# Properties of Liquid Fuels

Speaker: Dr.O.P.Rao

The knowledge of density is useful for quantity calculations and assessing ignition quality. The unit of density is kg/m3.Properties of Liquid Fuels Density This is defined as the ratio of the mass of the fuel to the volume of the fuel at a reference temperature of 15°C. .

relative to water. is called specific gravity. Since specific gravity is a ratio. The density of fuel. The specific gravity of water is defined as 1.Specific gravity This is defined as the ratio of the weight of a given volume of oil to the weight of the same volume of water at a given temperature. it has no units. .

85-0.87 0.71-0.1 Specific Gravity of Various Fuel Oils Fuel Oil L.S Low Sulphur Heavy Stock 0.H.D.98 Specific gravity of petrol 0.S.Specific gravity is used in calculations involving weights and volumes.95 L.O Furnace oil Light Diesel Oil Specific Gravity 0. The specific gravity of various fuel oils are given in Table Table 1.77 .89-0.88-0.

or the pascal-second (Pa·s). Viscosity depends on temperature and decreases as the temperature increases. It influences the degree of pre-heat required for handling.Viscosity The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its internal resistance to flow. (equivalent to N·s/m2. . Viscosity is measured in Stokes / Centistokes. storage and satisfactory atomization. Viscosity is the most important characteristic in the storage and use of fuel oil. or kg/ms).

Poor atomization may result in the formation of carbon deposits on the burner tips or on the walls. and tough to operate. hard to light the burner.If the oil is too viscous. it may become difficult to pump. Therefore pre-heating is necessary for proper atomization .

transient or turbulent.Reynolds Number can be used to determine if flow is laminar. The flow is laminar when Re < 2300 transient when 2300 < Re < 4000 turbulent when Re > 4000 .

but vapor might not be produced at a rate to sustain the fire. At the flash point. but in general the fire points can be assumed to be about 10ºC higher than the flash points .Flash Point The flash point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which the fuel can be heated so that the vapour gives off flashes momentarily when an open flame is passed over it. Most tables of material properties will only list material flash points. Fire point of a fuel is the temperature at which it will continue to burn for at least 5 seconds after ignition by an open flame. a substance will ignite briefly. a lower temperature.

It is a very rough indication of the lowest temperature at which fuel oil is readily pumpable Cloud point refers to the temperature below which wax in diesel or biowax in biodiesels form a cloudy appearance. The presence of solidified waxes thickens the oil and clogs fuel filters and injectors in engines .Pour Point The pour point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which it will pour or flow when cooled under prescribed conditions.

. It varies from 0. .Specific Heat Specific heat is the amount of kcals needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of oil by 1oC. and is measured either as gross calorific value or net calorific value.28 depending on the oil specific gravity. The unit of specific heat is kcal/kgoC. Calorific Value The calorific value is the measurement of heat or energy produced.22 to 0.

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Sulphur The amount of sulphur in the fuel oil depends mainly on the source of the crude oil and to a lesser extent on the refining process .

Residual oil contains carbon residue ranging from 1 percent or more. Carbon Residue Carbon residue indicates the tendency of oil to deposit a carbonaceous solid residue on a hot surface. such as a burner or injection nozzle.Ash Content The ash value is related to the inorganic material in the fuel oil. . Typically.07 %.03-0. the ash value is in the range 0.

. Water can cause damage to the inside furnace surfaces during combustion.Water Content Water content of furnace oil when supplied is normally very low as the product at refinery site is handled hot and maximum limit of 1% is specified in the standard. It can also extinguish the flame and reducing the flame temperature or lengthening the flame.

.7. It is a liquid intermediate between the light gases in the crude oil and the heavier liquid kerosene.Naphtha is obtained in petroleum refineries as one of the intermediate products from the distillation of crude oil. Naphthas are volatile. flammable and have a specific gravity of about 0.

Fuel Gas Relative Higher Air/Fuel Flame Flame Density Heating ratioTemp.gravit Value m3 of air y) kcal/Nm3 to m3 of Fuel Natural 0.460 Butane 1. producer gas. Natural gas.6 9350 10 1954 0.e. oC Speed m/s (sp. The calorific value of gaseous fuel is expressed in Kilocalories per normal cubic meter (kCal/Nm3) i.290 Gas Propane 1.52 22200 25 1967 0. coke oven gas etc. at normal temperature (20oC) and pressure (760 mm Hg) Typical Physical and Chemical Properties of Various Gaseous Fuels.Properties of Gaseous Fuels Gaseous fuels in common use are liquefied petroleum gases (LPG).96 28500 32 1973 0.870 . blast furnace gas.