a design document. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps. or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale).

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they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing. The level of security required. The first is the type of network you will be designing. The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network). You may need to install the software. may cause problems in the future.” That is. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. The commitment of management and users. In a peer-to-peer network. all computers are equal. Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server. they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. as generally it is not installed during a standard installation. Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement. This can range from none to very high. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t. For example. They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. you will need to start making some decisions. Skill level of the network users. The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. . Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. You may have to add network cards and cabling. The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future. First. The most prominent are simplicity and cost. you will have no problem. The wrong choice now. Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. Also. you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it. but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future). not all nodes may need the same level of security. This sharing is on a directory level. As long as you have the original software disk (CD). This means that every 142 Specialized Solutions. Inc. if you have a printer connected to your computer. If you do not have this information go back and get it. Likewise.

the network must operate transparent to them. you will also need to consider the disadvantages. Remember. Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off. This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older. As for size. they will also be using your processor to do their printing. server-based networks are scaleable. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. The more sophisticated the network. this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts. Also. This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). 24-hours per day. and lots of memory. 143 .Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network. and expand as your needs expand. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation. is another advantage of a server-based network. have high-power processor. such as your printer. Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security. only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. instead of backing up individual workstations. all network resources are usually centralized. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added. This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations. the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. While there are many advantages. Before you can use any resource. Since these computers are larger. This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. You can connect more workstations. In large networks. The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network. a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution. etc. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. In a server-based network. In a peer-to-peer situation. slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). Also. information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. Inc. the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server. any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. if employees need remote access. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. In small networks. the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer). Last but not least. administration can be a Specialized Solutions. Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. For these people. must less the workings of a network. In a strict peer-topeer network.

If you are not sure you have enough information. then you might have an address conflict with another entity on the Internet. For this reason.0.0 144 Specialized Solutions.0 255.255.0. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer).0. stick with it and move forward. The use of these addresses will completely prevent the address conflict issue. get more. For this reason.255.0.16.192. in others it could go either way. let us define the difference between the terms public and private network. Actually. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design. you can use any address that you want to use inside of your own network and behind your firewalls. present each case to the client and let them make the final decision. since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN. Inc. there are specific addresses that are filtered by the routers at the backbone of the Internet.255 255. A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet. Public and Private networks In addition.0 -10.0.0. which would limit its access to those outside of the company.0. 10. Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult.255. When you are sitting on the fence.168.255.32. the answer will be very obvious. it is highly recommended that you use these addresses for your private addressing.255 172.0 -172.0 255. . Once you have made this decision.0 192. The only problem is that if your firewall were to come down.168.0. with open access to the global community.0 .255. Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified network professional.255. If all else fails. A public network would be the Internet. In some cases.

145 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. Inc.

if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software. if all or part of a network already exists. whether hardware or software. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have. 146 Specialized Solutions. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like. ask him or her to show you. Remember. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks. This form should identify the equipment and its specifications. That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you. Inc. you must add new hardware. The following is an example of an inventory sheet. . Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has. you can skip this section. When taking this inventory. On the other hand. The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. Use it as a starting place to build your own. Also. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation.

147 .) # of Free Slots Network Card Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Specialized Solutions. Inc. PCI.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: Computer Printer Telecommunication Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA. etc.

. 148 Specialized Solutions. describe each program. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function. Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary. Software: If this device uses software.

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and collect all of the documentation you have been working on.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network. make a drawing of the facility and each network node. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment. A Network Layout 150 Specialized Solutions. This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. It is time to get out that pencil and paper. or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility. Inc. Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network. By assigning them a number now. . it will make future documentation easier.

Therefore. repeaters and nodes. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). you will need to install CAT 5e or CAT 6 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 1000 Mbps speed. For example. you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. The 100 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. if you are not sure if expansion is in your future. However. and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). you might consider CAT 3. In addition. where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. 151 . If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small temporary LAN. but if this is a large facility. if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files. the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3. consider Thinnet coaxial cable. or just good common sense. Cable lengths must be considered. In most environments this will be no problem. Realistically. On the high end. Inc. Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network. you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. such as in an imaging environment. CAT 6 is the UTP of choice. It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. Specialized Solutions. The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the performance criteria of the network. (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end). you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly. a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 5 UTP cables. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace. However. 5-4-3 – If your installation is coaxial Ethernet. hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. Cable Grade – Local fire codes. it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5e or CAT 6 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years.

However. such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. it doesn’t really matter. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. with a relative humidity of 30 percent. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. Inc. On the other hand. which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment. Therefore. and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. The equipment should be shielded from ESD. The non-routable protocols. These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. which requires the use of routers. If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. since they don’t use electricity to transmit a signal. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. EMI. the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network. high-humidity. you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. and RFI. Variable temperatures. which can cause corrosion. and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source. Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment. which can generate damaging ESD. they are sensitive to temperature changes. It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment in which the computers will be operating. such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. on the surface. can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically. low-humidity. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. Fiber optics are also a good alternative when the manufacturing environment cannot allow for any possibility of even a small spark. Like us. but are not limited. it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows 2000/2003. Fortunately. . are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. it will work. or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. 152 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise). NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference.

Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Specialized Solutions. 153 .

154 Specialized Solutions. This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors. it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet. This way. The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room. There are a few more components that need to be installed. Inc. Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable. you will most likely need to install a wall outlet. The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable. Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends. This way you can identify each location. if using CAT 5 or CAT 6. To keep these organized. the cables are connected to a patch panel. So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables. is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. . The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. One advantage of using CAT 5 or CAT 6 cable in a star topology from a hub.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub. One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable. These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding. In most cases. All the cables will be brought to one location.

That part is the network adapter card. Inc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network. Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. Actually. Therefore you must know the requirements of each. 155 . there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed. This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media. there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC Specialized Solutions. we must select a card that is compatible with both. Once that is done.

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you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots. two. Depending on the vintage of the computer. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture. will change. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus. and expansion projects. EISA. Therefore. but only at 10 Mbps. Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network. For example. Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards. the card must be compatible with the computer. there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. Inc. Also. In addition to being compatible with the network. but only at 10 Mbps. the number of connectors. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. administration. and therefore the speed at which data can be moved. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance. The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. 157 . Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network. In general. This section will look at compatibility issues. There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. or three) that indicate the status of the card. Not all cards are the same. a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. Before purchasing a network card. and PCI). Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting. a Specialized Solutions. you must have Token Ring cards. Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection. The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus. An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network. the speed of the card is important. If you are installing a Token Ring network. also called PC Cards. These are little LEDs (one. Resolving these issues is actually quite simple. Micro Channel. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look. which can be a useful tool.

Finally. you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. Inc. You need to configure the card to work with your network software. Physically install the card. but you are not finished yet. you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. if you upgrade your operating system. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches. . Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer. Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course. be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. In most cases with a new card. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use. In addition. If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver. be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light indicates that data is being transferred. Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. Install the appropriate drivers for the card. the computer may not boot or the conflicting devices might not be able to work simultaneously. Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards. Note: If you must remove the case. Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot. If your system is not Plug-n-Play. this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using. If you must do this manually. Now the network adapter card is installed. 158 Specialized Solutions. Configure the IRQ and I/O address. Drivers are usually supplied with the network card. The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. If there are any conflicts. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. Connect the network cabling. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer). Each card must be configured for a different network.

Specialized Solutions. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario. some manufacturers will provide two. The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy. different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. However. In the case of UTP. AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector. as well as possible solutions. For example. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. These types of problems can be more personal in nature. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network. For example. and possibly three. If you encounter this type of situation.Chapter 6 – Network Design Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. To increase marketability of their cards. For Thinnet or Thicknet. it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines. 159 . the card should have an RJ-45 connector. Some STP cards require special connectors. the engineering department may be PC-based. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day. Inc. the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based.

Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system. with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier. Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network. and knowledge of the network operating system. boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software. As the network designer or administrator. hard work and standards. if installed. each component will work with the others. we learned about network protocols and standards. You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. By defining the standards to which the network must comply. This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card. Standards Earlier in this training course. As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards. Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network. . you are going to have your work cut out for you. Inc. With this information in hand. Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. and detail both its hardware and software. that were identically configured. With this done. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly. you will need to establish the standards for your network. 160 Specialized Solutions.

The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. but your proficiency will be very low. you find that your modem. The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements.Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers. Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system. the system will not run. For example. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase. You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device. This is a true statement. In this case. you will need to upgrade. however. Inc. A good example is Windows 95. there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. More than likely. you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. network card and/or printer no longer work. you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site. all you need to do is install the Windows XP drivers for the offending hardware. The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system. If drivers exist. Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems. Also. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. you probably do not have the necessary drivers. when upgrading from Windows 98 to Windows XP. the Internet is the answer. 161 . Specialized Solutions.

Inc. especially with the newest operating systems such as Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. it most likely will not work with Windows 2000. It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware. is the Microsoft Windows Catalog at www. This is part of the Windows Logo program. If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary. You can also look for the corresponding logos on the boxes of hardware and software that you are considering purchasing for your network.microsoft. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000 is hardware dependent. you will need to check the HCL for that product. 162 Specialized Solutions. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists an example of the minimum requirements for three operating systems: HCL and Windows 2000 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs. or hardware compatibility lists. .com/windows/catalog. This list will ship with the 2000 package (on the CD-ROM) and 2000 will make a check during installation. If you want the latest list. Here you will find the latest information about hardware and software that is Designed for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 or at least tested to be compatible with these operating systems. Microsoft Windows Catalog Still another web site to check for compatibility of hardware and software. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with Windows 2000.

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What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. Inc. 7. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3. However. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? 164 Specialized Solutions. Was this a good purchase? 9. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. but they are not all the same. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 6 1. he intends to expand the network in the future.

” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive. A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network. For example. An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals). from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices. Inc.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network. to larger hubs that can connect many more computers. Expanding a LAN with Hubs A common method for expanding networks is to use a hub.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Chapter 7 . it may be too small. Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series. Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location. Specialized Solutions. There are several different types of hubs. In addition to being called “hubs. sooner or later. 165 . This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network. you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network.

Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model. Long waits to access a printer or file.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. Depending on the objectives of the LAN. have increased response times. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network. Traffic-generating applications. You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. They do not translate or filter any information. but has one additional feature. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater. When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. the simple hub just won’t do the job. you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. amplify the signal. such as databases. Inc. Fortunately. Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. . 166 Specialized Solutions. They do however. Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network.

167 . Specialized Solutions. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. the NetBEUI protocol is not routable. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. Not all network protocols will work with a router. For example.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge. Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Inc. Routers work at the Network layer of the OSI model. Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment.

Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs. With dial-up networking. each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. Typically. does not mean that it is the best value. but connecting at this rate is rare. 168 Specialized Solutions. The first is public dial-up network lines. microwave. we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. there are two levels of service to consider. and the cost of the service. Just because the cost looks good. When thinking of telephone lines.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway Connection Services When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries. Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps. Be careful when choosing a carrier. An example of such a system is the telephone company. Inc. They are providing the cabling. These are our standard telephone connections. When considering which connection service to use. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances. these connections are slow and not very reliable. Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps. . the distance the data must travel. be sure to take into account your throughput. or dedicated. and satellite connections. lines. The second choice is leased. When thinking of a carrier. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection. it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system.

as well as those transmitted to it. Most WANs are a collection of LANs. Inc. and deals with timing issues. items such as bridges. if necessary. It can regenerate the signal. It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back. The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN. The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines. WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded. routers and communications services are used to create a WAN. A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN. These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with. It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). Specialized Solutions. 169 .

Voice and video. more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection. Voice with some quality control. The down-side of these lines is that you will have to pay for them 100% of the time instead of on an “as used” basis. Dedicated analog lines provide an instant connection. but if you have sufficient traffic. This is because you lease the line 100% of the time and therefore do not have to dial-in. you need DDS (Digital Data Service). Inc. Dedicated lines are far more expensive. Voice and data over private lines. The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. Voice and data over trunk circuits. Voice and data over trunks between computers. Data applications below 1200 bps. Basic data.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Basic voice. Application relays. Digital Connectivity When you need a faster. . Voice/radio with tone conditioning. 170 Specialized Solutions. they can be justified.

The following table lists the most common connection types: Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A Voice Channels DATA RATE (MBPS) 24 672 32 512 N/A 1. and video signals.544 Mbps transmissions.520 or 622.048 Mbps 34.736 Mbps 2. faster download than upload 51.080 (can reach 10 Gbps) OC-1 OC-3 ATM 1 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A The T1 and the T3 standard are American.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line. 171 . Specialized Solutions.52 Mbps Either 155. Inc. data.544 Mbps 44.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP. It is capable of 1. It can be used to transmit digital voice.8 Mbps 155. whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard.

a packet may be sent over multiple permanent virtual circuits (PVCs).25 based packet switched networks. Inc. Today’s networks use a different technology referred to as Frame Relay. however. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network. Obviously. since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet. . Standard PSTN lines have a very limited bandwidth of less than 56 Kbps. This made for a very reliable and very slow connection. convenient. Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast. With Frame Relay. These lines can. For this reason.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. be used for somewhat secure remote access by employing the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) and tunneling protocols. 172 Specialized Solutions. In older. X. each packet was examined at each step in the path to determine whether it was damaged. and reliable network messaging. all of which are considered reliable. so it can be both reliable and fast. A packet switched network provides multiple paths that packets could travel from source to destination. this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs. Frame Relay does not check the packet at each step in its route.

Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment. or by the specific use of the computers. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN. etc. An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within his company.) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically. This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment. or any other logical means. adding computers or adjusting resources. printers. which lays out hosts (computers. without having to change the physical picture of the network.” Specialized Solutions. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN. 173 . Inc.

and focuses on the home and business market. While not a good choice for WANs. they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps. Inc. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services. you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies. which is intended for use in the home or small business. However. ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface). One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need. ATM . it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds. . or fiber optic. This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network. It is. FDDI . These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1. while using copper telephone wires. twisted pair. video. These cells can speed communication because the network always know exactly what to expect in regard the size of the next cell.2 Gbps.Asynchronous transfer mode uses fixed length (53 byte) cells instead of packets.Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication. however. ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial. audio. ATM can be used with FAX. has two 64 Kbps 174 Specialized Solutions. media limited. ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential. it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference. Because it is fiber optic-based. As well as the common voice and data. It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles). and imaging.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN. It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. in actuality.

Inc. The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps). a call.544 Mbps). SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media. it is the European equivalent of SONET. and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control. and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control. ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface). has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1. SMDS SMDS . It carries all the bits from say. which is intended for use by large businesses. It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx). like OCx with SONET. Specialized Solutions.84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768). it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network. within one transmission frame. data and video at rates ranging from 51. This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802. It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM). It is capable of transmitting voice.6).Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps).Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. Internationally. 175 . much like E1 is to T1. SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices. To be more precise.

Modems transmit data at various speeds. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate. As we have already learned. . the term Baud has disappeared and been replaced with bps. Therefore.32bis bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard. and media. To increase our network beyond a few computers. there is a limit of 2400 Baud. a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2. Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions. However. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion. A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable. Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud. network cards. Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data. 8.600 bps. Modems are classified by a “V” rating.400 bps.22bis V. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines. connecting a few computers to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards. or over long distances. 4. etc.32 standard. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. With early modems. FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections. the Baud rate was equal to the bps. 176 Specialized Solutions. The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication. These speeds are measured as bits per second. due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of transmitting signals over long distances. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. times as fast as the Baud rate. Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56. Today. 14. designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle. The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V.32 V. Inc. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems.400 High-speed version of the V.600 bps. With this change. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56.

32terbo V. Inc. Specialized Solutions.32terbo.42 V.34 V.FastClass.600 Backwards compatible with earlier V.800 Improved V. modems. Will only communicate with another V. 28. 57. modems – error correction standard.200 Not officially a standard yet.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network V.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards. Backwards compatible with earlier V.90 19. 56. 177 .

or directly via COM ports and a cable. The difference between a simple computer (Windows XP or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows Server 2003) is the number of inbound connections. Also. The difference is how each computer is being utilized. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client. the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication. there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number. the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. You must use a Null-Modem cable. This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection. Let’s first look at connecting two computers. A system running Windows XP or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection. either via modems and telephone lines. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building). RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. On the other hand.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. With RAS. the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). For example. Since the two computers are directly connected. Actually. while a true server like Windows Server 2003 will allow 256 inbound connections. In addition. Any two computers can be connected. By running Network Connections Wizard and following the simple 178 Specialized Solutions. . A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. Inc. both of these terms mean the same thing. Windows XP has an feature called a direct cable connection. when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer.

Normally. Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking. On the client side. With this in place. These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but. RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security. Inc. in this case. the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user. 179 . the RAS software must be installed and running. but is still in use with some systems. While this was the protocol of choice for a Specialized Solutions. The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network instructions provided. your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server. you will use a modem to establish the connection. you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection. This is a relatively old standard (1984). On the server side. From this accessory. you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number. RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work. both computers must be using the same protocol. the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software.

as a less explensive alternative to costly leased lines. It cannot encrypt logon information. With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks. • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the Network layer of the OSI model. It’s only supported by RAS clients. Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP. RAS and Security. the limits of SLIP caused many problems. in today’s networks it has several disadvantages. and DECnet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide long time. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. created by PPTP and other tunneling protocols. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) provides for a secure encrypted tunnel for communication through the Internet. Encrypted Connections. VPN (Virtual Private Networks). It enables highly private network links over the public Internet. It can be used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private 180 Specialized Solutions. It transmits in text only. Inc. It supports only TCP/IP. NetBEUI. AppleTalk. This is accomplished by encapsulating one protocol with another protocol. . Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. It supports encrypted passwords. PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today. It provides security. such that only the sender and the receiver can accurately interpret the data that is being sent. IPX. Many organizations are using tunnels. It provides data compression and error control.

It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs. Thin clients are computers with no hard drive. usually a user’s credit card number. Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. UNIX. and Macintosh computers. meaning that the computers. ICA can be used with Windows. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 Active Directory use this type of security by default.. It is transparent to the user. authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well. It uses a key to encrypt the data. L2TP offers many advantages over PPTP.509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec. it does not require IP connectivity. or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network. certificates (like X. L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the latest version of the tunneling protocol. as does Novell Directory Services (NDS). ESP. discussed here in the next chapter. It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS. TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL. it only establishes the user’s identity. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. Unlike PPTP. IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header). limited RAM. SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server. 181 . AH only authenticates the user. both sending and receiving. It does not provide authorization. It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP. . Specialized Solutions. Linux. Kerberos V5. It is based on an end-to-end security model. Inc. a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE). most relating to higher security. which is the highest security method. and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission.

At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system. Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. As with all security measures. you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server. you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call. This provides for additional authentication. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. the modem configuration. In addition. Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server. This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on. Before installation. If it does not work the first time. RAS provides several layers of security. and any other software that might use the modem. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. 182 Specialized Solutions. If another software package has “control” of the modem. installing RAS can be frustrating. Inc. All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. . This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary. Security Host (Bastion Host) A security host or bastion host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one. The type of communication port you intend to configure. and thus more security.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to providing remote sharing of information. you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller.

you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses. As a networking professional. it is not always the solution for every network. You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps. Inc. you want to keep the costs down.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. Specialized Solutions. and you don’t need a fulltime connection. The latest Microsoft server operating systems such as Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 have wizards that make installing an RAS server much simpler. 183 .

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH 184 Specialized Solutions. Definition . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

25 Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. 185 .Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X.

a router. a bridge. What is analog communication? 5. Name three RAS protocols.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 7 1. Name four forms of RAS security. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2. 186 Specialized Solutions. Inc.544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. and a gateway. 9. 4. 7. Define a repeater. Name three advanced WAN environments. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. . What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. 10.

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TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol). which will be discussed later in the chapter. Specialized Solutions. these protocols were available on UNIX early on. TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX. TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. 189 . TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. the recognized standard for internetworking altogether. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. TCP/IP. It is important for the networking professional to know that TCP/IP is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. some are considered to be Internet standards. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress). Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. known as BSD UNIX. From this beginning. RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP. SNMP. and the Internet. Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor. Transport. TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project. TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard. and FTP. such as SMTP. it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. Inc. and is in fact. Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. This is the most common protocol suite with which a networking professional works. intranets. It is also used with Ethernet networks. The four layers are: Application. are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board). and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. Internet and Network Interface. as well as Internet standards.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is an internet (between network) protocol. Also. and is usually seen in the combination. These standards. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers.

There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections. Inc.Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 190 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model. These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP. .

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they can be retransmitted in a timely manner. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model. Should lost or corrupted packets be detected. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams. However. A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. Inc. . On a TCP/IP network. This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports. and reassembles the data. The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier. Let’s take a look at how this works. Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others. Let’s take a look at them. and for the Network+ exam. It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission. called packets.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. TCP breaks data into tiny chunks. Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets. there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. It then routes the information to its destination. The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 192 Specialized Solutions. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP.

and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number.e. but does not acknowledge delivery. TCP will retransmit the data. and a Specialized Solutions. This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted. Although the terms.535. i. This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received. etc. or port numbers. nor does it check for errors. The port number identifies the application associated with the data.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number. and specify a certain protocol. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number. IP merely routes the data. meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet. UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session. consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. Telnet. IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP. HTTP. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. UDP transports data. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent. The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned.. TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination. The addresses. 193 . The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses. a port is different from a socket. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point. If the transmission has not been successful. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type. The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535. IP is connectionless. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. Inc. FTP. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model. Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet. the protocol number. For each packet sent.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide checksum. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer. To be more specific, the checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. When the data arrives at the destination computer, the receiving computer performs the calculation. If the checksum is the same, the data is assumed to have arrived intact. The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network, it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. Time to Live – provides TTL data. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. This cache contains a list of all the devices with which it is communicating. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five, TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server, run searches, or access multiple mail servers. 194 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet, which is what you use when you send out mail. SMTP is server to server, whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers, usually over the Internet. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People.” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files, by typing in a user name, or the word “anonymous.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents, such as web pages. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts, using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP, allowing access to a secure Web server. It uses port 443, the secure SSL port instead of port 80, the HTTP port. HTTPS, as well as SSL, allow for the use of X.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user.

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Naming Systems
Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. Remember, we are working in two worlds, the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names. Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking. DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates hostnames to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. DNS functions like a telephone directory. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers. For example, the domain bigcompany.com may have an IP address of 192.49.238.33. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose, such as government, education, commerce, or interest. Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC, also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. These domains require suffixes such as .com for businesses or .edu for educational institutions. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains:

.com .net .edu .org .gov .mil .biz .pro .info .xx

Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance, Big Company Inc. in Italy might be http://www.Bigcompany.com.it or in Australia www.Bigcompany.com.au. Also, .tv is gaining in popularity. Tuvalu is a small country, which receives financial benefit from the registration fees.

WINS In a Windows-based network, the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network. NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode, leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application. A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast), P-node (peer-peer), M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). 198 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. It predates DNS. It must be manually created and changed. LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. It must be manually created and changed. IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. For example, it could connect a LAN to the Internet. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet, it must be assigned a static IP address. This means that it is permanently assigned. It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers, sooner or later we will run out of numbers. In smaller isolated networks, IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. However, as the number of addresses required increases, you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. To resolve this, IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. That is, assigned on an “as needed” basis. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. When not needed, the address can be leased to another host. To accomplish this, you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address, subnet mask, and a default gateway if needed. Notice that the IP addresses are leased. This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. A lease can be renewed. When the term of the lease is at 50%, the client will send a request for renewal. If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available), the lease will be renewed without interruption. If not renewed, the client will attempt to contact the DHCP server that issued it the IP address directly about every 5 minutes until it reaches 87.5% of the lease, at which time the client will broadcast a request to obtain an address from any available DHCP server. If all addresses are being used or a DHCP server does not respond, the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user. In this case, the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

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like a LAN. The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client. NAT also acts as a type of firewall. IP Proxy Servers Earlier. the proxy server. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (public IP address). NAT. it serves many clients through only one connection. It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses. to share a single connection to the Internet. depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time. a NAT is just a device or program that translates one set of IP addresses to another set of IP addresses. It contains DHCP.e. since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. Actually. i. who think they are communicating directly with one another. ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time. It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. and DNS. The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties. Inc. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other. but it is most often used between a private network and the networks public address or addresses. Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network. The proxy server is actually making a connection to another network or to the Internet on behalf of the client. In the case of a proxy server. The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. 200 Specialized Solutions.

Inc. 201 .Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Specialized Solutions.

An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets. A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39. the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique). let’s now take a look at IP address numbers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names. it is not easy for us.967. .11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------16 8 2 1 128 64 32 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet. Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them. This IP address is a 32-bit binary number.294. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8. Inc.39. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet.00100111. 202 Specialized Solutions.00001000. Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256. The result is called a dotted decimal number. they are broken down into four octets. Internet IP addresses.2 billion) different numbers. are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes. Although that is easy for a computer. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes. To simplify these addresses. however. A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4. Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address. So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33.8.194.296 (4. 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194.

203 . the network is divided into classes. 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) Specialized Solutions.194 where the Network ID would be 193. you should pay special attention the Classes A. The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000).194 would be an example of a Class A address. Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks.194 would be the Host ID. The class can be determined by the value of the first octet.39. The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191. the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID.8 and the Host ID would be 194. An example of a Class C IP address would be 193. only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID).39.) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126. B and C. Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components.39.194. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000).194.39 would be the Network ID and 8. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID.8. There are five common classes: A through E. For the Network+ exam. Within classes. Depending on the assignment. In this case 129. The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID). The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000). Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use. An example of a Class B IP address would be 129. The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39. The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID.39. In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID.8.8. The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33. The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID). Inc.8. The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223. (A host may be any device on the network.

All in use and no longer available. so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts.214 possible Host ID numbers. This is the loopback address. Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID. there are 16. the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic. Also. if a network is going to be connected to the Internet.534 possible Host ID numbers. Likewise. 204 Specialized Solutions.191 192 .126 128 . Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available.223 In addition. Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs. there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and for multicasting and are not available for normal host addresses.777.used for medium-sized networks. Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time. with the least number of Network IDs. specifically 127. B or C address.0. there are only 65. Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 . You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts.0. Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A. Class B . As we mentioned earlier. Inc. This organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center). Class C . Class C IP addresses are still available. . Class B uses two octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID. you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address.1) Class A .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID.used by very large networks. (For example.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses.

as well as ease of configuration and security built right in. An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. Anycast. You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot. however. which only uses 32-bit addressing. and Multicast. Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Specialized Solutions. demand high bandwidth. which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits. The address types are Unicast. It uses 128-bit addressing. The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. however. Rather than having “classes” like IPv4.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4. It would make it unclear as to what was represented. IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers (0 to 9. It does. as compared to IPv4. 205 . This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field.net. Inc. VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic. use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address. For example. then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme. IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP). Unicast is an address for a single host. to define the address type. IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology.

An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one.1 with IPv4. All in all. The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1.0. is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix. 206 Specialized Solutions.0. Inc. Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link. just like 127. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address. Multicast. A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses. Site-local address.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address. which replaces broadcast. Finally. IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking. . since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain.

00000000. Inc. a large university may have a network spread over several buildings and perhaps remote campuses. Since a router connects each subnet. The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address.0.255.255.0 (Class A). Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask.255.0 (Class B). or 225.255. 207 .216 hosts) Class B (65.255. all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet. only the traffic that is not local will pass through.777. Specialized Solutions.255.0. Anding is the binary addition that the router uses to make this determination.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of creating more than one private network from one public network address by customizing your subnet mask. have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right. The number of 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network. A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) in which all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address. If you “and” the IP address to the subnet mask.0. You must however.11111111.0 (Class C).255. you can reduce the overall network traffic. This is done with binary addition (anding).0. a subnet mask can be 255.0. For example: 11111111. lets look at subnet masks.0 255. For example.0.0 In regard to classful addressing . Default Subnet Masks 255.534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s.0. You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet.00000000 or 255. which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address. the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class).0 255. a router can determine which addresses are local and which addresses are for other subnets within the network. 255. Before looking at anding. By using a concept called anding. In this example. separating it from the host portion of the address.0 Class A (16. By using subnets.

Any local addresses will not pass through. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID.32 and the Host ID is 7. Inc.32.194) 11111111. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet. let’s and it to the subnet mask of 255. and through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33.0. .194. By using this method. using our previous example of 33. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet.00001000.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Remember.0.8.00000000 (255.32.7.11000010 (33. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 208 Specialized Solutions.39.32.8. while the Host ID 0. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now.00000000.00000000. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones. thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network.194.0) equals 00100001.8.0.194.0.0.224.00100000.39. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment. Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33.8.11100000.00000000 (33. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7.194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask.8.0. 00100001.00100111.224. it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address.

A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card. 209 .a.0 Number of Networks 126 16. Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate. If a router is connected to two subnets.b. A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network.255.216 65.0. Be sure to include some room for growth of the network.384 2.0. Specialized Solutions.a. it will require an address for each subnet. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring).255.c to 191. Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment.a.0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255.b.c to 126.255.b.0.b. • • • • Connect physically remote local networks. There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required.b.0 255.152 Number of Hosts 16.255.c to 223.0.0 255.0 255. Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet.255.c 128. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking. Inc.b.a.0. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet.097.777.255.0 255.a.0.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001.c 192.a.c Default Subnet Mask 255.

000 hosts.255. we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host. We use this formula to determine the number of subnets that will be created by borrowing bits from the hosts.248.128 255. Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255.255. As we begin to subnet.0 255.36.255.252.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16.255.255.192. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255. The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network.0.0.255.255.0 255. First. To begin this process. you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC.255.255. You should remember the formula 2n-2 where n is the number of bits borrowed.255.255.248 255.254.0 255.240 255.224 255. With this number.255.255.0 255.382 Hosts N/A 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 210 Specialized Solutions. Inc.0 255.255.0 255.255.192 255.240.224.255.255. we have one network with approximately 65.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign. We will use an InterNIC ID of 191. .255.255.255.0 255.255.

255. 3. We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID.255. the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements. Specialized Solutions. 211 . you can use the scientific calculator supplied with any Windows operating system.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255. lets keep our network ID of 191.255.255.255. giving us a total requirement of 18. Inc.192 255.255.240 255. 2.255. Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 0 6 14 30 62 Hosts N/A 30 14 6 2 To make this easy.255.248 255. 1. let’s add 4 more for future expansions. Change the mode to binary (Bin). we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs. For this example.255.224 255. Now we get out our Windows calculator. Enter the value of 18.255. Just to be on the safe side. The number 18 will now be in binary (10010).36 as assigned to us by InterNIC. Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator).

For this example. . To keep things simple. Count the number of binary digits (5).0. you can determine the available Network IDs.224. The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 212 Specialized Solutions.000 hosts each. let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255. Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth). the subnet mask would be 255.36.255.0 and the network address of 192. This will be the number of bits required for the third octet. Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask. This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. Inc.255. instead of selecting the next subnet on our list. Had we needed to add a new subnet.248. we would have had to reconfigure the entire network. our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets.

160 192. The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID. this means that the number starts with .0. on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255. and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet.36.192 Determine the Host IDs The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001).Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192.32 192.36. The only restrictions are that you cannot use .000 or . A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255. This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address.36. Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network. these are reserved for broadcast addresses. The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network.0. they are on the same network.0.36 (overall network address) 192.255.36. For example. Inc. indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively. If it is different. or one that is located on a remote network. 213 .0. the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery.0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255.64 192. In dotted-decimal format.36.255.) Specialized Solutions.128 192. (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask. up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID.0.001 in the last octet.36.255.255.96 192.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255.126 128 .0.255.0 255.0.0 255.255.191 192 .223 214 Specialized Solutions.255. Inc.0.0 CLASS ID 1 . .

Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. in addition to other hardware and software configurations. or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically. DNS You can enable or disable DNS.” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server. 215 . you may specify a particular IP address. other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window. you will need to type in the specified default gateway. IP Address Here. The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using. click the Protocols tab. However. This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information. Inc. and enter the information in the appropriate fields. Next. Specialized Solutions. Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor. Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways. Click the radio button to enable DNS. On some screens.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. and click Properties. right-click on TCP/IP Protocol. Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway.

This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration. . 216 Specialized Solutions. default gateway. It also includes the DNS configuration. Inc. WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology. and subnet mask configuration.

Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet Definition Specialized Solutions.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. 217 .

Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword POP3 Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 218 Specialized Solutions. .

10. 12. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Specialized Solutions. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Review Questions Chapter 8 1. Inc. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. What is the purpose of DNS? 5. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8. What is an FQDN and give an example? 6. 219 . What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2. 4. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups. What is a domain? 7.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 220 Specialized Solutions. Inc. .

221 .SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks. the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network. Using one of these products. Inc. In addition. From the database and the software interface. Specialized Solutions. It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data. The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base). Network Managers . you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network. The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator. you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device. Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager). Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network. This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager. An additional SNMP command is the trap. It will respond to commands issued by the management software. The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents. Get-next: request the next value in a sequence. Set: sends a configuration value to a device. 222 Specialized Solutions. Inc. A community can also restrict access. These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt. . The three commands are: Get: request data from the device. therefore providing a level of security.

and TCP/IP events and errors. NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. 223 . Inc. shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination. This includes critical system errors. Specialized Solutions. TRACERT. Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred). Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table. Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses. Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis. Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table. but did not cause a stop. NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. and normal (i). Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports. Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics. serious (!).Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names. ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar. clicking Run. . 224 Specialized Solutions. and typing in either cmd or command. Inc.

and will display the current configuration of a computer. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address. Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client. Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once.12. Specialized Solutions. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. the IP of a host might be 192. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same. NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain.168.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools. NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address. Ping works at the IP level. RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address. IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration. PING The lowest level test to find out if you have connectivity to a remote host. and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot. 225 .1. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter. NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain. IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu. Inc. NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device. For example.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 226 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition Specialized Solutions. Inc. 227 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 9 1. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. each device will need to be _________ compliant. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. List as many as you can. . 3. Inc. 228 Specialized Solutions. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2.

from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files. Inc. Specialized Solutions. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. unless safeguards are built in. Password practices and procedures. There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. Whether the sabotage is malicious.Chapter 10 – Network Security Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created). she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of her particular network. is right up front. before you set up the network. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems. can deliberately damage your network. A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords. the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network. the results can be devastating. Therefore. or an irresponsible prank. or at least have your plan intact. Users should be held accountable for the security of their individual workstations. The best time to set up your network security. Very few users will have access to administrative features. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. 229 . Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user. depending on the roles they play in your company. motivated by curiosity. of dollars. creating chaos and costing thousands. As you might have already deduced. you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent. Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. data encryption. or even millions. User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access. or anyone who has access to your network for that matter. A disgruntled employee. Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company. Most users will also be able to access shared files.

the user will be inclined to be less attentive to personal security. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. In a manner similar to the signature on a document. where the administrator can easily retrieve it. Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model. It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. Users can access a shared resource. A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place. However. The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system. 230 Specialized Solutions. and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security. a gesture of respect for the user and the system. while the original file remains intact. such as a template or another type of file. . among other things. should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required. passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users. Password protection is. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source. The user can edit the file as necessary. Inc.

231 .Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Security Specialized Solutions. Inc.

if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet. by forwarding application traffic through the firewall. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system. As the system administrator. but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information. Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. at the very least. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network. and work at the application level. and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. If you are accessing the Internet from your network. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. Inc. It is an important part of a network security plan. 232 Specialized Solutions. . Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs. Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter. This needs to be handled in such a way that production will not be interrupted. they can be host-based. For example. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. you would block port 80. or auditing. you will most likely be using E-mail.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network. and even more often on larger networks. Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. Files need to be backed up daily. you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs.

Inc. Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. Floppy disk capacities today. so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security. Ideally. Although slower than RAID. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available. As a computer professional. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk. and how often backups will be performed. how the backup information will be tested. Specialized Solutions. In addition. While planning your backup strategy. for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity.44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups. Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. rather than one larger server. and the procedure to follow for recovery. the second server should serve as a backup to the first. and are more commonly known as RAID. If anything happens to one. It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. These multiple disks are called disk arrays. which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs. There are several options available. you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data. Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today. the other can take over without compromising network operations. 233 . Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. Remember. range from 1.Chapter 10 – Network Security It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers. As you might guess. offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other. it is still a viable option. called the backup medium. the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. plan to fail. those who fail to plan. This backup medium is suitable for small companies. you must answer important questions about what to backup.

This type of backup is usually performed weekly. 234 Specialized Solutions. Full. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups.. and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level. will backup all selected data on the network. To restore. . The Full backup. This method will take the largest amount of storage media. When recovering from a failure. the last full backup and all of the incremental backup tapes will be needed. A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server. as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. This usually involves some degree of redundancy.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk. as its name implies. but will be the easiest to restore. but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. despite the presence of hardware or software failures. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space. is called fault tolerance. Differential. Differential and Incremental. Inc. both the last differential backup tape copy and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used. and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full. Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup. This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed.

RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme.Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 .Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved. Inc.Chapter 10 – Network Security The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 . and is a standard feature of RAID systems. The same data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure. If more than one disk is lost.Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 . such as a single file. this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful. With this method. Typically. If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up. (Provides no fault tolerance. support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing. however. This technique may be applied in either software or hardware. is not being used commercially at the moment to an Specialized Solutions. 235 .) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk. administrators are alerted when one disk fails so that they can “regenerate” the RAID set before another disk has a chance to fail. Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies. so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping. this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent. if anything happens to one of the drives.Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 . This. then the data in the entire array is also lost. including Novell NetWare.Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 . which provides for even more fault tolerance.Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 . Several operating systems.” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data. However. a copy of the data is spread across all of the disks based on a mathematical formula such that any one disk in the set can be lost and the other disks will have a copy of all of the information that it contained.

the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. Cost. Inc. There are different types of UPS devices. allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. since it is not dependent on another computer. A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. but at a greater cost. Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI). and sags in the power supply. Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached. It functions faster. In this case. but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. surges. It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide large degree. The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. also called surge suppressors. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity. Like RAID-10. RAID-53. and each type provides power for a different length of time. are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes. RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. These types of RAID are not as commonly used and are not as likely to be on the test. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power. is an issue. as you might guess. SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. such as battery time remaining. it offers better performance. is like RAID-10. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. 236 Specialized Solutions. which allows for better performance. . RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array).

personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy. The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters and use a combination of letters. Inc. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them. This is known as a security audit. but are easy enough that users can remember them. Users working with sensitive information such as budgets. and troubleshoot before the trouble starts. Specialized Solutions. should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being applied. Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others. include characters. If the network administrator needs to use the workstation. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days. numbers and symbols. away. an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis. Some “classified” networks require password changes every day. symbols. So. Passwords should be changed more frequently in high-security networks.Chapter 10 – Network Security Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network. no matter who they are. etc. This holds users accountable for their actions on the network. 237 . No one. he or she will know how to accomplish the task. Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed. and numbers. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas. There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files. In order for this policy to be effective.” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents.

DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. This method uses a 56-bit private key. Adi Shamir. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data. can understand the message. and is used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. other than the person for whom the message was intended. This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem. and Leonard Adleman. and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon. A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient. The name comes from their first initials. It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest. Even with encryption. DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used. Inc. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. 238 Specialized Solutions. the Internet is not the most secure of environments. .

The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key. it is not a completely secure encryption method. Specialized Solutions. It is similar to DES. both on location and at backup sites. which is used to encrypt data and to decrypt it. is called a digital signature.000 known viruses. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. Inc. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability. Prevention should also be addressed in the plan. much less a day. It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. Many viruses are simple annoyances. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method. files downloaded from the Internet. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex.Chapter 10 – Network Security Extra data appended to a message. If the receiver wishes to respond. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. Viruses can be spread by various sources including: shareware. There are over 60. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages. it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities. With this method of encryption both parties have the same key. As the name implies. software from unknown origins. There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run. 239 . Symmetric Keys can also be used. and bulletin boards. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off. will ensure a much quicker recovery. which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption. Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters. but they are less secure.

Keep your anti-virus program updated. (prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk). Macro Virus: These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened. (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail). there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market. enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing a new operating system. Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks. they will go to work on the system. Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet. . Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines. The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files). Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world. Inc. just from running a program. These days. If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes. Make sure it is compatible with all of the operating systems that you use. 240 Specialized Solutions. they mean that when you open a document you are running a program. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site. It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs. Use extreme caution when you download files. but when loaded. Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine. With this in mind. Hundreds of viruses are written each month.

Inc. 241 .Chapter 10 – Network Security Specialized Solutions.

Inc. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. . Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 242 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Specialized Solutions. 243 . 3. What is the function of a firewall? 4. passwords are assigned to __________. 5. In a share level model. Inc. What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2.Chapter 10 – Network Security Review Questions Chapter 10 1. The acronym RAID stands for __________. What are the three common levels of RAID? 6.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 Specialized Solutions.

Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause. The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks. not when all is well. or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now. After all. Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. implement a solution. identify the affected area. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. but they often hold the keys to the problem. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution. test the result. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. Remember. Inc. 245 . while for others it is a struggle. Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). The eight parts are as follows: establish the symptoms. Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. To make matters worse. it seems well defined by the person who calls and complains! But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. computers never fail at a convenient time. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. For those who must endure the struggle. Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. and good listening skills. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you. troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. a pen (or pencil). Specialized Solutions.Conclusion Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. Remember. This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems. the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem. The user of the computer or network is your best source of information. if you are the expert. If fact. establish what has changed. The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper.” is really just the symptom and not the true cause. What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. “as reported. select the most probable cause. It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier. you must be organized. not the symptom. In order to do this. This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. In most cases. Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned. As a troubleshooter. you are looking for the cause. Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. They always fail in the middle of a job. you will most likely be called when there is a problem. and progress with some specific tools that you can employ to simplify the process. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software.

These never seem to occur when you are present. network or computer moved. If it is an operatorinduced problem. screen changes. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation. and so forth). Inc. but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure. You may. The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work toward the more complex. the failure occurs. and when. With a little experience. have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory. Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of the failure. the process of elimination is all that you can do. This will take time and patience. You will need to create your own list based on the situation. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before. Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure. Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones. do not intimidate the user. it is important to observe how it is created.) Show me how to create the error. Describe any changes in the computer (noise. If possible. The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that caused the failure. recent software upgrade. Do not make the questions too technical. Sometimes. however. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever. Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know. For example. or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred. The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. . You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. lights. and most importantly. One thing that might 246 Specialized Solutions. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience. have someone demonstrate the failure to you. as well as the results. Be sure to observe the failure yourself.

If you must make any assumptions.Conclusion help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made. The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally. Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems. Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. 247 . isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user Specialized Solutions. you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood. but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration. but to call you. then you know for sure that the network is physically working. create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. it is important to follow it through. make a plan and follow it. is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly. then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. but you cannot receive any E-mail. Inc. If for example. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. For example. You may have to refer back to them later. In the case of a network problem. write them down. If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be). It requires two simple steps. Starting from the top. and move forward. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up. Document every action and its results. Once a plan is created. Do not make any assumptions. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. That way the “evidence” is not disturbed.

it may require some additional effort. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work). For example. you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems. you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. the problem may be caused by the operator. Note: If the problem is software-oriented. Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities. Implement the solution. you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem). However. In these cases. repair or replacement is usually all that is needed. With hardware. no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Once the search has been narrowed. if the problem is software or configuration related. and not the hardware or the system. as well as the one that is causing problems. To resolve these types of problems. This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome. Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures. This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how. if an operator is afraid of computers in general. In these situations. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures. either repair or replace the defect. Inc. be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes. . It is important to use another operator. Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. 248 Specialized Solutions. start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not.

Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists. Specialized Solutions. the problem. Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user. Document the solution Finally. and the repair. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms. maintain. you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem. there is no substitute for experience. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems.Conclusion Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again. Inc. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle. This is one way to build. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. or a follow up call just to make sure all is well. 249 . The basis for this policy is that once the system is running. You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience. document the problem and the repair. and share experience. You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. In troubleshooting. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician. a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier. . let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling. Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network. Punch Down Tool 250 Specialized Solutions. Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals. Inc. Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack. The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire. Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools. They secure the connection between the wires and the block.

251 . A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other. Since it is made up of wires. whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. as well as the electrical power in the computer. a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red). If your meter does not have a continuity setting. For example. resistance. These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. If the test is negative (no light or noise). There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires. which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound. in principle. very easy to troubleshoot. Specialized Solutions. Some meters will let you test for current as well. These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted). The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe. You can test for AC and DC voltage.Conclusion Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. When working with network cabling. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up. the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. the circuit is broken. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps). We will start by looking at a multimeter. Network cabling is. In a wire for example. which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device. a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete. Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured. When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing. the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. With it you can test various electronic components. Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. and continuity. it is still possible to test for continuity. it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters. we will have to know how to test for continuity. If the wire is broken. Inc. you can have only one of two problems.

When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. these tools are often called a fox and a hound. and test at the other end. if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building. thus locating the wires. However. The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky. testing for continuity will require an additional wire. You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician should have one. to find pairs of wires in a bundle. Inc. this is not a problem. The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator. called tone generators and tone locators. . However. The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. This applies a signal on the wires. it will emit a tone. there are more often than not. 252 Specialized Solutions. When used together. If both ends are in the same location. several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel). Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet).

the location of any break or short can be determined. These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. are usually a PC with a special network card. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions. and therefore back to the network card. also called packet sniffers. Software analyzers.Conclusion Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. If you are able to send a signal and have it return. Be careful when using a crossover cable. Specialized Solutions. The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling. It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. A loopback cable is just what the name implies. It has the transmit and receive wires connected. A crossover cable is similar to a loopback. because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable. Inc. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa). Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic. Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire. but is double-ended. They will monitor network traffic. there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment. Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters. By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning. Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable. 253 . capture packets and generate reports.

but used for fiber optic cabling. . 254 Specialized Solutions. OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR.

due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck. 255 . the network.Conclusion Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. the traffic is not moving. or a disk resource. For some reason. and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail. Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security. Inc. Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords. you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors. Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam. The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network. Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so. It could be the processor. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact. but can be caused by a disconnected cable. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. Some passwords are case-sensitive. If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate. This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. Therefore. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network.

so does the traffic. check for memory bottlenecks. Inc. You must defragment the drive. the network slows down. These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours. deletes. If slow loading persists even after defragmenting. When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it. For example.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves. You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives. and moves information. Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 256 Specialized Solutions. As networks grow. . tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night.

The first step is to PING the loopback address. 257 . you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu. On a Macintosh system. you will use it often.0.1. On a Windows 95/98 computer. but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card. and TRACERT commands to test the network. Remember this address.0. Specialized Solutions. If you are using TCP/IP. Inc. PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on your intranet or on the Internet your packet is going. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities. This will test the protocol stack in the computer. because as a network professional. These commands work from a command prompt. The loopback address is 127. It also lets you know the time that it takes. This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS. PING.Conclusion Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG. TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination.

XP. Inc. This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT.6.48. or 2003 system.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195. 258 Specialized Solutions. your dialog box will look like the following. WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly. WINIPCFG. If you are using Windows.55. . 2000.

55. Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems. Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: Specialized Solutions. It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network. 259 . Inc.48. With each step. you will be testing a larger portion of the network. PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer. and so on. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday. Usually this means you have the wrong IP address. you receive a message like the following. they must be okay. you have encountered a problem. use the ipxping command. Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t.6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation. If at any stage.Conclusion PING 195. the server. For the IPX/SPX networks. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol. then there is a problem with the protocol.

Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address. These are text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses. Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem. have two names.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. we learned that workstations. Earlier. One is the IP address number. . respectively. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name. but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause. the first thing to do is find out what has changed. while green lights indicate that all is well. That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server). In general. If these files are being used. suspect a loose or disconnected cable. they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. you can be sure that the network is not being detected.” With nslookup. we need to look at four limiting factors on performance. Beyond that. To resolve this problem. Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files. you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory. If present. Inc. How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution. If no lights are on. 260 Specialized Solutions. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. or hosts. they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network. (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details. If there is a sudden change in performance. you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector. The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer.

is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). This can slow down data transfer. Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. For example. You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request. The speed limit. if the traffic gets too congested. Latency Small delays in packet movement that are caused by devices is called latency. An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation. you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. This means that for a small amount of time. Inc. but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks. for the most part. A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache.Conclusion Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing. or maximum speed that traffic can move. Therefore. if you are experiencing slow printing. the more packets that can be moved). you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed. To create a baseline. it can send data at a faster than rated speed. if any one component is performing poorly. adding to the network load. The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system. you will know the high. This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. Latency delays. 261 . The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now. slow. Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory. and average time to print the document. but are interrelated. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. Just like our highway. The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps). after you identify the problem. everything slows down. are negligible. Resolving performance problems can be easy. Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. For example. at a later date. Then. Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays. Specialized Solutions. it will affect the entire network. From this information. The answer lies in creating a performance baseline.

percent of network utilization. Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network. etc. you will be able to monitor such events as processor time. Windows Performance Monitor 262 Specialized Solutions. Windows has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools. etc. With this activated. Inc. With this tool. . you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself. available memory.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events. To collect these statistics.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. 263 .Conclusion KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Inc. Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition Specialized Solutions.

You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slowly. You have located the cable in question #3. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8. What tool would you need to find the short? 5. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1. You have just connected a workstation to the network. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2. After repairing a problem. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Conclusion 264 Specialized Solutions. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. What is the loopback IP address? 7. . and think it might be shorted. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3. You need to know the IP address of a workstation.

or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. To measure your retention of these materials. the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. and as often. We love to hear from our students. as you like. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material. be sure to review any areas that need improvement. Inc. 265 . be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site. When you are ready to schedule your exam. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. at Specialized Solutions. so if you have any questions.Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. After taking a practice exam. Remember. start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course. you are ready to sit for your certification exam. our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. Specialized Solutions. Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs. and don’t forget to use the Glossary. When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 266 Specialized Solutions.

Inc. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same. It is expressed in ohms. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. • • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series.Appendix A – Tech Summary Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing coaxial Ethernet cabling. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 Specialized Solutions. They are specified based on their impedance. 267 . you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule. Maximum of 4 repeaters. Only 3 segments can contain nodes.

RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core. . Length (meters) Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment Max Segments Max. Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 10Base5 Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Bus 500 10 100 5 4 10Base2 Bus 185 10 30 5 4 3 268 Specialized Solutions. ArcNet networks. Military specification of RG-58 A/U. Description Stranded wire core. Broadband transmission. Inc. such as cable television. but also used for broadband transmissions. Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59.

Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch.Appendix A – Tech Summary UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps. Not Defined Two 62. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Plenum grade. IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch. Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG. Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch. Inc. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). 269 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Specialized Solutions. Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps.5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). Contains a shield for use under carpets. Same as type 1. but adds voice capability along with data. Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Data grade up to 100 Mbps. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Voice-grade cable. Two STP –26 AWG wire. Six twisted pairs. Two STP – 26 AWG wire.

9 802.6 802. 802.1 802.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model. Inc. They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls.4 802.2 802.3 802.10 802.5 802. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802.7 802.12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 270 Specialized Solutions.11 802.x Standard 802.8 802.

Inc.Appendix A – Tech Summary IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer. 271 . The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2. COM4 COM1. No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually Specialized Solutions. however. COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs. there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address.LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F . The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F .LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 272 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

Inc.Appendix A – Tech Summary 3A0 to 3AF 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model Specialized Solutions. 273 .

x.x.0 Number of Networks 126 16.255.x 128. x.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Gateways Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Brouter Bridges Switches NICs.x Default Subnet Mask 255.x.214 65.x.0 255.x to 223. Inc.x.255.384 2. Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001.x.0.x.x.534 254 274 Specialized Solutions.x. Repeaters Computers Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address.097.x.255.x.0.777.0 255. Hubs.x 192.x to 191.152 Number of Host 16.0. .x to 126.

it will return.Appendix A – Tech Summary TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device.1) to test the IP architecture and configuration. Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks. and default gateway. Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address. Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. Inc. If all is well. Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the Linux user’s network interface configuration. Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses).0. 275 . the subnet address. the subnet mask. Use the loopback address (127.0. Sends a test packet to a specified address. PING ARP RARP Specialized Solutions.

all computers are connected to a hub. Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents. . all computers are connected in a series. NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology. In a star topology. Inc. Used to check the status of current IP connections. 276 Specialized Solutions. Used to verify the route to a remote host.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it. ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries. (Pronounced Trace Route. Used to check the resolution of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses.) Used to verify entries on a DNS server.

all computers are connected to each other. Specialized Solutions. Inc.Appendix A – Tech Summary In a ring topology. 277 . all computers are logically connected in a circle. In a mesh topology.

Protocol Analyzer 278 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages. resistance. . Can also be used for precise voltage measurements. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks. TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals. and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry. Also called a network analyzer. Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. Inc.

hubs.Appendix A – Tech Summary Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations. and bridges). and networks. Displays or prints a list of events. 279 . routers. Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers. Event Viewer SNMP Specialized Solutions. Used to provide information for network baselines. servers. interface cards. Inc.

.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 280 Specialized Solutions. Inc.

com Novell http://www.Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www. Inc.com Other Helpful Sites http://www.novell.microsoft.cnet.com Specialized Solutions. 281 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 282 Specialized Solutions. . Inc.

It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry. This is a common code for basic characters and numbers. 283 . The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards. Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes. In the computing industry. search for these organizations on the Internet. CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. For additional information. EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set. Specialized Solutions. it is responsible for establishing standards for communication. This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry.Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. let alone the networking industry. Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector. As its name implies. Inc. ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below).

Inc. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model. 284 Specialized Solutions. Inc. . the IEEE is subdivided into committees. This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another. Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused. See Appendix A for a summary of the 802. These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. the data can be smoothly transferred.x sub-committees. As long as both are SQL compliant. ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards. The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802. As you may guess from its name.x committee. its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language. Since they cover a wide variety of equipment.

Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE. Payment is made at the time of registration.com for Prometric or www. credit card or voucher. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like. When you call. Date you wish to take the test. Payment must be made each time you take the test. Prices subject to change without notice. 285 . Specialized Solutions.2test. either by credit card. and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE. Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time. or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer. go to www. please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number. To register via the Internet. Inc. Method of payment.vue. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers.com for VUE. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test.

Inc. .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 286 Specialized Solutions.

A continuously variable signal. usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). program. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. or computers on the network (nodes). A dedicated server for applications. Software. The highest layer of the OSI Model. or bits per second (bps). Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. so they can communicate with other applications or nodes. these three terms are often used interchangeably. it supplies functions to applications. American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness.Appendix E – Glossary Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. Inc. The file server on an AppleTalk network. 287 . Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth Specialized Solutions. or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. The Apple networking protocol. opposite of digital. The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies.

GM. Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address 288 Specialized Solutions. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. or DEC. A form of mobile computing. A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems. Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals). The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC. A bus driver. Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. IP Address used by medium-sized networks. Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances. . An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. IP Address used by very large networks. Inc. such as Microsoft. these are all in use at the present time. Hardware that connects one network with another. The signal flow is uni-directional. such as IBM.

or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. or Cyclic redundancy Code. at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level. Inc. 289 .Appendix E – Glossary Client Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable User computer “being served” by another computer. to allow other tasks to run. stored. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. which is. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation. Cyclic Redundancy Check. The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media. is a number derived from. itself. called a server. Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption Specialized Solutions. from computer or network to another. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. or language. using a specific protocol. Data that is encoded for security reasons. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor. The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable. Same as a hub. Software used by the client. A form of multitasking.

A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients. in a round-robin fashion. Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 290 Specialized Solutions. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one. If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives. DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. (Simple “on” or “off” signal. the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk. Also called data striping. Inc. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks.) Being able to recover data from a disaster. such as an individual file. It also receives acknowledgement frames. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly. The Data Link layer splits data into frames. This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . for sending on the Physical layer. so that one can take over for the other if it fails. A limited form of bus mastering. Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency. this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data. .

25 packet switching technology. File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network. with a very large amount of storage space for shared files. Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. A network’s central computer. error detection. sent over a communications channel. File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once. Specialized Solutions. A group of bits containing address information. 291 DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex . A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received. Inc. A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard.Appendix E – Glossary DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. An improved version of X. and other control information. Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits.

GSNW Half-Duplex Header HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address 292 Specialized Solutions. even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. RFC 791. that enables two networks. Inc. test packets. but only one at a time. is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages. A network topology that combines bus. The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses. and other information. HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. It precedes the actual data. . RFC 792. to communicate with each other. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture. defined in STD 5. Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). using different protocols. Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol. and informational messages related to IP. is usually represented in dotted decimal notation. or ring topologies. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5. star.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Gateway A computer that acts as a translator.

Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer. Specialized Solutions. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver.Appendix E – Glossary IPCONFIG IPsec IRQ DOS command that tells you the IP address for your computer. data. Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer. Inc.” Server used for E-mail. Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC. A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. it’s “hardware address. and video data sources. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network. Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator. internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring. across a network connection. a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology. 293 ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU . A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data.

One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. Also known as a network interface card. and is used by CompuServe. Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card 294 Specialized Solutions. totally incompatible with the original PC bus. Inc. A method of data transmission. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. a 32-bit bus. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission. among others. A type of hub. The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources. . introduced by IBM for its PS/2 computer line. Single Frequency Radio. Provides the physical connection to the network cable. Much like your local radio station. Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS. MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide MCA Bus Micro Channel Architecture.400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS). Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X. Performing multiple tasks simultaneously.

Specialized Solutions. depending on the protocol. Acts as a connection point only. 295 Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card . They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network. A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards. Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network. An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network. A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model. A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet.Appendix E – Glossary Network Administrator Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network. including network connectivity. Inc. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. A generic term used to describe a unit of data.

The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time. Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 296 Specialized Solutions. The space between the ceiling and the floor above. depending upon the needs of the user. Although included as part of Windows NT.5 of Windows 3. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer. and even if a process takes full control. The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack. many third-party applications are available. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning. Inc. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model. which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network. this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking. Dedicated server for printing. A hardware device. Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Peer-to-Peer Performance Monitor All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server. A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server. other processes will still run. such as a printer or scanner.1. and running on TCP/IP. Defines a channel between a device and the processor. The Presentation layer formats data exchange. used to circulate air through a building. converting character sets and encrypting data. .

For example. In Token-Ring networks. including support for dialup and logon. The signal is beamed towards a central unit. Connector used with standard telephone wire. A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network. to be accessed via a modem. the devices are connected in a continuous loop. Redirects a call from one port to another. Connector used with UTP and STP network cables. For example. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. Inc. In a Ring topology. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. i. Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors.e. the proxy server. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN Specialized Solutions. 297 . The services or peripherals that are shared over the network. Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address.Appendix E – Glossary Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection. A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network. Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. which then routes the signal appropriately. Used to increase cable distances in network environments. the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. A device that forwards packets between networks.

connection establishment and release. to be used over a serial link. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol. defined in RFC 1055. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use. usually over Ethernet. SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP 298 Specialized Solutions. as opposed to duplex. RFC 1157. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. until it reaches the receiver. Inc. was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. acknowledgments (ACK). is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP). Transmission rates are slower with this type. normally used on Ethernet. the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15. A computer on a network that provides services to other computers. Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. The Session layer handles such things as security authentication.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. Software that resides on a server. . A uni-directional data channel. Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another. Simple Network Management Protocol. A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. data transfer. etc. ceilings. as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls.

Using binary addition. The maximum speed that “traffic” can move. the entire network goes down. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub. the official protocol of the Internet. A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing. rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms. that uses a large diameter. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. Maximum segment length is 500 meters. If the hub fails. An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5. measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). or across large flat open areas. An access method used in a Token Ring topology. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings. 299 SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk .5 Standard) environment. such as bodies of water or deserts. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters. The process of subdividing a network into logical units. A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network.Appendix E – Glossary SONET Spread-Spectrum Radio Synchronous Optical Network Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. Specialized Solutions. Inc. Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol.

it will emit a tone.” A receiver set to the frequency of the generator. Tool for stripping and cutting wire Tone Locator TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 300 Specialized Solutions. A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. The “fox.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). which. The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport. defined in STD 6. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. User Datagram Protocol. Used on transceivers.” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface. Inc. like TCP. Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments. Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer. this applies a signal on the wires. . Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding. The “hound. A device that transmits and receives data. thus locating the wires. The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information. RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol. is layered on top of IP.

Inc. using zones Zones Specialized Solutions. resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address. A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks. 301 . such as Token Ring.Appendix E – Glossary WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves.

. Inc.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 302 Specialized Solutions.

No security. 4. Inc. What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources. What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. configure. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers. Simple to install. Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security). and peripheral devices. It is confined to a limited area. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server). Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net. 303 . 7. applications. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Review Questions Chapter 1 1. A WAN is not geographically limited. data backups can be more easily and routinely performed. like one office). Files are easily accessed by all users. Specialized Solutions. 5. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. 6. 3. A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations. such as data. and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less). LANs typically also have much faster communication speed than WANs. Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area. 2. What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use.

Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see. Increased performance on large networks. Star. . More difficult to install and configure. Can be expanded as network grows. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU. 12. Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. 11. Centralized administration. 9. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment. Centralized location of resources (server). Inc. 304 Specialized Solutions. Name the three basic topologies. Ease of data backups. 2. more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). and Demand Priority. Some NOSs function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. Review Questions Chapter 2 1. File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 8. 10. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. They represent what the topology looks like. and Ring. Token Passing. The three basic topologies are: Bus.

Define interoperability. 6. 550 MB of free hard drive space. web-publishing. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. messaging. redirecting them to the server. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. and file and print services. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. 305 . What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments. and volumes is also handled with NDS. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. Inc. 8. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. Organization of network resources such as users. 4. 5. What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. name service. NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. Unlike NetWare. groups. 64 MB RAM.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. management. routing. 7. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. servers. 9. Specialized Solutions.

Review Questions Chapter 3 1. 16 MB RAM. What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 15. What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. Network. Application. 11. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems. Transport. Session.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 10. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. .1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network. 125 MB free hard drive space. 12. 13. Inc. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 306 Specialized Solutions. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 14.What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 2. Presentation. and Physical 3. Data Link. Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT.

This is not the actual application or program. Data Link layer 5. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer Specialized Solutions. Which part of this MAC address is the Device ID? D3-B4-01 14. Physical 10. 9. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. 13. managing. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. It is a computer’s physical address. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. Which OSI layer is responsible the MAC address? The Data Link layer 8. and ending connections? The Session layer 12. Network Layer 6. What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. Inc.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 4. Presentation layer 7. 11. 307 . What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 15. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence, without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 16. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 17. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. 18. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802.2 19. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. They are incompatible with each other. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com, while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. 20. Describe protocol binding. In order to function, a protocol must be bound to the NIC. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 21. Which is faster, connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster, but connection-oriented communication is more reliable. 22. . Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. AppleTalk, DECnet, IPX/SPX, PPP, PPTP, SLIP, SMB, SNA, TCP/IP, UDP, X.25, XNS 23.. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Will this work? Why or Why not? 308

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol.

Review Questions Chapter 4

1. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. 5. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. 6. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above, which is used to circulate air in a building). Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned, which would end up being circulated throughout the building. 7. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 10. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs, which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. 11. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. However, it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. 13. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type. 14. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths, segment lengths of up to several miles, and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. 15. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. 16. Describe baseband. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. 17. Describe broadband. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable, making the signal flow unidirectional. 18. What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way, can receive but not send. For example, a pager. Half-duplex communication can send or receive, but not at the same time. For example, a CB radio. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. For example, the telephone. 310 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 19. What is the function of a network adapter card? Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network. (They make the physical connection to the network.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. 20. In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 21. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers, including network connectivity. 22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network, to backup a cable-based network, to provide a mobile network environment, for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly, outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform. 23. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared, Laser, Radio, and Microwave 24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. 25. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally; Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances.

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority Specialized Solutions, Inc. 311

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). Specialized Solutions, Inc. 313

19. It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions. The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network. while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise. They are also called hermaphrodite connectors. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. Inc. It can be either depending upon how it is set up. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token. 314 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14. . It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer. Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. 20.5 says it travels clockwise. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? The IEEE 802. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. IEEE 802. 21. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist.3 standard 15. Describe a MIC connector. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends. however. It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise. data collisions are avoided. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function. 18.5 standard 16. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately.

2. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2. Specialized Solutions. 24. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. Review Questions Chapter 6 1. It also provides a print server. 5. 315 . NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers. 3.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 22. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. etc. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. it stores it to use each time it connects to the network. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it. If no other computer is using the address. Inc. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. 25. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. 4. 23. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2.

An active hub requires some input power. 9. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows XP. having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network. he intends to expand the network in the future. 8. 7.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 6. . Review Questions Chapter 7 1. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths. 2. 316 Specialized Solutions.com/windows/catalog. Inc. Passive hubs are used only to make connections. However. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. Also.microsoft. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS. Why should you refuse this offer? First. but they are not all the same. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows XP? Check the Windows Catalog on the web at www. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 6 cabling instead of CAT 5. you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network. It will be less costly to install CAT 6 now than to replace the CAT 5 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps to handle the higher traffic. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. but not enough to run it efficiently. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks.

Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model. 8. 10. Gateway . 4. They do not translate or filter any information. Name three RAS protocols. Bridge .A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps.Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures.A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature. amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables. BAUD and bps were the same thing. SLIP. BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem. and SONET 7. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Define a repeater. Not all network protocols will work with a router. Inc. Security host.A router has all the features of a bridge. Name four forms of RAS security. BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. a router. PPP. Specialized Solutions. PPTP and L2TP 9. They do however. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. In older modems.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 3. What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking). and a gateway. 317 . Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. Auditing. ISDN. Frame Relay. NetBEUI is not routable. For example. 5. Router . What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network.544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem. They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment. a bridge. Callback Security. and PPTP filtering. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. Name three advanced WAN environments. Repeater .

3. Internet and Network Interface. 32 10. UDP. ICMP. and ARP. An example is http://www. 2. . IP. 8. What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses. and HTTP. What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. 4. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3. 7. HTU UTH 6. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application. SNMP. 5. SMTP. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 318 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11) Specialized Solutions.com. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number.microsoft. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. FTP. Transport. Inc. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9.

2. ROUTE. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups. each device will need to be _________ compliant. List as many as you can.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment Review Questions Chapter 9 1. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. 319 . Inc. NETSTAT and TRACERT. NBTSTAT. U U U U 12. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3. Event Viewer. Specialized Solutions.

4. passwords are assigned to __________. What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password. What are the three most common levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 5 Striped array with parity 6. What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. In a share level model. Inc. Resources 3. 320 Specialized Solutions. 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1. 5. The acronym RAID stands for____________? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. .

You have located the cable in question #3. 321 . 4.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 11 1. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. You have just connected a workstation to the network. What is the loopback IP address? 127. 6. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. 8. What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP. After repairing a problem. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator.0.1 7. Specialized Solutions. and Repair the Problem. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. 3. Isolate the Problem. 2. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. The fox and hound. and think it might be shorted. WINIPCFG from the RUN command. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables. 5. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. Inc. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows. you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network.0.

You have a Windows 2000 network and received complaints that the server is running slow. . Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted. Inc. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 322 Specialized Solutions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 9. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time. 10.

226 Digital. 123 ARP. 92 Boot Sector. 52 Data Protection. 77 Computer compatibility. 42 base memory address. 167 bridge. 39 AUI connector. 78 Boot Prom’s. 86 Beaconing.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Index 1 100BaseX. 151 connection-oriented. 109 DES (Data Encryption Standard). 38 Client Software. 89 cloud. 161 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC). 196 client software. 42 active hubs. 65 BNC. 323 . 70 coaxial cable. 86 Broadband Optical Telepoint. 78. 114 10BaseFL. 34 DECnet. 13 Clocking. 226 Bandwidth. 114 A access method. 79 AWG. 34 clients. 40. 196 Class B. 78. 230 Differential backup. 60 attributes. 96 brouter. 70 DMA. 81 Cellular Networking. 243 CSMA/CD. 89 Direct Memory Access (DMA). 69. 160 Category 3. 60 Broadband. 122 AppleTalk. 191 BRI. 114 10Base5. 67 demand priority. 86 B backbone. 67. 116 10Base2. 16. 253 Banyan VINES. 91 Baseband. 186 Analog. 50 application server. 81 Category 5. 166 attenuation. 111 D Data Link Layer. 90 DLC. 108. 89 AppleShare. 189 domain controller. 196 Class C. 98 Change. 108 Active Directory. 79 backup utility. 114 10BaseT. 65 continuity. 21 Carriers. 24 Address Resolution Protocol. 13 ARCNet. 109 CSNW. 40 Specialized Solutions. 41 CSU/DSU. 217 ATM. 164 Class A. 39 Circuit-switched. 119 binding. 116 100VG-AnyLAN. 61 C Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD. 121 Application Layer. Inc. 231 BOOTP. 91 domain.

22 FAT. 96 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Domain Name Service (DNS). 226 Full Control. 174 LAN. Inc. Inc. 187 hubs. 243 Group policies. 81 environment. 41 H Half-Duplex. 215 F Fast Ethernet. 224 FPNW. 187 Full backup. 42 GSNW. 96 LAT. 21. 56 324 Specialized Solutions. 67 IRQ. 189 Domain Reflectometer (TDR). 174 IPv6. 39 Full-Duplex. 122 Event Viewer. 68. 226 Infrared. 174 Line-of-Sight Infrared. 114 EtherTalk. 161 . 18 I I/O port number. 39 IP. 217. 116 ground probe. 245 DSMN. 231 fire codes. 174 ICMP. 185 IP address. 187 HTTPS. 159 Gigabit Ethernet. 86 firewall. 62 Internet Control Message Protocol. 217 IMAP4. 191 dynamic routers.. 157 hybrid topologies. 120 ICA. 231 EISA. 42 Headers.Fiber Distributed Data. 93 ISDN. 192 IFCONFIG. 83 File Infectors. 61 Gateways. 60 E EES. 167 FTP. 86 G gateway. 83 IBM Type 3 UTP. K Kerberos. 91 ISA. 186 Internet Protocol (IP). 41 Frame Relay. 197 IPX. 70 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol. 41 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). 185 interoperability. 186 Incremental backup. 191 HTTP. (IEEE). 191 gateways. 86 headers. 167 ISDN adapters. 249 IPsec. 112 HOSTS file. 144 Ethernet. 96 Linux. 194 IPCONFIG. 174 L L2TP. 12 Laser. 39 fault tolerance. 91 IBM cabling. 68. 71 ICS. 93 EMI. 226 FDDI . 166 fiber-optic.

36 NetWare Client32 for DOS. 52 Network Neighborhood. 18 MHS. 164 Packet-Radio Networking. 67 NDIS. 114 LMHOSTS. 23 Passwords. 13 peer-to-peer. 37 Network Adapter Cards. 122 logical topology. 29 OS/2. 31 PGP. 243 mesh topology. 249 plenum. 167 protocol. 21 Media Compatibility. 39 Null-Modem. Inc. 64 Open Systems Interface (OSI). 67 No Access. 68 O ODI. . 86 PPP. 120 Microwave. 31 Network standards. 172 Preemptive multitasking. 190 NETSTAT. 168 MSAU. 157 PCI. 217 NTFS. 37 MIB (Management Information Base). 32 P Packet switching. 192 Punch Down Tool. 213 MIC (Media Interface Connectors). 120 Multimeter. 215 NetWare. 89 Network Layer. 232 Managing User Accounts. 217 PING. 231 physical topologies. 71. 191 LocalTalk. 36 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh. 43 Macro Virus. 71. 29 NSLOOKUP. 64 proxy server. 39 NOS – Network Operating System. 96 MLID. 69 NLSP.Multiple Access Units. 114 Network Time Protocol (NTP). 98 packets.Primary Domain Controller. 93 PCMCIA. 36 NetWare Client32 for OS/2. 172 PPTP. 67 M Macintosh. 242 325 Specialized Solutions. 18 Ping. 191 NBTSTAT. 23 media access methods. 18 LSL. 107 protocols. 49. 69 Network-attached storage (NAS). 151 Media Tester. 171 NWLink. 229 Patch Panel. 93 PDC .Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers LLC. 41. 89 passive hub. 243 multitasking. 36 NetWare file server. 157 MAUs . 30 N NAT. 30 PRI. 49 operating system. 36 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95. 67 modem. 64 NDS (NetWare Directory Services). 37 NetWare security. 111 parallel communication. 14 Peer-to-peer LANs. 228 NFS. 120. 36 NetBEUI. 215 NCP. 70 NETBIOS. 37 NetWare Print Services. 34 MAU.

60 Storage Area Network (SAN). 71 RSA. 80 V vampire taps. 184 Telnet. 35 ring topology. 174 token passing. 17 RIP. 33 servers. 253 TLS. 68 Trojan Horses. 112 transceiver. 68 SMDS. 35 Reflective Infrared. 13 sharing applications.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide R Radio. 16 twisted-pair. 60. 237 trunk. 69 ROUTE. 81 Subnetting. 51 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 221 segment. 16 serial communication. 174 Standards. 98 Scatter Infrared. 144 Server Software. 159 routers. 96 SDH. 68 326 Specialized Solutions. Inc. 213 Simplex. 187 SNA. 187 Software analyzers. 80 virtual connections. 69 terminator. 67. 42 User Datagram Protocol (UDP). 227 RARP. 249 Trailer. 71. 172 SMAU. 11 signal bounce. 21. 230 S SAP. 89 Server room. 228 STP. 17 static routers. 86 SLIP. 16 TRACERT. 79 Transport Layer. 225 repeater. 225 removable optical disk. 65 RPC. 167 security. 152 star topology. 77 Thinnet. 13 Server-based network. 34. 69. 144 Remote Access Server or RAS. 68 Satellite Station Networking. 118 topology. 16. 232 troubleshooting. 185 UTP. 199 T tape backup. 245 SONET. 120 SMB. 96 relative humidity. sneaker net. 167 SPX. 71. 96 RAID. 182 UNIX. 109 token ring. 175 Security. 215 router. 77 throughput. 225 TCP. 80 U UDP. 16. 167 SMTP. 68. 217 Read. 39 redirector. 58 . 79 thicknet. 34 server-based network. 11 SNMP. 215. 158 requester. 60. 68. 67 SSL. 171 removable disks. 79 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

95 Wireless NICs. 242 Wireless.25. 165 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks). 92 workstation. 190 Wire Crimper. 154 Windows 95/98. 124 wireless network. 71 XNS. Inc. 13 X X. 231 VLAN. 31 Windows NT Print Servers. 70 Specialized Solutions. 19.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Viruses. 230 W WAN. 327 . 69. 31 Windows for Workgroups. 32 Windows 2000. 40 U U WINS. 166 XDR. 12 Warp Connect.

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