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. The knowledge of density is useful for quantity calculations and assessing ignition quality. The unit of density is kg/m3.Properties of Liquid Fuels Density This is defined as the ratio of the mass of the fuel to the volume of the fuel at a reference temperature of 15°C.
The specific gravity of water is defined as 1. The density of fuel.Specific gravity This is defined as the ratio of the weight of a given volume of oil to the weight of the same volume of water at a given temperature. . it has no units. Since specific gravity is a ratio. relative to water. is called specific gravity.
D.1 Specific Gravity of Various Fuel Oils Fuel Oil L.S.Specific gravity is used in calculations involving weights and volumes.71-0.87 0.77 . The specific gravity of various fuel oils are given in Table Table 1.O Furnace oil Light Diesel Oil Specific Gravity 0.S Low Sulphur Heavy Stock 0.98 Specific gravity of petrol 0.H.89-0.88-0.95 L.85-0.
It influences the degree of pre-heat required for handling. Viscosity is the most important characteristic in the storage and use of fuel oil. or the pascal-second (Pa·s). . (equivalent to N·s/m2. Viscosity depends on temperature and decreases as the temperature increases.Viscosity The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its internal resistance to flow. Viscosity is measured in Stokes / Centistokes. or kg/ms). storage and satisfactory atomization.
hard to light the burner. and tough to operate. it may become difficult to pump. Poor atomization may result in the formation of carbon deposits on the burner tips or on the walls. Therefore pre-heating is necessary for proper atomization .If the oil is too viscous.
The flow is laminar when Re < 2300 transient when 2300 < Re < 4000 turbulent when Re > 4000 .Reynolds Number can be used to determine if flow is laminar. transient or turbulent.
Fire point of a fuel is the temperature at which it will continue to burn for at least 5 seconds after ignition by an open flame. but in general the fire points can be assumed to be about 10ºC higher than the flash points .Flash Point The flash point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which the fuel can be heated so that the vapour gives off flashes momentarily when an open flame is passed over it. At the flash point. Most tables of material properties will only list material flash points. a substance will ignite briefly. but vapor might not be produced at a rate to sustain the fire. a lower temperature.
Pour Point The pour point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which it will pour or flow when cooled under prescribed conditions. It is a very rough indication of the lowest temperature at which fuel oil is readily pumpable Cloud point refers to the temperature below which wax in diesel or biowax in biodiesels form a cloudy appearance. The presence of solidified waxes thickens the oil and clogs fuel filters and injectors in engines .
.28 depending on the oil specific gravity. . and is measured either as gross calorific value or net calorific value. The unit of specific heat is kcal/kgoC.22 to 0. Calorific Value The calorific value is the measurement of heat or energy produced.Specific Heat Specific heat is the amount of kcals needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of oil by 1oC. It varies from 0.
Sulphur The amount of sulphur in the fuel oil depends mainly on the source of the crude oil and to a lesser extent on the refining process .
. Carbon Residue Carbon residue indicates the tendency of oil to deposit a carbonaceous solid residue on a hot surface.03-0. the ash value is in the range 0. Typically.07 %.Ash Content The ash value is related to the inorganic material in the fuel oil. Residual oil contains carbon residue ranging from 1 percent or more. such as a burner or injection nozzle.
. It can also extinguish the flame and reducing the flame temperature or lengthening the flame. Water can cause damage to the inside furnace surfaces during combustion.Water Content Water content of furnace oil when supplied is normally very low as the product at refinery site is handled hot and maximum limit of 1% is specified in the standard.
flammable and have a specific gravity of about 0.7. Naphthas are volatile. It is a liquid intermediate between the light gases in the crude oil and the heavier liquid kerosene.Naphtha is obtained in petroleum refineries as one of the intermediate products from the distillation of crude oil. .
producer gas. coke oven gas etc. Fuel Gas Relative Higher Air/Fuel Flame Flame Density Heating ratioTemp.gravit Value m3 of air y) kcal/Nm3 to m3 of Fuel Natural 0.Properties of Gaseous Fuels Gaseous fuels in common use are liquefied petroleum gases (LPG).460 Butane 1.290 Gas Propane 1.e. Natural gas.870 . at normal temperature (20oC) and pressure (760 mm Hg) Typical Physical and Chemical Properties of Various Gaseous Fuels.6 9350 10 1954 0. The calorific value of gaseous fuel is expressed in Kilocalories per normal cubic meter (kCal/Nm3) i.52 22200 25 1967 0. oC Speed m/s (sp. blast furnace gas.96 28500 32 1973 0.