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Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

First edition 2001
The information provided in this handbook is given in good faith, but Alfa Laval is not able to accept any responsibility for the accuracy of its content, or any consequences that may arise from the use of the information supplied or materials described.

Inside view
This pump handbook has been produced to support pump users at all levels, providing an invaluable reference tool. The handbook includes all the necessary information for the correct selection and successful application of the Alfa Laval ranges of Centrifugal, Liquid Ring and Rotary Lobe Pumps. The handbook is divided into fifteen main sections, which are as follows:

1 Introduction 2 Terminology and Theory 3 Pump Selection 4 Pump Description

9 10 11 12

Motors Cleaning Guidelines Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines Installation Guide Troubleshooting Technical Data Glossary of Terms

5 Pump Materials of Construction 13 6 Pump Sealing 14 7 Pump Sizing 15 8 Pump Specification Options

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 1

Contents
Section 1: Introduction
Introduction of the Pump Handbook. 1.1 What is a Pump? 5 5

Section 5: Pump Materials of Construction
Description of the materials, both metallic and elastomeric, that are used in the construction of Alfa Laval pump ranges. 5.1 5.2 5.3 7 Main Components Steel Surfaces Elastomers

61 61 63 65

Section 2: Terminology and Theory
Explanation of the terminology and theory of pumping applications, including rheology, flow characteristics, pressure and NPSH. 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.1.8 2.1.9 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 Product/Fluid Data Rheology Viscosity Density Specific Weight Specific Gravity Temperature Flow Characteristics Vapour Pressure Fluids Containing Solids Performance Data Capacity (Flow Rate) Pressure Cavitation Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) Pressure ‘Shocks’ (Water Hammer)

Section 6: Pump Sealing
8 8 8 12 12 13 13 13 17 17 18 18 18 30 31 35 Explanation of pump sealing principles with illustrations of the different sealing arrangements used on Alfa Laval pump ranges. A general seal selection guide is included, together with various operating parameters. 67 6.1 6.2 6.3 Mechanical Seals - General 70 Mechanical Seal Types in Alfa Laval Pump Ranges 80 Other Sealing Options (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) 82

Section 7: Pump Sizing
How to size an Alfa Laval pump from product/fluid and performance data given, supported by relevant calculations and worked examples with a simple step by step approach. 85 7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.2.4 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.4 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.5 7.5.1 7.5.2 7.6 7.6.1 7.6.2 7.6.3 7.6.4 7.6.5 7.6.6 7.6.7 7.6.8 7.6.9 7.7 7.8 General Information Required 85 Power 86 Hydraulic Power 86 Required Power 87 Torque 88 Efficiency 88 Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps 92 Flow Curve 92 Flow Control 96 Alternative Pump Installations 100 Worked Examples of Centrifugal Pump Sizing (Metric Units) 102 Example 1 102 Example 2 106 Worked Examples of Centrifugal Pump Sizing (US Units) 109 Example 1 109 Example 2 113 Rotary Lobe Pumps 116 Slip 116 Initial Suction Line Sizing 118 Performance Curve 119 Pumps fitted with Bi-lobe Rotors (Stainless Steel) 124 Pumps fitted with Bi-lobe Rotors (Non Galling Alloy) 125 Pumps fitted with Tri-lobe Rubber Covered Rotors 125 Pumps with Electropolished Surface Finish 126 Guidelines for Solids Handling 127 Guidelines for Pumping Shear Sensitive Media 128 Worked Examples of Rotary Lobe Pump Sizing (Metric Units) 129 Worked Examples of Rotary Lobe Pump Sizing (US Units) 143

Section 3: Pump Selection
Overview of the pump ranges currently available from Alfa Laval and which particular pumps to apply within various application areas. 3.1 3.2 3.3 General Applications Guide Pumps for Sanitary Applications PumpCAS Selection and Configuration Tool

39 40 41 43

Section 4: Pump Description
Description of Alfa Laval pump ranges including design, principle of operation and pump model types. 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 Centrifugal Pumps General Principle of Operation Design Pump Range Liquid Ring Pumps General Principle of Operation Design Pump Range Rotary Lobe Pumps General Principle of Operation Pump Range 45 45 45 46 46 48 52 52 52 53 55 56 56 56 57

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 2

Section 8: Pump Specifications Options
Description of the various specification options available for the Alfa Laval pump ranges, such as port connections, heating/cooling jackets, pressure relief valves and other ancillaries. 157 8.1 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.1.4 8.1.5 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.2.5 8.2.6 8.2.7 Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps Port Connections Heating/Cooling Jackets Pump Casing with Drain Increased Impeller Gap Pump Inlet Inducer Rotary Lobe Pumps Rotor Form Clearances Port Connections Rectangular Inlets Heating/Cooling Jackets and Saddles Pump Overload Protection Ancillaries 157 157 158 159 159 159 160 160 162 164 165 166 167 169

12.2 12.2.1 12.2.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.5.1

Flow Direction Centrifugal Pumps Rotary Lobe Pumps Baseplates Foundation (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) Coupling Alignment (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) Special Considerations for Liquid Ring Pumps Pipework

201 201 202 203 204 204 204

Section 13: Troubleshooting
Advises possible causes and solutions to most common problems found in pump installation and operation. 205 13.1 13.2 13.2.1 13.2.2 13.2.3 13.2.4 13.2.5 13.2.6 13.2.7 13.3 General Common Problems Loss of Flow Loss of Suction Low Discharge Pressure Excessive Noise or Vibration Excessive Power Rapid Pump Wear Seal Leakage Problem Solving Table 205 206 206 206 207 207 208 208 208 209

Section 9: Motors
Description of electric motors, including information on motor protection, methods of starting, motors for hazardous environments and speed control. 173 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.11 Output Power Rated Speed Voltage Cooling Insulation and Thermal Rating Protection Methods of Starting Motors for Hazardous Environments Energy Efficient Motors Speed Control Changing Motor Nameplates - Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps only 175 175 176 176 176 177 179 180 182 184 186

Section 14: Technical Data
Summary of the nomenclature and formulas used in this handbook. Various conversion tables and charts are also shown. 213 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.3.1 14.3.2 14.3.3 14.3.4 14.3.5 14.3.6 14.3.7 14.3.8 14.3.9 14.3.10 14.3.11 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.7.1 14.7.2 14.7.3 14.7.4 14.8 14.9 14.10 14.11 Nomenclature Formulas Conversion Tables Length Volume Volumetric Capacity Mass Capacity Pressure/Head Force Torque Power Density Viscosity Conversion Table Temperature Conversion Table Water Vapour Pressure Table Pressure Drop Curve for 100 m ISO/DIN Tube Velocity (m/s) in ISO and DIN Tubes at various Capacities Equivalent Tube Length Table ISO Tube Metric ISO Tube Feet DIN Tube Metric DIN Tube Feet Moody Diagram Initial Suction Line Sizing Elastomer Compatibility Guide Changing Motor Name Plates 213 214 219 219 219 219 220 220 220 220 221 221 222 224 225 226 227 228 228 230 232 234 236 237 238 243

Section 10: Cleaning Guidelines
Advises cleaning guidelines for use in processes utilising CIP (Clean In Place) systems. Interpretations of cleanliness are given and explanations of the cleaning cycle. 189

Section 11: Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines
Description of the international standards and guidelines applicable to Alfa Laval pump ranges. 193

Section 12: Installation Guide
Advises guidelines relating to pump installation, system design and pipework layout. 12.1 12.1.1 12.1.2 12.1.3 12.1.4 General System Design Pipework Weight Electrical Supply 199 199 199 200 200 200

Section 15: Glossary of Terms
Explains the various terms found in this handbook. 249

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 3

supplying Centrifugal and Positive Displacement Pumps world-wide to various key application areas such as food. brewery and pharmaceutical...if pumps are the question Alfa Laval is an acknowledged market leader in pumping technology. ..

which utilise centrifugal force to transfer the fluid being pumped.Rotodynamic and Positive Displacement. Fig. 1.1b. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 5 . which directly displaces the pumped fluid from pump inlet to outlet in discrete volumes. 1. The Rotodynamic pump transfers rotating mechanical energy into kinetic energy in the form of fluid velocity and pressure. The Centrifugal and Liquid Ring pumps are types of rotodynamic pump.1a Typical pump installation Pump types generally fall into two main categories . 1.Introduction 1. The Rotary Lobe pump is a type of positive displacement pump. Introduction This section gives a short introduction of the Pump Handbook. of which there are many forms as shown in Fig. This is illustrated below transferring fluid from tank A to spray nozzles B. from one place to another’.1 What is a Pump? There are many different definitions of this but at Alfa Laval we believe this is best described as: ‘A machine used for the purpose of transferring quantities of fluids and/or gases.

Introduction Pumps Positive Displacement Rotodynamic Rotor Reciprocating Multi-Stage Single Stage Multi-Rotor Single Rotor Diaphragm Plunger End Suction Double Entry Screw Circumferential Piston Gear Internal External Piston Archimedian Screw Flexible Member Peristaltic Vane Simplex Multiplex Process Rubber Lined Submersible General Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Rotary Lobe Alfa Laval Rotary Lobe Progressing Cavity Fig.1b Pump classifications 6 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 1.

• Different fluids have varying characteristics and are usually pumped under different conditions. Terminology and Theory This section explains the terminology and theory of pumping applications. and inlet/discharge pressure/head. In order to select a pump two types of data are required: • Product/Fluid data which includes viscosity. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 7 . pressure and NPSH. Performance data which includes capacity or flow rate. It is therefore very important to know all relevant product and performance data before selecting a pump. temperature. including explanations of rheology. density/specific gravity. flow characteristics. flow characteristics. vapour pressure and solids content.Terminology and Theory 2.

It follows therefore that viscosity affects the magnitude of energy loss in a flowing fluid. Absolute viscosity is usually designated by the symbol m. while timing its flow. second) system.1. The SI unit of absolute viscosity is (mPa. absolute (or dynamic) viscosity and kinematic viscosity.1 Product/Fluid Data 2.s or 1 cP.1 Rheology The science of fluid flow is termed ‘Rheology’ and one of its most important aspects is viscosity which is defined below. seconds) system this is expressed as 1 centistoke (cSt).1. For example. High viscosity fluids require greater shearing forces than low viscosity fluids at a given shear rate. 8 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . whereas water has a relatively low viscosity and pours quite readily.2 Viscosity The viscosity of a fluid can be regarded as a measure of how resistive the fluid is to flow.Terminology and Theory 2. seconds) system this is expressed as 1 centipoise (cP) where 1 mPa. Water at 1 atmosphere and 20°C (68oF) has the value of 1 mPa. The ease with which a fluid pours is an indication of its viscosity. Kinematic Viscosity This is a measure of how resistive the flow of a fluid is under the influence of gravity.s = 1 cP. Absolute (or Dynamic) Viscosity This is a measure of how resistive the flow of a fluid is between two layers of fluid in motion. Kinematic viscometers usually use the force of gravity to cause the fluid to flow through a calibrated orifice. where 1 mm2/s = 1 cSt. second) system.s) in the so-called MKS (metre. grams. while in the cgs (centimetres. Kinematic viscosity is usually designated by the symbol n. grams. cold oil has a high viscosity and pours very slowly. This retarding force transforms the kinetic energy of the fluid into thermal energy. A value can be obtained directly from a rotational viscometer which measures the force needed to rotate a spindle in the fluid. Two basic viscosity parameters are commonly used. 2. it is comparable to the friction of solid bodies and causes a retarding force. kilogram. Water at 1 atmosphere and 20°C (68oF) has the value of 1 mm2/s = 1 cSt. while in the cgs (centimetres. The SI unit of kinematic viscosity is (mm2/s) in the so-called MKS (metre. kilogram.

viscosity should always be quoted at the pumping temperature. Viscosity Variation with Temperature Temperature can have a significant effect on viscosity and a viscosity figure given for pump selection purposes without fluid temperature is often meaningless . 2. These fluids are named Newtonian fluids.10.2a Viscosity variation with temperature Viscosity Newtonian Fluids In some fluids the viscosity is constant regardless of the shear forces applied to the layers of fluid.1.3. it increases with falling temperature. In a pumping system it can be advantageous to increase the temperature of a highly viscous fluid to ease flow.Terminology and Theory Relationship Between Absolute and Kinematic Viscosity Absolute and Kinematic viscosity are related by: n=m r where r is the fluid density (see 2. At a constant temperature the viscosity is constant with change in shear rate or agitation.3). Generally viscosity falls with increasing temperature and more significantly. Typical fluids are: • Water • Beer • Hydrocarbons • Milk • Mineral Oils • Resins • Syrups Shear rate Fig. 2. In the cgs system this translates to: Kinematic Viscosity (cSt) or Absolute Viscosity (cP) = Kinematic Viscosity (cSt) x SG A viscosity conversion table is included in 14.2b Newtonian Fluids Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 9 . = Absolute Viscosity (cP) Specific Gravity Viscosity Temperature Fig.1.1.

However.1. graphs and ‘handbook’ information. these fluids are named Non-Newtonian fluids. It is not unusual to find the effective viscosity as little as 1% of the value measured by standard instruments. charts.2c Viscosity against shear rate Fig.2d Viscosity against shear rate Types of Non-Newtonian Fluids There are a number of different type of non-newtonian fluids each with different characteristics.1. there are many fluids which do not follow this linear law. Viscosity Typical fluids are: • Clay Slurries • Paper Coatings Shear rate Fig.Terminology and Theory It is not always obvious which type of viscous behaviour a fluid will exhibit and consideration must be given to the shear rate that will exist in the pump under pumping conditions.1. Viscosity Typical fluids are: • Blood • Emulsions • Gums • Lotions • Soap • Toothpaste • Yeast Shear rate Fig. 2.2e Psuedoplastic Fluids Dilatant Fluids Viscosity increases as shear rate increases. When working with Non-Newtonian fluids we use Effective Viscosity to represent the viscous characteristics of the fluid as though it was newtonian at that given set of conditions (shear rate. 2. This can be better understood by looking at the behaviour of viscous fluids with changes in shear rate as follows. 2.1. temperature).2f Dilatant Fluids 10 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Non-Newtonian Fluids Most empirical and test data for pumps and piping systems has been developed using Newtonian fluids across a wide range of viscosities. Psuedoplastic Fluids Viscosity decreases as shear rate increases. 2. ? Viscosity Viscosity ? ? Shear rate Normal Viscometer Reading Typical Shear Rate in Pumping System Shear Rate Fig. but initial viscosity may be so high as to prevent start of flow in a normal pumping system. This effective viscosity is then used in calculations. Effective viscosity at set conditions will be different depending on the fluid being pumped.

2h Anti-thixotropic Fluids Typical fluids are: • Vanadium Pentoxide Solution Rheomalactic Fluids Viscosity decreases with time under shear conditions but does not recover.1.2i Rheomalactic Fluids Plastic Fluids Need a certain applied force (or yield stress) to overcome ‘solid-like structure’. Stress Y Where Y = Yield Stress Typical fluids are: • Barium X-ray Meal • Chocolate • Tomato Ketchup Shear rate Fig.1.1. As the name suggests anti-thixotropic fluids have opposite rheological characteristics to thixotropic fluids. Viscosity Typical fluids are: • Natural Rubber Latex • Natural Yoghurt Time Fig.2g Thixotropic Fluids Anti-thixotropic Fluids Viscosity increases with time under shear conditions.the time for recovery will vary with different fluids.Terminology and Theory Viscosity Thixotropic Fluids Viscosity decreases with time under shear conditions. 2. Typical fluids are: • Cosmetic Creams • Dairy Creams • Greases • Stabilised Yoghurt Time Fig. After shear ceases the viscosity will return to its original value .the time for recovery will vary with different fluids. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 11 . before flowing like a fluid. After shear ceases the viscosity will return to its original value .2j Plastic Fluids It should be noted that some fluids would have both thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviour. Fluid structure is irreversibly destroyed. 2. 2. 2.1. Time Viscosity Fig.

Standard gravity is as follows: g = 9. usually expressed as kilograms per cubic metre (kg/m3) or pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft3). i.2lb 1 m Fig.789 kg/m3. 1 m 1 1 m ft 1 ft Mass of ethyl alcohol 789 kg Mass of ethyl alcohol 49. Density is usually designated by the symbol r. The units of weight per unit volume are N/m3 or lbf/ft3.1. Density = 49. Weight is the force produced from gravity acting on the mass.1.174 ft/s2 The specific weight of water at 20oC (68oF) and 1 atmosphere is as follows: g =9790 N/m3 = 62.2 lb/ft3.4 Specific Weight The specific weight of a fluid is its weight per unit volume and is usually designated by the symbol g. 12 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 1 ft .4 lbf/ft3 Note! .2 lb. It is related to density as follows: g =rxg where g is gravity.e.Mass should not be confused with weight. 1 ft³ of ethyl alcohol has a mass of 49. 2.807 m/s2 g = 32. Density = 0.3 Density The density of a fluid is its mass per unit of volume.e.3a Density 2. 2. i. 1 m³ of ethyl alcohol has a mass of 789 kg.Terminology and Theory Density in gases varies considerably with pressure and temperature but can be regarded as constant in fluids.1.

4 lb/ft³ = 0. usually expressed in units of degrees Centigrade (°C) or degrees Fahrenheit (°F).1.5a Specific gravity 1 m Specific Gravity of ethyl alcohol is: 789 kg/m³ 1000 kg/m³ = 0.789 This resultant figure is dimensionless so the Specific Gravity (or SG) is 0.3. Thus a cooling of the product in the discharge line could have a significant effect on the pumping of a fluid.its density is 49. This can be illustrated by opening a water tap slowly until the flow is smooth and steady. 2. allowing the velocity of flow to increase. 1 m³ of water has a mass of 1000 kg .789 or 1 ft³ of ethyl alcohol has a mass of 49. A temperature conversion table is given in section 14.1.5 Specific Gravity 1 m 1 m 1 m 1 m The specific gravity of a fluid is the ratio of its density to the density of water.6 Temperature The temperature of the fluid at the pump inlet is usually of most concern as vapour pressure can have a significant effect on pump performance (see 2.6.its density is 62.7 Flow Characteristics When considering a fluid flowing in a pipework system it is important to be able to determine the type of flow. Mass of ethyl alcohol 789 kg Mass of water 1000 kg 1 m Fig. 2.2 lb/ft³.4 lb/ft³.1.Terminology and Theory 2. Temperature is a measure of the internal energy level in a fluid. As this is a ratio. This type of flow is called laminar flow. 1 ft³ of water has a mass of 62. The temperature of a fluid can also have a significant affect on the selection of any elastomeric materials used.its density is 1000 kg/m³.789.2 lb . a point will be reached whereby the Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 13 . Specific Gravity of ethyl alcohol is: 49. Under some conditions the fluid will appear to flow as layers in a smooth and regular manner. it does not have any units of measure.4 lb . Other fluid properties such as viscosity and density can also be affected by temperature changes. The connection between the velocity and the capacity of a fluid (similar to water) in different tube sizes is shown in table 14. If the water tap is opened wider.2 lb/ft³ 62.1.its density is 789 kg/m³.1.8).11. 2. 1 m³ of ethyl alcohol has a mass of 789 kg .

489 D² where V = fluid velocity (ft/s) Q = capacity (UK gall/min) D = tube diameter (in) Fluid velocity can be of great importance especially when pumping slurries and fluids containing solids.6 D² where V = fluid velocity (m/s) Q = capacity (m³/h) D = tube diameter (mm) or Velocity V = Q x 0. Velocity Velocity is the distance a fluid moves per unit of time and is given by equation as follows: In dimensionally consistent SI units Velocity V =Q A where V = fluid velocity (m/s) Q = capacity (m³/s) A = tube cross sectional area (m²) Other convenient forms of this equation are: Velocity V = Q x 353. In these instances. The type of flow is indicated by the Reynolds number. 14 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . This type of flow is called turbulent flow. a certain velocity may be required to prevent solids from settling in the pipework.409 D² where V = fluid velocity (ft/s) Q = capacity (US gall/min) D = tube diameter (in) or Velocity V = Q x 0. but appears to be moving in a chaotic manner. which could impact on pump performance.Terminology and Theory stream of water is no longer smooth and regular. which could result in blockages and changes in system pressure as the actual internal diameter of the pipe is effectively decreased.

1. Turbulent flow generally appears at relatively high velocities and/or relatively low viscosities. This is a ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces. decreasing to zero at the pipe wall. a useful value for determining whether flow will be laminar or turbulent. and as such.Terminology and Theory V = velocity u max = maximum velocity Fig.s) Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 15 . The velocity profile is more flattened than in laminar flow but remains fairly constant across the section as shown in fig.7b Turbulent flow Transitional Flow Between laminar and turbulent flow there is an area referred to as transitional flow where conditions are unstable and have a blend of each characteristic. viscous or steady flow. The fluid moves through the pipe in concentric layers with the maximum velocity in the centre of the pipe.1. 2.1. Reynolds Number (Re) Reynolds number for pipe flow is given by equation as follows: In dimensionally consistent SI units Re = DxVxr m where D = tube diameter (m) V = fluid velocity (m/s) r = density (kg/m³) m = absolute viscosity (Pa. The velocity profile is parabolic.7b. the gradient of which depends upon the viscosity of the fluid for a set flow-rate. Turbulent Flow This is sometimes known as unsteady flow with considerable mixing taking place across the pipe cross section. 2. 2.7a Laminar flow Laminar Flow This is sometimes known as streamline. V = velocity u max = maximum velocity Fig.

such as above. when calculating Reynolds numbers. Re less than 2300 Laminar Flow (Viscous force dominates .low system losses) Re in range 2300 to 4000 Re greater than 4000 - Where transitional flow occurs. For a given set of flow conditions. it has no units.Terminology and Theory Other convenient forms of this equation are: Re = DxVxr m where D = tube diameter (mm) V = fluid velocity (m/s) r = density (kg/m³) m = absolute viscosity (cP) or Re = 21230 x Q Dxm where D = tube diameter (mm) Q = capacity (l/min) m = absolute viscosity (cP) or Re = 3162 x Q Dxn where D = tube diameter (in) Q = capacity (US gall/min) n = kinematic viscosity (cSt) or Re = 3800 x Q Dxn where D = tube diameter (in) Q = capacity (UK gall/min) n = kinematic viscosity (cSt) Since Reynolds number is a ratio of two forces. It is important to use the same set of units. 16 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . and the highest resulting loss used in subsequent system calculations. frictional loss calculations should be carried out for both laminar and turbulent conditions.high system losses) Transitional Flow (Critically balanced forces) Turbulent Flow (Inertia force dominates . the Reynolds number will not vary when using different units.

Special attention should be given regarding any abrasive solids with respect to pump type and construction. Also the pump should be sized so the cavity created in the pump chamber by the pump elements is of sufficient size to allow satisfactory pump operation.2.2.9 Fluids Containing Solids It is important to know if a fluid contains any particulate matter and if so. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 17 . In pump sizing. 100° C (212o F) if Pvp = 1.see 2. as when pumping large particles the pump inlet should be large enough for solids to enter the pump without ‘bridging’ the pump inlet.Terminology and Theory 2. In general terms Pvp: Is dependent upon the type of fluid.087 psia).006 bar a (0.1.1. the size and concentration.334 psia).4.334 psia) 1. Is of great importance to pump inlet conditions. Should be determined from relevant tables.087 psia) 0.023 bar a (0. The vapour pressure of a fluid is the pressure (at a given temperature) at which a fluid will change to a vapour and is expressed as absolute pressure (bar a or psia) .4).013 bar a (14. Temperature 0 C (32 F) o o Vapour pressure (bar) 0. Size of solids is also important. vapour pressure can be a key factor in checking the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) available from the system (see 2. Concentration is normally expressed as a percentage by weight (W/W) or volume (V/V) or a combination of both weight and volume (W/V). operating speed and shaft seals.2. The Pvp for water at various temperatures is shown in section 14. 2.7 psia) (atmospheric conditions at sea level). Increases at higher temperature.8a Vapour pressure Fluids will evaporate unless prevented from doing so by external pressure. Each fluid has its own vapour pressure/temperature relationship.1. 2.7 psia) 20o C (68o F) 100o C (212o F) Water will boil (vaporise) at a temperature of: 0° C (32o F) if Pvp = 0.8 Vapour Pressure Fluid (liquid form) Pvp = Vapour pressure (external pressure required to maintain as a fluid) Fig.023 bar a (0.006 bar a (0.013 bar a (14. 20° C (68o F) if Pvp = 0.

Normally the reference is that of the atmosphere and the resulting measured pressure is called gauge pressure. This is usually a known value dependent on the actual process.5. and kilogram per square centimetre (kg/cm²). This derived unit is called the Pascal (Pa). The range of normal variation of atmospheric pressure near the earth’s surface is approximately 0.2 Performance Data 2.95 to 1. 2.96 to 15. tonne per hour (t/h) and pounds per hour (lb/h). For mass the most common units of capacity are kilogram per hour (kg/h).2 Pressure F = Force Pressure is defined as force per unit area: P= F A where F is the force perpendicular to a surface and A is the area of the surface.43 psi gauge (psig). For fluids the most common units of capacity are litres per hour (l/h). In practice Pascals are rarely used and the most common units of force are bar. 2. At sea level the standard atmospheric pressure is 1.2. cubic metres per hour (m³/h) and UK or US gallons per minute (gall/min). A 1 Fig.05 bar absolute (bar a) or 13.2. Pressure measured relative to a perfect vacuum is called ‘absolute pressure’.1 Capacity (Flow Rate) The capacity (or flow rate) is the volume of fluid or mass that passes a certain area per time unit. 18 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Conversion factors between units of pressure are given in section 14.3. Different Types of Pressure For calculations involving fluid pressures. the measurements must be relative to some reference pressure.2a Pressure 1 In the SI system the standard unit of force is the Newton (N) and area is given in square metres (m²).2. pounds per square inch (lb/in²) or psi. Pressure is expressed in units of Newtons per square metre (N/m²).Terminology and Theory 2.7 psi absolute (bar a or psia).013 bar a or 14. Atmospheric Pressure The actual magnitude of the atmospheric pressure varies with location and with climatic conditions.

commonly indicated in units of barg (bar gauge) or psig (psi gauge). It equals atmospheric pressure plus gauge pressure. It is a measure of the force per unit area exerted by a fluid. For inlet pressures below atmospheric pressure the differential pressure is obtained by adding the inlet pressure to the outlet pressure. This is expressed in units of absolute bar a (psia) or gauge bar g (psig) depending upon the inlet conditions. Differential Pressure This is the difference between the inlet and outlet pressures. This is a measure of the difference between the measured pressure and atmospheric pressure expressed in units of mercury (Hg) or units of psia.Terminology and Theory Gauge Pressure Using atmospheric pressure as a zero reference. For inlet pressures above atmospheric pressure the differential pressure is obtained by subtracting the inlet pressure from the outlet pressure. Outlet (Discharge) Pressure This is the pressure at which the fluid leaves the pump.9 in Hg). It is therefore the total pressure reading and is the pressure against which the pump will have to operate. The reading should be taken whilst the pump is running and as close to the pump inlet as possible. gauge pressure is the pressure within the gauge that exceeds the surrounding atmospheric pressure. 14. indicated in units of bar a (bar absolute) or psia (psi absolute). Again this reading should be taken whilst the pump is running and as close to the pump outlet as possible. Absolute Pressure = Gauge Pressure + Atmospheric Pressure Vacuum This is a commonly used term to describe pressure in a pumping system below normal atmospheric pressure. The reading is expressed in units of gauge bar (psig). Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 19 . Power requirements are to be calculated on the basis of differential pressure. 0 psia = 760 mm Hg (29.7 psia = 0 mm Hg (0 in Hg). Absolute Pressure Is the total pressure exerted by a fluid. Inlet (Suction) Pressure This is the pressure at which the fluid is entering the pump.

7 psi a) 0 bar g (0 psi g) 1.21.5 bar g (21.45 psi Fig.013 bar a (14.013 bar a 0 bar g (0 psi g) (14.2b Differential pressure 20 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .0.2.25) = 65.25 psi a) 0 bar a (0 psi a) Differential + = = 4 + (1.75 = 36.013 bar a (72.5) = 4.013 bar a (14.7 psi a) 0.5 bar a (7.013 bar a (72.013 .Terminology and Theory Example: Inlet Pressure above Atmospheric Pressure Outlet Inlet Differential 4 bar g (58 psi g) 5.7 psi a) - = Differential = 4 .75 psi g) 1.5 bar or = 58 .5 = 2.513 bar or = 58 + (14.013 bar a (14.7 -7.25 psi Example: Inlet Pressure below Atmospheric Pressure Outlet Inlet Differential 4 bar g (58 psi g) 5.7 psi a) 0 bar a (0 psi a) 0 bar g (0 psi g) 1.1.7 psi a) 0 bar a (0 psi a) 1.7 psi a) 0 bar g (0 psi g) 1. 2.

Terminology and Theory The relationship of elevation equivalent to pressure is commonly referred to as ‘head’. This pressure difference is due to the weight of a ‘column’ of fluid and can be calculated as follows: In dimensionally consistent SI units Static Pressure (P) = r x g x h where P = Pressure/head (Pa) r = density of fluid (kg/m3) g = gravity (m/s2) h = height of fluid (m) Other convenient forms of this equation are: Static Pressure (P) = h (m) x SG 10 (bar) or Static Pressure (P) = h (ft) x SG 2. Fig.31 (psi) Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 21 .2c Relationship of pressure to elevation The Relationship Between Pressure and Elevation In a static fluid (a body of fluid at rest) the pressure difference between any two points is in direct proportion only to the vertical distance between the points. 2.2. The same vertical height will give the same pressure regardless of the pipe configuration in between.

5 bar (50 psi) 25 m (82 ft).4 3. 2.2d Relationship of elevation to pressure A pump capable of delivering 3. SG 1. Static Head The static head is a difference in fluid levels. SG 1.2e Relationship of elevation to pressure Below are terms commonly used to express different conditions in a pumping system which can be expressed as pressure units (bar or psi) or head units (m or ft).5 bar (50 psi) 35 m (115ft) 4.0 3. 2. 3.4 SG 0.2. 22 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Terminology and Theory A pump capable of delivering 35 m (115 ft) head will produce different pressures for fluids of differing specific gravities. Static Suction Head This is the difference in height between the fluid level and the centre line of the pump inlet on the inlet side of the pump.9 bar (70 psi) 35 m (115ft) 2. Static Discharge Head This is the difference in height between the fluid level and the centre line of the pump inlet on the discharge side of the pump.7 3.5 bar (50 psi) pressure will develop different amounts of head for fluids of differing specific gravities.2.5 bar (35 psi) SG 1. Water Slurry Solvent 35 m (115ft). Water Slurry Solvent 35 m (115 ft).5 bar (50 psi) 50 m (165 ft). Flooded Suction This term is generally used to describe a positive inlet pressure/head.2.3). SG 0.7 Fig. whereby fluid will readily flow into the pump inlet at sufficient pressure to avoid cavitation (see 2.0 SG 1.5 bar (50 psi) Fig.

hfs + (± ps) = Total head. = Total discharge head. Where the static head is negative. this implies the fluid level will be below the centre line of the pump inlet (ie suction lift). Dynamic Head This is the energy required to set the fluid in motion and to overcome any resistance to that motion. = Pressure drop in discharge line. Total Suction Head The total suction head is the static suction head less the dynamic head. = Total suction head.The head is often a known value. = Vacuum or pressure in a tank on suction side. It can be calculated by means of different formulas if the installation conditions are specified. Total head H Total discharge head Ht Total suction head Hs Where: H Hs Ht hs ht hfs hft Ps Pt = = = Ht .Terminology and Theory Total Static Head The total static head of a system is the difference in height between the static discharge head and the static suction head. Total Head Total head is the total pressure difference between the total discharge head and the total suction head of the pump. = Static discharge head. Friction Head This is the pressure drop on both inlet and discharge sides of the pump due to frictional losses in fluid flow. = Pressure in a tank on discharge side. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 23 . or where the dynamic head is greater than the static head. = Pressure drop in suction line. = Static suction head. Total Discharge Head The total discharge head is the sum of the static discharge and dynamic heads.(± Hs) ht + hft + pt hs .

2a Viscosity . determined in practice by converting the losses into equivalent straight length of tube which can then be used in subsequent system calculations. hs < 0 for suction lift.5 0. p = 0 for open tank. For calculations on water like viscosity fluids.2g Flooded suction and closed discharge tanks Fig. 2. Fig.2f Flooded suction and open discharge tanks Fig. fittings and other process equipment etc.2.2.2i Suction lift and closed discharge tanks Pressure drop is the result of frictional losses in pipework. 2.2. Pressure Drop Manufacturers of processing equipment. viscosity.20000 20001 . internal surface finish of tube and tube length. usually have data available for pressure drop.2000 0. 2. a viscosity correction factor is applied to the tube fittings by multiplying the resultant equivalent tube length by the figures shown below .25 24 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .cP Correction Factor 1 . For higher viscosity fluids.5) as shown in Example 1. 2. tube diameter.Terminology and Theory In general terms: p > 0 for pressure.see Example 2. p < 0 for vacuum. hs > 0 for flooded suction. heat exchangers. the pressure drop can be determined referring to the Pressure Drop Curve (see 14.75 2001 . Table 2.2.100000 0. if necessary.0 101 . The different losses and consequently the total pressure drop in the process are.2.100 1. static mixers etc. These losses are affected by fluid velocity.2h Suction lift and open discharge tanks Fig.

This results in the following equivalent tube length for the different equipment as shown in the following tables: C Fig.7. 51 mm (2 in). A-B: 4 m (13 ft) tube dia. The pressure drop through the tubes.5 mm (2. dia.Terminology and Theory Example 1: Process: Pumping milk from tank A to tank G.2. pos 3 Bend 90 deg. The conversion into equivalent tube length is carried out by reference to section 14. 63.5 in). 51 mm (2 in).2. 2. LKC-2 non-return valve SRC. B-C: 20 m (66 ft) tube dia. B-E: 3 off bend 90 deg. 63. E: Seat valve type SRC-W-51-21-100.5 in). dia.2j Example Table 2. valves and fittings: A: Tank outlet dia. C-E: 15 m (49 ft) tube dia. B-C Tube C-E C-E B-E D E E-F E-F F Total Tube SRC seat valve. seat valve. Q = 8 m3/h (35 US gall/min). A-B: 1 off bend 90 deg. 38 mm (1. C: Seat valve type SRC-W-51-21-100. D: Non-return valve type LKC-2. Tubes. so that the total pressure drop can be calculated.5 mm 1 (estimated) 4 1x1 20 15 10 3x1 12 14 46 4x1 4 54 74 6 A Tank outlet A-B Tube A-B Bend 90 deg. 51 mm (2 in). 63.5 Tube Bend 90 deg. 38 mm (1. valves and fittings is determined as equivalent tube length.5 in).5 mm (2. 51 mm (2 in). SRC seat valve. dia. E-F: 46 m (151 ft) tube dia. pos. E-F: 4 off bend 90 deg.5 in).2b Equipment Equivalent ISO Tube Length (m) 38 mm 51 mm 63.3 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 25 .5 in). F: Seat valve type SRC-W-38-21-100. pos.5 mm (2.

5 in 3 (estimated) 13 1x3 66 49 33 3x3 39 46 151 4x3 13 176 242 19 A A-B A-B B-C C-E C-E B-E D E E-F E-F F Total Tank outlet Tube Bend 90 deg. 2.5 in) tube: 51 mm (2 in) tube: 63. SRC seat valve. pos.3 Bend 90 deg. The pressure drop through 100 m of tube for sizes 38 mm.2 ~ 3. Length = 6 m (19 ft).2k Pressure drop curve 26 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Length = 74 m (242 ft). 51 mm and 63. Tube Tube SRC seat valve. LKC-2 non-return valve SRC seat valve. pos.5 in 2 in 2.5.3 As viewed from the tables above the pressure drop through the different equipment corresponds to the following equivalent tube length. ~ 13.5 mm (2.Terminology and Theory Table 2.1 Q = 8 m3/h Fig.0 ~ 1. 38 mm (1. also shown in 14. pos.2.2c Equipment Equivalent ISO Tube Length (ft) 1.5 in) tube: Length = 54 m (176 ft).5 mm is determined by means of the following curve.2.5 Tube Bend 90 deg.

6 off Bend 90 deg. 76 mm (3 in).13 m 100 DH = 74 x 3. valves and fittings is determined as equivalent tube length so that the total pressure drop can be calculated.4 m (» 1 bar) or 1. valves and fittings: 30 m (98 ft) tube dia.4 + 0. 3 off Tee (out through side port) 51 mm (2 in).0 = 2. dia. 76 mm (3 in).5 in: DH = 23.5 mm: DH = 7. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 27 .7 ft » 31 ft (» 14 psi) Example 2: Process: Pumping glucose with a viscosity of 5000 cP from a flooded suction through discharge pipeline as follows. Tubes.13 + 2.2 = 30. 51 mm (2 in).2 = 7. 4 off Bend 90 deg.42 m » 9.Terminology and Theory The total pressure drop DH in the process is consequently calculated as follows: 38 mm: DH = 54 x 13.5 in: DH = 176 x 43 = 23. 20 m (66 ft) tube dia.1 + 7. 51 mm (2 in).1 ft 328 DH = 242 x 10 = 7.1 = 0. The pressure drop through the tubes.2 ft 328 2 in: 2.22 + 0. 2 off Non-return valves 51 mm (2 in). dia.4 ft 328 DH = 19 x 4 = 0.22 m 100 DH = 6 x 1.07 m 100 51 mm: 63.07 = 9.

51 mm (2 in): 30 m (98 ft) + 19. Tube dia.7. This results in the following equivalent tube length for the different fittings as shown below: Table 2.5 m (63 ft) Tube dia.Terminology and Theory For the pipe fittings the conversion into equivalent tube length is carried out by reference to tables 14. Tee Total Table 2.2.5 = 2 m (6 ft) These figures of 19. 76 mm (3 in): Length = 4 m (12 ft) x 0. 76 mm (3 in): 20 m (66 ft) + 2 m (6 ft) = 22 m (72 ft) 28 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Applying the viscosity correction factor for 5000 cP the equivalent tube length is now: Tube dia. 76 mm (3 in): Length = 4 m (12 ft). Bend 90 deg. Tube dia. Tee Total As viewed from the tables above the pressure drop through the different fittings corresponds to the following equivalent tube length.2.5 m (63 ft) = 49.5 m (63 ft) and 2 m (6 ft) would be added to the straight tube lengths given as shown below.2d Fittings Equivalent ISO Tube Length (m) 51 mm 76 mm 2 x 12 6x1 4x1 3x3 39 4 Non-return valve Bend 90 deg.5 m (161 ft) + Tube dia. Bend 90 deg. 51 mm (2 in): Length = 39 m (126 ft) x 0.5 = 19. and subsequently used in calculating the discharge pressure at the flow rate required.2e Fittings Equivalent ISO Tube Length (ft) 2 in 3 in 2 x 39 6x3 4x3 3 x 10 126 12 Non-return valve Bend 90 deg. 51 mm (2 in): Length = 39 m (126 ft). Tube dia.

= fluid velocity (m/s). Pf = 0. This co-efficient is known as the Darcy friction factor (fD). In the case of turbulent flow.7. = tube length (m). Friction Loss Calculations Since laminar flow is uniform and predictable it is the only flow regime in which the friction losses can be calculated using purely mathematical equations.0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf fD L D V SG = pressure loss due to friction (psi). = Darcy friction factor. = density of fluid (kg/m3).1. = tube diameter (in). = specific gravity. = tube diameter (mm).Terminology and Theory The friction losses in a pipework system are dependent upon the type of flow characteristic that is taking place. Other convenient forms of this equation are: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf fD L D V SG or = pressure loss due to friction (bar). The Reynolds number (Re) is used to determine the flow characteristic. In dimensionally consistent SI units: Pf = fD x L x r x V2 Dx2 Where: Pf fD L D V r = pressure loss due to friction (Pa). but these are multiplied by a co-efficient that is normally determined by experimental methods. = fluid velocity (m/s). mathematical equations are used. = tube diameter (m). The Miller equation given below can be used to determine the friction losses for both laminar and turbulent flow in a given length of pipe (L). see 2. = tube length (m). Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 29 . = Darcy friction factor. = Darcy friction factor. = fluid velocity (ft/s). = specific gravity. = tube length (ft).

rotary or reciprocating. For turbulent flow.2. 2. cavitation is the most commonly encountered. For all pump application problems.045 mm. increased corrosion and erosion when cavitation is present. When found.due to local pressure reduction part of the fluid may evaporate generating small vapour bubbles. meaning a hollow space. the Darcy friction factor (fD) can be calculated directly from the equation: fD = 64 Re The relative roughness of pipes varies with diameter. It is usual to simplify this by using an relative roughness (k) of 0. k D The term cavitation is derived from the word cavity. Cavitation should be avoided at all costs.Terminology and Theory For laminar flow. which is the absolute roughness of clean commercial steel or wrought iron pipes as given by Moody. 30 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . = internal pipe diameter (mm). The life of a pump can be shortened through mechanical damage. If cavitation occurs this will result in loss of pump efficiency and noisy operation. excessive pump speed and/or adverse suction conditions will probably be the cause and reducing pump speed and/or rectifying the suction condition will usually eliminate this problem. type of material used and age of the pipe.3 Cavitation Cavitation is an undesirable vacuous space in the inlet port of the pump normally occupied by fluid. When sizing pumps on highly viscous fluids care must be taken not to select too higher pump speed so as to allow sufficient fluid to enter the pump and ensure satisfactory operation. the Darcy friction factor (fD) has to be determined by reference to the Moody diagram (see section 14. It is first necessary to calculate the relative roughness designated by the symbol Î. The lowest pressure point in a pump occurs at the pump inlet .8). It occurs with all types of pumps. centrifugal. Where: Î =k D = relative roughness which is the average heights of the pipe internal surface peaks (mm). These bubbles are carried along by the fluid and implode instantly when they get into areas of higher pressure.

(Net Inlet Pressure Available) and NPSHr is also referred to as N. Pump manufacturers supply data about the net positive suction head required by their pumps (NPSHr) for satisfactory operation. generally abbreviated NPSH.A. power and efficiency requirements. 2. For satisfactory pump operation: NPSHa > NPSHr N.I.P.I.R.2. capacity.2. When selecting a pump it is critical the net positive suction head available (NPSHa) in the system is greater than the net positive suction head required by the pump.I.I.Terminology and Theory 2. A simplified way to look at NPSHa or N. there will be a positive suction pressure.4a NPSH balance For + Providing the factors acting for the pump outweigh those factors acting against.P. Against Fig.A.P. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 31 .P. is to imagine a balance of factors working for (static pressure and positive head) and against (friction loss and vapour pressure) the pump. This is called the Net Positive Suction Head. > N.R. The system on the inlet side of the pump must allow a smooth flow of fluid to enter the pump at a sufficiently high pressure to avoid cavitation.I.4 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) In addition to the total head.A. the condition at the inlet of a pump is critical.P. (Net Inlet Pressure Required). NPSHa is also referred to as N.

Pvp Where: Pa hs hfs Pvp or Where: Pa hs hfs Pvp = Pressure absolute above fluid level (bar). It is important to note. It is calculated as follows: NPSHa = Pressure acting on or surface of liquid (Pa) N. in the system is dependent upon the characteristic of the fluid being pumped. inlet piping.I.P. the location of the suction vessel. This is the actual pressure seen at the pump inlet.A.A.e.I.Terminology and Theory The value of NPSHa or N.P.4b NPSH calculation NPSHa or N.2. = Pressure absolute above fluid level (psi). 32 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .P. +ve -ve +ve -ve + Static suction head (hs) Pressure drop (hfs) Vapour pressure (Pvp) hs Fig.hfs . It is important the units used for calculating NPSHa or N. = Pa ± hs .I.A. = Static suction head (ft). For low temperature applications the vapour pressure is generally not critical and can be assumed to be negligible. and the pressure applied to the fluid in the suction vessel. = Vapour pressure (psia).P. = Pressure drop in suction line (ft). = Pressure drop in suction line (m).I. the total figures should be in m or ft. = Static suction head (m). = Vapour pressure (bar a). 2. it is the inlet system that sets the inlet condition and not the pump. are consistent i.A.

cavitation will occur under the conditions stated.9 ft).hfs . 2.hfs .Pvp = 10 .0 m) (3 ft).5 m) (5 ft).5 m Fig.5 ft).Pvp or = 16 + 5 .12 bar a = 1.hfs .5 m) (5 ft).8 m = 13.2 (m) or = 33.9 . = Vapour pressure (0.1.Pvp = 5 + 1.2 m) (1.5 . = Static suction head (1.3. Pa = Pressure absolute above fluid level (0. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 33 .9 (m) = 1.39 bar a = 3.hfs . 3. 1.4c Example NPSHr of pump selected = 3.11.5 m hs hfs Pvp Fig. = Static suction head (3. = Vapour pressure (0.3 .9 m) (5.5 .Terminology and Theory Example 1: Process: Water at 50 °C (122o F).5 .1.5 m Pa hs hfs Pvp = Pressure absolute above fluid level (1 bar = 10 m) (14.7 psia = 13 ft).hs .0 m (10 ft).0 .7 psi = 33. 2. no cavitation will occur under the conditions stated.13 (ft) = 5 ft As NPSHa is less than NPSHr.5 bar = 5 m) (7 psi = 16 ft).4 ft As NPSHa is greater than NPSHr.2.Pvp = Pa .2.8 psia = 4 ft).6 m = Pa + hs . NPSHa = Pa .0 m (10 ft).hs .5 .3.4d Example NPSHr of pump selected = 3. = Pressure drop in suction line (1. 1.5 m) (11. NPSHa = Pa + hs . = Pressure drop in suction line (1.5 bar Process: Water at 75 °C (167o F). Example 2: 0.1.4 (ft) = 3.5 .

2.Pvp = 10 + 1. = Static suction head (1.4g Positive effect Fig.0 (ft) = 8.9 ft). 2.4k Negative effect 34 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .hfs .30 .2. From the NPSHa formula it is possible to check and optimise the conditions which affect NPSHa.4f Positive effect Fig.hfs .9.9 + 5 .4h Negative effect Vapour pressure (Temperature dependent) Fig.2.Pvp or = 33.0 (m) = 2.0 m) (30 ft).5 m = Pa + hs .0 . 2. Pa hs hfs Pvp = Pressure absolute above fluid level (1 bar = 10 m) (14.2. 2.Terminology and Theory Example 3: Process: Glucose at 50 °C (122o F). Fig. NPSHa = Pa + hs .5 .2.4e Example NPSHr of pump selected = 3.2.2. = Vapour pressure (assumed negligible = 0 m) (0 ft). 2.0 m (10 ft). cavitation will occur under the conditions stated. 2.2.5 m) (5 ft). = Pressure drop in suction line (9.9 ft As NPSHa is less than NPSHr.7 psi = 33. 2.4i Negative effect Fig. The effects are shown as follows: Fig.4j Negative effect Fig.

• Elasticity of the fluid. The following causes changes in fluid velocity: • Valves are closed or opened. length of line as short as possible. although caution is needed as this may have an effect of increasing fluid viscosity. • Damaged tube. often up to 1400 m/s for steel tubes. • Damaged pump. • Pumps are started or stopped. The pressure shock is really a pressure wave with a velocity of propagation much higher than the velocity of the flow. thereby increasing pressure drop. meters.e. valves etc. • The tubes support. which are rapidly/ frequently started or stopped.Terminology and Theory Suggestions for avoiding cavitation: • Keep pressure drop in the inlet line to a minimum i. • Changes in tube dimensions. can also cause some problems. Pumps. • Resistance in process equipment such as valves. 2.5 Pressure ‘Shocks’ (Water Hammer) The term ‘shock’ is not strictly correct as shock waves only exist in gases. The major pressure wave problems in process plants are usually due to rapidly closed or opened valves. Effects of pressure waves: • Noise in the tube. and minimal use of pipe fittings such as tees. filters. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 35 .2. When designing pipework systems it is important to keep the natural frequency of the system as high as possible by using rigid pipework and as many pipework supports as possible. valves and other equipment. • Maintain a static head as high as possible. diameter as large as possible. thereby avoiding the excitation frequency of the pump. Pressure waves are the result of rapid changes in the velocity of the fluid in especially in long runs of piping. • Cavitation. • Reduce fluid temperature. Velocity of propagation The velocity of propagation of the pressure wave depends on: • Elasticity of the tubes. • Changes in flow direction. etc.

2.2. values close to the absolute zero point which can result in cavitation if the absolute pressure drops to the vapour pressure of the fluid. a valve is closed.2.2. This is due to the low fluid velocity which results in a relatively small damping of the pressure waves. Rapid changes in the operating conditions of valves and pump are the major reasons to the pressure waves and therefore. 2.5a Correct flow direction through seat valve Fig. The wave is then reflected back to the valve. A pressure wave induced as a result of a pump stopping can result in negative pressure values in long tubes.5b specify the correct and incorrect flow direction for this type of valve. There are different ways to avoid or reduce pressure waves which are briefly described below. 2. Figs 2. the pressure wave travels from the valve to the end of the tube. Precautions Pressure waves are caused by changes in the velocity of the liquid in especially long runs of tube. Correct flow direction Incorrect flow direction through valves can induce pressure waves particularly as the valve functions.e. i. A pressure wave as a result of a pump stopping is more damaging than for a pump starting due to the large change in pressure which will continue much longer after a pump is stopped compared to a pump starting. These reflections are in theory continuing but in practice the wave gradually attenuates cancelled by friction in the tube. With air-operated seat valves incorrect direction of flow can cause the valve plug to close rapidly against the valve seat inducing pressure waves. Correct flow directions in the process plant can reduce or even prevent pressure wave problems.5b Incorrect flow direction through seat valve 36 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .5a and 2.Terminology and Theory When for example. Correct Incorrect Fig. it is important to reduce the speed of these changes.

2.Terminology and Theory Damping of valves The pressure wave induced by a seat valve can be avoided or minimised by damping the movement of the valve plug. Equipment for industrial processes There is various equipment available to reduce pressure waves such as: • • • Pressure storage tanks. may not be suitable for hygienic processes and further advice may be required before they are recommended or used in such installations. The risk of power failure should be taken into consideration when using speed control against pressure waves.2.2. The motor is controlled by means of a soft starter or a frequency converter so that the pump is: • • Started at a low speed which is slowly increased to duty speed. Pressure towers. Damped or undamped non-return valves. Stopped by slowly decreasing from duty speed down to a lower speed or zero.5c). Fig.5c Oil damper for seat valve Speed control of pumps Speed control of a pump is a very efficient way to minimise or prevent pressure waves. These however. The damping is carried out by means of a special damper (see fig. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 37 . 2.

Terminology and Theory 38 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

Some of these are as follows: • Transfer various types of fluids/products. operating conditions etc. As demands on processes increase. • Correct selection of shaft seals. • Ensure easy and safe installation. • Provide hygienic. As pumps are used in different locations and stages of a process the need for the correct pump in the right place has become increasingly important. Some pump problems can be: • The correct type of pump for the right application. • Overcome different losses and pressure drops in the system. In view of this.Pump Selection 3. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 39 . • The correct selection of pump with regard to inlet and outlet conditions. major factors evolve such as the quality of products and process profitability. Pump Selection This section gives an overview of the pump ranges currently available from Alfa Laval and which particular pumps to apply within various application areas. • Correct selection of drive units. economical and long lasting operation. • The correct design of pump. the correct selection of a pump is of great importance. • Gentle treatment of the fluids/products. It is therefore necessary to be aware of the various problems that might be encountered when selecting a pump. The pump must be able to carry out various duties under differing conditions. product data. operation and maintenance.

Discharge Pressure .psig Ability to vary flow rate Suction Lift capability (primed wet) Suction Lift capability (unprimed .5 80 Not recommended Recommended Recommended 115 506 20 290 Recommended Recommended Fair 1000 cP 140°C (284 F) . Pumping Temperature Min.10°C (14oF) Not recommended Recommended Not recommended Not recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended o 1000000 cP 200°C (392oF) .bar Max.dry) Drive Availability Air motor Diesel engine Electric motor Hydraulic motor Petrol engine Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines 3-A FDA EHEDG Table 3.Pump Selection 3.1a Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 440 1936 20 290 Fair Recommended Not recommended 80 352 5.1 General Applications Guide The table shown below gives a general guide as to the various types of Alfa Laval pump that may be required to suit the application. Capacity .20°C (-4oF) Fair Fair Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended 40 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Pumping Temperature Ability to pump abrasive products Ability to pump fluids containing air or gases Ability to pump shear sensitive media Ability to pump solids in suspension CIP capability (sanitary) Dry running capability (when fitted with flushed/quench mechanical seals) Self Draining capability Performance Requirements Max.10°C (14oF) Not recommended Not recommended Fair Fair Recommended Recommended Recommended o Centrifugal Liquid Ring Rotary Lobe 200 cP 140°C (284 F) . General Requirements Product/Fluid Requirements Max. Discharge Pressure .US gall/min Max.m³/hr Max. Viscosity Max. Capacity .

Pump Selection 3. such as beer and water chilling. rotary lobe pumps best perform high fluid viscosity applications. Pump Type Pump Range Application Area Soap and Detergent Pharmaceutical Confectionery Other Food Soft Drink Brewery Sugar Centrifugal LKH LKH-Multistage LKHP-High Pressure LKHSP LKHI LKH-Ultra Pure SRU SX ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Rotary Lobe Table 3. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 41 Water Dairy . Generally. are mostly carried out using centrifugal pumps. During the fermentation process. such as liquid sugar tanker offloading and malt syrups.2 Pumps for Sanitary Applications Alfa Laval Pump Ranges Pump Ranges from Alfa Laval Centrifugal Liquid Ring Rotary Lobe LKH LKHP High Pressure LKHI LKH Multistage LKHSP LKH Ultra Pure MR SRU SX Fig. rotary lobe pumps with their gentle pumping action are ideally used handling yeast containing delicate cells. whereas low fluid viscosity applications. Brewery Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe pumps are used in most process stages of brewing from wort handling to beer pasteurisation and filling.2a The Liquid Ring pump is used in most of these sanitary application areas dedicated for CIP and tank emptying duties. A detailed description of these pump ranges is given in section 4. 3.2a Pump ranges The following table illustrates which Alfa Laval pump ranges can be used in various sanitary application areas.

Other Food ‘Other Food’ means other than Confectionery. shampoo and blood products. such as cosmetic creams. providing pumps to all the major confectionery companies. 42 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . are used extensively throughout the dairy industry on milk processing.Pump Selection Confectionery Alfa Laval is a major supplier of pumping equipment to this industry. Confectionery products that contain particulate matter. dishwash liquid. perfume. Pharmaceutical Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe pumps can be found on many applications within this industry where hygiene and corrosion resistance is paramount. liquid detergent and surfactants. water and flavourings. glucose. Alfa Laval Rotary Lobe pumps are mainly used on applications handling high viscosity fruit juice concentrates. can be found within many areas of sugar refined products requiring hygienic handling. Soft Drink Alfa Laval Centrifugal pumps are mainly used on applications handling thin liquid sugar solutions. can be handled with the rotary lobe pump. such as high boiled sugars. handling products such as neat soap. protein solutions. fatty acid. brewing and carbonated soft drinks. Dairy and Sugar generally Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe pumps can be found on general transfer duties handling products such as petfood. Dairy Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe pumps. sulphonic acid. toothpaste. Rotary lobe pumps being used on high viscosity products such as chocolate. such as fruit pie fillings. Soap and Detergent Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe pumps can be found on many applications within this industry. Centrifugal pumps can be commonly found on fat and vegetable oil applications. fabric conditioner. cream and cultured products such as yoghurt. biscuit cream and fondant. with their ability to handle highly viscosity abrasive products. sauces and flavourings. lauryl ether sulphate. Sugar Alfa Laval Rotary Lobe pumps. bakery. with their hygienic construction and conforming to 3-A standards (see section 11). glucose solutions and sugar syrups used in confectionery.

A link to all technical information that may be required to accompany the quotation such as Operation manuals. This program prompts the user to enter pump duty information and selects the pump from the product range most suited to their specific application. As well as performing the pump selection. and recommend an alternative solution. This will include additional options such as pressure relief valves. PumpCAS also extracts data from a comprehensive liquids database enabling it to suggest viscosity. elastomer compatibility and primary seal configuration. PumpCAS will also provide detailed parts list for the pump with item numbers with all recommended spare parts identified and priced. SG. If you would like a copy of the Alfa Laval PumpCAS Selection and Configuration Tool please contact your local Alfa Laval sales company.3 PumpCAS Selection and Configuration Tool Pump selection for both Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe Pumps can be made by the use of Alfa Laval’s PumpCAS selection program. 3. In addition. After the pump has been selected. connection specifications etc.Pump Selection Water Alfa Laval Centrifugal pumps provide a low cost effective solution for high purity water and water like applications. generic or specific performance curves. If one or other technology is not suited to a specific application (this could be due to physical limitations and or fluid characteristics) the program will advise the user. Dimensional details in the form of general arrangement drawings can also be generated. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 43 . along with direct access to this Alfa Laval Pump Handbook for any additional supporting information that may be required. heating or cooling devices. The program selects both centrifugal and rotary lobe pumps and provides the user with a comparison of features enabling the most appropriate technology to be chosen. and technical data sheets will also be provided. the user will be assisted to complete a detailed pump unit specification. for which the price of the pump and its configuration code (item number) will be automatically generated aiding the quotation and/or ordering process. maximum speed.

and will be continually added to as additional products are tested. For example. All information is offered for guidance purposes only. recommended spares lists can be extracted based on an existing configuration code or direct access to technical information relating to a specific pump technology is possible.Pump Selection Flexibility has been built in to the software to enable specific enquiries to be answered without the need to complete a full pump selection. The liquids database contained within PumpCAS is based on rheological tests performed over many years on end users liquids at Alfa Laval’s chemical laboratory. 44 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

Pump Description This section gives a description of Alfa Laval pump ranges including design.1 Centrifugal Pumps 4. • Easy maintenance.Pump Description 4. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 45 . Centrifugal pumps including multi-stage designs and those for high inlet pressure. pharmaceutical and light chemical industries. principle of operation and pump model types.1. Attributes include: • High efficiency.1 General The Alfa Laval range of Centrifugal Pumps has been designed specially for use in the food. beverage. • Low power consumption. dairy. 4. can handle most low viscosity applications. • Low noise level. Centrifugal pumps can provide the most cost effective solution. • Low NPSH requirement.

i.3 Design In general the Alfa Laval centrifugal pump does not contain many parts. 46 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . The impeller is fixed onto the pump shaft which is housed in a pump casing and back plate – these components are described below: Impeller The impeller is of cast manufacture and open type. The fluid is then pressed out of the impeller by means of centrifugal force and finally leaves the impeller channel with increased pressure and velocity. of several impellers (several stages) which increase the pressure from one stage to another but flow rate is unchanged.2 Principle of Operation Fluid is directed to the impeller eye and is forced into a circular movement by the rotation of the impeller vanes. however.3a Semi-open impeller The impeller has two or multiple vanes depending on the type of centrifugal pump.Pump Description 4. Fig. A semi-open impeller is also available which is easy to clean and suitable for polishing. The multi-stage centrifugal pump operates as if several conventional centrifugal pumps are connected in series.2a Principle of operation Fig.1. the impeller vanes are open in front. 4. Fig.1. 4. the impeller vanes transfer mechanical work to the fluid in the impeller channel.1. which is formed by the impeller vanes.e. The impeller diameter and width will vary dependent upon the duty requirements. The velocity of the fluid is also partly converted into pressure by the pump casing before it leaves the pump through the outlet.1. 4.2b Multistage centrifugal pump 4. The principle of the multi-stage centrifugal pump is the same as the conventional centrifugal pump.1. This type allows visual inspection of the vanes and the area between them. The pump consists. As a result of this rotation. with the pumphead being connected to a standard electric motor.

Fig. Fig. 4. complete with male screwed connections and can be supplied with fittings or clamp liners.1. Please note Alfa Laval Centrifugal pumps for the USA market are supplied without shrouds. which is described in section 6. Shroud and Legs Most pump types are fitted with shrouds and adjustable legs. The shroud is insulated to keep noise to a minimum and protect the motor against damage.1. 4. The pump casing is designed for multi position outlet. 4. Fig.3c 360o flexibility Back Plate The back plate is of pressed steel manufacture.3d Back plate Mechanical Seal The connection between the motor shaft/pump shaft and the pump casing is sealed by means of a mechanical seal.Pump Description Pump Casing The pump casing is of pressed steel manufacture.1.1. 4.3b Pump casing Fig. with 360° flexibility.3e Pump with shroud and legs Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 47 . which together with the pump casing form the actual fluid chamber in which the fluid is transferred by means of the impeller.

5 bar (165 psig) and for 60 Hz up to 440 m3/h (1936 US gall/min) and differential pressure up to 16 bar (230 psig).1. which can be attached to any standard IEC or C-frame electric motor. 4. -40. On the multistage centrifugal pump the length of the pump shaft will differ depending upon the number of impellers fitted.1.Pump Description Pump Shaft/Connections Most pumps have stub shafts that are fixed to the motor shafts by means of compression couplings. eliminating the use of keyways. -10. Pumps supplied with direct coupled motors have no adaptors. 4.1.4 Pump Range The Alfa Laval Centrifugal Pump portfolio comprises of different ranges as follows: LKH Range The LKH pump is a highly efficient and economical centrifugal pump. yet secure method of drive that reduces vibration and noise. -45.3f Compression coupling Adaptor Most pumps are fitted with a standard IEC electric motor. 4. Fig. -70 and -80. The connection between the motor and back plate is made by means of an adaptor.4a LKH Fig. -50. meeting sanitary requirements with gentle product treatment and chemical resistance. 4. -25. -35. Flow rates for 50 Hz up to 440 m³/h (1936 US gall/min) and differential pressures up to 11.3g Adapter 4. -15. 48 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .4b LKH (USA version) The LKH range is available in twelve sizes: LKH-5. Fig. Fig.1. -20.1. -60. The stub shaft assembly design provides a simple.

three or four impellers respectively). pumps fitted with two.4c LKH-Multistage Fig. three or four stage models (i.Pump Description LKH-Multistage Range These pumps are primarily used in applications with high outlet pressure and low capacity requirements such as breweries.4d LKH-Multistage (USA version) The LKH-Multistage range is available in six sizes.1.1.4e LKHP-High Pressure Fig. 4. Pump Size LKH-112 LKH-113 LKH-114 LKH-122 LKH-123 LKH-124 Number of Stages 2 3 4 2 3 4 Flow rates for 50 Hz up to 75 m³/h (330 US gall/min) and discharge pressures up to 40 bar (580 psig) with boost pressures up to 19 bar (275 psig) and for 60 Hz up to 80 m3/h (352 US gall/min) and boost pressures up to 26 bar (375 psig). reverse osmosis and ultra-filtration. Application areas include reverse osmosis mono-filtration and ultra-filtration.4f LKHP-High Pressure (USA version) Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 49 . Fig. The pumps are available as two.1. For inlet pressures greater than 10 bar (145 psig) a ‘special’ motor is used incorporating fixed angular contact bearings due to axial thrust.e. 4.1. 4. 4. Fig. LKHP-High Pressure Range These pumps are designed to handle high inlet pressures built with reinforced pump casing and back plate.

-25. pharmaceutical and other similar industries. a non-return valve (normally closed) on the inlet side. 11 bar (160 psig). The LKHSP range is available in five sizes. For 60 Hz. -35 and -40. -15. These pumps can be used for tank emptying or as a CIP return pump where there is a risk of air or gas mixing with the fluid in the suction line. flow rates up to 275 m3/h (1210 US gall/min) with differential pressures up to 11 bar (160 psig). -35. -20. The LKHI range is available in nine sizes. -45. -15. Fig. LKHP-10. LKHI-10. -50 and -60. -40. The pump can withstand this high inlet pressure due to being fitted with an internal shaft seal. LKHSP Range The LKHSP self-priming pump is specially designed for pumping fluids containing air or gas without loosing its pumping ability. LKHI Range This pump range is similar to the LKH range but is suitable for inlet pressures up to 16 bar (230 psig). chemical.-25. The pump is for use in food. -35. 4.Pump Description The LKHP-High Pressure range is available in nine sizes. -40.4g LKHSP 50 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . For these high inlet pressures a ‘special’ motor with fixed angular contact bearings is used due to axial thrust. depending upon pump size. a tee and a non-return valve (normally open) on the bypass line.6 bar. LKHSP-10. Flow rates for 50 Hz up to 240 m³/h (1056 US gall/min) with differential pressures up to 8 bar (115 psig). -20. -25. Flow rates up to 90 m³/h (396 US gall/min) and differential pressures for 50 Hz up to 8 bar (115 psig) and for 60 Hz. -50 and -60. The pump range is designed for inlet pressures up to 40 bar (580 psig). The pump is supplied complete with a tank. Flow rates for 50 Hz up to 240 m³/h (1056 US gall/min) with differential pressures up to 8 bar (115 psig). flow rates up to 275 m3/h (1210 US gall/min) with differential pressures up to 11 bar (160 psig). -20 . For 60 Hz.1. The pump is capable of creating a vacuum of 0.

Pump Description For inlet pressures greater than 10 bar (145 psig) a ‘special’ motor is used incorporating fixed angular contact bearings due to axial thrust. LKH-UltraPure Range These pumps are designed for high purity applications such as water-for-injection (WFI). fittings and valves. due to the pump casing outlet being turned 45°. 4. The pump is fully drainable supplied with associated pipework.4h LKH-UltraPure Fig.1. 4. C218. C114. Fig. The C-series is produced mainly for the USA and is available in five sizes.1. -25. Another feature of this pump is self-venting. -20. Fig. 11 bar (160 psig). -35 and -40. Flow rates for 60 Hz up to 227 m3/h (1000 US gall/min) and differential pressures up to 10 bar (145 psig). C – Series range The C-Series is the original. 4.1.4j C-Series Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 51 . C216.4i LKH-UltraPure (USA version) The LKH-UltraPure range is available in five sizes. LKH-UltraPure-10. Flow rates up to 90 m³/h (396 US gall/min) and differential pressures for 50 Hz up to 8 bar (115 psig) and for 60 Hz. The range is designed for meeting sanitary requirements and can be Cleaned-In-Place. all-purpose Alfa Laval centrifugal pump for less demanding applications. C328 and C4410.

The pump is.2 Principle of Operation The liquid-ring pump is in principle a centrifugal pump. • Suitable for aerated fluids. 4. self-priming when half filled with fluid. however. 52 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2a Principle of operation The sequence of a section between two impeller vanes during one revolution is described in the following: a) There is a certain fluid volume in the gap between the vanes which is not in contact with the channel.Pump Description 4.1 General The Alfa Laval range of Liquid Ring Pumps are specially designed for use in food. The discharge line should be routed 1 to 2 metres vertically upwards from the pump outlet connections to maintain the liquid ring in the side channels (see 12.2. The centrifugal force pushes the fluid outwards and consequently forms a vacuum at the centre of the impeller. Part of the fluid between the vanes fills the channel. • High efficiency.5. • Minimal maintenance. small tolerances between the impeller and the pump casing. they are ideally used as return pumps in CIP systems.1). Attributes include: • Self-priming (when pump casing is half filled with fluid). 4. and due to a side channel made in the pump casing and/or the front cover.2 Liquid Ring Pumps 4. which gradually becomes deeper. The self-priming capability is a result of the impeller design. As these pumps are self-priming.2. Fig. As the liquid ring pump is self-priming when half filled with fluid. a) to b) The gap is in contact with the channel. it is capable of pumping from a suction line partly filled with air or gases.2. chemical and pharmaceutical industries where pumping liquids containing air or gases.

3a Impeller Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 53 .Pump Description b) to c) The depth of the channel is still increased. the liquid ring pump does not contain many parts – the pumphead being connected to a standard electric motor. d) The vacuum created induces air from the suction line through the inlet at “d”. Impeller The impeller is of cast manufacture with straight radial impeller vanes. The fluid volume is still forced outwards and consequently the fluid-free volume between the vanes is increased until it reaches a maximum where the channel has maximum depth. When all the air is removed from the suction line the described cycle is repeated for the fluid.3 Design As for centrifugal pumps. 4.2. The volume between the vanes is gradually reduced as the depth of the channel is reduced and consequently pressure is build up at the centre of the impeller. The pump now operates as a fluid pump. The impeller is fixed onto the pump shaft housed in a pump casing and casing cover. The same volume of air that was induced through the inlet is now expelled through the outlet at “e” due to the pressure increase at the centre of the impeller. e) The fluid is still forced outwards and the air remains at the centre of the impeller. d) to e) Air and fluid are circulated with the impeller until the depth of the channel begins to decrease. Fig. (50 Hz) or 1800 rev/min.2. There is only one impeller size for each type of liquid ring pump. e) to a) The section between the vanes will be refilled with fluid when it has passed the channel as only air and no fluid has yet been pumped. (60Hz). 4. The cycle described above is continuously repeated as the impeller has several sections and rotates at approx. 1500 rev/min.

with or without a channel depending upon pump type/size. Fig. 4.3d Pump with IEC standard motor Pump Shaft/Connections Most pumps have stub shafts that are fixed to the motor shafts by means of compression couplings. as used on Centrifugal pumps. similar to that used on Centrifugal pumps. the connection between the motor and pump casing is made by means of an adaptor.Pump Description Pump Casing and Casing Cover The pump casing is of cast manufacture complete with male screwed connections and fittings or clamp liners. 4.3b Pump with one channel Fig. Adaptor For pumps fitted with a standard IEC electric motor (not MR-300 model).2.2.2. Shroud and Legs Pumps fitted with standard IEC motors utilise the shrouds and legs used on the LKH centrifugal pump range. Fig. 54 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . The pump casing cover is also of cast manufacture. which is described in section 6.3c Pump with two channels Mechanical Seal The connection between the motor shaft/pump shaft and the pump casing is sealed by means of a mechanical seal. Please note Alfa Laval Liquid Ring pumps for the USA market are supplied without shrouds. The pump casing and casing cover form the actual fluid chamber in which the fluid is transferred by means of the impeller. 4.

MR-185S and MR-200S Fig. MR-200S and MR-300. 4. Fig. 4. 4. MR-185S. Flow rates up to 80 m³/h (350 US gall/min) and differential pressures of 5 bar (73 psig) for 50 Hz and 6 bar (87 psig) for 60 Hz.4b MR-300 Fig. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 55 .2.4a MR-166S. MR-166S.2.2.2.4 Pump Range The Alfa Laval Liquid Ring Pump range is designated the MR range.4c MR pump (USA version) The pump range is designed for inlet pressures up to 4 bar (60 psig).Pump Description 4. MR Range The MR range is available in four sizes.

in the cavities formed between the dwell of the rotor and the interior of the rotorcase. each dwell forms a cavity.3. As the rotors rotate an expanding cavity is formed which is filled with fluid.1 General The Alfa Laval range of Rotary Lobe Pumps with its non-contact pump element design has the ability to cover a wide range of applications in industry. • Bi-directional operation.3. The rotors contra-rotate within the pump head carrying fluid through the pump.2 Principle of Operation Alfa Laval ranges of Rotary Lobe pumps are of conventional design operating with no internal contacting parts in the pump head.3 Rotary Lobe Pumps 4. the motion of the counter rotating rotors creates a partial vacuum that allows atmospheric pressure or other external pressures to force fluid into the pump chamber. which shows the displacement of fluid from pump inlet to outlet. The hygienic design. beverage. • Ability to pump shear sensitive media. anti-corrosive stainless steel construction and smooth pumping action have long established these pumps in the food. As the rotors separate. The meshing of the rotor causes a diminishing cavity with the fluid being displaced into the outlet port. In hydraulic terms. The rotors are driven by a gear train in the pump gear gearbox providing accurate synchronisation or timing of the rotors. Attributes include: • Gentle transfer of delicate suspended solids. dairy and pharmaceutical industries. 4.Pump Description 4. 56 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . • Easy maintenance. The pumping principle is explained with reference to the following diagram. • Compact size with high performance and low energy input.

Duplex stainless steel material used for higher pressures. Fig. Ranges primarily as follows: SRU Range The SRU pump range has been designed for use on general transfer duties throughout the brewing. food and chemical manufacturing processes. air motor.7).2. 4.2a Principle of operation 4. dairy. • Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 57 .3 Pump Range Alfa Laval Rotary Lobe Pumps can be supplied bare shaft (without drive) or complete with drive such as electric motor.Pump Description Horizontally ported pump (top shaft drive) 1 2 3 4 Vertically ported pump (left hand shaft drive) 1 2 3 4 Fig.3. and diesel or petrol engine (see 8. 4. The SRU range is available in six series each having two pumphead displacements and two different shaft materials.3a SRU • Displacement is the theoretical amount of fluid the pump will transfer per revolution.3.3.

Stainless Steel .16 1.53 3.03 10.68 2.68 1.65 77.60 2.4.26 bar 8 5 10 15 7 10 10 15 7 10 10 20 7 15 10 20 7 15 10 20 7 15 psig 115 75 145 215 100 145 145 215 100 145 145 290 100 215 145 290 100 215 145 290 100 215 rev/min 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 600 600 600 600 500 500 500 500 1 2 3 4 5 6 L H S D 005 008 013 013 018 018 027 027 038 038 055 055 079 079 116 116 168 168 260 260 353 353 L or H L or H L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H D D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D .085 0.87 30. For the larger series 5 and 6. maximising inlet and outlet port efficiency and NPSH characteristics.79 0.82 2.38 3.95 57.384 0.85 8. Flow rates up to 106 m³/h (466 US gall/min) and pressures up to 20 bar (290 psig).266 0.98 3.45 8.20 77.64 20.181 0.87 20. The SRU range conforms to USA 3A requirements.03 7.26 93.19 17.3a 58 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .128 0. This gives the flexibility of mounting pumps with the inlet and outlet ports in either a vertical or horizontal plane by changing the foot and foot position. Speed Pump head code Gearbox Shaft Litres/ rev SRU1/005/LD or HD SRU1/008/LD or HD SRU2/013/LS SRU2/013/LD SRU2/018/LS SRU2/018/LD SRU3/027/LS SRU3/027/LD SRU3/038/LS SRU3/038/LD SRU4/055/LS SRU4/055/LD SRU4/079/LS SRU4/079/LD SRU5/116/LS SRU5/116/LD SRU5/168/LS SRU5/168/LD SRU6/260/LS SRU6/260/LD SRU6/353/LS SRU6/353/LD or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD 0.45 12.Vertical Porting .78 7.87 2. either horizontal or vertical plane inlet and outlet porting is achieved by using dedicated gearbox castings.39 68.4 2.Horizontal Porting . Pump Nomenclature SRU Series Build Selection SRU Model Displacement Differential Pressure Max.52 36.554 0.70 68.39 44.17 1.82 3.60 3.64 14.65 US gall/ 100 rev 1.65 44.53 UK gall/ 100 rev 1.384 0.38 4.15 14.Duplex Stainless Steel Table 4.85 5.266 0.52 25.15 10. This pump range also incorporates full bore through porting complying with international standards BS4825/ISO2037.20 57.16 1.554 0.3.053 0.128 0.95 36.181 0.38 17.78 4.Pump Description The SRU pump range incorporates a universally mounted gearbox on series 1 .38 25.65 30.19 12.79 1.98 5.25 3.70 93.

maximising the inlet and outlet efficiency of the pump and the NPSH characteristics.30 30.85 3.25 12.32 1.3.60 US gall/ 100 rev 1.05 0.266 0.00 83.67 30. biotechnology.12 13.2).128 0.38 4. This gives the flexibility of mounting pumps with the inlet and outlet ports in either a vertical or horizontal plane by changing the foot and foot position. suited to applications in the pharmaceutical.90 2.82 1. Pump Nomenclature SX Series Build Selection Gearbox SX Model Displacement Differential Pressure Max. All media contacting elastomers are controlled compression joints to prevent pumped media leaking to atmosphere (see section 6.80 UK gall/ 100 rev 1.46 0.Vertical Port (EHEDG approved) .3b SX SX Range The SX pump range is designed to be used where ultra-clean operation is critical. This pump range also incorporates full bore through porting complying with international standards BS4825/ISO2037.54 2.50 3. This pump range like the SRU range incorporates a universally mounted gearbox on series 1 .82 3.11 1. For the larger series 5.181 0.38 36. The SX range has been certified by EHEDG (European Hygienic Equipment Design Group) as fully CIP cleanable to their protocol.15 16.80 41.35 0.03 9. The SX range is available in seven series each having two pumphead displacements.3.07 0. fine chemical and speciality food industries. In addition to being EHEDG compliant.70 10. 4. the SX pump also conforms to the USA 3A standard and all media contacting components are FDA compliant.78 7.04 25. only vertical plane inlet and outlet porting is available by using a dedicated gearbox casting.40 1.4.Universal mounting (not EHEDG approved) Table 4.3b Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 59 .05 100.63 0.86 18.85 7.15 1.99 50.Pump Description Fig. Speed Pump head code Litres/ rev SX1/005/H or U SX1/007/H or U SX2/013/H or U SX2/018/H or U SX3/027/H or U SX3/035/H or U SX4/046/H or U SX4/063/H or U SX5/082/H SX5/115/H SX6/140/H SX6/190/H SX7/250/H SX7/380/H 0.40 bar 12 7 15 7 15 7 15 10 15 10 15 10 15 10 psig 175 100 215 100 215 100 215 145 215 145 215 145 215 145 rev/min 1400 1400 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 600 600 500 500 500 500 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 H U 005 007 013 018 027 035 046 063 082 115 140 190 250 380 H or U H or U H or U H or U H or U H or U H or U H or U H H H H H H .98 5. Flow rates up to 115 m³/h (506 US gall/min) and pressures up to 15 bar (215 psig). 6 and 7.65 21.20 66.80 55.

Pump Description 60 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

1 Main Components Pumps today can be manufactured from a number of different materials dependent upon the product being pumped and its environment.4301 Shroud Adaptor Fig.4301 Table 5.Pump Materials of Construction 5. Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps Main Pump Component Adaptor Backplate Impeller Pump Casing Pump Shaft Shroud and Legs Casing AISI 316L or Werkstoff 1. For Alfa Laval pump ranges this is generally stainless steel and can be split into two main categories: • Product Wetted Parts (i. both metallic and elastomeric.4404 AISI 316L or Werkstoff 1. Metallic and elastomeric parts not in contact with the fluid being pumped).e.1a Product Wetted Parts Non-product Wetted Parts AISI 304 or Werkstoff 1.4404 AISI 304 or Werkstoff 1. Pump Materials of Construction This section describes the materials.1a Centrifugal pump Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 61 .4404 AISI 316L or Werkstoff 1. Metallic and elastomeric parts in contact with the fluid being pumped).e.4404 AISI 316L or Werkstoff 1. • Non-product Wetted Parts (i. 5. that are used in the construction of Alfa Laval pump ranges. 5.

4404 BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1. For mechanical seal components see 6.4404 Duplex stainless steel (AISI 329 or BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1. 5.1b Rotary lobe pump Ports For description of elastomers used see 5.4404 or 316L or duplex stainless steel (AISI 329 or BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1.4404 BS3100:1991 316 C12 or 316L or BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1.1b Product seal area Rotorcase Drive shaft Gearbox Rotorcase cover Fig.4404 or 316L.4462) Shaft Table 5.3.Pump Materials of Construction Rotary lobe pumps Main Pump Component Metallic Product Wetted Parts SRU Models Metallic Non-product Wetted Parts BS EN 1561:1977 grade 250 cast iron Werkstoff 1.4462) Metallic Product Wetted Parts SX Models Metallic Non-product Wetted Parts BS EN 1561:1977 grade 250 cast iron Gearcase Rotor Rotorcase Rotorcase Cover BS3100:1991 316 C12 or 316L or BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1.1. 62 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Non-galling alloy or rubber covered BS 3100:1991 316 C12 or 316L BS EN 10088-3:1995 grade 1.4404 or 316L BS3100:1991 316 C12 or 316L or BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1.

Shot blasting. A controlled amount of metal is removed from all surfaces evenly. a ‘Mirror finish’. Electropolishing. Rumbling This is achieved by vibrating the pump components with abrasive particulate such as stones and steel balls.e. It typically involves: • • Fine grinding using felt and compound.Pump Materials of Construction Surface finish of product wetted steel components has become a major factor in the food. Shotblasting This method involves blasting finished components with small metallic particles at great force to achieve the surface finish required. Mechanical (Hand) polishing. The appearance is ‘Semi bright’. fine particles of stainless steel are used in this process to avoid contamination. and to reach any awkward areas. Electropolishing This is an electro-chemical process in which the stainless steel component is immersed into a chemical bath and subjected to an electrical current. 5. Brushing using bristle brushes and compound to remove any cutting marks left from fine grinding. pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries where hygiene and cleanability are of paramount importance. Mechanical (Hand) This is required when it is necessary to improve the surface finish beyond that achieved by electropolishing only i.2 Steel Surfaces The ‘standard’ machined surface finish on pumps can be enhanced by the following methods: • • • • Rumbling. • Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 63 . Polishing using mops and compound to obtain a mirror polished effect. For Alfa Laval centrifugal stainless steel pump components.

Ra = 1.3 (250 Ra) Product wetted surfaces External exposed surfaces Cast surfaces Other surfaces Table 5. The surface roughness can alternatively be specified by a Grit value. rotor nuts and rotorcase covers is as follows: ‘Standard’ 0.6 (64 Ra) < 3.5 Ra 64 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .6 (64 Ra) < 1.8 Ra Mechanical (Hand) 0.5 (20 Ra) < 1. For Alfa Laval Stainless Steel Rotary Lobe Pumps the surface roughness on product wetted parts such as rotors.2a < 1. rotorcase.6 (64 Ra) £ 3. The Grit value specifies the grain size of the coating of the grinding tool used. Ra is measured in micron (µm).8 Ra.3 (250 Ra) Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Liquid Ring pumps supplied in the USA have all product wetted surfaces and external exposed surfaces to 0.2 (125 Ra) £ 6.2a Surface roughness For Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps see table below: Pump surfaces Standard surface roughness Ra (mm) by Rumbling method Optional surface roughness (3A finish) Ra (mm) by Mechanical (Hand) method Optional surface roughness (3A finish) Ra (mm) by shot blasting (Hand or Electropolished) < 0.6 (64 Ra) £ 3.6 µm (64 Ra) » 100 Grit.8 Ra Electropolishing 0. The approximate connection between the Ra value and the Grit value is as follows: Ra = 0.8 µm (32 Ra) » 150 Grit (3A standard). Fig. 5.2 (125 Ra) £ 6.3 (250 Ra) < 0.8 (32 Ra) < 1.2 (125 Ra) £ 6.Pump Materials of Construction Surface Roughness The most commonly used surface roughness measurement is Ra and is defined as ‘the arithmetic mean of the absolute value of the departure of the profile from the mean line’.

).10.minus 40°C min to 150°C max. (minus 40oF to 212oF max.g. (minus 40oF to 302oF max. lye.minus 40°C min to 100°C max. (minus 4oF to 392oF max. • Used as static or dynamic seals. • Used as static or dynamic seals. • Temperature range . acid and alcohol’s being pumped hot. chemical attack. • Resistant to most chemicals and ozone. Various elastomer types are specified below. • Sufficiently resistant to diluted lye and diluted nitric acid. e. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 65 . steam. • Not suitable for fluids such as water. • Temperature range . oil and grease. • Resistant to most products used within the food industry. • Temperature range . • Often used when other rubber qualities are unsuitable. A selection guide is shown in section 14. • Resistant to most hydrocarbons.g.). FPM (Fluorinated rubber) .3 Elastomers Alfa Laval pump ranges incorporate elastomers of different material and characteristics dependent upon application within the pump and the fluid being pumped. EPDM (Ethylene Propylene) • Available as O-rings or Quad-rings (depending on pump type). mechanical wear etc. • Resistant to ozone and radiation. • Used as static or dynamic seals.Pump Materials of Construction 5. temperature. • Is attacked by ozone.minus 20°C min to 200°C max. NBR (Nitrile) • Available as O-rings or Quad-rings (depending on pump type).alternatively known as Vitonâ • Available as O-rings or Quad-rings (depending on pump type). It is difficult to predict the lifetime of elastomers as they will be affected by many factors. e. • Not resistant to organic and non-organic oils and fats.).

• Suitable for temperatures up to approx.e. • Resistant to ozone. • Resistant to ozone. • Not elastic. • Resistant to almost all products. • Temperature range . • Temperature range .). • Resistant to ozone. Kalrez® (Perfluoroelastomer) • Used as static or dynamic seals. FEP (Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene) • FEP covered (vulcanised) FPM or MVQ O-rings. • Resistant to almost all products. • More elastic than PTFE covered EPDM.Pump Materials of Construction PTFE (Polytetrafluoro Ethylene) • Can be used as “cover” for O-ring seals of EPDM (i. • Resistant to ozone. • Resistant to almost all products. (minus 58oF to 446oF max.minus 50°C min to 230°C max. • Used as static or dynamic seals. (minus 4°F to 482°F max. • Used as static or dynamic seals.minus 30°C min to 200°C max. (minus 22°F to 482°F max. • Elastic. 66 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . tendency to compression set. • Resistant to almost all products.). • Elastic. or most organic solvents. encapsulated). (minus 22oF to 392oF max. mineral oils. inorganic acids. • Temperature range – minus 30°C min to 250°C max. glycol’s and most products used within food industry. MVQ (Silicone) • Used as static or dynamic seals.).). • Not resistant to steam. Chemraz® (Perfluroelastomer) • Used as static or dynamic seals. 200°C (392oF). • Resistant to ozone. • Temperature range – minus 20°C min to 250°C max. alcohol’s.

together with various operating parameters. This is clearly illustrated by the large range of shaft seal arrangements. Double ‘back to back’ with the inboard seal externally mounted for flush.2). Single externally mounted for external flush. the same can be said of fluid sealing devices. In addition to shaft seals. Single externally mounted. Single internally mounted for product recirculation or external flush. Packed Glands (see 6. Both with and without lantern rings for flush. other proprietary seals not detailed in this section. A general seal selection guide is included. that are available to the pump manufacturer. both mechanical and packed gland. “A Pump is only as good as it’s shaft seal” A successful pump application largely depends upon the selection and application of suitable fluid sealing devices. This section covers the shaft sealing devices used on Alfa Laval Centrifugal.3). Single internally mounted.Pump sealing 6. Pump Sealing This section describes the principle of pump sealing and illustrates the different sealing arrangements used on Alfa Laval pump ranges. such as ‘o’ rings and lip seals can be found on the pumphead and gearcase. Liquid Ring and Rotary Lobe Pumps. Just as we know that there is no single pump that can embrace the diverse range of fluids and applications whilst meeting individual market requirements and legislations. Liquid Ring and Rotary Lobe pumps include: • Mechanical Seals (see 6. • Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 67 . Shaft sealing devices used in Alfa Laval Centrifugal.

particularly those related to emissions. Mechanical seals meet the majority of application demands and of these. The application of double mechanical seals is increasing to meet both process demands for higher sanitary standards and legislation requirements. The exceptions will be single internally mounted or double seals where the product recirculation (single internally mounted only) or flush pressure is greater than the pump pressure. This is not done to take any commercial advantage but it is as a consequence of the rotary lobe pump design concept.because shafts on a rotary lobe pump are in the same plane.Pump sealing Centrifugal and Liquid Ring pumps only have one shaft seal whereas Rotary Lobe pumps employ a minimum of two shaft seals (one per shaft). However on Rotary Lobe type pumps the need to minimise the shaft extension beyond the front bearing places significant axial constraints. Generally all shaft seals are under pressure with the pressure gradient across the seal being from pumped fluid to atmosphere. such as Centrifugal and Liquid Ring pumps. the maximum diameter of the seal must be less than the shaft centres. single and single flushed seals are most frequently specified. If this were extended. 68 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Most designs therefore can only accommodate ‘bespoke’ or ‘customised’ seal design. the shaft diameter would increase introducing a radial constraint . The majority of proprietary mechanical seals available from seal manufacturers have been designed for single shaft pump concepts. resulting in the pressure gradient being reversed. These pump types do not impose any radial or axial constraints on seal design.

Pump sealing

There is often more than one solution and sometimes no ideal solution, therefore a compromise may have to be considered.

Selection of shaft seals is influenced by many variables: • • Shaft diameter and speed Fluid to be pumped Temperature Viscosity

-

Fluid behaviour

Solids

-

Thermal stability Air reacting • Pressure

effect on materials? can interface film be maintained? drag on seal faces? clogging of seal restricting movement? can interface film be established and maintained? stiction at seal faces? does product shear, thin, thicken or ‘work’ - balling/carbonise? can interface film be established and maintained? size? abrasiveness? density? clogging of seal restricting movement? can interface film be established and maintained? what, if any change? what, if any change? within seal limits? fluctuations? peaks/spikes? cavitation? flush? pressure? temperature? continuity? toxic? flammable? explosive? corrosive? irritant? carcinogenic?

Services

Health and Safety

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 69

Pump sealing

6.1 Mechanical Seals - General
Mechanical seals are designed for minimal leakage and represent the majority of Centrifugal, Liquid Ring and Rotary Lobe pump sealing arrangements. Mechanical seal selection must consider: • • • The materials of seal construction, particularly the sealing faces and elastomers. The mounting attitude to provide the most favourable environment for the seal. The geometry within which it is to be mounted.

A mechanical seal typically comprises of: • • • • A primary seal, comprising of stationary and rotary seal rings. Two secondary seals, one for each of the stationary and rotary seal rings. A method of preventing the stationary seal ring from rotating. A method of keeping the stationary and rotary seal rings together when they are not hydraulically loaded i.e. when pump is stopped. A method of fixing and maintaining the working length.

The Primary Seal Comprises of two flat faces, one rotating and one stationary, which support a fluid film, thus minimising heat generation and subsequent mechanical damage. Commonly used material combinations are: Carbon Carbon Carbon Silicon Carbide Tungsten Carbide Stainless Steel Silicon Carbide Tungsten Carbide Silicon Carbide Tungsten Carbide

70 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Pump sealing

The Secondary Seal This is required to provide a seal between the primary seal rings and the components with which they interface. Also it can provide a cushion mounting for the seat ring to reduce any effects of mechanical stress i.e. shock loads. Types of secondary seal are: • ‘O’ rings • Cups • Gaskets • Wedges For Alfa Laval pump ranges the ‘O’ ring is the most commonly type of secondary seal used. It’s simple and versatile concept is enhanced with the following comprehensive material options: • NBR • EPDM • FPM • PTFE • MVQ • FEP • Kalrez® • Chemraz® These are fully described in section 5.3. Mechanical Seal Face/’O’ Ring Material Availability
Rotary Seal Face
Tungsten Carbide Stainless Steel Silicon Carbide

Stationary Seal Face
Tungsten Carbide Stainless Steel Silicon Carbide

Seal ‘O’Ring

Pump Type

Pump Range
Carbon

Carbon

EPDM

PTFE

MVQ

FPM

NBR

Centrifugal/ Liquid ring

LKH LKH-Multistage LKHP-High Pressure LKHSP LKHI LKH-Ultra Pure MR SRU SX (see note)

ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü

ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü

ü ü

ü ü

ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü

ü ü ü ü ü ü ü

ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü

ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü

ü ü ü ü ü

Rotary Lobe

Note: SX1 pump has tungsten carbide seal faces, not silicon carbide seal faces. Table 6.1a

Stationary Seal Ring Anti-Rotation Ideally the selected device listed below will also allow for axial resilience. • Flats • Pins • Elastomer resilience • Press fit • Clamps Rotary Seal Ring Drive Ideally the selected device listed below will allow for a degree of axial movement. • Spring • Bellows • Physical positioning • Elastomer resilience

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 71

FEP

Pump sealing

One of the main causes of seal failure is for the seal working length not being correctly maintained.
Fig. 6.1a Typical single mechanical seal used in rotary lobe pumps

Working Length The ideal design should eliminate/minimise possibilities for error by incorporating: • Physical position i.e. step on shaft • Grub screws
7

Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Working length

Description Stationary seal ring O-ring Stationary seal ring Rotary seal ring Rotary seal ring O-ring Wave spring Drive ring Grub screw

Fig. 6.1b Typical single mechanical seal used in centrifugal pumps
Drive ring

2 3

Impeller

4

Item 1 2 3 4 5

Pump shaft

5

1

Description Stationary seal ring Rotary seal ring Spring Stationary seal ring O-ring Rotary seal ring O-ring

Interface film

Aprox. 1 mm Fig. 6.1c Principle of mechanical seal operation

Principle of Mechanical Seal Operation The function of the assembly is a combination of the extreme primary seal face flatness and applied spring force. Once the pump is operational, hydraulic fluid forces combine with seal design features i.e. balance, which push the seal faces together. This reduces the fluid interface thickness to a minimum whilst increasing pressure drop, therefore minimising pumped fluid leakage.

72 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Pump sealing

Fig. 6.1d Principle of mechanical seal operation

Spring force Fluid pressure Stationary seal ring Rotating seal ring

The gap between the seal ring surfaces is enlarged to clarify the principle of mechanical sealing. Mechanical Seal Mounting Most mechanical seals can be mounted externally or internally. External Mechanical Seals The majority of mechanical seals used on Alfa Laval pump ranges are mounted externally, meaning that all the rotating parts of the mechanical seal (i.e. part of the rotary seal ring, spring, drive ring etc) are not in contact with the fluid to be pumped. The externally mounted mechanical seal is considered easy to clean, as only the inside of the stationary and rotary seal rings and there associated ‘o’ rings are in contact with the fluid being pumped. The R00 type mechanical seals used on the SX rotary lobe pump range, described in 6.2, are an exception to this, as it is the outside and not the inside of the seal components that is in contact with the fluid being pumped. Externally mounted seals have a lower pressure rating than the equivalent seal mounted internally.
Fig. 6.1e Typical external shaft seal

Rotating parts

Fluid

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 73

Typical applications are listed below. Also the pump must not be allowed to run ‘dry’. thus avoiding damage to the seal faces. • Alcohol • Animal Fat • Aviation Fuel • Beer • Dairy Creams • Fish Oil • Fruit Juice • Liquid Egg • Milk • Shampoo • Solvents • Vegetable Oil • Water • Yoghurt 74 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . both the externally and internally mounted types of mechanical seal are available as single and single flushed versions. which may cause excessive seal leakage. which has already been described previously in this section. The internal mechanical seal is designed with sufficient clearance around the rotating parts so that it can be cleaned as efficiently as possible and can withstand relatively high fluid pressures. single flushed and double flushed mechanical seal arrangements are described as follows: Single Mechanical Seal This is the simplest shaft seal version. meaning that most of the rotating parts are in contact with the fluid being pumped. Fig.1f Typical internal shaft seal Rotating parts Fluid For the Alfa Laval pump ranges. but full product/fluid and performance data must be referred to the seal supplier for verification. 6.Pump sealing Internal Mechanical Seals Some mechanical seals are mounted internally. For satisfactory operation it is imperative the seal is not subjected to pressures exceeding the maximum rated pressure of the pump. The typical single. This seal arrangement is generally used for fluids that do not solidify or crystallise in contact with the atmosphere and other non-hazardous duties. The externally mounted mechanical seal on Alfa Laval pump ranges is also available as a double flushed mechanical seal for some pump models.

1g Typical externally mounted single flushed mechanical seal used in rotary lobe pumps Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Description Stationary seal ring O-ring Stationary seal ring Rotary seal ring Rotary seal ring O-ring Wave spring Drive ring Spacer O-ring Spacer Gasket Seal housing Lip seal Grub screw 12 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 75 . explosion. sometimes referred to as quench. etc).e. • This seal arrangement used on externally mounted seals requires the supply of liquid to the atmospheric side of the mechanical seal to flush the seal area. This seal arrangement is generally used for any of the following conditions: • where the fluid being pumped can coagulate.e. This most basic flush system. The characteristics of the fluid being pumped and the duty conditions will normally determine if a flush is necessary. Fig. solidify or crystallise when in contact with the atmosphere. with the addition of a seal housing having a flushing connection and/or flushing tubes and a lip seal. 6. provides liquid to the atmosphere side of the mechanical seal thereby flushing away any product leakage. 0. when cooling of the seals is necessary dependent upon the fluid pumping temperature. fire. The flushing liquid is allowed to enter the seal housing at low pressure i. For the majority of pump models the flushed seal comprises of the same stationary and rotating parts as the single seal.Pump sealing Single Flushed Mechanical Seal The definition of ‘flush’ is to provide a liquid barrier or support to the selected seal arrangement.5 bar max (7 psi max) to act as a barrier. Consideration should be given to any temperature limitations that may apply to the flushing liquid to ensure that hazards are not created (i. When selecting a flushing liquid you must ensure that it is chemically compatible with the relevant materials of pump/seal construction and fully compatible with the fluid being pumped.

6. This results in the interface film being the flushing liquid and not the pumped liquid. high viscosity. A compatible flushing liquid is pressurised into the seal housing at a pressure of 1 bar (14 psi) minimum above the discharge pressure of the pump.1h Typical externally mounted single flushed mechanical seal used in centrifugal pumps Item 1 2 3 Description Seal housing Lip seal Flushing tubes Typical applications are listed below.e. The arrangement in contact with the pumped fluid is referred to as the ‘inboard seal’. but full product/fluid and performance data must be referred to the seal supplier for verification. 6. Fig.Pump sealing Fig. and the seal employed for the flushing liquid is referred to as the ‘outboard seal’.1i Typical double flushed mechanical seal used in rotary lobe pumps 14 Rotorcase Gearcase Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Description Stationary seal ring O-ring Stationary seal ring Rotary seal ring Rotary seal ring O-ring Wave spring Drive ring Wave spring Rotary seal ring O-ring Rotary seal ring Stationary seal ring Gasket Stationary seal ring O-ring Seal housing Grub screw 76 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . For Alfa Laval Centrifugal pumps the design of the outboard seal differs to the inboard seal. This seal generally comprises of the same stationary and rotating parts as the single seal for the majority of pump models. fluid is hazardous or toxic. with the addition of a seal housing having a flushing connection and/or flushing tubes (dependent upon pump type). • Adhesive • Caramel • Detergent • Fruit Juice Concentrate • Gelatine • Jam • Latex • Paint • Sugar Syrup • Toothpaste • Yeast Double Flushed Mechanical Seal This seal arrangement is generally used with hostile media conditions i. The double flushed seal used on Alfa Laval pump ranges is basically two single mechanical seals mounted ‘back to back’. Special attention is required in selecting seal faces and elastomers.

which should be noted when selecting a mechanical seal.1b Viscosity up to 4999 cP Seal Face Combination Solid Carbon v Stainless Steel Solid Carbon v Silicon Carbide Solid Carbon v Tungsten Carbide Inserted Carbon v Stainless Steel Inserted Carbon v Silicon Carbide Inserted Carbon v Tungsten Carbide Silicon Carbide v Silicon Carbide Tungsten Carbide v Tungsten Carbide Consider Double Seals up to 24999 cP up to 149999 cP above 150000 cP Table 6. but full product/fluid and performance data must be referred to the seal supplier for verification. Table 6. 6. • Abrasive Slurries • Chocolate • Glucose • Hazardous Chemicals • PVC Paste • Photographic Emulsion • Resin General Seal Face Operating Parameters Tables below show general parameters regarding viscosity and temperature.Pump sealing Fig.1j Typical double flushed mechanical seal used in centrifugal pumps Item 1 2 3 4 Description Seal housing Flushing tubes Stationary seal ring Rotary seal ring Typical applications are listed below.1c Temperature up to 150°C (302 F) o Seal Face Combination Inserted Carbon v Stainless Steel Inserted Carbon v Silicon Carbide Inserted Carbon v Tungsten Carbide Silicon Carbide v Silicon Carbide Tungsten Carbide v Tungsten Carbide Solid Carbon v Stainless Steel Inserted Carbon v Silicon Carbide Inserted Carbon v Tungsten Carbide up to 200°C (392oF) Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 77 .

Pump sealing Flushing Pipework Layout The suggested arrangement below is for single mechanical seals only. If the pump is fitted with double mechanical seals or packed glands the pressure gauges and control valves should be fitted on the outlet side of the system. The choice of flushing liquid is dependent upon compatibility with the pumping media and overall duty conditions i. 6. 6.e.1k Typical flushing pipework layout for a rotary lobe pump *Pressure gauge *Control valve Pressure gauge Control valve Suggested visible indication of flow * Double mechanical seal only Flush inlet Check valve Isolation valve Flush outlet to waste Fig. Fig.1l Typical flushing pipework layout for a centrifugal pump Free outlet Inlet 78 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Usually water is used for cooling and any water soluble products. pressure and temperature.

. .Pump sealing Mechanical Seal Selection Process The illustration below describes the mechanical seal selection process with relevant questions to be answered. Fig. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 79 .1b). . as actual seal selections should be verified by the seal suppliers.Check chemical compatibility. 6.Check viscosity limitations (see table 6.10).1m Seal selection process Obtain all Product/Fluid and Performance data This should be used for guidance purposes only.Check elastomer compatibility (see guide in section 14. .Check temperature limitations (see table 6.Is fluid abrasive? .1c).Check temperature limitations. Select Seal Type - Does fluid crystallise? Is cooling required? Will pump run dry? Is aseptic barrier required? Yes Use Single Flushed Seal No - Is fluid hazardous? Is fluid abrasive? Is fluid viscosity high? Is temperature high? Is aseptic barrier required? Yes Use Double Flushed Seal No Use Single Seal Select Seal Materials Select Seal Faces Select Elastomers .

2 Mechanical Seal Types in Alfa Laval Pump Ranges Seal Option Availability for Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps Pump Range Single LKH LKH-Multistage LKHP LKHSP LKHI LKH-UltraPure MR-166S.2a ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü External Mounting Single Flushed ü Double Flushed ü ü ü ü ü Internal Mounting Single Single Flushed Seal Option Availability for Rotary Lobe Pumps Table 6. 80 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . -200S MR-300 Table 6.1.2b Mechanical Seal Type Seal Name Pump Range SRU SX ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Single externally mounted R90 R00 Hyclean R90 R00 Hyclean R90 R90 R00 Single flushed externally mounted Single flushed internally mounted Double flushed R90 Type Mechanical Seals The basic working principles of the R90 type mechanical seals have previously been referred to in 6.Pump sealing 6. The design of this seal incorporates a self-cleaning feature. Hyclean Type Mechanical Seals This seal arrangement is generally used for food and other hygienic applications.

6.2b SX pumphead sealing Fig. All seals have controlled compression joint elastomers at fluid/atmosphere interfaces.2a Hyclean single mechanical seal 7 Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Description Rotorcase O-ring Wave Spring Shaft O-ring Stationary Seal Ring Rotary Seal Ring Washer Clip Front cover compression joint Cup seal Spline sealing cup seal Squad ring Fig. 6. Specialised seal setting of the mechanical seal is not required as the seal is dimensionally set on assembly. 6. Seal faces positioned in the fluid area minimise shear forces.2c R00 single mechanical seal R00 Type Mechanical Seals The R00 type mechanical seals specifically designed for the SX rotary lobe pump range are fully front loading seals and fully interchangeable without the need for additional housings or pump component changes.Pump sealing Fig. 1 2 3 4 5 Item 1 2 3 4 5 Description Wave Spring Squad Ring Rotary Seal Ring Cup Seal Stationary Seal Ring Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 81 .

9 Fig. In instances of moderately abrasive fluids. a packed gland with lantern ring may be used. solidify or crystallise in contact with the atmosphere. Packed Gland The grade of packing used depends on the product being handled and operating conditions. In the case of liquids which coagulate. such as brine solutions being handled. should always be avoided for sanitary duties. In such circumstances a compatible liquid is supplied to the chamber formed by the lantern ring at a pressure of at least 1 bar (14 psi) above the pump pressure. Provided the liquid being sealed contains no abrasive particles or does not crystallise. When packed glands are specified. Pumps provided with a packed gland seal are normally fitted with rubber slingers mounted between the gland followers and the gearcase front lip seals. When correctly assembled and adjusted. 6. the pumps should be fitted with hard coated shaft sleeves. the entry of abrasives into the very small clearances between the shaft and packing. using polyamide or PTFE packings will satisfy the majority of duties. but when possible. as they are less hygienic than mechanical seals. Packed Gland with Lantern Ring With fluids containing very abrasive particles or fluids that will coagulate.3a Packed gland Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Description Shaft sleeve O-ring Shaft sleeve Spacer Packing rings Gasket Gland housing Gland follower Ring slinger Grub screw This seal arrangement is available on all SRU pump models. if fitted. thereby overcoming any undesirable operating conditions that could arise in this area. a slight loss of product should occur so as to lubricate the packing and shaft or sleeve. which may be easily replaced when worn. low cost. 82 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . The function of this liquid is to prevent.3 Other Sealing Options (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) This is a simple. gland packings will function satisfactorily on plain stainless steel shafts or renewable stainless steel shaft sleeves. solidify or crystallise in contact with the atmosphere the flushing liquid acts as a dilutant and barrier in the gland area preventing the pumped fluid from coming in contact with the atmosphere. and easy to maintain controlled leakage sealing arrangement. These are specified for many ‘dirty’ applications. The slingers will reduce the possibility of the product contacting the gearcase lip seals.Pump sealing 6. or at least inhibit.

which cannot always be accepted. Fig. In common with all packed gland assemblies slight leakage must occur but in this instance it will basically be a loss of flushing liquid as opposed to product being pumped. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 83 .Pump sealing A disadvantage with this seal arrangement is that the flushing liquid will pass into the product causing a relatively small degree of dilution/ contamination.3b Packed gland with lantern ring 10 Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Description Shaft sleeve O-ring Shaft sleeve Spacer Packing rings Lantern ring Gasket Gland housing Gland follower Ring slinger Grub screw This seal arrangement is available on all SRU pump models. 6.

Pump sealing 84 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

however. experience etc. • Is product hazardous or toxic? • Does fluid crystallise in contact with atmosphere? • Is CIP required? Performance Data • Capacity (Flow rate). • Viscosity. Product/Fluid Data • Fluid to be pumped. • Seal flushing fluid. In an ideal situation all the above criteria should be known before sizing a pump . • Suction condition (flooded or suction lift). 7. Newtonian or Pseudoplastic etc. In such cases to complete the sizing process. size and concentration). • Vapour pressure. air. Pump Sizing This section shows how to size an Alfa Laval pump from product/ fluid and performance data given. some assumptions may need to be made based upon application knowledge.). petrol or hydraulic). supported by relevant calculations and worked examples with a simple step by step approach. These should be subsequently confirmed.Pump Sizing 7. • Discharge head/pressure. as they could be critical to satisfactory installation and operation. in many instances not all of this information is known and made available.e.1 General Information Required In order to correctly size any type of pump some essential information is required as follows: See section 2 for detailed descriptions of Product/Fluid data and Performance data. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 85 .motor enclosure and electrical supply. • Fluid behaviour (i. If electric . • Solids content (max. • SG/Density. diesel. • Pumping temperature. Site Services Data • Power source (electric.

power within this handbook is expressed in kilowatts (kW). i.2. This can be calculated as follows: Hydraulic Power (W) = Q x H x r x g where: Q H r g = = = = capacity (m3/s) total head/pressure (m) fluid density (kg/m³) acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) Other forms of this equation can be as follows: Hydraulic Power (kW) = Q x H k where: Q = capacity H = total head/pressure k = constant (dependent upon units used) Therefore Hydraulic Power (kW) = Q x H k where: Q = capacity (l/min) H = total head/pressure (bar) k = 600 86 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2 Power All of the system energy requirements and the energy losses in the pump must be supplied by a prime mover in the form of mechanical energy. hydraulic horse power or water horse power.e. watts x 10³.1 Hydraulic Power The theoretical energy required to pump a given quantity of fluid against a given total head is known as hydraulic power.Pump Sizing 7. The rate of energy input needed is defined as power and is expressed in watts (W) . 7.for practical purposes.

2.0) V= velocity Fig. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 87 .2.2 Required Power r = radius The required power or brake horsepower is the power needed at the pump shaft.Pump Sizing or Hydraulic Power (hp) = Q x H k where: Q = capacity (US gall/min) H = total head/pressure (psi) k = 1715 or Hydraulic Power (hp) = Q x H k where: Q = capacity (UK gall/min) H = total head/pressure (psi) k = 1428 7. seals etc) and is derived from: Required Power = wxT where: w = shaft angular velocity T = Shaft Torque Shaft angular velocity w = V x r And is related to Hydraulic power by: Required Power = Hydraulic Power Efficiency (100% = 1.2a Shaft angular viscosity The appropriate prime mover power must be selected. This is always higher than the hydraulic power due to energy losses in the pump mechanism (friction loss. pressure loss. 7. Generally this will be the nearest prime mover rated output power above the required power.

where Hydraulic Efficiency (hh)= Pump head loss (m) x 100% Total head (m) The pump head losses comprise of the shock loss at the eye of the impeller.Pump Sizing The power requirements for mechanical devices such as pumps and pump drives are best expressed in terms of torque and speed. 88 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2. The term ‘mechanical efficiency’ can also be used to describe this ratio. This is particularly important for variable speed drives which should be selected initially on torque rather than power.2.4 Efficiency Total Efficiency Total efficiency is typically used on centrifugal and liquid ring pumps to describe the relationship between input power at the pump shaft and output power in the form of water horsepower. friction loss in the impeller blade and circulation loss at the outlet side of the impeller blades. comprises of three elements. Hydraulic Efficiency (hh).3 Torque Torque is defined as the moment of force required to produce rotation and is usually expressed in units of Nm (Newton metres). 7. Torque can be calculated as follows: Torque (Nm) = Required power (kW) x 9550 Pump speed (rev/min) or Torque (Kgfm) = Required power (kW) x 974 Pump speed (rev/min) or Torque (ftlb) = Required power (hp) x 5250 Pump speed (rev/min) It should be noted that rotary lobe pumps are basically constant torque machines and therefore it is important that the transmission chosen is capable of transmitting the torque required by the pump. designated by symbol h. 7. Mechanical Efficiency (hm ) and Volumetric Efficiency (hv ) which are described below: Hydraulic Efficiency The term hydraulic efficiency is used on centrifugal and liquid ring type pumps to describe one of the three elements of centrifugal and liquid ring pump total efficiency as described above. Total efficiency. Kgfm (Kilogram metres) or ftlb (foot pounds).

This is then multiplied by the number of voids formed by a rotating element per revolution of the pump’s drive shaft and by the number of rotors in the pump. liquid ring and rotary lobe pump types. It is most commonly used to compare the performance of a number of pump types. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 89 . and is typically used to describe the losses associated with the transfer of energy from the prime mover through a mechanical system to the pumped liquid. For centrifugal and liquid ring pumps. Volumetric Efficiency This term is used on all centrifugal. liquid ring and rotary lobe pump types. q = Pump displacement. For rotary lobe pumps the term volumetric efficiency (hv) is used to compare the displacement of the pump against the capacity of the pump. For rotary lobe pumps. where accurate geometric data is available. where Mechanical Efficiency (hm ) = 1 – Pump mechanical losses x 100% Required power Pump mechanical losses refers to the friction losses associated with bearings. The displacement calculation (q) per revolution for rotary lobe pumps involves calculating the volume of the void formed between the rotating element and the fixed element of the pump. Volumetric Efficiency (hv) = Q x 100% Q + QL where: Q = Pump capacity. Volumetric Efficiency (hv) = Q x 100% q where: Q = Pump capacity. seals and other contacting areas within the pump.Pump Sizing Mechanical Efficiency This term is used on all centrifugal. Q L = Fluid losses due to leakage through the impeller casing clearances.

volumetric efficiency can be as high as 95 .1.0) Pump Efficiency The term pump efficiency is used on all types of pumps to describe the ratio of power supply to the drive shaft against water horsepower. efficiency (100% = 1.0) or n = Q x 100 q x hv where n Q q hv = pump speed (rev/min) = capacity (UK gall/min) = pump displacement (UK gall/100 rev) = vol.0) or n = Q x 100 q x hv where n Q q hv = pump speed (rev/min) = capacity (US gall/min) = pump displacement (US gall/100 rev) = vol. At lower viscosities and/or higher pressures the volumetric efficiency will decrease due to slip as described in 8. to select a pump speed the following formulas can be used as a general guide.6.99%. n = Q x 100 q x hv x 60 where n Q q hv = pump speed (rev/min) = capacity (m³/h) = pump displacement (m³/100 rev) = vol. efficiency (100% = 1. Pump Efficiency hp = Water horse power x 100% Required power or Pump Efficiency hp = QxHxrxg wxT where: Q H r g w T = capacity (m³/s) = total head/pressure (m) = fluid density (kg/m³) = acceleration due to gravity (m/s²) = shaft angular velocity (rad/s) = shaft torque (Nm) 90 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . For these high viscosity duties.Pump Sizing Rotary lobe pumps are generally highly efficient and even at viscosity of 100 cP the volumetric efficiency of most pumps is approximately 90% for low pressure duties. efficiency (100% = 1. Above 1000 cP.

Pump Sizing Overall Efficiency Overall efficiency is a term used to describe and compare the performance of all types of pump. Overall Efficiency hoa = Water horse power x 100% Drive power Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 91 . and is sometimes known as the wire to water/liquid efficiency where the prime mover is an electric motor. Overall efficiency considers the efficiency of both the prime mover and the pump.

lower than the theoretical head due to hydraulic losses in the pump. The actual head of a pump is. These fulfil different requirements and are well suited for flow control where only one parameter is to be changed (see 7. Curve 3 covers a wide range of capacities without large changes to head.2). It is difficult to determine general curves for fluids with viscosities different from water and therefore in these instances it is recommended to use a pump selection program. however. 7. 7.3 Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps In general the theory regarding sizing of centrifugal and liquid ring pumps is similar. 7.3. which are friction loss. Most pump flow curves are based on tests with water.3. 7.1 Flow Curve A centrifugal or liquid ring pump should always be sized from a pump flow curve or a pump selection program. required NPSH and efficiency h. A pump flow curve specifies the connection between capacity Q.3. Fig. Different Pump Characteristics The capacity Q and head H curve of a centrifugal pump will vary depending upon the impeller vane design (see fig. which decreases at a higher capacity (see fig.b).3.1a). pressure loss and slip. head H. required power P.1a Hydraulic losses The connection between the capacity and actual head is consequently specified by means of a curve which varies depending on the design of the impeller. Curve 1 covers a wide range of heads without large changes to capacity.1.3. 7. Fig.3.Pump Sizing 7.1b Curves for Q and H 92 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Hydraulic Losses The connection between the capacity and the theoretical head of the pump is shown by means of a straight line.

H and h Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 93 . 7.1d). • Required power will increase at higher viscosities. The efficiency of the pump will vary depending on where the duty point is situated on the Q-H curve.1e Effects on Q. 7. 7. Power P and Efficiency h In principle the duty point of a pump can be situated at any point on the Q-H curve. Fig. Fig. • Capacity. NPSHr Curve The NPSHr curve increases at higher capacity (see fig.3. It is important that NPSHr of the pump exceeds the NPSHa of the system. head. P and h The power curve of the centrifugal pump increases at a higher capacity. 7.3. This should be used to assertain the NPSHr of the pump.1f Effects on Q. Head H. The efficiency is usually highest near the centre of the curve. Fig.1f).3.3. efficiency and power (see fig. The power curve of the liquid ring pump decreases at a higher capacity.1e). H. head and efficiency will decrease at higher viscosities.Pump Sizing Curves for Capacity Q. Fig.1c Curves for Q. 7.3. H and h Density Effect Fluid density will affect the head and required power which both increase proportionally at higher density (see fig.3.3.1d NPSHr curve Viscosity Effect Fluid viscosity will affect capacity. 7. 7.

Pump Sizing How to use the Flow Curve The flow curve consists of three different curves: • Head as a function of capacity (Q . 220/380v. Although illustrated here the efficiency is not shown on the published flow curves but can be determined from the required power on the flow curve and formula in 7. The curves on the flow curve are based on tests with water at 20°C (68oF) with tolerances of + 5%. The Q .P curve). The optimum is to select the smallest pump possible which is suitable for the required duty point (15 m³/h. 25 m.NPSHr curve). Example: Product/Fluid Data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature Performance Data: Capacity Total head Electrical supply - Water. This is not applicable to the LKH-Multistage pump and Liquid Ring pumps as the impeller diameters cannot be reduced.2 when the duty point is known.H and Q . 1.0 20°C. 50Hz. • Required power as a function of capacity (Q . 94 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 1 cP. • Required NPSH as a function of capacity (Q . 15 m³/h. 25 m).H curve). It is recommended to select the pump by means of a pump selection program if the fluid to be pumped has other physical properties.P curves are specified for different standard impeller diameters so that a correct duty point can be determined.

thus satisfactory.Find Appropriate Curve Locate a flow curve for the required pump type that covers the duty point.1g Example 28 Step 2 .Look at Q . For this particular example a flow curve of a centrifugal pump type LKH-10 with 3000 rev/min synchronous speed at 50Hz is selected.6 m greater than 25 m. 7. • The head will then be 28 m. • In this case the head should be reduced by 5% being the curve tolerance. • Start from this point and follow the vertical line upwards until it intersects with the horizontal line indicating the required head (25 m) on the H-scale. Fig. • The head will then be a minimum of 26. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 95 .Pump Sizing Step 1 . the nearest larger size impeller diameter should be selected. • This duty point does not contact any curve corresponding to a certain impeller diameter. • The selected head (28 m) should be checked regarding the lower tolerance of the curve to ensure that it is at least the required 25 m.H curve • Locate the capacity (15 m³/h) on the Q-scale. in this case 150 mm.3. Therefore.

7.2b and 7. The pump will automatically regulate the capacity to meet the new conditions (see fig.). Step 4 . pressure drops etc. • A horizontal line to the right of the intersection indicates that NPSHr is approx. • A horizontal line to the left of the intersection indicates a required power of 2.Pump Sizing Step 3 . 7. • The intersection corresponding to the 150 mm impeller is located.NPSHr curve • Finally the vertical capacity line (15 m³/h) is followed up to the NPSHr curve. • For a LKH centrifugal pump a safety factor of 5% for motor losses must be added.e. Process curve .P curve • The next step in selecting the pump is to follow the vertical capacity line (15 m³/h) downwards until it intersects with the power curve for the 150 mm impeller.1). Fig. layout.1 kW.this specifies the connection between head H and capacity Q (see 7. 7.3.this specifies the connection between the total pressure drop (DH) in the process plant and the capacity (Q) (see fig. Pump curve . valves.2 kW motor can be used. Capacity: Pressure drop: Q1 DH1 Q2 DH2 Q3 DH3 Q4 DH4 Q5 DH5 Q6 DH6 The duty point of a pump can change due to changes in the conditions of the process plant (changes in head. filters etc.2a Process curve 96 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2 Flow Control Duty Point The duty point of a pump is the intersection point between the pump curve and the process curve.8 m.Look at Q .3. 0.3.).Look at Q .2a). • Consequently a 2.3. The process curve is determined by varying the capacity so that different pressure drop (DH) values are obtained. resulting in a total required power of 2. The shape of the process curve will depend on the process design (i.0 kW.3. 7.2c).3.

Reducing Impeller Diameter Reducing the impeller diameter can only be carried out for centrifugal pumps and multi-stage centrifugal pumps. Centrifugal Pump The connection between impeller diameter (D). Due to flow control it is possible to achieve optimum pump efficiency at the required capacity resulting in the most economical pump installation.2d Reducing impeller diameter 1.2d: Fig.the duty point moves towards point 2 when reducing the impeller diameter. 7.3. This will reduce the capacity and the head. 7.3. 7.2c Changes in required head It is possible to compensate for the change of duty point by means of flow control that can be achieved as follows: • Reducing the impeller diameter (not for liquid ring pumps).Pump Sizing Fig. Before reducing. capacity (Q) and head (H) is shown in fig.2b Changes in pressure drop Fig. After reducing . Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 97 . • Throttling the discharge line. 2. • Controlling the pump speed.3. 7.3.

the pump efficiency will decrease.2e Reducing impeller diameter 98 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . head (H) and required power (P) is shown by the following formulas: Diameter/capacity: Q1 Q2 = D13 D 3 2 Þ D2 = D1 x Ö Q [mm] 3 Q2 1 Diameter/head: H1 H2 = D12 D 2 2 Þ D2 = D1 x ÖH 5 H2 1 [mm] Diameter/power: P1 P2 = D15 D25 Þ D2 = D1 x Ö H [mm] H2 1 Most pump flow curves show characteristics for different impeller diameters to enable the correct impeller diameter to be selected. The connection between impeller diameter (D). capacity (Q). Reducing the impeller diameter by up to 20% will not affect the efficiency of the pump.3.Pump Sizing If the impeller speed remains unchanged. The total head can be adjusted by reducing the diameter of the back impeller.3. 7. Multi-stage Centrifugal Pump This pump has several impellers depending upon pump type. 7.2e. the connection between impeller diameter (D). capacity (Q). which is situated at the pump outlet (nearest to the back plate). If the reduction in impeller diameter exceeds 20%. Consequently the exact duty point will be between the curves of two pump sizes. c b Fig. head (H) and type of pump is shown in fig.

The connection between capacity (Q) and head (H) when throttling is shown in fig. the duty point moves towards point 2. therefore. Fig. The working point moves towards point 2 when reducing the impeller speed.Pump Sizing The formula is for guidance purposes only. 1.2g. The impeller diameter is reduced to D2 by means of the following formula: D2 = D1 x Ö a-b [mm] c-b Where: D1 = Standard diameter before reducing.3.2f Throttling discharge line Throttling should not be carried out in the suction line as cavitation can occur. 1. c = Required duty point. Before reducing impeller speed. Throttling Discharge Line Throttling the discharge line will increase the resistance in the process plant.2g Controlling pump speed Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 99 . 7. The connection between capacity (Q) and head (H) when changing the impeller speed is shown in fig. Therefore.3.2f. 2.3. duty point. the capacity and the head will also change. duty point. Also throttling will reduce the efficiency of the process plant DH shows the ‘waste’ of pressure at point 2. Controlling Pump Speed Changing the impeller speed will change the centrifugal force created by the impeller. Fig. which will increase the head and reduce the capacity. After throttling. 7. 7. It is. 2. a = Max. Before throttling. b = Min.3. After reducing impeller speed. 7. recommended to add a safety factor of 10-15% to the new diameter.

3.3a Principle of connection The outlet of pump 1 is connected to the inlet of pump 2. 7. Speed control will not affect the efficiency providing changes do not exceed 20%. the connection between impeller speed (n). Pump 2 must be able to withstand the outlet head from pump 1. head (H) and required power (P) is shown by the following formulas: Speed/capacity: Q1 Q2 = n1 n2 Þ n2 = n1 x Q2 Q1 [rev/min] Speed/head: H1 H2 = n12 n 2 2 Þ n2 = n1 x ÖH ÖP 3 H2 1 [rev/min] Speed/power: P1 P2 = n13 n 3 2 Þ n2 = n1 x P2 1 [rev/min] As shown from the above formulas the impeller speed affects capacity.5. 100 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .25. • Half speed results in head x 0.3. • Half speed results in required power x 0.Pump Sizing The most common form of speed control is by means of a frequency converter (see 9. 7. If the impeller dimensions remain unchanged.10). The capacity (Q) will always be constant throughout the pump series. Fig.125. capacity (Q). head and required power as follows: • Half speed results in capacity x 0.3 Alternative Pump Installations Pumps Coupled in Series It is possible to increase the head in a pump installation by two or more pumps being coupled in series. The head can vary depending on the pump sizes.

3e Connection of two different pumps The head (H) will always be constant in the pump installation.3. The pumps receive the fluid from the same source and have a common discharge line. The capacity can vary depending on the pump sizes.3d Connection of two similar pumps Fig.3f Connection of two different pump sizes Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 101 .3. Fig. For two different pumps. 7. When the capacity is increased by means of pumps coupled in parallel. 7.3. 7. Fig. Pumps Coupled in Parallel It is possible to increase the capacity in a pump installation by two or more pumps coupled in parallel.3b Head of pumps in series A multi-stage centrifugal pump is in principle several pumps that are coupled in series but built together as one pump unit.3. Otherwise there will be a pressure drop in the smallest pump.Pump Sizing If two different pumps are connected in series. capacity of the smallest pump. it is possible to install a non-return valve in the discharge line of pump 1 to avoid pump 2 pumping fluid back through pump 1. The capacity in the pump installation should not exceed the max.3. If the capacity Q1 is smaller than the capacity Q2. 7.3c Principle of connection Fig. Fig. the equipment and pressure drop in the installation must be determined according to the total capacity of the pumps. the pump with the lowest NPSH value should be installed as the first pump (for critical suction conditions). 7.

1 Example 1 The following example shows a pump to be sized for a typical brewery process.4 Worked Examples of Centrifugal Pump Sizing (Metric units) 7.1a Example 1 As described in 7. The pump is required to handle Wort from the Whirlpool to the Fermentation vessel. 7.1 in order to correctly size any type of pump. 102 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .4. Performance data and Site Services data.4. some essential information is required such as Product/Fluid data.Pump Sizing 7. Yeast CIP CO2 CO2 Fermentation CIP CO2 CO2 0.6 bar (pressure vessel) Cooling 21 m O2 Wort pump Yeast pitching Whirlpool 80 m Fig.

hft = Pressure drop in tube Dptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves Dp + Pressure drop in plate heat exchanger DpPHE Dptube from curve shown in 14. The theory. hft = 2 + 5 + 16 m.6 bar = 16 m.5 = 2 m. via 80 m of 101.2. plus a given number of bends and valves.4 m head. Static head in Fermenting vessel = 21 m. plus a given number of bends. Ht = ht +hft +pt = 21 + 23 + 6 m = 50 m (5 bar).6 bar = 6 m. = 23 m. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Wort.2 and 2. Therefore Fig. 1 cP. 50 Hz. 90°C. Before sizing a pump. pt = Pressure in Fermentation vessel. Pressure in Fermenting vessel = 0. DpPHE is given as 1. Dp is calculated to be 5 m.6 mm dia.4.Pump Sizing All the data has been given by the customer. tube.4. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa. Site Services data: Electrical supply - 220/380v.6 bar. valves and a plate heat exchanger with DpPHE 1. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line. Suction - 40 m³/h.1b ht = 21 m. 7. 0.6 bar. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 103 .2. Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in Fermentation vessel. pt = 0.

The performance curve selection procedure is more specifically described in 7.1 bar).4 – 1 – 7 (m) = 2.6) = 50. ps = 0 (open tank). not suitable if the fluid to be pumped has physical properties (i. The performance curves are. For this particular example.Pump Sizing Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Where hs = Static suction head in Whirlpool. hfs = calculated to be 1 m.4 – 1 + 0 m = – 0.6 m (– 0. Total head H = Ht – Hs = 50 – (– 0.70 bar a (from table 14. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 1 bar (open tank) = 10 m. In this particular example both the pump performance curves and pump selection program can be used.3. NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp Where Pa = Pressure absolute above level of fluid in Whirlpool tank. 11 kW.4 m. Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 0. hs = Static suction head in Whirlpool tank.15 bar). Actual pump sizing can be made using pump performance curves or a pump selection program. viscosity) different from water.e. Calculated to be 1 m.1. 202 mm.06 bar). hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. Therefore hs = 0.6 m » 51 m (5. 2930 rev/min. 104 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .4 m. 51.4 m. ps = Pressure in Whirlpool (open tank). hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line.4a) = 7 m. pump sized would be as follows: Pump model Impeller size Speed Capacity Head Efficiency NPSHr Motor size LKH-25. 63. 0. 40 m³/h. NPSHa = 10 + 0.5 m (5.1%. 0. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid. however.4 m. 1.

no cavitation will occur.1c Special Note The discharge head (ht2) is lower when the pump starts filling the fermenting vessel compared to the discharge head (ht1) when the vessel is full. i. Consequently. it is recommended to select the pump with a larger impeller diameter to ensure the required head is obtained. i. The reduction of the discharge head can result in cavitation and overloading of the motor due to a capacity increase. Cavitation can be avoided by reducing the pump speed (reducing NPSHr). 7. The flow control method is more specifically described in 7.e. The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a double mechanical seal with carbon/silicon carbide faces and EPDM elastomers. or by throttling the discharge line (increasing head). there is a risk that the pump will generate head which will differ from the selected head.3.4. In this case it may be necessary to adjust the selected duty point by means of flow control. Adjustment In this example the pump is sized by the pump selection program which results in exact impeller diameter of 202 mm.3.e.4 m. so that the selected duty point is as close to the required duty point as possible. by means of a frequency converter. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 105 . If the required head is the exact value of the process. It may also be necessary to adjust to the required duty point by means of flow control due to the tolerance. Flow control method is more specifically described in 7.2.2.e.4 m > 1. 1: Full vessel 2: Empty vessel ht1 1 2 ht2 Q2 Fig. It is important to note that the selected head has a tolerance of ± 5% due to the tolerance of the pump curve. 2.Pump Sizing Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i. The pump is sized with a standard impeller diameter if using the performance curve.

Inlet pressure for the separator = 1. 5 cP. Suction - 30 m³/h. All the data has been given by the customer. plus a given number of bends and valves. 7. CIP Milk out PHE Pump ‘A’ Balance Tank Standardised Milk P = 1. some essential information is required such as Product/Fluid data.Pump Sizing 7.1 in order to correctly size any type of pump. Performance data and Site Services data. The raw milk is pumped from a Balance tank to a Separator via the preheating stage in the plate heat exchanger. 106 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .5 bar Fig.1 m head. 5°C.4. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Raw Milk. via 5 m of horizontal 76 mm dia. 0. Pump ‘A’ is a Raw Milk pump in connection with a pasteuriser. tube.2a Example 2 Separator As described in 7.4.5 bar.2 Example 2 The following example shows a centrifugal pump to be sized for a typical dairy process. plus a given number of bends. valves and a plate heat exchanger with DpPHE 1 bar.

4. Total head H = Ht – Hs = 27 – (– 0. = 12 m. pt = 1. hfs = calculated to be 0.only horizontal tube). Therefore hs = 0. ps = 0 (open tank).3 m » 27 m (2.2.5 = 2 m. Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head to Separator.2b ht = 0 m (no static head . Before sizing a pump.4 m. 50 Hz. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. 7. The theory. Therefore Fig.4 + 0 m = – 0. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa.3 m (– 0.3) = 27.Pump Sizing Site Services data: Electrical supply - 220/380v.4. DpPHE is given as 1. Dp is calculated to be 0 m.0 bar = 10 m. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line.1 – 0. Ht = ht +hft +pt = 0 + 12 + 15 m = 27 m (2.5 bar = 15 m.2. Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 0. hft = 2 + 0 + 10 m. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line.2 and 2.03 bar). Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 107 .1 m. ps = Pressure in Balance tank (open tank).7 bar). hft = Pressure drop in tube Dptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves Dp + Pressure drop in plate heat exchanger DpPHE Dptube from curve shown in 14.7 bar). Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Where hs = Static suction head in Balance tank. pt = Pressure in Separator.

NPSHa = 10 + 0.1 m. i. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid. As the fluid to be pumped has physical properties (i.7 m.4 – 0 (m) = 9. Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i. no cavitation will occur.4 m.7 m > 1.4 m. 149 mm.4 m.e. Where Pa = Pressure absolute above level of fluid in Balance tank. 0 bar a = 0 m. 108 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 30 m³/h. hs = Static suction head in Balance tank.e. 1. viscosity) different from water. 27. For this particular example.1 m (2.71 bar). the pump performance curves should not be used. 65. Calculated to be 0.e. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line.9%. 4 kW. pump sized would be as follows: Pump model Impeller size Speed Capacity Head Efficiency NPSHr Motor size LKH-20. 2840 rev/min. 9.1 – 0.Pump Sizing NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp. and actual pump sizing should be made using the pump selection program.e. at temperature of 5oC this is taken as being negligible i. 0. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 1 bar (open tank) = 10 m. The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a single mechanical seal with carbon/silicon carbide faces and EPDM elastomers.

1 Example 1 The following example shows a pump to be sized for a typical brewery process.Pump Sizing 7.1 in order to correctly size any type of pump. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 109 . 7.5 Worked Examples of Centrifugal Pump Sizing (US units) 7. Yeast CIP CO2 CO2 Fermentation CIP CO2 CO2 9 psi (pressure vessel) Cooling 69 ft O2 Wort pump Yeast pitching Whirlpool 262 ft Fig.5. some essential information is required such as Product/Fluid data. The pump is required to handle Wort from the Whirlpool to the Fermentation vessel. Performance data and Site Services data.5.1a Example 1 As described in 7.

5 ft head. Therefore Fig.1b ht = 69 ft. Static head in Fermenting vessel = 69 ft.2 and 2. hft = 6 + 16 + 53 ft. plus a given number of bends.4. Before sizing a pump. valves and a plate heat exchanger with DpPHE 23 psi. The theory. 1. tube. 176 US gall/min. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line. 110 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . = 75 ft. via 262 ft of 4 in dia. Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in Fermentation vessel.5 = 6 ft. hft = Pressure drop in tube Dptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves Dp + Pressure drop in plate heat exchanger DpPHE Dptube from curve shown in 14. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Wort. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. 60 Hz. Ht = ht +hft +pt = 69 + 75 + 20 ft = 164 ft (71 psi). Pressure in Fermenting vessel = 9 psi.5. 1 cP. 194°F. pt = 9 psi = 20 ft. 7. pt = Pressure in Fermentation vessel.Pump Sizing All the above data has been given by the customer.2. DpPHE is given as 23 psi = 53 ft.2. Suction - Site Services data: Electrical supply - 230/460v. plus a given number of bends and valves. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa. Dp is calculated to be 16 ft.

NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp.5 ft. hs = Static suction head in Whirlpool tank.4 ft. 176 US gall/min. pump sized would be as follows: Pump model Impeller size Speed Capacity Head Efficiency NPSHr Motor size LKH-20.5 – 3 + 0 m = – 1. Therefore hs = 1.7 psi (open tank) = 33. The performance curve selection procedure is more specifically described in 7. 1.9 ft. The performance curves are.5) = 165. Calculated to be 3 ft.4a) = 23 ft. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line.6 psi). however.1. For this particular example. 3500 rev/min.2 ft (72 psi). Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 14.9 + 1. 15 hp. In this particular example both the pump performance curves and pump selection program can be used. 67.e. viscosity) different from water. Total head H = Ht – Hs = 164 – (– 1.5 ft (– 0.50 in. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid.5 ft.2%.3. 7. ps = Pressure in Whirlpool (open tank). Where Pa = Pressure absolute above level of fluid in Whirlpool tank. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. not suitable if the fluid to be pumped has physical properties (i. Actual pump sizing can be made using pump performance curves or a pump selection program. 166. Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 1. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 111 . 10 psia (from table 14. ps = 0 (open tank). hfs = calculated to be 3 ft.5 ft. NPSHa = 33.5 ft » 166 ft (72 psi).Pump Sizing Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Where hs = Static suction head in Whirlpool. 6.5 – 3 – 23 (ft) = 9.

112 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 1: Full vessel 2: Empty vessel ht1 1 2 ht2 Q2 Fig. no cavitation will occur. Cavitation can be avoided by reducing the pump speed (reducing NPSHr). If the required head is the exact value of the process. In this case it may be necessary to adjust the selected duty point by means of flow control.50 in. The reduction of the discharge head can result in cavitation and overloading of the motor due to a capacity increase.2. 7. The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a double mechanical seal with carbon/silicon carbide faces and EPDM elastomers. 9.5 ft.4 ft > 7. It may also be necessary to adjust to the required duty point by means of flow control due to the tolerance. so that the selected duty point is as close to the required duty point as possible. Flow control method is more specifically described in 7.5.3.Pump Sizing Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i. or by throttling the discharge line (increasing head).e. Adjustment In this example the pump is sized by the pump selection program which results in exact impeller diameter of 6. Consequently. i.e.2. The pump is sized with a standard impeller diameter if using the performance curve. The flow control method is more specifically described in 7. i.3.1c Special Note The discharge head (ht2) is lower when the pump starts filling the fermenting vessel compared to the discharge head (ht1) when the vessel is full.e. there is a risk that the pump will generate head which will differ from the selected head. it is recommended to select the pump with a larger impeller diameter to ensure the required head is obtained. by means of a frequency converter. It is important to note that the selected head has a tolerance of ± 5% due to the tolerance of the pump curve.

valves and a plate heat exchanger with DpPHE 15 psi. 7.5. CIP Milk out PHE Pump ‘A’ Balance Tank Standardised Milk P = 22 psi Fig. Performance data and Site Services data. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 113 .5.3 ft head. 0.2 Example 2 The following example shows a centrifugal pump to be sized for a typical dairy process. tube. The raw milk is pumped from a Balance tank to a Separator via the preheating stage in the plate heat exchanger. plus a given number of bends and valves. 5 cP. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Raw Milk. All the data has been given by the customer. Pump ‘A’ is a Raw Milk pump in connection with a pasteuriser. 41°F. Suction - 132 US gall/min.1 in order to correctly size any type of pump. some essential information is required such as Product/Fluid data.2a Example 2 Separator As described in 7. via 16 ft of horizontal 3 in dia.Pump Sizing 7. plus a given number of bends. Inlet pressure for the separator = 22 psi.

pt = Pressure in Separator. 114 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2b ht = 0 ft (no static head . Ht = ht +hft +pt = 0 + 40 + 50 ft = 90 ft (39 psi).4. Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head to Separator.4 psi).2 and 2. pt = 22 psi = 50 ft. The theory.3 ft. Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Where hs = Static suction head in Balance tank. hft = Pressure drop in tube Dptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves Dp + Pressure drop in plate heat exchanger DpPHE Dptube from curve shown in 14.3 + 0 m = – 1 ft (– 0. Therefore hs = 0. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line. = 40 ft. 7. DpPHE is given as 15 psi = 34 ft. ps = Pressure in Balance tank (open tank).only horizontal tube).3 ft. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 0.5. hfs = calculated to be 1.2. Before sizing a pump.Pump Sizing Site Services data: Electrical supply - 230/460v.2. ps = 0 (open tank). Total head H = Ht – Hs = 90 – (– 1) = 91 ft (39 psi).3 – 1. Therefore Fig.5 = 6 ft. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa. Dp is calculated to be 0 ft. hft = 6 + 0 + 34 ft. 60 Hz.

Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid.e. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 14. NPSHa = 33. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. 5. 32. i. 132 US gall/min. 3500 rev/min.e.3 ft.7%.9 + 0. The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a single mechanical seal with carbon/silicon carbide faces and EPDM elastomers.0 hp. 92 ft (40 psi).7 psi (open tank) = 33. pump sized would be as follows: Pump model Impeller size Speed Capacity Head Efficiency NPSHr Motor size LKH-10. and actual pump sizing should be made using the pump selection program. at temperature of 41o F this is taken as being negligible i. 4. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 115 . 0.9 ft.3 – 1.e. 5.7 ft. As the fluid to be pumped has physical properties (i.9 ft. the pump performance curves should not be used.7 ft. Calculated to be 1. For this particular example.e.Pump Sizing NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp Where Pa = Pressure absolute above level of fluid in Balance tank. 0 psia = 0 ft. viscosity) different from water. no cavitation will occur.9 ft > 4. Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i. 64.3 ft.59 in.3 – 0 (ft) = 32. hs = Static suction head in Balance tank.

The amount of slip is dependent upon several factors.1b for a given pump speed the amount of slip can be seen as the capacity at ‘zero’ bar less the capacity at ‘X’ bar.Pump Sizing 7.e. 7.1c Pressure effect 116 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .6.6. 7. In Fig 7.6. from pump outlet to pump inlet. 7.1b Pressure effect Fig.6 Rotary Lobe Pumps 7.6. Capacity ‘0’ bar ‘0’ bar Required capacity Capacity at ‘0’ bar Capacity ‘X’ bar Slip ‘X’ bar Actual capacity at ‘X’ bar Speed rev/min Speed increase to maintain capacity Speed rev/min Fig. The size and shape of the rotor will be a factor in determining the amount of slip. Fig.1c. The direction of slip will be from the high pressure to the low pressure side of the pump i. Pressure effect The amount of slip will increase as pressure increases which is shown below.1a Slip Slip Inlet Slip Slip Outlet Low pressure High Pressure Clearance effect Increased clearances will result in greater slip.6.6. To overcome this amount of slip it will be necessary to increase the pump speed to maintain the capacity required as shown in Fig 7.1 Slip Slip is the fluid lost by leakage through the pump clearances.

1f below. The pressure lines will continue to move towards the ‘zero’ pressure line as the viscosity increases. For example.6. It is important to note that flow will be positive after overcoming the dead head speed.6.6. ‘0’ bar Viscosity = 1 cP Required capacity ‘X’ bar Viscosity = 10 cP Required capacity ‘0’ bar ‘X’ bar Viscosity = 50 cP Required capacity ‘0’ bar ‘X’ bar Capacity Capacity Speed .6.6. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 117 .1e Viscosity effect Fig.Pump Sizing Viscosity effect The amount of slip will decrease as fluid viscosity increases. This factor must be taken into consideration when operating pumps at low speeds with low viscosity fluids. The effect of viscosity on slip is shown in Figs 7.6.1g Dead head speed The pump speed required to overcome slip is known as the ‘dead head speed’.1f Viscosity effect Pump Speed effect Slip is independent of pump speed.1d Viscosity effect Fig. the amount of slip at 400 rev/min pump speed will be the same as the amount of slip at 200 rev/min pump speed providing pressure is constant. 7. 0 bar 7 bar Capacity Dead head Speed rev/min speed Fig. 7. 7.rev/min Fig. 7.rev/min Capacity Speed .1e and 7.rev/min Speed .1d. 7.6.

For example.9) where the relationship between viscosity and flow rate provides an indication of pipe sizing. for a flow rate of 10 m³/h on a fluid with viscosity 900 cSt.6. 118 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .1j In general terms it is common to find the recommendation for the inlet pipe size to be the same diameter as the pump inlet connection. 7.1i SRU pump Slip decreases with viscosity Slip SX pump Viscosity Fig.6.Pump Sizing A summary of effects of different parameters on slip is shown below: Slip increases with pressure Slip Pressure Fig.2 Initial Suction Line Sizing For guidance purposes only on high viscosity duties.1h Slip increases with clearances Slip Clearances Fig. a pump with 40 mm (1½ in) diameter suction line would be initially selected. 7.6.6. 7. the suction line can be initially sized using the initial suction line sizing curve (see 14. 7. It is important to note this is only an approximate guide and care should be taken not to exceed the pump’s viscosity/speed limit.

different performance curves are used for the various temperature ratings for rotors i. 130°C (266oF) and 200°C (392oF). • Power as a function of viscosity greater than 1 cSt. The SX pump range has only 150°C (302oF) rotor temperature rating. Due to pumphead clearances described in 8. How to use the Performance Curve The performance curve consists of four different curves: • Capacity as a function of speed.2.3 Performance Curve Alfa Laval rotary lobe pumps can be sized from published performance curves or a pump selection program. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 119 .6. related to pressure and viscosity of 1 cSt.Pump Sizing 7.e. related to pressure and viscosity. 70°C (158oF).2. • Power as a function of speed. • Speed as a function of viscosity. The curves are based on water at 20°C (68oF) but are shown with calculated viscosity correction data. For convenience viscosity units are stated as cSt. Example shown refers to the SRU pump range but the same sizing procedure is also used for the SX pump range.

3a. as shown in Fig. 3. 8 bar (116 psig). Curves can be obtained from the pump supplier.6 m³/h (15. 0. However other factors such as fluid behaviour.9). the flow rate required would exceed the pumps speed limit on the performance curve. Step 1 – Find Appropriate Curve Locate a curve for the required pump model that covers the performance data.8 US gall/min). However. The optimum is to size the smallest pump possible as hydraulic conditions dictate.95 30°C. we therefore need to select a performance curve for the pump model SRU2/013/LS with 70°C (158oF) rotor clearances.Pump Sizing Example: Product/Fluid Data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature Performance Data: Capacity Total Pressure - Vegetable Oil. solids etc.6. Although the smallest pump models SRU1/005 and SRU1/008 have 25 mm (1 in) pump inlet connections. a pump with a size 25 mm (1 in) inlet connection would be required. For this particular example. Due to the large number of curves available it is not practical to include all performance curves in this handbook. 120 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 100 cSt. should be considered. being the next appropriate pump size. 7. the sizing process would be as follows: From the initial suction line sizing curve (see 14.

3a SRU2/013/LS curves Typical Performance Curve SRU2/013/LS or HS US GPM m 3/h Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 121 Pump Sizing 25 mm (1 in) Port 350 172 110 78 58 43 32 23 16 9 X 100 .Fig.6. 7.

Step 3 .Find Power The power required by a pump is the summation of the hydraulic power and various losses that occur in the pump and pumping system. Step 4 .600 rev/min.3 10000 = 1. Step 6 .Pump Sizing Step 2 . The losses being due to the energy required in effecting viscous shear in the pump clearances.0 Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Hydraulic power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 = 1.Viscosity/Port Size Check Move vertically downward and check that maximum viscosity rating has not been exceeded against relevant inlet size. Step 5 . Viscosity has a marked effect on pump energy losses.6 m³/h (15. Typically curves are used in conjuction with equation as follows: Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Hydraulic power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 where Pv = Power/viscosity factor From example: • At speed 600 rev/min the hydraulic power at 1 cSt is 1. • At viscosity 100 cSt the Pv factor is 1.Find Speed Move vertically downward to determine necessary pump speed. From example .0 x 600 + 1.maximum viscosity rating 4300 cSt.Find Viscosity and Pressure Begin with viscosity and find the intersection point with duty pressure. From example – 3.36 kW 122 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .8 US gall/min).3 kW.Find Flow Rate Move diagonally downward and find intersection with required flow rate. From example . From example .100 cSt and 8 bar (115 psig). Viscous power is the power loss due to viscous fluid friction within the pump (Pv factor).

3b SRU2 typical NPSHr curve based on water From example . which is a function of speed and expressed in metres water column (mwc) or feet (ft). Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 123 .4 1000 cSt 10 1 cSt 5 0 Feet Water Metres Water Speed rev/min Fig. this is the power needed at the pump shaft and the appropriate motor power must be selected.4 15 4. Step 7 . which in this instance would be 1.at speed 600 rev/min the NPSHr is 4.6.4 ft).Find NPSHr NPSHr can be found by looking at the appropriate NPSH pump curve.5 kW being the nearest motor output power above the required power.4 mwc (14. 50 100000 cSt 60000 cSt 45 30000 cSt 20000 cSt 40 10000 cSt 35 5000 cSt 30 25 2500 cSt 20 14.Pump Sizing It should be noted. 7.

Pump Sizing 7.1.6. Table 7. When pumping such products optimum performance is obtained by using large slow running pumps.2. Applications on water like viscosity fluids would result in decreased efficiency over stainless steel tri-lobe rotors. are mainly used on high viscosity products containing solids where the pumps volumetric efficiency is high.4 Pumps fitted with Bi-lobe Rotors (Stainless Steel) These rotors. For sizing purposes a percentage increase on the ‘dead head speed’ (see table below) should be applied to the performance curve for stainless steel tri-lobe rotors and interpolated accordingly.6.4a SRU Pump Model %age Increase Required on Tri-lobe Rotor Dead Head Speed 40 40 40 40 30 30 30 25 25 10 10 10 SRU1/005 SRU1/008 SRU2/013 SRU2/018 SRU3/027 SRU3/038 SRU4/055 SRU4/079 SRU5/116 SRU5/168 SRU6/260 SRU6/353 124 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . described in 8.

2.2. have very small clearances resulting in increased volumetric efficiency over stainless steel rotors when used on fluids with viscosities up to 50 cP.6.6 Pumps fitted with Tri-lobe Rubber Covered Rotors These rotors.5 Pumps fitted with Bi-lobe Rotors (Non Galling Alloy) These rotors. have minimal clearance and will therefore significantly improve the pumps volumetric efficiency to approx.4a Performance curve interpolation Capacity 0 bar 7 bar 7 bar Required capacity Speed rev/min ‘X’ rev/min Dead head speed ‘X’ rev/min + % inc. there is only one temperature rating of rotors i.2.e. Fig.Pump Sizing Example of How to Interpolate Performance Curve ‘X’ rev/min represents the ‘dead head speed’ for tri-lobe rotors to which a percentage increase is applied from the table shown.1. 7. different performance curves are used for the various temperature ratings of rotors i. 70°C (158°F). described in 8. 95%. The use of performance curves is as described in 7.3.2. Speed required for tri-lobe rotors Speed required for bi-lobe rotors 7. The use of performance curves is as described in 7.2.6.2. Pump sizing is achieved by referring to published performance curves or a pump selection program. Due to pumphead clearances described in 8. 70°C (158°F).6.3. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 125 . Pump speed for bi-lobe rotors is found accordingly.6. 7.6. described in 8.e.1. Due to the minimal pumphead clearances described in 8. Pump sizing is achieved by referring to published performance curves or a pump selection program. 130°C (266°F) and 200°C (392°F).

3 6.0 15.7 60.8 2.5 6.9 2.7b Pump Model SX range %age Increase Required on Multi-lobe Rotor Dead Head Speed Electropolishing Mechanical and only Electropolishing 12.3 17.7 Pumps with Electropolished Surface Finish Pump performance will be affected by electropolish surface finish to the pump head internals.8 11.7 5.5 12.5 22.0 15.0 31.7 28.0 11.Pump Sizing 7.0 32.3 8.0 18.7 6.6 3.5 4.5 24.0 3.4 34.2 5.9 2.0 1.9 6.8 1/005 1/007 2/013 2/018 3/027 3/035 4/046 4/063 5/082 5/116 6/140 6/190 7/250 7/380 126 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .3 7. For sizing purposes a percentage increase on the ‘dead head speed’ (see tables below) should be applied to the performance curve for stainless steel tri-lobe rotors and interpolated accordingly.6.8 19.2 1.0 55.6.8 38.8 8.5 4.0 14.5 2. Table 7.6 25.4 1/005 1/008 2/013 2/018 3/027 3/038 4/055 4/079 5/116 5/168 6/260 6/353 Table 7.4 2.6.6 40.6 5.3 60.8 21.9 38.0 45.1 10.0 47.0 4.7a Pump Model SRU range %age Increase Required on Stainless Steel Tri-lobe Rotor Dead Head Speed Electropolishing Mechanical and only Electropolishing 17.0 9.3 28.

31 0.06 1.34 0.72 0.6.47 6 6 6 9 9 11 11 15 15 18 18 24 0. Resilience.e. hardness.63 0.34 0.24 0.44 0.51 0.44 0.59 0.63 0.Pump Sizing 7. yet possess resilience and shear strength Solids form - Solids physical properties i. Optimum Conditions Spherical Soft.88 0.72 0.06 1. providing the optimum conditions are met.88 1.8a SRU Model Maximum Spherical Solids Size Bi-lobe Rotors Tri-lobe Rotors mm in mm in 8 8 8 13 13 16 16 22 22 27 27 37 SRU1/005 SRU1/008 SRU2/013 SRU2/018 SRU3/027 SRU3/038 SRU4/055 SRU4/079 SRU5/116 SRU5/168 SRU6/260 SRU6/353 0.94 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 127 .24 0.24 0. shear strength Solids surface finish Fluid/solids proportion - Smooth Proportion of solids to fluid is small Equal Maintained such that solids in suspension are not damaged Bi-lobe Large as possible Relationship of fluid/solid SG Flow velocity (pump speed) - Rotor form Port size - Tables below show the maximum spherical solids size that can be satisfactory handled without product degradation.8 Guidelines for Solids Handling The following criteria should be considered when deciding the pumps ability to handle large solids in suspension.31 0. For non-optimum conditions these should be referred to Alfa Laval.31 0.51 0.6.59 0. Table 7.

Excess pump speed can irreversibly damage the cell structure. in the range of 100 to 400 rev/min dependent upon the fluid being pumped.Pump Sizing Table 7.63 0. 39 0.10 1.6.51 0.39 0. 128 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .9 Guidelines for Pumping Shear Sensitive Media Special attention needs to be made to pumping shear sensitive media such as yeast and yoghurt where the cell structure needs to remain intact. For these types of applications refer to Alfa Laval.98 1.28 0.28 0.63 0.6.51 0.75 0.98 0.75 0. pump size/model and rotor form. Therefore pump speeds need to be kept relatively low.8b SX Model Maximum Spherical Solids Size Multi-lobe Rotors in mm 7 7 10 10 13 13 16 16 19 19 25 25 28 28 SX1/005 SX1/007 SX2/013 SX2/018 SX3/027 SX3/035 SX4/046 SX4/063 SX5/082 SX5/116 SX6/140 SX6/190 SX7/250 SX7/380 0.10 7.

plus 2 bends 90 deg. 15°C. Pressure in vessel = 1 bar. Static head in tank = 2 m.Pump Sizing 7. Suction - 9 m³/h. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature CIP temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Sugar syrup. tube. 95°C. Pump 1 is a low viscosity example handling sugar syrup.example 1 bar 1m Feed tank 8m 1m 1m 1m 2m 6m 3m All the data has been given by the customer. via 10 m of 51 mm dia. 50 Hz. As described in 7. plus 1 bend 90 deg.1 in order to correctly size any type of pump. 1. 7. and 1 non-return valve. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 129 . and 1 butterfly valve Static head in vessel = 8 m. via 3 m of 51 mm dia. tube. Site Services data: Electrical supply - 220/380v.7 Worked Examples of Rotary Lobe Pump Sizing (Metric units) The following examples show two different rotary lobe pumps to be sized for a typical sugar process. Pump 1 – Thin Sugar Syrup pump Fig. 80 cP.29. Performance data and Site Services data. information is required such as Product/Fluid data.7a Pump 1 . Pump 2 is a high viscosity example handling massecuite.

4.2. pt = Pressure in vessel.29 (see 2.3 m. The theory. hft = Pressure drop in tube Dptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves Dp (calculated below). D = tube diameter (mm).1.Pump Sizing Before sizing a pump. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa.6 where D² = 9 x 353.2. Therefore Re = D x V x r m = 51 x 1. To ascertain hft the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = D x V x r m where D V r m = = = = tube diameter (mm). flow will be laminar.7b ht = 8 m x (SG = 1.6 51² = 1.5). hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line. 7. Therefore Fig.22 x 1290 80 = 1003 As Re is less than 2300. 130 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Q = capacity (m³/h).29) = 10.22 m/s density r = 1290 derived from SG value 1. Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in pressurised vessel.2 and 2. absolute viscosity (cP). pt = 1 bar = 10 m. fluid velocity (m/s). velocity V = Q x 353. density (kg/m³). including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2.

hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. ps = Pressure in Tank (open tank).17 bar).29 x 0. (bar) (bar) Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD = 5 x 1. Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs + ps Where hs = Static suction head in Tank.064 x 12 x 1. specific gravity.Pump Sizing Equivalent Line Length – Discharge Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14.0 (see 2.3 + 1. tube diameter (mm).7 m (2.2.4 m Ht = ht +hft +pt = 10. Since flow is laminar.1. factor) = 1 x 1 x 1. hfs = Calculated below. hs = 2 m x (SG = 1.064 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor. fluid velocity (m/s). ps = 0 (open tank).14 bar = 1. factor) Total equivalent length = 10 m =1m =1m = 12 m = 64 Re = 64 1003 = 0.7.0 (corr. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 131 Therefore .29) = 2. tube length (m).22² 51 = 0.2). Straight tube length 1 bend 90 deg.6 m. 1 butterfly valve =3+6+1 = 1 x 1 x 1. the viscosity correction factor is 1.0 (corr.4 + 10 m = 21.

2 bar = 2 m Hs = hs – hfs + ps = 2.2.2).7.1 m » 21 m (2.29 x 0. tube diameter (mm). the viscosity correction factor is 1.064 x 1. specific gravity.6 = 21. Total head H = Ht – Hs = 21.1.22² 51 = 0.6 m (0. factor) Total equivalent length =3m =2m = 12 m = 17 m = 64 Re = 64 1003 = 0. 1 non-return valve =1+1+1 = 2 x 1 x 1 (corr. tube length (m).0 (see 2. (bar) (bar) Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD = 5 x 1. factor) = 1 x 12 x 1 (corr.064 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hfs) friction factor. Straight tube length 2 bend 90 deg.6 – 2 + 0 m = 0.7 x 1.1 bar) 132 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .06 bar).1 – 0.Pump Sizing Equivalent Line Length – Suction Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14. fluid velocity (m/s). Since flow is laminar.

606 rev/min.6 m. 0 bar a = 0 m.6 m. hs = Static suction head in Tank. The performance curve selection procedure is more specifically described in 7. Pump sized as follows: Pump model Connection size Speed NPSHr SRU3/027/LS. Actual pump sizing can be made using pump performance curves or a pump selection program.3. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 1 bar (open tank) = 10 m. We have therefore selected a performance curve for the pump model SRU3/027/LS with 130°C rotor clearances due to the CIP requirement. SRU2/013 (with enlarged port) and SRU2/018 (with sanitary port) have 40 mm pump inlet connections. NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp = 10 + 2. 40 mm.6 m. 2.Pump Sizing NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp.e. From the initial suction line sizing curve (see 14. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 133 . Viscosity/Port Size check: The viscosity of 80 cP at speed 606 rev/min is well within the pump’s maximum rated figures. calculated to be 2 m.6 – 2 – 0 m = 10. Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i. Although the smallest pump models SR1/008 (with enlarged port). hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line.e. at temperature of 15o C this is taken as being negligible i.6 m > 3.6 m. the flow rate required would exceed the pumps speed limit on the performance curve. a pump with a size 40 mm inlet connection would be required. Where Pa = Pressure absolute above fluid level in Tank. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid.6.9). 10. 3. being the next appropriate pump size.

From example • At speed 606 rev/min and total head 2. • EPDM elastomers for compatibility of both sugar syrup and CIP media.1 bar.9 10000 = 1. and the appropriate motor power must be selected.5 kW being the nearest motor output power above the required power. the power at 1 cSt is 0.1 kW It should be noted that this is the power needed at the pump shaft. The recommended type of shaft seal based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a single flushed mechanical seal with tungsten carbide/tungsten carbide faces and EPDM elastomers.9 kW. which in this instance would be 1.Pump Sizing Power calculation: Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 where Pv = Power/viscosity factor. Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 = 3 x 606 + 0. • At viscosity 80 cP (62 cSt) the Pv factor is 3. • Hard tungsten carbide seal faces due to the abrasive nature of sugar syrup. • Flushed version to prevent the sugar syrup from crystallising within the seal area. 134 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

6 mm dia. Site Services data: Electrical supply - 220/380v. and 1 butterfly valve. tube.4. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. 7.2.Pump Sizing Pump 2 – Massecuite pump Fig. via 1 m of 101.2.example 20 m 2m 1m 40 m All the data has been given by the customer. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 135 . 25000 cP. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Massecuite. plus 1 bend 90 deg. tube. Static head in tank = 2 m. Suction - 10 m³/h. via 40 m of 76 mm dia.7c Pump 2 . 50 Hz.35 65°C. plus 2 bends 45 deg. Before sizing a pump. 1. and 1 butterfly valve Static head in tank = 20 m. The theory.2 and 2.

Q = capacity (m³/h).6 76² = 0. Therefore Fig.6 where D² = 10 x 353.5 As Re is less than 2300. absolute viscosity (cP).61 m/s density r = 1350 derived from SG value 1. To ascertain hft the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = D x V x r m where D V r m = = = = tube diameter (mm). fluid velocity (m/s). velocity V = Q x 353.5).35) = 27 m. pt = 0 bar (open tank) = 0 m.61 x 1350 25000 = 2.7d ht = 20 m x (SG = 1. hft = Pressure drop in tube Dptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves Dp (calculated below). density (kg/m³). pt = Pressure in vessel. 136 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Pump Sizing Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in pressurised vessel.1. flow will be laminar. 7. D = tube diameter (mm).35 (see 2. Therefore Re = D x V x r m = 76 x 0. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line.

ps = Pressure in Tank (open tank).25 (see 2. factor) Total equivalent length Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD = 5 x 1. the viscosity correction factor is 0. fluid velocity (m/s). Since flow is laminar.5 = 25.6 x 41 x 0. factor) = 1 x 2 x 0. hs = 2 m x (SG = 1. (bar) (bar) = 2 x 1 x 0.Pump Sizing Equivalent Line Length – Discharge Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14.4 bar). Straight tube length 2 bend 45 deg.7.6 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor. Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Where hs = Static suction head in Tank.1. tube diameter (mm). ps = 0 (open tank).5 m = 0.35 x 25.61² 76 = 34.7 m.35) = 2.2.2).7 bar = 347 m Ht = ht +hft +pt = 27 + 347 + 0 m = 374 m (37.25 (corr.25 (corr. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. 1 butterfly valve = 40 m = 0. specific gravity. hfs = Calculated below.5 m = 41 m = 64 Re = 64 2. tube length (m). Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 137 Therefore .

9 As Re is less than 2300.6² = 0.1.2). velocity V = Q x 353.7.1.6 x 0. D = tube diameter (mm). absolute viscosity (cP).Pump Sizing To ascertain hfs the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = D x V x r m where D V r m = = = = tube diameter (mm). Equivalent Line Length – Suction Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14. flow will be laminar. fluid velocity (m/s). Q = capacity (m³/h). density (kg/m³). the viscosity correction factor is 0.35 (see 2. Since flow is laminar.6 101. = DxVxr m = 101.2.25 (see 2.34 x 1350 25000 = 1.5). 138 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .34 m/s density r Therefore Re = 1350 derived from SG value 1.6 where D² = 9 x 353.

7 bar) In this example the total head required is in excess of the 20 bar maximum working pressure of the pump.34² 101.2 + 0 m = – 2. factor) Total equivalent length =1m = 0. (bar) = 5 x 1.7 – 5.Pump Sizing Straight tube length 1 bend 90 deg.25 (corr. factor) = 1 x 2 x 0.52 bar = 5. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 139 .25 (corr. 4.6 = 0. tube diameter (mm). Total head H = Ht – Hs = 374 – (–2. 3. consideration could be given to any or a combination of the following parameters: 1. specific gravity.5 m » 377 m (37. tube length (m).2 m Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 2.5 m. Reduce capacity.68 x 2 x 0.5 m =2m = 64 Re = 64 1.5 m = 0. Consider two or more pumps in series. fluid velocity (m/s). To reduce this head so as a pump can be suitably sized. 1 butterfly valve = 1 x 2 x 0. 2. Increase tube diameter.5) = 376.68 Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = (bar) pressure loss due to friction (hfs) friction factor. Increase pumping temperature to reduce viscosity.35 x 33.9 = 33.

2.6 bar = 106 m Now Ht = ht + hft +pt = 27 + 106 + 0 m = 133 m (13. The total head calculations are reworked. Static suction head in Tank. tube diameter (mm).6 = 10. specific gravity. by referring to the equivalent tube length table 14.6 mm.5) = 135. at temperature of 65 oC this is taken as being negligible i. (bar) (bar) = 5 x 1. tube length (m).6 mm diameter tube.e.35 x 33.2 m. Now Total head H = Ht – Hs = 133 – (–2. 1 bar (open tank) = 10 m.68 x 41 x 0. Also note.6 bar) NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp. Total pressure drop in suction line.5 m » 136 m (13.7. Using the Miller equation to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor.3 bar). Vapour pressure of fluid. Where Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= Pressure absolute above fluid level in Tank. and butterfly valves remain unchanged. 0 bar a = 0 m.7 m. fluid velocity (m/s). and for this particular example the fluid velocity (V) and friction factor (fD) have already been established for 101.e.34² 101. from 76 mm to 101. calculated to be 5.Pump Sizing Assuming the capacity is a definite requirement and the pumping temperature cannot be increased the customer should be advised to increase the discharge tube diameter i. Therefore 140 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .1 the values for bends 45 deg.

e. Due to the high viscosity it is not practical to use pump performance curves for sizing purposes. 2.5 m > 2. Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i. 7. • at viscosity 25000 cP (18519 cSt) the Pv factor is 110.6 bar. For this particular example a pump sized from the pump selection program using stainless steel tri-lobe rotors with 130°C rotor clearances would be as follows: Pump model Connection size Speed NPSHr SRU5/168/LD.1 m. An approximate guide to pump sizing can be made by calculation using volumetric efficiency.2 – 0 m = 7.5 m. From example • At speed 100 rev/min and total head 13.2 kW Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 141 . The actual pump sizing can be made using a pump selection program.1 m. Power calculation: Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 where Pv = Power/viscosity factor.1 10000 = 5. 100 rev/min.1 kW. Viscosity/Port Size check: The viscosity of 25000 cP at speed 100 rev/min is well within the pump’s maximum rated figures. Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 = 110 x 100 + 4.7 – 5.Pump Sizing NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp = 10 + 2. the power at 1 cSt is 4. 100 mm (enlarged port).

a pump having a 100 mm dia.Pump Sizing It should be noted that this is the power needed at the pump shaft. To calculate pump speed for the SRU5/168 pump selected the following formula is used as a general guide with volumetric efficiency of 99% (see 7.99 x 60 = 100 rev/min 142 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . for the flow rate required of 10 m3/h with viscosity 25000 cP (18519 cSt). Referring to the initial suction line sizing curve shown in 14. If a sanitary port is a definite requirement the Model SRU6/260 pump would be selected. enlarged ports.4). Alternative shaft sealing could be a flushed packed gland or double flushed mechnical seal.5 kW being the nearest motor output power above the required power. which in this instance would be 5. efficiency (99% = 0. The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a packed gland arrangement with polyamide gland packing on hard coated shaft sleeves with EPDM elastomers. Pump speed (rev/min) n = Q x 100 q x hv x 60 where: Q = capacity (m3/h) q = pump displacement (m3/100 rev) hv = vol. inlet port would be selected.2.168 x 0. and for a fixed speed drive the appropriate motor power must be selected. For this example a Model SRU5/168 pump will be selected having 100 mm dia. Alternative Pump Sizing Guide Using Volumetric Efficiency Calculation.9.99) = 10 x 100 0.

60 Hz. Static head in tank = 6 ft. Pump 1 is a low viscosity example handling sugar syrup. 1. Performance data and Site Services data. information is required such as Product/Fluid data. As described in 7. Pressure in vessel = 15 psi. Site Services data: Electrical supply - 230/460v.29. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature CIP temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Sugar syrup.example 15 psi Feed tank 3 ft 26 ft 3 ft 3 ft 3 ft 6 ft 10 ft 20 ft All the data has been given by the customer. Static head in vessel = 26 ft. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 143 . 62 cSt. via 33 ft of 2 in dia. tube. Pump 1 – Thin Sugar Syrup pump Fig. plus 1 bend 90 deg.8 Worked Examples of Rotary Lobe Pump Sizing (US units) The following examples show two different rotary lobe pumps to be sized for a typical sugar process. and 1 butterfly valve. Pump 2 is a high viscosity example handling massecuite. tube. plus 2 bends 90 deg.8a Pump 1 . 203°F. and 1 non-return valve.1 in order to correctly size any type of pump. 7.Pump Sizing 7. Suction - 40 US gall/min. 59°F. via 9 ft of 2 in dia.

The theory.2 and 2. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line.5 ft. 144 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . = 3162 x 40 2 x 62 = 1020 As Re is less than 2300.2. flow will be laminar. n = kinematic viscosity (cSt). Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in pressurised vessel.4. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa. pt = Pressure in vessel.8b ht = 26 ft x (SG = 1. Q = capacity (US gall/min). To ascertain hft the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = 3162 x Q Dxn where D = tube diameter (in). Therefore Fig.29) = 33.Pump Sizing Before sizing a pump. pt = 15 psi = 35 ft. 7. hft = Pressure drop in tube Dptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves Dp (calculated below).2. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2.

409 where Q = capacity (US gall/min) D2 D = tube diameter (in) = 40 x 0.Pump Sizing Equivalent Line Length – Discharge Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14.5 ft » 74 ft (32 psi). factor) = 1 x 3 x 1. the viscosity correction factor is 1. Straight tube length 1 bend 90 deg.0 (corr. specific gravity. tube diameter (in).0823 x 1.2. Since flow is laminar. (psi) Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD Velocity V = Q x 0.063 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 0.2 psi = 5 ft (psi) Ht = ht +hft +pt = 33. tube length (ft).5 + 5 + 35 ft = 73. 1 butterfly valve = 10 + 20 + 3 = 1 x 3 x 1.1 ft/s Pf = 0.29 x 0.0 (corr.1² 2 = 2.409 22 = 4. factor) Total equivalent length = 33 ft = 3 ft = 3 ft = 39 ft = 64 Re = 64 1020 = 0.063 x 39 x 4. fluid velocity (ft/s). Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 145 .0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor.2).2.7.0 (see 2.

7 ft.29) = 7. Straight tube length 2 bend 90 deg. factor) = 1 x 39 x 1 (corr. 1 non-return valve =3+3+3 = 2 x 3 x 1 (corr. Therefore Equivalent Line Length – Suction Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14.2. Since flow is laminar.1 ft/s 146 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2).063 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 0.0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hfs) friction factor.Pump Sizing Where hs = Static suction head in Tank. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. (psi) Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD Velocity V = Q x 0. ps = Pressure in Tank (open tank). tube diameter (in). hfs = Calculated below. hs = 6 ft x (SG = 1. ps = 0 (open tank).409 22 = 4.409 where Q = capacity (US gall/min)   D2 D = tube diameter (in) = 40 x 0. factor) Total equivalent length = 9 ft = 6 ft = 39 ft = 54 ft = 64 Re = 64 1020 = 0. the viscosity correction factor is 1.2. tube length (ft). specific gravity.0 (see 2. fluid velocity (ft/s).7.

7 – 7 + 0 ft = 0.Pump Sizing Pf = 0. 11.7 ft (0.9 ft.0823 x 1.5 in.6 ft. Although the smallest pump models SR1/008 (with enlarged port). Actual pump sizing can be made using pump performance curves or a pump selection program.063 x 54 x 4.7 ft. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 147 . 7.7 = 73. Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i. NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp = 33. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 14.e. 0 psia = 0 ft.5 in inlet connection would be required.3 psi). 34. 1.9 ft. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. hs = Static suction head in Tank. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid. SRU2/013 (with enlarged port) and SRU2/018 (with sanitary port) have 1. Where Pa = Pressure absolute above fluid level in Tank. We have therefore selected a performance curve for the pump model SRU3/027/LS with 266°F rotor clearances due to the CIP requirement.5 in pump inlet connections.6. NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp. calculated to be 7 ft.e. Total head H = Ht – Hs =74 – 0. From the initial suction line sizing curve (see 14. Pump sized as follows: Pump model Connection size Speed NPSHr SRU3/027/LS. at temperature of 59o F this is taken as being negligible i.7 psi (open tank) = 33.3.9 ft. being the next appropriate pump size. 613 rev/min. the flow rate required would exceed the pumps speed limit on the performance curve.1² 2 = 3 psi = 7 ft (psi) Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 7.7 – 7 – 0 ft = 34.6 ft > 11.9).29 x 0.3 ft » 73 ft (32 psi). a pump with a size 1. The performance curve selection procedure is more specifically described in 7.9 + 7.

From example • At speed 613 rev/min and total head 32 psi. and the appropriate motor power must be selected. Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 = 3 x 613 + 1. • At viscosity 62 cSt the Pv factor is 3. • EPDM elastomers for compatibility of both sugar syrup and CIP media.Pump Sizing Viscosity/Port Size check: The viscosity of 62 cSt at speed 613 rev/min is well within the pump’s maximum rated figures. Power calculation: Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 where Pv = Power/viscosity factor. • Flushed version to prevent the sugar syrup from crystallising within the seal area. the power at 1 cSt is 1. 148 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . • Hard tungsten carbide seal faces due to the abrasive nature of sugar syrup.2 hp. which in this instance would be 2 hp being the nearest motor output power above the required power. The recommended type of shaft seal based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a single flushed mechanical seal with tungsten carbide/tungsten carbide faces and EPDM elastomers.4 hp It should be noted that this is the power needed at the pump shaft.2 10000 = 1.

including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2.35 149°F. 7. 18519 cSt.2.2 and 2. Static head in tank = 6 ft. 1. and 1 butterfly valve Static head in tank = 65 ft. tube.Pump Sizing Pump 2 – Massecuite pump Fig. via 3 ft of 4 in dia. and 1 butterfly valve. Before sizing a pump.2. plus 1 bend 90 deg. Site Services data: Electrical supply - 230/460v.4. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 149 . via 130 ft of 3 in dia. 60 Hz. plus 2 bends 45 deg. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Massecuite.8c Pump 2 .example 65 ft 6 ft 3 ft 130 ft All the data has been given by the customer. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa. tube. Suction - 44 US gall/min. The theory.

Q = capacity (US gall/min). To ascertain hft the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = 3162 x Q Dxn where D = tube diameter (in). Therefore Fig. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line.8d ht = 65 ft x (SG = 1. pt = 0 psi (open tank) = 0 ft. hft = Pressure drop in tube Dptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves Dp (calculated below). 7. 150 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Pump Sizing Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in pressurised vessel. = 3162 x 44 3 x 18519 = 2. n = kinematic visosity (cSt). pt = Pressure in vessel.35) = 88 ft.5 As Re is less than 2300. flow will be laminar.

25 (corr. Since flow is laminar.2.75 ft = 133 ft = 64 Re = 64 2.35 x 25. fluid velocity (ft/s). tube diameter (in). specific gravity.Pump Sizing Equivalent Line Length – Discharge Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14.409 where Q = capacity (US gall/min)   D2 D = tube diameter (in) = 40 x 0. factor) = 1 x 7 x 0. tube length (ft).2.6 x 133 x 2² 3 = 504 psi = 1163 ft (psi) Ht = ht +hft +pt = 88 + 1163 + 0 ft = 1251 ft (542 psi).25 (corr.5 ft = 1. Straight tube length 2 bend 45 deg.0823 x 1.2). (psi) = 2 x 3 x 0. the viscosity correction factor is 0.6 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor. Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 151 .25 (see 2. 1 butterfly valve = 130 ft = 1. factor) Total equivalent length Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD Velocity V = Q x 0.7.5 = 25.409 32 = 2 ft/s Pf = 0.

Therefore To ascertain hfs the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = 3162 x Q Dxn where D = tube diameter (in).9 As Re is less than 2300.25 (corr.9 = 33.2. hs = 6 ft x (SG = 1. factor) = 1 x 7 x 0. Straight tube length 1 bend 90 deg.75 ft = 6. hfs = Calculated below. ps = Pressure in Tank (open tank). flow will be laminar.2).7.68 = 1 x 7 x 0. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line.5 ft = 64 Re = 64 1.Pump Sizing Where hs = Static suction head in Tank.35) = 8 ft. Q = capacity (US gall/min).75 ft = 1. Equivalent Line Length – Suction Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14. n = kinematic visosity (cSt). factor) Total equivalent length Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD 152 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 1 butterfly valve = 3 ft = 1. Since flow is laminar. = 3162 x 44 4 x 18519 = 1.2.25 (see 2. the viscosity correction factor is 0.25 (corr. ps = 0 (open tank).

Consider two or more pumps in series. Increase pumping temperature to reduce viscosity.Pump Sizing The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 0.0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hfs) friction factor.5 x 1. from 3 in to 4 in. tube diameter (in). fluid velocity (ft/s). 4. Increase tube diameter.1² 4 = 7. 3. To reduce this head so as a pump can be suitably sized. Assuming the capacity is a definite requirement and the pumping temperature cannot be increased the customer should be advised to increase the discharge tube diameter i. consideration could be given to any or a combination of the following parameters: 1. Reduce capacity. tube length (ft).1 ft/s Pf = 0. specific gravity.0823 x 1. 2. Total head H = Ht – Hs = 1251 – (–9) = 1260 ft (546 psi) In this example the total head required is in excess of the 290 psi maximum working pressure of the pump. (psi) Velocity V = Q x 0.68 x 6.409 42 = 1. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 153 .4 psi = 17 ft (psi) Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 8 – 17 + 0 ft = –9 ft.e.35 x 33.409 where Q = capacity (US gall/min)   D2 D = tube diameter (in) = 44 x 0.

Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 14. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid.9 + 8 – 17 – 0 m = 24. tube length (ft). and butterfly valves remain unchanged. 8 ft. (psi) (psi) = 0.7.7 psi (open tank) = 33. at temperature of 149o F this is taken as being negligible i.Pump Sizing The total head calculations are reworked.68 x 133 x 1. calculated to be 17 ft. 0 psia = 0 ft. Where Pa = Pressure absolute above fluid level in Tank.2 the values for bends 45 deg.9 ft. 154 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .1² 4 = 150 psi = 346 ft Now Ht = ht + hft +pt = 88 + 346 + 0 ft = 434 ft (188 psi). and for this particular example the fluid velocity (V) and friction factor (fD) have already been established for 4 in diameter tube. by referring to the equivalent tube length table 14. tube diameter (in). hs = Static suction head in Tank. Also note. Using the Miller equation to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 0.e. Now Total head H = Ht – Hs = 434 – (–9) = 443 ft (192 psi). hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp = 33.9 ft.35 x 33.0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor. specific gravity. NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp .0823 x 1. fluid velocity (ft/s).

Power calculation: Total Required Power (hp) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (hp) 10000 where Pv = Power/viscosity factor. An approximate guide to pump sizing can be made by calculation using volumetric efficiency.Pump Sizing Due to the high viscosity it is not practical to use pump performance curves for sizing purposes. 24. From example • At speed 100 rev/min and total head 192 psi. For this particular example a pump sized from the pump selection program using stainless steel tri-lobe rotors with 266° F rotor clearances would be as follows: Pump model Connection size Speed NPSHr SRU5/168/LD. the power at 1 cSt is 5.9 ft. The actual pump sizing can be made using a pump selection program.9 ft. Viscosity/Port Size check: The viscosity of 18519 cSt at speed 100 rev/min is well within the pump’s maximum rated figures.e. • At viscosity 18519 cSt the Pv factor is 110.5 10000 = 6. 6. and for a fixed speed drive the appropriate motor power must be selected.5 hp. 100 rev/min.6 hp It should be noted that this is the power needed at the pump shaft. which in this instance would be 7. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 155 . Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i.5 hp being the nearest motor output power above the required power. 4 in (enlarged port). Total Required Power (hp) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (hp) 10000 = 110 x 100 + 5.9 ft > 6.

for the flow rate required of 44 US gall/min with viscosity 18519 cSt.99) = 44 x 100 44. If a sanitary port is a definite requierement the Model SRU6/260 would be selected. a pump having a 4 in dia. For this example a Model SRU5/168 pump will be selected having 4 in dia.39 x 0.2. Referring to the initial suction line sizing curve shown in 14. Pump speed (rev/min) n = Q x 100 q x hv where: Q = capacity (US gall/min) q = pump displacement (US gall/100 rev) hv = vol. To calculate pump speed for the SRU5/168 pump selected the following formula is used as a general guide with volumetric efficiency of 99% (see 7. enlarged ports. Alternative shaft sealing could be a flushed packed gland or double flushed mechnical seal. efficiency (99% = 0.99 = 100 rev/min 156 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Pump Sizing The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a packed gland arrangement with polyamide gland packing on hard coated shaft sleeves with EPDM elastomers.9. inlet port would be selected.4). Alternative Pump Sizing Guide Using Volumetric Efficiency Calculation.

5 2 3 2 2. ISO.5 3 2.: SMS. bevel seat.5 3 4 4 4 LKH-Multistage LKHP Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 157 .5 3 4 4 4 4 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 2.5 1.Pump Specification Options 8.5 2.5 2 2. DIN.5 2 3 2 2. GC-clamp. 8. heating/cooling jackets. BS.5 2.1 Port Connections Pumps are supplied with screwed male connections of all major standards.5 3 3 4 2 2. Pump Range Pump Model Inlet mm LKH LKH-5 LKH-10 LKH-15 LKH-20 LKH-25 LKH-35 LKH-40 LKH-45 LKH-50 LKH-60 LKH-70 LKH-80 LKH-112 LKH-113 LKH-114 LKH-122 LKH-123 LKH-124 LKHP-10 LKHP-15 LKHP-20 LKHP-25 LKHP-35 LKHP-40 LKHP-45 LKHP-50 LKHP-60 50 65 100 65 80 65 80 100 100 100 100 150 50 50 50 80 80 80 65 100 65 80 65 80 100 100 100 Nominal Connection Size Inlet Outlet mm in 40 50 80 50 65 50 65 80 80 100 80 100 40 40 40 65 65 65 50 80 50 65 50 65 80 80 100 Outlet in 1.5 3 3 4 3 4 1. DS.5 1.e.5 2. i.5 3 2. such as port connections.5 4 2.5 2 2. pressure relief valves and other ancillaries.1. Pump Specification Options This section gives detailed descriptions of the various specification options available for the Alfa Laval pump ranges.1 Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps 8.5 4 2. DC and H-line.

2a Heating/Cooling jacket 158 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .5 2 2.5 3 2.1a 8.5 3 2 3 3 3 LKHI LKH-UltraPure MR Table 8. 8.5 2 2 2 3 3 3 LKHSP LKHSP-10 LKHSP-20 LKHSP-25 LKHSP-35 LKHSP-40 LKHI-10 LKHI-15 LKHI-20 LKHI-25 LKHI-35 LKHI-40 LKHI-45 LKHI-50 LKHI-60 LKH-10 LKH-20 LKH-25 LKH-35 LKH-40 MR-166S MR-185S MR-200S MR-300 65 65 80 65 80 65 100 65 80 65 80 100 100 100 65 65 80 65 80 50 80 80 80 2.5 3 3 4 2 2 2.5 2 2.5 4 2.5 2 3 2 2.1. On such occasions some pump models can be fitted with heating/cooling jackets.5 3 2. Alternatively it may be necessary to cool the fluid being pumped where heat is generated by means of the fluid repeatedly being passed through the pump.1.2 Heating/Cooling Jackets In some applications heating of the fluid being pumped may be required to reduce the fluid viscosity so that satisfactory operation is achieved.1.5 3 4 4 4 2.5 2. Pump casing Jacket Fig.5 2.5 3 2.Pump Specification Options Pump Range Pump Model Inlet mm Nominal Connection Size Outlet Inlet mm in 50 50 65 50 65 50 80 50 65 50 65 80 80 100 50 50 65 50 50 50 80 80 80 Outlet in 2 2 2.5 3 2.

Fitting a drain connection to the bottom of the pump casing or Pump casing Fig. This will activate the thermal relay of the motor after a few hours of operation so that the pump stops.3a Turned pump casing Drain Fig. The gap is achieved by machining the back of the impeller.3b Pump casing with drain Back plate Gap: 2 mm 8.5 mm to 2.4 Increased Impeller Gap Impeller In some applications. For this type of application it is recommended to select a motor size with an output power one step higher than the standard selection so as to avoid the motor thermal relay being constantly activated. 8.1. Impeller Inlet Fig.1. 8.4a Increased gap 8. The operating time of the pump can be increased by increasing the standard gap width between the back of the impeller and the back plate. 8. This increased gap reduces the head by approx.Pump Specification Options 8. This can be achieved by either: .1.1.1. This has the effect of improving NPSH requirements for difficult applications and/or assisting the flow of a viscous fluid into the pump casing. there is a risk that a hard layer of proteins will slowly build up between the backside of the impeller and the back plate. 8. Fig.5 mm.5a Inducer in pump inlet Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 159 .5 Pump Inlet Inducer Inducer In some applications it may be necessary to improve the suction conditions by means of fitting the pump inlet with an inducer.g. 5%.Turning the pump outlet downwards . when using a LKH centrifugal pump as a booster pump in a cream pasteurisation unit. e. from 0.1.3 Pump Casing with Drain In some applications it is a requirement that no fluid should be left in the pump casing.1.

and pressures up to 20 bar (290 psig).2. 8. 8.2. high performance pumping action.2 Rotary Lobe Pumps 8. These are available on the SRU pump range with 3 temperature ratings: • up to 70°C (158oF).1b Tri-lobe Fig. 8.Pump Specification Options 8. • up to 130°C (266oF).2.1c Multi-lobe Tri-lobe Rotors (Stainless steel) Most duties can be accomplished by pumps fitted with stainless steel tri-lobe rotors. • up to 200°C (392oF).2.1a Bi-lobe Fig. The tri-lobe rotor with its mathematically correct profile and precision manufacture ensure interchangeability as well as smooth.2. 160 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .1a Rotor Form Material Pump Range SRU SX ü ü ü ü ü Tri-lobe Tri-lobe Bi-lobe Bi-lobe Multi-lobe Stainless steel Rubber covered Stainless steel Non galling alloy Stainless steel Fig.1 Rotor Form Table 8.

These are available on the SRU pump range with 3 temperature ratings: • up to 70°C (158oF). 8. leading to increased efficiencies. as smaller clearances (see 8. • up to 130°C (266oF). • up to 130°C (266oF). For the SX pump range these rotors have 4 lobes and are designed to maximise efficiency. soups and sauces containing solid matter. and pressures up to 7 bar (100 psig). These are available on the SRU pump range with 3 temperature ratings: • up to 70°C (158oF). sausage meat filling.2. • up to 200°C (392oF). and due to the resilience of the rubber coating these rotors have a slight interference fit with the pump rotorcase when initially fitted. Multi-lobe Rotors This rotor is manufactured from stainless steel and as the name suggests has many lobes. petfood. • up to 200°C (392oF). This results in improved pump performance and suction lift capability over stainless steel tri-lobe rotors. Tri-lobe Rubber Covered Rotors This rotor has a stainless steel insert covered in NBR rubber. Typical applications are jam containing fruit pieces. Gentle pumping action Fig. and pressures up to 20 bar (290 psig). reduce shear and provide a smooth pumping action. and pressures up to 20 bar (290 psig).2) can be used.1d Bi-lobe rotors for solids handling Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 161 . Rotors are suitable for continuous operation up to 70°C (158oF) and intermittent operation up to 100°C (212oF). Bi-lobe Rotors (Non galling alloy) Manufactured from non-galling alloy these rotors have an advantage over stainless steel.Pump Specification Options Large fluid chamber Bilobe rotors Bi-lobe Rotors (Stainless steel) These are generally used for handling delicate suspended solids where minimum product damage is required.2. Rotors are suitable for temperatures up to 150°C (302oF) and pressures up to 15 bar (215 psig).

• Back clearance (between back of rotor and back face of rotorcase). The key clearances are as follows: • Radial clearance (between rotor tip and rotorcase). any contact between rotating and stationary parts would cause ‘galling’ and possible pump seizure. As product wetted parts of the SRU and SX pump ranges are predominantly manufactured from stainless steel.2a Clearances 8.2. The size of these clearances is related to the pressure and temperature of pump operation and rotor material. which are the spaces between rotating components and between rotating and stationary components. 8. To allow for this pressure effect. which could result in contact between rotors. clearances are built into the pumphead between surfaces that may contact. Radial Back Mesh Front Pressure effect The design concept of the rotary lobe pump is to have no contacting parts in the pumphead. caused by the rotors fitted to the shafts (see Fig. 8. The effect of pressure on the rotors will cause shaft deflection.2 Clearances Within the pump head are clearances.2. • Mesh clearance (between rotors). 162 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . • Front clearance (between front of rotor and rotorcase cover).2.Pump Specification Options Clearances are necessary to avoid rotor to rotor. which is the maximum differential pressure of the particular pump model. For the SRU and SX pump ranges there is only one pressure rating.2b). This requires having the shaft support bearings to be mounted outside of the pumphead. which results in an overhung load. The pressure effect is less significant on pumps fitted with rubber covered or non-galling alloy rotors. rotorcase and rotorcase cover. rotor to rotorcase and rotor to rotorcase cover contact. Fig.

pump mechanism. the SRU pump range has increased clearances as shown below.2. Changes in temperature will cause expansion upon heating or contraction upon cooling. thereby reducing the front clearance.2c Increased clearance Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 163 . 70°C (158°F). Thermal expansion Increased clearance Decreased rotor width The clearance is exaggerated to show the temperature effect Fig. drive unit and/or the environment.e. SRU pumps are designed for various temperature ratings for rotors i. 130°C (266°F) or 200°C (392°F). This results in the shaft not being subjected to the full temperature variation and therefore only one temperature rating of 150°C (302°F) is necessary. The most significant result is movement between shaft and gearcase/rotorcase causing the rotors to move forward/backward in the rotorcase.2. to the rotorcase and gearcase components. 8.2b Pressure effect Force due to pressure Support bearings Shaft Rotor Overhang length Outlet Inlet Rotorcase Rotor Shaft Standard clearance Standard rotor width Temperature effect Temperature change can be caused by the fluid being pumped.Pump Specification Options Fig. Any CIP operation required should also be taken into consideration (see section 10 for detailed explanation of CIP). 8. On the SX pump range the design of the mechanical seal eliminates contact between the fluid being pumped and the shaft. To compensate for this.

Pump Specification Options

8.2.3 Port Connections
Pumps are supplied with screwed male connections to all major standards as follows:
Table 8.2.3a Standard Screwed Connection Type 3A/Acme BSP BSPT DIN11851/405 ISS/IDF NPT RDG RJT SMS Tri-Clamp (BS4825) Pump Range SRU SX ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü

All models in the SRU and SX pump ranges are supplied with full bore through porting, conforming to International Sanitary Standards BS4825 / ISO2037. This provides effective CIP cleaning and maximises inlet and outlet port efficiency and NPSHr characteristics. The option of the enlarged port on the SRU pump range can be chosen for high viscosity applications.

Fig. 8.2.3a Sanitary port design

Fig. 8.2.3b Enlarged port design

The SRU pump range when having enlarged ports can also be supplied with flanged connections of all major standards i.e. ASA/ANSI125, ASA/ANSI150, ASA/ANSI300, BS10 table E, BS10 table F, BS4504/DIN2533 and JIS10K. Flanges for vertically ported pumps are not fitted directly to the discharge port. In this instance an elbow bend is included to which the flange is fitted.

164 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Pump Specification Options

Pump Range

Pump Model Sanitary mm

Nominal Connection Size Enlarged in mm

in 1.5 1.5 2 2 2.5 2.5 3 3 4 4 6

SRU

SRU1/005 SRU1/008 SRU2/013 SRU2/018 SRU3/027 SRU3/038 SRU4/055 SRU4/079 SRU5/116 SRU5/168 SRU6/260 SRU6/353 SX1/005 SX1/007 SX2/013 SX2/018 SX3/027 SX3/035 SX4/046 SX4/063 SX5/082 SX5/115 SX6/140 SX6/190 SX7/250 SX7/380

25 25 25 40 40 50 50 65 65 80 100 100 25 40 40 50 50 65 50 65 65 80 80 100 100 150

1 1 1 1.5 1.5 2 2 2.5 2.5 3 4 4 1 1.5 1.5 2 2 2.5 2 2.5 2.5 3 3 4 4 6

40 40 50 50 65 65 80 80 100 100 150

SX

For size 150 mm (6 in) screwed male connections, these are only available as DIN11851/405, SRJT or Tri-Clamp (BS4825).

Table 8.2.3b

8.2.4 Rectangular Inlets
Hopper Rectangular inlet

Outlet

For handling extremely viscous products and/or large solids that would naturally bridge a smaller port, SRU rotary lobe pumps can be supplied with a rectangular inlet. Usually the pump will be in vertical port orientation to allow the product to flow into the pumping chamber under gravity from a hopper mounted directly above or mounted with an adaptor to facilitate connection to large diameter pipework. As can be seen from the table below there is a significant percentage area increase when using a rectangular inlet compared to a sanitary port connection. This increases the pumps ability to handle highly viscous products.

Fig. 8.2.4a Rectangular inlets

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 165

Pump Specification Options

Table 8.2.4a

Pump Model

Sanitary port area (mm2)

Rectangular inlet area (mm2)

% area increase above sanitary port diameter 171 326 314 206 221 189 151 151 176 195 186 244

SRU1/005 SRU1/008 SRU2/013 SRU2/018 SRU3/027 SRU3/038 SRU4/055 SRU4/079 SRU5/116 SRU5/168 SRU6/260 SRU6/353

387 387 387 957 957 1780 1780 2856 2856 4185 7482 7482

660 1260 1216 1976 2112 3360 2688 4320 5032 8160 13888 18240

Connections for steam, hot/cold fluid

Saddle

8.2.5 Heating/Cooling Jackets and Saddles
Rotary Lobe pumps can be fitted with jackets to the rotorcase cover and saddles to the rotorcase. These are primarily used for warming the pumphead so as to prevent the fluid pumped being cooled and become viscous or allowed to solidify/crystallise. These can also be used for cooling purposes. The maximum pressure and temperature of heating/cooling fluid is 3.5 bar (50 psig) and 150°C (302oF) respectively. Heating/cooling jackets and saddles should be in operation approximately 15 minutes prior to pump start up and remain in operation 15 minutes after pump shut down. Typical applications include: • Adhesive • Chocolate • Gelatine • Jam • Resin Jackets are available on both the SRU and SX pump ranges, but saddles are only available on the SRU pump range.

Jacket Fig. 8.2.5a Heating/Cooling jackets and saddles

166 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Pump Specification Options

8.2.6 Pump Overload Protection
Due to the positive action of the rotary lobe pump any restriction on the outlet side of the pump, either partial or total, will result in excessive pressure developing in the pumphead. It is therefore essential that some form of overload protection be installed to protect pump, drive unit and also limit pressure build up within associated process equipment. This protection will normally take the form of an external spring-loaded pressure relief valve fitted to the outlet side of the pump which will open under high pressure and allow fluid to return to the inlet side of the pump via a by-pass loop. Other alternatives are to fit the pump with an integral relief valve as described below, or use of proprietary electronic devices. Pressure Relief Valves These can be supplied as an integral part of the pump and do not require external pipework. The assembly replaces the standard rotorcase cover and is intended to protect the pump from over pressurisation. It is suitable for bi-direction pump operation and can be retrofitted. The valve will provide full pump protection for fluids having viscosities below 500 cP, above this figure Alfa Laval should be consulted with regard to specific flow rates in relation to viscosity and differential pressures. The design is such that the valve mechanism is isolated from the pumped fluid. Valve closed
Rotors Rotor nuts Large slip path across rotorcase cover

Pressure relief valve

Fig. 8.2.6a Pressure relief valve

Valve open

Small slip path across rotorcase cover

Relief valve piston

Relief valve piston moves back against the springs

Fig. 8.2.6b Relief valve operation

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 167

Pump Specification Options

As it is a mechanical device the relief valve does not operate instantaneously due to mechanical response time. The valve will begin to relieve at a pressure less than the fully open pressure. This ‘accumulation’ will vary depending upon the duty pressure, viscosity and pump speed. The accumulation tends to increase as pressure or pump speed decrease, and as viscosity increases. The valve is set to relieve at the required pressure by the correct choice of springs and can be adjusted on site to suit actual duty requirements. The relief valve can be provided with the following options: Automatic with Pneumatic Override These valves may be pneumatically overridden for CIP conditions and they may be remotely controlled if required. Air supply should be clean and dry at pressures of 4 bar (60 psig) minimum and 8 bar (115 psig) maximum. Automatic with Manual Override This valve has a lever to enable manual override for CIP or certain tank filling applications.
Valve Type Pump Range - Availability Normal Operating Pressure Range psig bar 7-19 7-19 19 7-10 7 100-275 100-275 275 100-145 100

Standard Pneumatic override Manual override

SRU1-6 SRU1-6 SRU1-3 SRU4-5 SRU6

Table 8.2.6a

Pressure relief valves are only available for the SRU range pumps fitted with metal rotors. Pump Protection Unit (PPU) The Pump Protection Unit is a non-intrusive alternative to mechanical relief valves, conventional electronic shear pin or mechanical over-load protection devices. It is designed to protect Alfa Laval rotary lobe pumps and incorporates micro-controller technology. The PPU is not a power meter or data-logging device but has the ability to monitor true consumption through continuous power monitoring. The PPU is not a pre-set device and requires a simple set-up procedure to be carried out to suit specific duty conditions of the pump to be monitored. After initial setting is completed the monitoring process is automatic and the pump is under the protection of the PPU.

Fig. 8.2.6c Pump protection unit

168 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

25 to 650 rev/min. An alternative arrangement would be an electric motor with a wedge belt pulley drive reducing the motor speed to the pump output speed required. are described in more detail in section 9. Another example could result from a partially closed valve in the discharge pipe also giving rise to excess pressure and therefore power consumption.e.7 Ancillaries Rotary Lobe pumps can be supplied bare shaft (without drive) or mounted on a baseplate with drive such as electric motor.2.2. therefore increased power consumption. will cause an automatic shutdown if desired thereby limiting the degree of damage.Pump Specification Options The PPU will detect over-load and rapidly increasing load. As well as responding to system related transients. Electric motors being the most commonly used method of drive. the PPU will also respond to mechanical changes such as bearing or lubrication failure. a burst inlet or outlet pipe. One example of under-load could result from a blocked or closed valve in the inlet pipe.7a Typical motorised rotary lobe pump unit Fixed Speed Rotary Lobe pumps generally operate at low to medium speeds i. air motor. both of which could result in pump seizure if not detected and corrected. The PPU will detect a rapidly increasing load such as that caused by a solid object entering the pump and becoming trapped between the rotors. This is generally achieved by using a geared electric motor direct coupled to the pump drive shaft via flexible coupling. This condition would in turn result in a higher discharge pressure. 1200 and 900 rev/min for 60 Hz). and therefore some form of speed reduction is required from normal AC motor synchronous speeds of 1500. or even an empty supply vessel. 8. One example of an over-load condition could result from a gradual increase in viscosity of the pumped media. even within the lines of the over-load trip threshold. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 169 . 1000 and 750 rev/min for 50 Hz (1800. The resulting rapid power increase from this type of event. 8. The PPU will detect under-load since this highlights a condition preventing optimum pump operating efficiency. and diesel or petrol engine dependent upon customer requirements and services available. Fig.

which can be a fixed or variable height. Baseplates can also be designed to meet specific customer standards when required. which is easy to install. 170 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . In addition diesel or petrol engines can be used as pump drivers. In some application areas such as dairy or brewing it is normal practice to hose down pump units and floorings – in these circumstances ball feet can be fitted to baseplates.Pump Specification Options When exact flow is not critical a fixed speed drive is generally used. which are well suited to rotary lobe pump characteristics by offering the ability to adjust the pump speed to control flow and adjust for system conditions. it may be necessary to use a variable speed drive or frequency converter to obtain correct pump duty speeds. Baseplates The Alfa Laval ‘standard’ is a pressed mild steel or stainless steel design which is required to be bolted to the floor (see 12. thereby changing pump speed and controlling flow (see 9. although not commonly used as pump drives. The integral geared electric motor is the most commonly used type of fixed speed drive. The frequency converter allows the operator to change the frequency of the electric motor. Some pumps operate continuously for 24 hours per day and others operate intermittently. can provide good low cost drive in certain applications. There are many types of mechanical and hydraulic variable speed drives available in a wide range of speeds. Variable Speed To handle changing duty conditions or a number of different duties. to raise baseplate above floor level. An alternative is to mount the pump and drive unit on a portable trolley design baseplate complete with control gear and trailing lead as required. as it only requires one coupling and a safety guard. Motor manufacturers give recommendations for their motors relating to the number of hours per day of operation and the frequency of starting and stopping. This is a compact low cost unit. Complete ranges of drive speeds are available from the different manufacturers and usually one can be found within a few rev/min of the required speed. The Alfa Laval mild steel baseplate is supplied painted to suit customer requirements and the stainless steel has a dull polish finish.3).10). Other Drive Types Air motors. How a pump operates will determine the choice of geared electric motor.

Pump Specification Options

Guards All rotating machinery should be adequately guarded and when pumps are supplied complete with a drive, a guard is fitted over the transmission (flexible coupling or wedge belt) which links the pump drive shaft to the output shaft of the selected driver. The selection of guard material is important relative to its working environment. Non-sparking materials such as aluminium or brass are used with flameproof/explosion proof motors in hazardous areas. For non-hazardous applications mild steel or stainless steel is generally used.

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 171

Pump Specification Options

172 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Motors

9. Motors
This section describes electric motors, including information on motor protection, methods of starting, motors for hazardous environments and speed control.

The electric motor is the most commonly used method of pump drive, due to the following: • • • Electrical power supply is usually readily available and easy to install. High efficiency due to low losses when transforming from electrical to mechanical power. The electric motor can absorb variations in the torque requirement of a pump, i.e. as a result of changes in product/ duty conditions, inertia in the bearings, frequent starts etc. Easy speed control.

All Alfa Laval pump ranges can be fitted with AC type Totally Enclosed Fan Ventilated (TEFV) squirrel cage three phase electric motors complying with various international standards and regulations such as IEC, CENELEC, VDE, DIN and BS. Electric motors supplied in the USA are generally to NEMA standard. Single phase electric motors can also be fitted to Alfa Laval rotary lobe pumps.

Fig. 9a Electrical hazard

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 173

Motors

The standard design of an AC motor includes the following main parts: Item 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Description Stator housing. Ball bearings. Bearing housing. Fan. Fan cap. Housing for electrical connection. Iron core. Three phase windings. Rotor. Motor shaft.

Fig. 9b Exploded view of a typical AC motor

The motor is constructed as follows: • • • • • • • • The stator is fixed in the stator housing (1). The ball bearings (2) are fixed in the bearing housing (3), which close the stator housing. The ball bearings carry the rotor (9) and the motor shaft (10). The fan (4), which cools the motor, is fixed to the motor shaft. The fan is protected by means of the fan cap (5). The housing for electrical connection (6) is situated on the stator housing. There is an iron core (7) in the stator housing. The iron core consists of thin iron sheets with a thickness of 0.3 - 0.5 mm. The three phase windings (8) are situated in the grooves of the iron core.

The three phase windings and the stator core are designed to produce a magnetic field in pairs of poles. When the stator is connected to a three-phase supply voltage the magnetic fields of the individual phase windings form a symmetrically rotating magnetic field which is called the rotational field. The speed of the rotational field is called the synchronous speed.

174 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Motors

9.1 Output Power
The output power is always lower than the rated electrical power due to various losses in the motor. The ratio of output power to rated electrical power is known as the motor efficiency. The table below shows output power that is specified in standard ratings.
Frequency 50 Hz 60 Hz 50 Hz 60 Hz Table 9.1a 0.37 0.43 11 12.7 0.55 0.63 15 17.5 0.75 0.86 18.5 21 Output Power in kW 1.1 1.27 22 25 1.5 1.75 30 35 2.2 2.5 37 42 3 3.5 45 52 4 4.6 55 64 5.5 6.3 75 87 7.5 8.6 90 105

Frequency 60 Hz 0.5 15
Table 9.1b (Nema motors)

Output Power in hp 0.75 20 1 25 1.5 30 2 40 3 50 5 60 7.5 75 10 100

9.2 Rated Speed
The rated speed of the motor is always lower than the synchronous speed due to motor slip. The connection between synchronous speed, rated speed, frequency and poles is shown in the table below:
No. Poles No. Pairs of poles Synchronous speed at 50 Hz - rev/min Rated speed at 50 Hz - rev/min Synchronous speed at 60 Hz - rev/min Rated speed at 60 Hz - rev/min Table 9.2a 2 1 3000 2880 3600 3460 4 2 1500 1440 1800 1720 6 3 1000 960 1200 1150 8 4 750 720 900 860 12 6 500 480 720 690

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 175

Motors supplied with class F insulation system with only class B temperature rise (80°C) (176o F) ensure an exceptional margin of safety and longer life even in abnormal operating conditions such as withstanding ambient temperatures up to 55°C (131o F) or 10% overload or adverse supply systems. 9.TEFV) where an externally mounted fan cools the motor. Some derating of the motor may be necessary for high ambient temperatures and high altitude.20°C (-68o F) to + 40°C (104o F) (class B temperature rise) and at altitudes up to 1000 metres above sea level.5 hp) and over 230 to 400 volts. no externally mounted fan Totally Enclosed Air Over Motor (TEAOM) – motor cooled by airstream Totally Enclosed Forced Cooled (TEFC) – motor cooled by an independent fan 9. Euronorm motors supplied at 400 volts will generally operate satisfactorily with voltage variations of ± 10% from the rated voltage. Motors operating in ambient temperatures higher than 55°C (131o F) will have class H insulation.3 Voltage Standard motors for use on 3 phase 50 or 60 Hz can be wound for any single voltage as follows: Up to 3 kW (4 hp) 4 kW (5. 400 to 690 volts.5 Insulation and Thermal Rating Standard motors will operate satisfactorily in an ambient temperature range of .4 Cooling Motor cooling is specified by means of the letters IC (International Cooling) in accordance with standards.4a Arrangement Totally Enclosed Fan Ventilated (TEFV) – motor cooled by an externally mounted fan Totally Enclosed Non Ventilated (TENV) – self cooling. Methods of cooling are shown below: Code IC411 IC410 IC418 IC416 Table 9. 176 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Motors 9. The most common is IC411 (Totally Enclosed Fan Ventilated .

To overcome this motors can be supplied with special tropic proof treatment. but dust cannot enter in an amount sufficient to interfere with satisfactory operation of the machine. These heaters are normally 110 volts or 220 volts. Motor protected against conditions on a ship’s deck or powerful water jets. Protection against harmful deposits of dust. 2nd Digit Protection against water Water splashed against the motor from any direction shall have no harmful effect. The letters IP are followed by two digits. These state the method of determining degrees of ingress protection for both dust and water. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 177 . Failure to include this treatment and the resulting corrosion can cause irreparable damage to stator windings and moving parts. the first of which specifies the protection against contact and ingress of foreign bodies and the second digit specifies the protection against water.6 Protection The degree of motor protection is specified by means of the letters IP (International Protection) in accordance with standards. Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies with a diameter greater than 1 mm.Motors 9. wires or other objects of thickness greater than 1 mm. No ingress of dust. Water projected by a nozzle against the motor from any direction shall have no harmful effect. which will produce considerable amounts of condensation on internal surfaces. Water projected by a nozzle against the motor from any direction shall have no harmful effect. humid and wet conditions. Condensation occurs when the surface temperature of the motor is lower than the dew-point temperature of the ambient air. The ingress of dust is not totally prevented. IP56 IP65 Table 9. Table showing degrees of protection is shown below: Designation 1st Digit Protection against contact and ingress of foreign bodies IP44 Protection against contact with live or moving parts by tools. Complete protection against contact with live or moving parts inside the enclosure.6a Tropic Proof Treatment Motors operating in tropical climates are invariably subjected to hot. IP54 IP55 Water splashed against the motor from any direction shall have no harmful effect. Anti-Condensation Heaters Where the motor is to be left standing for long periods of time in damp conditions it is recommended that anti-condensation heaters are fitted and energised to prevent condensation forming in the motor enclosure.

being used with a frequency converter (see 9.e. i. which are temperature-dependent semi-conductor devices embedded in the motor windings.9). Where motors can be allowed to operate at slow speed. 178 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Motors Thermistors To protect the motor windings from overload due to high temperature. it is normal to fit thermistors to prevent the motor from overloading or to insufficient cooling from the motor fan. motors can be fitted with thermistors.

It can.).7a Connection of three-phase single speed motor Soft Starting The soft start provides a smooth start at the same time. often 5 to 8 times higher than the rated current. Motors fitted to centrifugal and liquid ring pumps are normally directly started.L. be necessary to restrict the starting current by means of Y/D .O. Direct On Line (D. Soft. This is particularly important when the motor runs with a light load. The magnitude of the starting current is directly dependent on the static torque requirement during a start and on the mass of the load that is to be accelerated.starting of the motor. The current can be restricted by starting the motor in Y-connection and then changing to D-connection. Soft starting can also be achieved using a frequency converter. as the starting current is limited. as the moment of inertia of the motor is low due to pump design and the fluids being pumped having low viscosities. therefore. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 179 .Motors 9. 2. Direct On Line Starting The connection between supply voltage and rated current is very important with regards to motor starting. In many cases the soft starter saves energy by automatically adapting the motor voltage continually to the actual requirement. 9. The simplest way to start the motor is to connect directly the mains supply to the motor. In this case the starting current is high. In this case the starting time with high starting current is very low and it can consequently be ignored.7 Methods of Starting There are three starting methods: 1. 3. Fig. Star/Delta (Y/D). Star/Delta (Y/D) Starting If pumping viscous fluids the starting time with the high starting current is longer.

8 Motors for Hazardous Environments Zones The degree of hazard varies from extreme too rare. IIC is the highest rating. Hazardous areas are classified into three Zones as follows: By implication.Motors 9. Zone 2. in which an explosive gas-air mixture is likely to occur in normal operation.e. To ensure equipment can be safely used in hazardous areas. in which an explosive gas-air mixture is continuously present or present for long periods – No motors may be used in this zone. Zone 0. surface industries. Table 9. permitted temperature of electrical equipment 450oC (842oF) 300oC (572oF) 200oC (410oF) 135oC (275oF) 100oC (212oF) 85oC (185oF) Group I Group II IIA IIB IIC Table 9.8a Temperature class T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 Ignition temperature for gas/vapour up to 450oC (842oF) 300 to 450oC (572 to 842oF) 200 to 300oC (410 to 572oF) 135 to 200oC (275 to 410oF) 100 to 135oC (212 to 275oF) 85 to 100oC (185 to 212oF) Max.8b Equipment for coal mines susceptible to methane gas. in which an explosive gas-air mixture is not likely to occur in normal operation and if it occurs it will only be present for a short time. an area that is not classified Zone 0. 180 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Equipment for explosive atmospheres other than mines i. Zone 1. Group II is subdivided according to the severity of the environment. 1 or 2 is deemed to be a non-hazardous or safe area. A motor from one of the higher categories can also be used in a lower category. its gas group must be known and its temperature class must be compared with the spontaneous ignition temperature of the gas mixtures concerned.

that could reach the self-ignition temperature of the surrounding. Variants combining two types of protection usually combine ‘d’ and ‘e’ types of protection. The marking according to standard EN 50021 is EEx nA.EEx d and EEx de These motors are designated for operation in Zone 1 hazardous areas. No motor device outside the flameproof area shall be a potential source of sparks. without damage. any pressure levels caused by an internal explosion. The enclosure will withstand. but with special attention to eliminate production of sparks. Ex N These motors are designated for operation in Zone 2 hazardous areas.EEx e The design of this motor type prevents the occurrence of sparks. arcs or dangerous overheating. The most commonly used and recognised by the CENELEC European Standards is the EEx de variant. The British Standard is the type Ex N version. Non-Sparking Design – EEx nA. A = for non-sparking equipment. The motor enclosure is designed in such a way that no internal explosion can be transmitted to the explosive atmosphere surrounding the machine. Ex nA. arcs or dangerous surface temperatures. in all inner and outer parts of the machine. The temperature of the motor’s external enclosure should not exceed the self-ignition temperature of the explosive atmosphere of the installation area during operation. The motor is designed with an EEx d flameproof enclosure. Such design combines the superior safety degree of the ‘d’ type of protection with the less stringent electrical connection requirements of increased safety motors.Motors Flameproof Enclosure . potentially explosive atmosphere. where EEx n = European standard for Ex product with protection ‘n’. while the terminal box features an EEx e increased safety protection. The motor construction is similar to standard TEFV motors. Increased Safety Design . Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 181 . arcs or hot spots in service.

8a Overview of classification parameters Severe environments Reinforced protection Corrosive atmospheres Zone 2 Accidental presence Zone 1 Incidental presence Zone 0 Permanent presence Ex nA Ex N EEx e T6 85° C T5 100° C T4 135° C T3 200° C T2 300° C T1 450° C EEx d/EEx de EEx e EEx p Standards IEC BS EN Environment Mines Explosive atmospheres Other than mines IIC Group I IIA IIB Hydrogen Gas Methane Propane Ethane 9. Industry will. 9. For instance by increasing the efficiency of their production processes.9 Energy Efficient Motors In October 1998. This agreement forms part of the European Commission’s aims to improve energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions. industrial processes will consume less electricity.Motors The classification parameters of motors for hazardous areas can be summarised as below: Fig. and installing energy efficient devices. This. is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. in turn. will reduce the amount of electricity that must be generated to meet demand. have a major part to play in reducing harmful emissions. the European Union and CEMEP (The European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics) agreed to introduce three efficiency classes for electric motors. therefore. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity. primarily consumed by households and industry. 182 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

0 82.4 92.5 11 15 18.0 90.0 92.8 92.4 90.4 89.5 93. EFF3 class motors can be used and for continuous usage EFF1 or EFF2 motors should be used.2 78.1 to 90 kW (1.5 91.0 94. This higher efficiency is achieved by using higher quality and thinner laminations in the stator to reduce core loss and more copper in the slots to reduce current and resistance losses.9a Output Power hp kW 2 pole Motor EFF1 equal to or above 82.0 88.0 93. The three efficiency classes designated EFF1.5 to 125 hp) rated for 400 volts. For intermittent usage.0 Efficiency % EFF2 equal to or above 76.6 86. Table 9.7 87.0 88. squirrel cage induction motors in the power range 1. 2 and 4 pole.4 89.5 81.1 1. 50 Hz.5 2 3 4 5.2 85.6 93.5 91.9 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 183 .9 93.3 93.9 EFF3 below 1.5 93.4 92.4 90.3 91.0 82.0 90.5 90.2 3 4 5.0 92.2 92. Energy saving is dependent upon the kW rating of the motor.5 7.6 84.1 85.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 1.7 94.8 84. higher efficiency motors can play a significant part in reducing CO2 emissions.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 76. An energy efficient motor produces the same output power (torque) but uses less electrical input power (kW) than a standard electric motor.0 93.2 85.6 95.6 84. the loading and the hours run.5 2.7 87.5 81.6 93.6 88. As such.5 91. apply to TEFV.5 7.6 89.2 78.Motors Motors account for around 65% of the electric energy consumed in industrial applications.7 87. EFF2 and EFF3.

2 78.3 89.5 7.9b Output Power hp kW 4 pole Motor EFF1 equal to or above 83.5 81.6 84.2 94. A combination of dual and pole change windings can give 3 or 4 speeds from one design.7 87.4 92.9 EFF3 below 1.4 92.0 92.8 85.0 82. PAM (Pole Amplitude Modulation) Similar to above except that pole variations can be 4/6 or 6/8.5 81.6 93.2 92.5 93.5 91.2 93.2 3 4 5.7 87.4 88.0 Efficiency % EFF2 equal to or above 76.0 88.5 93.6 93. Speed control can be multi-speed.9 9.0 93. Dual Wound Motors have two separate windings and can be supplied for any two speed combinations.0 88.2 90.5 11 15 18. variable voltage or frequency converter.5 91.6 93.4 89.5 2.0 93.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 76.7 95.8 92.5 2 3 4 5.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 1.0 82.2 78.4 89.0 86.0 90.10 Speed Control The effective speed control of AC electric motors has long been regarded as an adaptable and economical means of reducing costs and saving energy. Multi-Speed Pole Change (Tapped or Dahlander) These have a single winding and two speeds in a ratio of 2:1 and can be supplied for constant torque or variable torque applications.6 84. 184 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2 85.1 1.6 93.1 91.4 90.2 85.0 92.9 94.Motors Table 9.0 91.4 90.0 90.5 7.4 87.

ambient temperature. The power or torque requirements throughout the entire speed range. These motors are of special design – standard motors being unsuitable. The motor ratings must take into account the following: • Increased heating due to the harmonic content of the inverter waveforms. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 185 . electric motors can be made available with the frequency converter already fitted to the motor. the level of derating will depend on the speed range required.Motors Variable Voltage Variable voltage control provides a low capital cost means of varying the motor speed on centrifugal pumps. With increasing sophistication such as ‘vector’ control. For applications using variable torque loads such as centrifugal pumps. the effective speed range can be increased to 1000:1. altitude etc.5 kW (10 hp) and have the advantage of not using any shielded motor cables. Frequency Converter The use of a frequency converter will allow speed control of a standard AC motor by adjusting the frequency.g. • • • As well as motors being remotely controlled by frequency converters. very little derating will be required. as there are no extra connections between the frequency converter and motor. e. Reduced cooling arising from motor speed reduction. Basic frequency converters will permit operation over a typical speed range of 20:1. For applications using constant torque loads such as rotary lobe pumps. Also providing room in a switch cabinet will not be necessary. Other limiting factors such as maximum motor speeds. This form of speed control requires greater derating than for converter drives and is best suited to 4 pole machines of 2:1 speed reduction with close matching of motor output to absorbed pump load. field oriented control utilising closed loop feedback. although some derating may be necessary. These arrangements are generally available for motors up to 7.

2 kW 60 Hz. frequency and output power The motors can be used in the standard version without any modifications for the standard supply voltage. frequency and output power If a non-standard combination of supply voltage.1. from the table above. 220-240vD/380-420vY.85 0. frequency and output power.Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps only In some instances there are non-standard electrical requirements regarding combinations of supply voltage. the rated speed and output power will vary dependent upon the combination of supply voltage and frequency.2 2. frequency and output power is required.91 0.Motors 9.86 0.90 0.11a Standard supply voltage. 440-480vY.5 kW Non-standard supply voltage. Examples of this are as follows using a motor frame size 90LB from the table above. 2. When selecting a motor for a centrifugal or liquid ring pump. Motor Frame Size 90LB 90LB Frequency Hz Supply Voltage v Output Power kW 2. to correctly size the motor.90 0.8.91 Table 9. 2.5 4.1/4.2 2. 186 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .11 Changing Motor Nameplates . frequency and output power combinations.3 7. For complete list see section 14. frequency and required power.1 2.4 8. if using a motor frame size 90LB. the motor can be used as standard as follows: 50 Hz. It is therefore very important to specify supply voltage. This is shown in section 9.5 2.7 4. the standard motor with a new nameplate or a special motor with an appropriately stamped nameplate can be used. As viewed from table below which shows an example for a motor frame size 90LB.7 8. For example.3 2.8 50 60 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 380Y Standard New Standard New New New 0. special attention should be given to the rated speed and output power.3 Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min 2900 2860 3500 3430 3470 3450 Power Factor Rated Current A 8.

which is sufficient. Use a standard motor frame size 90LB.3 kW. 3.e. as 2. This will give 3.3 kW.2 kW.5 kW 1. 3. Example 2 – For 60 Hz. Select the nearest larger standard motor i. 2. The standard motor frame size 90LB will only give 2. 380vY. 2.2 kW is required. 380vY. frame size 100LB. which is sufficient.Motors Example 1 . 2. The appropriate electrical data must be changed on the motor nameplate. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 187 .For 60 Hz. The motor will give an output power of 2. which is not sufficient. The appropriate electrical data must be changed on the motor nameplate.5 kW at the non-standard supply voltage and frequency combination. as 2. Alternatively select a specially wound motor to give the required 2.2 kW 1. 2.5 kW is required.

Motors 188 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

The four most common interpretations of ‘Clean’ are given below: 1. The perception of the word clean will vary from customer to customer and process to process. 4. The guidelines incorporate references to internationally recognised cleaning detergents. but have been specifically prepared to maximise the CIP effectiveness of our pumps. velocities. Cleaning Guidelines for use in Processes utilising CIP (Clean In Place) Systems This section provides cleaning guidelines for use in processes utilising CIP (Clean In Place) systems. temperatures and pressures used to clean other types of flow equipment. Sterility Quite simply this is the destruction of all known micro-organisms. This level of cleanliness is usually verified by a visual test only.Cleaning Guidelines for use in Processes utilising CIP Systems 10. 2. The following recommendations for CIP will address the first three definitions. such as valves and fittings. The following recommendations offer advice on how to maximise the CIP (Clean In Place) efficiency of the Alfa Laval ranges of centrifugal and rotary lobe pumps. Interpretations of cleanliness are given and explanations of the cleaning cycle. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 189 . Physical Cleanliness This is the removal of all visible dirt or contamination from a surface. Chemical Cleanliness This is defined as the removal of all visible dirt or contamination as well as microscopic residues. 3. which are detectable by either taste or smell but not by the naked eye. Bacteriological Cleanliness This can only be achieved with the use of a disinfectant that will kill all pathogenic bacteria and the majority of other bacteria.

Cleaning Guidelines for use in Processes utilising CIP Systems

In most installations it is important to ensure the maximum recovery of pumped product residues from the production line at the end of each production run. Where this is a requirement, consideration should be given to mounting rotary lobe pumps with ports in the vertical plane to maximise drainability. This will minimise any product loss, ease the cleaning of the system and reduce the requirement to dispose of or recycle the wash from the initial cleaning cycles. By maximising the recovery of product from the system both the efficiency of the production and cleaning processes will be increased. Rotary lobe pumps are rarely used as the supply pump for CIP fluids. Centrifugal pumps are generally used during CIP for each phase of the cleaning cycle. For the majority of CIP cycles it is recommended that a differential pressure of 2 to 3 bar is created across the pump to promote efficient cleaning, whilst it is rotating at it’s normal operating speed. In many cases a valve is employed in the discharge line of the system to create the differential pressure across the pump and a by-pass loop installed around the pump to divert any excess of CIP liquid that the pump is unable to transfer. The valve(s) setting may be fluctuated during the CIP cycle to promote pressure/flow variations that may enhance the cleaning process. During the CIP cycle there must always be sufficient flow of cleaning fluid being delivered by the CIP pump to make sure that the centrifugal or rotary lobe pump is neither starved of liquid at it’s inlet due to its own flow capability, or overpressurised at it’s inlet due to its tendency to act as a restriction if it is unable to transfer the full flow of the fluid being delivered to it. Internationally accepted protocol for CIP suggest that during all phases of the CIP cycle a pipeline velocity of between 1.5 m/sec and 3.0 m/sec is required. Velocities within this range have proven to provide effective cleaning of Alfa Laval pumps, although as a general rule the higher the velocity the greater the cleaning effect. Generally the most effective cleaning processes incorporate five stages: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. An initial rinse of clean, cold water. Rinsing with an alkaline detergent. Intermediate rinse with cold water. Rinsing with an acidic disinfectant. Final rinse with clean cold water.

190 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Cleaning Guidelines for use in Processes utilising CIP Systems

The cycle times, temperatures, cleaning mediums and concentrations of the detergents used will all influence the effectiveness of the cleaning cycle and care must be taken when defining these to ensure that they are suitable for use with the particular product being pumped. Of equal importance is the chemical compatibility between the cleaning detergents and the product wetted materials in the pump head and ensuring for rotary lobe pumps the correct temperature clearance rotors are fitted for the CIP cycle. Consideration should also be given to the disposal or recycling of used cleaning liquids and the potential requirement for handling concentrated detergents. Specialists suppliers should make the final selection of cleaning detergents/disinfectants. Within these guidelines a typical cleaning cycle would be as follows: 1. Rinse with clean water at ambient temperature to remove any remaining residue. 10 to 15 minutes are usually sufficient for this part of the cycle but this will depend on the condition and volume of the residue to be removed. Rinse with an alkaline detergent, typically a 2.5% solution of Caustic Soda (NaOH) at between 70 to 95°C (158 to 203oF) for a period of 20 to 30 minutes would be used. It is also common to add a wetting agent (surfactant) to lower the surface tension of the detergent and hence aid its cleansing ability. This phase of the cleaning cycle should dissolve and remove organic matter such as fats and proteins. Intermediate rinse with clean water at ambient temperature for a period of 5 to 10 minutes. This phase should remove any residual detergents. Rinse with an acidic disinfectant, typically a 2.5% solution of Nitric Acid (HNO3) at ambient temperature for a period of 10 to 15 minutes would be used. This phase of the cleaning cycle should remove proteins, mineral salts, lime and other deposits. Final rinse with clean water at ambient temperature for a period of 10 to 15 minutes or until all traces of the cleaning fluid have been removed.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 191

Cleaning Guidelines for use in Processes utilising CIP Systems

During the CIP cycles it is important that the required concentration of cleaning detergents is maintained consistently. A significant increase in concentration could cause damage to pumps and other components in the system. A significant decrease in concentration could effect the detergents cleaning efficiency. A facility for monitoring and adjusting the detergent concentration should be considered. Cautionary Notes: 1. Pumps and other equipment installed in CIP systems have components within them that will expand and contract at different rates. Care should be taken not to subject them to rapid temperature cycling. Products containing particulate such as fibre, seeds or soft fleshy matter have to be evaluated carefully and on an individual basis, as the nature of these will provide an increased cleaning challenge. These types of product may typically require increased cleaning cycle times and/or increased velocities and pressures during the cleaning cycle. CIP detergent liquids and the elevated temperatures typically used for CIP processes can cause a potential health risk. Always adhere to site Health and Safety regulations. Always store and dispose of cleaning agents in accordance with site Health and Safety regulations.

2.

3.

4.

After CIP cleaning and additional sterilisation in place process (SIP) may be required when highly sensitive products are handled, inactivating any micro-organisms which might be still present in the pump. The sterilisation can be carried out be means of chemicals, hot water or steam. In the dairy industry the sterilisation temperature is approximately 145oC (293oF).

192 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines

11. Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines
This section describes some of the international standards and guidelines applicable to Alfa Laval pump ranges.

In recent years there has been increasing concern over safety and hygiene in the bio-pharmaceutical and food industries. This has led to numerous standards and legislation being written.

A number of countries have national standards and/or directives applicable to food machinery but there are relatively few international standards. Those that exist are predominantly dairy based and are too general and developed on ‘experience’ rather than scientific data. In the USA, a number of guidelines in the form of third party approval schemes have been developed for the dairy industry (3-A standards) and food service equipment (NSF – National Sanitation Foundation). The structure of these schemes involves representatives of equipment manufacturers, end users and regulatory bodies in the implementation of recommendations. Unfortunately, however the 3-A standards have no benchmark of cleanability or test regimes to establish cleanability, and the NSF standards are not applicable to the hygienic design of general food processing equipment. Alfa Laval pump ranges are available to meet standards and legislation as follows: • • CE Compliance (Safety/Risk Assessment). 3-A Design and Material Specifications (Centrifugal and Positive Rotary Lobe Pumps for Milk and Milk Products). FDA Material Requirements. USDA Regulating Biotechnology. EN 10204 3.1.B Certified Material Traceability. EN 10204 2.2 Certificate of Conformity. EHEDG Cleanability and Installation Guidelines.

• • • • •

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 193

Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines

Fig. 11a CE

CE The introduction of CE marking is to demonstrate to interested parties that goods or equipment with this mark comply with the appropriate directives of the European Community. The appropriate directives are those that are concerned with the design and manufacture of goods or equipment. Directives are intended to facilitate a Single Market in the European Union. With emerging European standardisation, conflicting national standards will eventually tend to disappear, as all EU member states will work to the same standard, with a few exceptions. Some national differences cannot be harmonised. In Europe many different languages are spoken, and some parts are prone to earthquakes, high winds, heavy snow and extremes of cold and heat. It is often uneconomic to design equipment that will withstand all these conditions. All Alfa Laval pump ranges are CE marked and conform to the machinery directive 89/392/EEC as amended by 91/368/EEC, 93/ 44/EEC and 93/68/EEC and other relevant directives i.e. ‘Electrical Equipment Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC’ and ‘Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive 89/336/EEC’. Other applicable standards/specifications which Alfa Laval pump ranges comply to are as follows: • EN292 Parts 1 and 2: 1991 Safety of Machinery - Basic concepts, general principles for design. EN294: 1992 Safety distances to prevent danger zones being reached by the upper limbs. EN60204 Part 1: 1993 Safety of Machinery - Electrical equipment of machines - specification for general requirements. BS5304: 1988 Code of Practice for Safety of Machinery. ISO9001: 1994 Quality Management System.

• •

194 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

write specific criteria for materials in product contact. approve materials for use in pharmaceutical systems. write specific engineering or design requirements for systems. • • For all Alfa Laval pump ranges the product wetted parts can be made available with FDA compliance. The FDA can: • approve plants for manufacturing. fabrication. the ‘Food. The FDA cannot: • approve equipment outside of a particular use within a specific system. FDA The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA is the enforcement agency of the United States Government for food. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 195 . All Alfa Laval pump ranges conform to this 3-A standard. In the USA. write general guidelines for good manufacturing processes. Drug and Cosmetic Act’ requires food. 11b 3-A 3-A (Centrifugal and Positive Rotary Pumps for Milk and Milk Products) This standard has the purpose of establishing and documenting the material. assemblies. The FDA’s primary purpose is to protect the public by enforcing this Act. plant inspections and material recalls. The 3-A Sanitary Standards and 3-A Accepted Practices are voluntarily applied as suitable sanitary criteria for dairy and food processing equipment. It is responsible for new material approvals. and installation (where appropriate) requirements for the engineering design and technical construction files for all products. and sub-assemblies supplied by the manufacturer. The manufacturer has to be in compliance with the sanitary criteria found in 3-A Sanitary Standards or 3-A Accepted Practices. drug and cosmetics manufacturing. drug and cosmetic manufacturers to prove that their products are safe. • • • • inspect plants at random.Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines Fig. have certain expectations regarding design practices.

that are used to create. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ensures the safety and safe use of pesticidal and herbicidal substances in the environment and for certain industrial uses of microbes in the environment.and with greater ease and precision. The Federal government has a well co-ordinated system to ensure that new agricultural biotechnology products are safe for the environment and to animal and human health. Modern techniques now enable scientists to move genes (and therefore desirable traits) in ways they could not before . excluding meat and poultry. including animal vaccines that may be the product of biotechnology. improve. such as selective breeding. While these agencies act independently. • • • 196 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Using conventional techniques. The Department of Health and Human Service’s Food and Drug Administration (FDA) governs the safety and labelling of drugs and the nation’s food and feed supply. Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of scientific techniques. and micro-organisms. scientists have been working to improve plants and animals for human benefit for hundreds of years. Products are regulated according to their intended use.S. The agency regulates the field testing of genetically engineered plants and certain micro-organisms. animals. USDA The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is one of three Federal Agencies. APHIS also approves and licenses veterinary biological substances. including genetic engineering. USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) ensures the safety of meat and poultry consumed as food. • USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is responsible for protecting American agriculture against pests and diseases. primarily responsible for regulating biotechnology in the United States. along with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U. or modify plants.Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines All Alfa Laval pump ranges can be supplied into process areas/plants that are controlled by USDA. with some products being regulated under more than one agency. they have a close working relationship.

material traceability of equipment supplied is increasingly important. EHEDG aims to promote hygiene during the processing and packaging of food products. EHEDG We are now seeing increased public awareness surrounding food hygiene and food manufacturers desire to improve product safety. This takes the form of a certificate of conformity and can be applied to all Alfa Laval pump ranges.2 This standard defines documents supplied to the purchaser. With no European Community legislation available the European Hygienic Equipment Design Group (EHEDG) was formed. In particular. This requires a range of test procedures for a variety of equipment parameters including cleanability. While these guidelines are generally voluntary. they are mandatory for any research conducted under Federal grants and they are widely followed by academic and industrial scientists around the world. sterilisability and aseptic capability.B of this standard refers to inspection documents being prepared at each stage of manufacture and supervised tests performed by authorised personnel independent of the manufacturer. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 197 . in accordance with the order requirements. EN 10204 2. The Alfa Laval LKH range of centrifugal pumps and the SX range of rotary lobe pumps with its dedicated vertical port orientation meet EHEDG cleanability and comply with EHEDG installation guidelines.1. The EN 10204 standard defines the different types of inspection documents required for metallic products. 3.Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines • The Department of Health and Human Service’s National Institutes of Health have developed guidelines for the laboratory use of genetically engineered organisms.1. 11c EHEDG EHEDG objectives are to produce hygienic design guidelines that can be verified by standard test procedures. The Alfa Laval Rotary Lobe pump ranges and the LKH-UltraPure range of Centrifugal pumps can be supplied with material traceability if required.B With the stringent demands of hygiene within new food and pharmaceutical plants being built. for the supply of metallic products such as pumps. pasteurisability. Fig. EN 10204 3.

Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines 198 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

nuts.1a Avoid common suction lines • Protect the pump against blockage from hard solid objects e.1. 12.1. 12. • • Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 199 . bolts etc. When designing a pumping system the following should be taken into consideration: • Confirm the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) available from the system exceeds the NPSH required by the pump.1 System Design To ensure optimum pump operation it is important that any pump unit is installed correctly.1 General 12. as this is crucial for ensuring the smooth operation of the pump and preventing cavitation.g. if two pumps are to be used on manifold/common discharge lines. pressure switches and current limiting devices. Discharge line • Plan view Suction line Fig. as this may cause vibration or cavitation (see fig. Avoid suction lifts and manifold/common suction lines for two rotary lobe pumps running in parallel. system design and pipework layout.1.Installation Guide 12. Installation Guide This section covers guidelines relating to pump installation.1a). Fit suction and discharge pressure monitor points for diagnostic purposes. 12. Fit valves. Also protect the pump from accidental operation against a closed valve by using relief valves.

Avoid bends. • • 12.1. 12.4 Electrical Supply Ensure that there is an adequate electrical supply close to the pump drive unit. Do not subject rotary lobe pumps to rapid temperature changes.1. The pump must not be allowed to support any of the pipework weight and the following should be taken into consideration.2 Pipework All pipework must be supported. Keep pipework horizontal where applicable to reduce air locks. Provide isolating valves on each side of the pump when necessary. This should be compatible with the electric motor selected.3 Weight The weight of the pump and drive unit should be considered for lifting gear requirements. 200 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . as pump seizure can result from thermal shock. Adhere to installation foundation instructions. Use long radius bends wherever possible.Installation Guide • Make the necessary piping arrangements if flushing is required for the seal or if a media is required for heating/cooling jackets.1. tees and any restrictions close to either suction or discharge side of pump. Include eccentric reducers on suction lines. • Have short straight inlet pipework to reduce friction losses in the pipework thereby improving the NPSH available. • • • 12.

It is possible to check this in two ways as follows: Inlet Fig.2.1d Pump without impeller Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 201 .2.1 Centrifugal Pumps A centrifugal pump should never be operated in the wrong direction of rotation with fluid in the pump.2. Pump with impeller screw fitted • Start and stop the motor momentarily (without fluid in the pump). Stub shaft Fig. 12.2 Flow Direction Outlet 12.Installation Guide 12. 12. • Ensure that the direction of rotation of the motor fan is clock-wise as viewed from the rear end of the motor. The pump should never be started if the impeller is fitted and the pump casing has been removed. 12. Fig.1a Correct direction of flow 1.1b Pump with impeller screw fitted 2. Fig. Ensure that the direction of rotation of the stub shaft is anti-clockwise as viewed from the pump inlet.2.1c Pump without impeller screw fitted • • Start and stop the motor momentarily.2. 12. Pump without impeller screw fitted With this method the impeller should always be removed before checking the direction of rotation.

Reversing the direction of rotation will reverse the flow direction.2 Rotary Lobe Pumps The direction of flow is dictated by the direction of drive shaft rotation.Installation Guide 12.2a Flow direction Inlet 202 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2.2. 12. Outlet Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Outlet Fig.

Methods of anchoring the baseplate to the foundation are varied.3 Baseplate Foundations (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) Rotary Lobe pumps when supplied with a drive unit are normally mounted on a baseplate. A minimum of 14 days is normally required to allow the curing of the concrete prior to pump unit installation. 12. The Foundation should be approximately 150mm longer and wider than the baseplate. To provide a permanent rigid support for securing the pump unit. strain or shock on the pumping unit. For example. they can be studs embedded in the concrete either at the pouring stage as shown below. Alfa Laval standard baseplates have pre-drilled fixing holes to accept base retaining bolts. Alternatively mechanical fixings can be used. The depth of the foundation should be proportional to the size of the complete pump unit. a large pump unit foundation depth should be at least 20 times the diameter of the foundation bolts. The drawing below shows two typical methods for foundation bolt retaining.Installation Guide 12. a foundation is required which will also absorb vibration. 12.3a Baseplate fixing Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 203 . The sleeve allows for ‘slight’ lateral movement of the bolts after the foundation is poured. D = Diameter of foundation bolts Fig. Rag or waste paper can be used to prevent the concrete from entering the sleeve while the foundation is poured.3b Foundations Baseplate fixing holes Fig. or by use of epoxy type grouts.

5. the pump shaft to motor shaft coupling alignment should be checked and adjusted as necessary. This will cause pump/motor shaft misalignment and pump/motor unit damage.6 ft) .4a Parallel and angular misalignment 12.3 ft) Fig. Once the baseplate has been secured. 2 m (6. Min.5. 1 m (3. 12.5 Special Considerations for Liquid Ring Pumps 12. 12.1 Pipework The pipelines on the discharge side of a liquid ring pump should be routed as shown below to ensure correct pump operation.1b Installation of MR-300 204 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook Min. Parallel misalignment Angular misalignment Fig. 12.5.1a Installation of MR-166S/ -185S/-200S Fig. This is achieved by checking the maximum angular and parallel allowable misalignments for the couplings as stated by the coupling manufacturers.4 Coupling Alignment (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) Before rotary lobe pump units are installed it is important to ensure that the mounting surface is flat to avoid distortion of the baseplate.Installation Guide 12.

• Excessive power usage. The symptoms frequently show the pump to be at fault regardless of what may be wrong. • Loss of suction. Troubleshooting This section offers possible causes and solutions to most common problems found in pump installation and operation. 13. Diagnosis of problems will be greatly assisted by having pressure gauges fitted to both pump inlet and outlet.Troubleshooting 13.2: • Loss of flow.e. temperature. • Low discharge pressure. • Rapid pump wear. • Seal leakage. The problem is usually caused by inadequate control of the pumped fluid or a change in operating requirements of which the system or pump is not capable of handling or a component malfunction. • Excessive noise or vibration. pumps are likely to be the most vulnerable components. Was the system undergoing routine maintenance? Were any new or repaired components omitted to be fitted? When was the pump last serviced? What was the appearance and condition of the pump internal components? How long did the pump operate before the problem? Any changes in pump noise or vibration? The most common problems found are generally as follows and explained in 13. Before starting to correctly identify the problem it is important to gather as much information relating to the process as follows: • • • • • • • • Reconfirm original duty conditions. What has changed in the process since operation was last satisfactory? i. pressure. fluid viscosity etc.1 General In most pumping systems. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 205 .

its viscosity may be too high causing excessive friction (pressure loss) in the inlet piping system. the pump’s rated flow will be reduced. If a pump is allowed to cavitate over long periods this will cause damage to the pumphead components. • For a centrifugal pump if the viscosity is increased. Loss of suction can be interpreted as the inability to prime. The liquid ring pump can also be classed as self-priming when the pump casing is half filled with fluid and the LKHSP centrifugal pump range is specially designed to be self-priming. The surface of these components are typically perforated and pitted. This means that within limits. causing little short term damage or sufficiently major to cause catastrophic damage. cavitation or a gas content problem. In general terms: • For a rotary lobe pump if the viscosity is significantly reduced. 206 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . it is capable of evacuating (pumping) a modest amount of air from the suction side of the pump to the discharge side of the pump. more so for higher pressure operation. or rags. which although obvious is often overlooked. 13. debris floating in the fluid supply that covers the inlet piping intake. This can be caused by an inlet system restriction.2.Troubleshooting 13. vibration and significant increase in discharge pressure pulsation. If the fluid is cooler than design temperature. Loss of suction means fluid is not reaching the pumping elements or not reaching them at a sufficiently high pressure to keep the fluid being pumped in a fluid state. The rotary lobe pump can be classed as ‘self-priming’. the pump’s rated flow will be decreased. excessive fluid viscosity or excessive pump speed. Cavitation is caused by insufficient system inlet pressure to the pump.2 Loss of Suction Loss of suction can be minor.2 Common Problems 13.2. Cavitation is frequently accompanied by noise.1 Loss of Flow A simple cause of this could be incorrect direction of shaft rotation. Filling the inlet system with fluid or at least filling the pump (wetted pumping elements) will make a major improvement in the pump’s priming capability. Loss of flow can be caused by excessive discharge pressure and/or by a change in fluid viscosity. Inlet restrictions can include dirty or clogged inlet strainers.

Troubleshooting Gas in the inlet pipework has the same impact on pump operation and creates the same symptoms as cavitation. loose pump and/or driver guards. 13. loose couplings. Pump discharge pressure is caused only by the system’s resistance to the flow provided by the pump. the pump is not producing its rated flow (pump worn or damaged). flow rate and the valve design. In recirculating systems. Either the pump is not providing the flow expected or the system is not offering the expected resistance to that flow. or the pump flow is bypassing rather than being delivered into the system as intended. especially on the discharge side of the pump can sometimes go into a hydraulic vibration mode caused by operating pressure. Mechanical causes of noise and vibration include shaft misalignment. Be sure fluid level at its source is at or above minimum operating levels. In this instance it is quite likely that air is being drawn into the pipework through a loose pipe connection or pump casing joint. such as a lubrication system where the fluid pumped is continuously returned to a supply source or tank. if the tank and return lines are not adequately designed. defective or otherwise damaged joint gasket in the pipework system. loose pump and/or driver mountings. Resetting or a change in an internal valve component is usually sufficient to solve the problem.3 Low Discharge Pressure Low discharge pressure can only be caused by loss of flow. usually accompanied by noise and vibration. mechanical damage to pump assembly. Lines returning flow to a supply tank should terminate below minimum fluid level. worn or damaged driver or pump bearings or valve noise that seems to be coming from the pump. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 207 . Valves. 13. This can occur under other circumstances such as a pump operating at an inlet pressure below local atmospheric pressure. It is possible that flow is being restricted into the pump (cavitation).2. air is easily entrained in the oil and immediately picked up by the pump inlet system. Cavitation is especially true if the discharge pressure is fluctuating or pulsating. located and sized. misalignment of drive or harmonics with other elements of the system.2.4 Excessive Noise or Vibration Excessive noise and/or vibration can be a symptom of cavitation. leaking inlet valve stem.

excessively high pressure or high temperature. • 13. rotary lobe and liquid ring pumps can be seen as the weakest point for any pump leakage and special care should be taken to ensure the correct seal for the application is installed i. 208 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . • For a rotary lobe pump too high discharge pressure can cause the motor to overload. but really a catastrophic pump failure that occurred very quickly. or operation at a condition for which the pump is not suitable i. chemical corrosion. thus the importance of knowing what was occurring in the time period immediately preceding detection of the problem. seal face combination and elastomer selection.2. cavitation. seal leakage can be due to pump cavitation.5 Excessive Power Excessive power consumption can be caused by either mechanical or hydraulic problems.2. being allowed to run dry and unexpected solids in the fluid. too high discharge pressure. Too high viscosity can result in the motor overloading. 13. To avoid any abrasive foreign material entering the pump.Troubleshooting 13.7 Seal Leakage Mechanical seals fitted to centrifugal. Mechanical causes include imminent bearing failure. mounting attitude. For a centrifugal pump too high capacity (too low discharge pressure) can cause the motor to overload. strainers or filters should be employed wherever possible and practical.2.e. loss of shaft support (bearing failure).e. Looking at the pump internal parts alone may not provide much help in identifying the cause. Rapid wear is sometimes not wear in the sense of a non-durable pump.6 Rapid Pump Wear Rapid wear of pumphead components is either caused by abrasives being present in the fluid. Apart from mis-selection and poor servicing. pumping elements rubbing which can lead to a pump seizure and poor shaft alignments.

ce liq rlp = Centrifugal Pump = Liquid Ring Pump = Rotary Lobe Pump See table 13.3a on the following pages: Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 209 .3 Problem Solving Table The table shown offers probable causes and solutions to the most common problems encountered. In ( ) next to the particular solution given you will find annotation relating to what pump type the solution is for.e.Troubleshooting 13. i.

liq). Reduce fluid temperature (ce. ü ü ü ü üü ü ü Fluid viscosity below rated figure. rlp). rlp). rlp). Decrease fluid temperature (ce. rlp). ü ü ü üü ü ü Fluid temp. Slacken and re-adjust gland packing (rlp). If solids cannot be eliminated. Decrease pump speed (rlp). liq.Troubleshooting Problem No flow Under capacity Irregular discharge Low discharge pressure Pump will not prime Prime lost after starting Pump stalls when starting Pump overheats Motor overheats Excessive power absorbed Noise and vibration Pump element wear Syphoning Seizure Mechanical seal leakage Packed gland leakage ce = Centrifugal. rlp). rlp). Increase suction line diameter (ce. Remake pipework joints (ce. rlp). liq. Service fittings (ce. Unexpected solids in fluid. rlp). Fluid temp. Service system and change to prevent problem recurring (ce. liq. increased viscosity? Increase suction line diameter (ce. rlp). Expel gas from suction line and pumping chamber and introduce fluid (ce. rlp). rlp). rlp). Cool the pump casing (ce. liq) . liq. Reverse motor (ce. rlp). rlp = Rotary Lobe Probable Causes Solutions ü ü ü ü üü ü Incorrect direction of rotation. liq. liq. rlp). liq. Decrease fluid temperature (ce. Reduce pump speed (rlp). (ce. Simplify suction line configuration and reduce length (ce. rlp). Simplify suction line configuration and reduce length (ce. Increase fluid temperature (ce. Strainer or filter blocked. rlp). Increase fluid temperature (ce. rlp).liq. liq.e. closed valve (ce. Reduce pump speed (rlp). liq.rlp). rlp). liq. Increase motor speed (ce. Clean the system (ce. rlp). Increase suction head (ce. Decrease fluid temperature (ce. rlp). Check for obstructions i. Check seal face viscosity limitations (ce.check effect of ü üü ü ü Fluid vaporising in suction line. ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü üü ü ü ü Discharge pressure above rated figure.check effect of increased viscosity? ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Air entering suction line. liq. Increase suction head (ce. Fit strainer to suction line (ce.liq) . 210 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . below rated figure. rlp). ü ü Insufficient NPSH available. liq. liq. liq. Increase pump speed (rlp). ü ü ü ü ü ü Fluid viscosity above rated figure. Heat the pump casing (ce. Simplify discharge line to decrease pressure ü ü ü ü Gland over-tightened. consider fitting double mechanical seals (ce. liq. Check seal face and elastomer temperature limitations (ce. Pump not primed. above rated figure. liq. liq. liq = Liquid Ring. liq. rlp). rlp). liq.

rlp). ü ü ü ü ü Flexible coupling misaligned. Fit single or double flushed mechanical seals (ce. liq. liq). rlp). (rlp). Suction lift too high. rlp). Decrease pump speed (rlp). liq. Increase flush flow rate (ce. Lower pump or raise fluid level (ce. rlp). Adjust gland packing (rlp). liq. rlp = Rotary Lobe Probable Causes Solutions ü ü ü ü ü Gland under-tightened. Support pipework (ce. Check that flush fluid flows freely into seal area (ce. Pump casing strained by pipework. Ensure discharge pipework higher than suction tank flow passing back through pump. Fit new components (ce. Examine and clean seating surfaces (rlp). ü ü Fluid pumped not compatible ü with materials used. No barrier in system to prevent Check for wear on sealing surfaces. rlp). rlp). rlp).valve should lift approx. rlp). ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Pump speed above rated figure. Check alignment and adjust mountings accordingly (rlp). Fit pumping element (ce. Check and replace motor bearings (ce. Pump speed below rated figure. Reduce clearance between impeller and back plate/ casing (ce. Fit lock washers to slack fasteners and re-tighten (rlp). Worn pumping element. Check pressure setting and re-adjust if necessary (rlp). Too small impeller diameter. ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Insecure pump driver mountings.3a Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 211 Faulty motor. liq. liq. ü ü ü Shaft bearing wear or failure.Troubleshooting Problem No flow Under capacity Irregular discharge Low discharge pressure Pump will not prime Prime lost after starting Pump stalls when starting Pump overheats Motor overheats Excessive power absorbed Noise and vibration Pump element wear Syphoning Seizure Mechanical seal leakage Packed gland leakage ce = Centrifugal. rlp). rlp). after service. Too large clearance between impeller and back plate/casing. Check alignment of pipes (ce. Rotorcase cover relief valve incorrectly set. ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Rotorcase cover relief valve chatter. ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Table 13. liq. . rlp). ü ü Seal flushing inadequate. Fit flushed packed gland (rlp). ü ü Pump allowed to run dry. Ensure system operation prevents this (ce. liq. guides etc replace as necessary (rlp). Fit flexible pipes or expansion fittings (ce. Increase pump speed (rlp).check motor size (ce). liq = Liquid Ring. ü ü Insufficient gearcase lubrication. Rotorcase cover relief valve leakage. Check rated and duty pressures (ce. Fit larger size impeller . rlp). liq. Metal to metal contact of pumping element. Refer to pump maker (ce. rlp).rlp). Refer to pump maker for advice and replacement parts (rlp). Replace worn parts (rlp).e. Use optional materials (ce. 10% above duty pressure. Re-adjust spring compression (rlp) . Refer to pump maker’s instructions (rlp). liq. Pumping element missing i.

Troubleshooting 212 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

1 Nomenclature Symbol A D F fD g H Hs Ht hfs hft hs ht L n Pa Pf Ps Pt Pv Pvp Q Table 14. Technical Data This section includes a summary of nomenclature and formulas used in this handbook.1a Description Area Tube diameter Force Darcy friction factor Gravity Total head Total suction head Total discharge head Pressure drop in suction line Pressure drop in discharge line Static suction head Static discharge head Tube length Pump speed Pressure absolute above fluid level Pressure loss due to friction Vacuum or pressure in a tank on suction side Pressure in a tank on discharge side Power/viscosity factor Vapour pressure Capacity Symbol QL q r Ra Re SG T V D (Greek letter ‘delta’) h (Greek letter ‘eta’) hh hm hoa hv m (Greek letter ‘mu’) n (Greek letter ‘nu’) r (Greek letter ‘rho’) Description Fluid losses through impeller casing clearances Pump displacement Radius Surface roughness Reynolds number Specific gravity Shaft torque Fluid velocity g (Greek letter ‘gamma’) Specific weight Total Î (Greek letter ‘epsilon’) Relative roughness Total efficiency Hydraulic efficiency Mechanical efficiency Overall efficiency Volumetric efficiency Absolute viscosity Kinematic viscosity Fluid density w (Greek letter ‘omega’) Shaft angular velocity Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 213 . 14. Various conversion tables and curves are also shown.Technical Data 14.

s) or where: D = tube diameter (mm) V = fluid velocity (m/s) r = density (kg/m³) m = absolute viscosity (cP) or where: D = tube diameter (mm) Q = capacity (l/min) m = absolute viscosity (cP) 2.489 D2 where: V = fluid velocity (ft/s) Q = capacity (UK gall/min) D = tube diameter (in) where: D = tube diameter (m) V = fluid velocity (m/s) r = density (kg/m³) m = absolute viscosity (Pa.1.Technical Data 14.2 V = Q x 0.7 Reynolds number (ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces) Re = D x V x r m Re = D x V x r m Re = 21230 x Q Dxm 214 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .6 D2 where: V = fluid velocity (m/s) Q = capacity (m3/h) D = tube diameter (mm) or 2.1.409 D2 where: V = fluid velocity (ft/s) Q = capacity (US gall/min) D = tube diameter (in) or V = Q x 0.1.2 Formulas Designation Formula Comments Where to find Product Viscosity n=m r where: n = Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) m = Absolute viscosity (mPa.7 1 Poise = 100 cP 1 Stoke = 100 cSt 2.s) r = fluid density (kg/m3) or n=m SG where: n = Kinematic viscosity (cSt) m = Absolute viscosity (cP) SG = specific gravity or m = n x SG Flow Velocity V=Q A where: V = fluid velocity (m/s) Q = capacity (m3/s) A = tube area (m2) or V = Q x 353.

2 2.2.2 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 215 .2 Total suction head Hs = hs .2.2.hfs + (± ps) 2.2.2 Total head H = Ht – (± Hs) Total discharge head Ht = ht + hft + pt 2.2.Technical Data Designation Formula Comments Where to find Reynolds number (ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces) or Re = 3162 x Q Dxn where: D = tube diameter (in) Q = capacity (US gall/min) n = kinematic viscosity (cSt) or Re = 3800 x Q Dxn where: D = tube diameter (in) Q = capacity (UK gall/min) n = kinematic viscosity (cSt) Pressure/Head Pressure (total force per unit area exerted by a fluid) Static Pressure/Head (relationship between pressure and elevation) P=F A P=rxgxh where: F = Force A = Area where: P = pressure/head (Pa) r = fluid density (kg/m3) g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) h = height of fluid (m) or P = h x SG 10 or where: P = pressure/head (bar) h = height of fluid (m) 2.2 Friction loss (Miller equation) Pf = fD x L x r x V² Dx2 2.2.31 where: P = pressure/head (psi) h = height of fluid (ft) where: Ht = total discharge head Hs = total suction head where: ht = static discharge head hft = pressure drop in discharge line pt > 0 for pressure pt < 0 for vacuum pt = 0 for open tank where: hs = static suction head > 0 for flooded suction < 0 for suction lift hfs = pressure drop in suction line ps > 0 for pressure ps < 0 for vacuum ps = 0 for open tank where: Pf = friction loss (Pa) fD = friction factor (Darcy) L = tube length (m) V = fluid velocity (m/s) r = fluid density (kg/m3) D = tube diameter (m) 2.2 P = h x SG 2.

0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D where: Pf = friction loss (psi) fD = friction factor (Darcy) L = tube length (ft) V = fluid velocity (ft/s) SG = specific gravity D = tube diameter (in) where: fD = friction factor Re = Reynolds number where: Pa = pressure absolute above fluid level (bar) hs = static suction head (m) hfs = pressure drop in suction line (m) Pvp = vapour pressure (bar a) or where: Pa = pressure absolute above fluid level (psi) hs = static suction head (ft) hfs = pressure drop in suction line (ft) Pvp = vapour pressure (psia) 2.2 Darcy friction factor fD = 64 Re NPSHa (Net Positive Suction Head available) NPSHa = Pa ± hs – hfs – Pvp (+hs for flooded suction) (– hs for suction lift) 2.2.2.Technical Data Designation Formula Comments Where to find Friction loss (Miller equation) or Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D where: Pf = friction loss (bar) fD = friction factor (Darcy) L = tube length (m) V = fluid velocity (m/s) SG = specific gravity D = tube diameter (mm) or Pf = 0.4 Power Hydraulic power (theoretical energy required) Power (W) = Q x H x r x g where: Q = capacity (m3/s) H = total head (m) r = fluid density (kg/m3) g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) where: Q = capacity (l/min) H = total head (bar) k = 600 7.2.1 or Power (kW) = Q x H k or Power (hp) = Q x H k where: Q = capacity (US gall/min) H = total head (psi) k = 1715 where: Q = capacity (UK gall/min) H = total head (psi) k = 1428 or Power (hp) = Q x H k 216 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

4 7.2.Technical Data Designation Formula Comments Where to find 7.2.2. losses x 100% Required power hv = Q x 100% Q + QL where: hv = volumetric efficiency Q = pump capacity QL = fluid losses due to leakage through the impeller casing clearances where: hv = volumetric efficiency Q = pump capacity q = pump displacement 7.2 Required power (power needed at the pump shaft) Torque Torque Hydraulic power Efficiency (100% = 1.4 where: hp = pump efficiency Q = capacity (m3/s) H = total head/pressure (m) r = fluid density (kg/m3) g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) w = shaft angular velocity (rad/s) T = shaft torque (Nm) 7.2.4 Pump efficiency (hp) Water horse power x 100% Required power or hp = Q x H x r x g wxT 7.Pump mech.4 Volumetric efficiency (Rotary Lobe pumps) hv = Q x 100% q 7.2.2.2.0) Torque (Nm) = Required power (kW) x 9550 Pump speed (rev/min) or Torque (Kgfm) = Required power (kW) x 974 Pump speed (rev/min) or Torque (ftlb) = Required power (hp) x 5250 Pump speed (rev/min) 7.4 Overall efficiency (hoa) Water horse power x 100% Drive power Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 217 .3 Efficiency Hydraulic efficiency (hh) Mechanical efficiency (hm) Volumetric efficiency (Centrifugal and Liquid Ring pumps) Pump head loss (m) x 100% Total head (m)3 1 .4 7.2.

2 Connection between impeller speed and capacity Connection between impeller speed and head Connection between impeller speed and power Table 14.2a 7.2 7.2 218 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . efficiency (100% = 1.Technical Data Designation Formula Comments Where to find Pump speed .2. efficiency (100% = 1.4 n = Q x 100 q x hv where: n = pump speed (rev/min) Q = capacity (US gall/min) q = pump displacement (US gall/100 rev) hv = vol.2 n2 = n1 x n2 = n1 x n2 = n1 x Ö Ö 3 H2 H1 P2 P1 where: n = impeller speed (rev/min) H = head (m) where: n = impeller speed (rev/min) P = power (kW) 7.3.Rotary Lobe Pump Pump speed n = Q x 100 q x hv x 60 where: n = pump speed (rev/min) Q = capacity (m³/h) q = pump displacement (m³/100 rev) hv = vol.2 7.3.3.3.2 7. working point (m) b = min.3.0) or n = Q x 100 q x hv where: n = pump speed (rev/min) Q = capacity (UK gall/min) q = pump displacement (UK gall/100 rev) hv = vol.3. efficiency (100% = 1.0) Flow Control . working point (m) c = required working point (m) where: n = impeller speed (rev/min) Q = capacity (m³/h) 7.2 D2 = D1 x Ö Q2 Q1 7.Centrifugal Pump Connection between impeller diameter and capacity Connection between impeller diameter and head Connection between impeller diameter and power Reduction of multi-stage impeller diameter D2 = D1 x D2 = D1 x D2 = D1 x Ö Ö Ö 3 5 Q2 Q1 H2 H1 P2 P1 c-b a-b where: D = impeller diameter (mm) Q = capacity (m³/h) where: D = impeller diameter (mm) H = head (m) where: D = impeller diameter (mm) P = power (kW) where: D1 = standard diameter (mm) a = max.3.0) or 7.

0 10 x 107 0.2642 0.0010 1. 264. 220.81 x 10 2.0036 6.60 1.53 x 10-5 0.4399 1.8327 US gall.315 3.0 22 x 10-5 0.3667 1.0283 1.0011 1.2832 1019.2a cm³ 100 x 10 1.4805 1.1 Length mm 1.88 x 10 9.317 4.1337 UK gall.0164 28.0 14.315 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 219 .0283 101.546 3.7270 2.0 12 36 ft 0.8 914.0 3.88 x 10-4 Table 14.57 x 10-5 6.0208 1.83 15838 ft³/h 35.31 x 10-5 7.3048 0.0328 0.3.48 91.0936 0.3999 0.3.0 1728 277.0254 0.78 x 10-5 7.Technical Data 14.0045 37.67 x 10-5 2.94 3600 Table 14.4719 1699 6 x 104 hl/h 10.0 14.8326 0.4 4 l 1000 10 x 10-4 1.060 0.86 x 10-6 0.370 0.0 26.540 30.0 1000 16.1a m 0.42 231.2642 0.2 Volume m³ 1.3.67 x 10 -3 -4 -4 -3 m³/s 2.81 x 10 5.0 1000 10 25.78 x 10-4 1.3a l/min 16.0394 39.0278 0.3 Conversion tables 14.201 1.0833 1.0353 58 x 10-5 1.3.3.001 1.9144 cm 0.64 x 10-5 00283 0.1 3785.22 0.2288 1.7853 in³ 61024 0.0 0.0 1.026 1.0 0.1247 448.73 13200 US gall/min 4.4 304.546 3.4 36000 UK gall/min 3.78 x 10-4 1.2727 0.3 Volumetric Capacity m³/h 1.23 x 10-3 2.0 yd 0.1189 3.667 1.0 0.6326 8.0 3600 127208 ft³/s 9.4 Table 14.785 0.0043 7.10 100 1.201 1.5315 9.387 28317 4546.0 0.0 0.0 0.0610 61.4 x 10-5 0.3937 1.0 2.6667 0.0 0.0 ft³ 35.0033 3.10 0.441 in 0.2273 0.315 2.6667 4.0 2.1605 0.3.2808 0.1094 0.22 0.2732 0.0 35.0 2.1038 373.01 0.3333 1.0 0.

0689 1.6 0.0 14.0 220 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .0339 1.0394 1.26 x 10-4 0.0 22.0 0.3453 10.7a Nm 1.0 9.0417 1.889 1.3.40 75.40 0.5431 98.1 41.54 x 10-4 1.036 29.0410 0.0 x 10-4 29.8067 1.6 Force Table 14.0332 0.2778 0.0 2240 91.8508 86.197 10 0.8 3600 3.0 25.81 0.6 x 10-5 1.422 0.0305 0.0136 0.6 2.97 1.0703 1.0 x 10-5 Table 14.0 9.385 1.Technical Data 14.9869 0.4536 Table 14.0160 0.0295 0.89 101.6116 1.5 x 10-5 100 98.896 0.78 x 10-4 1.99 9.4 x 10-5 44.0 0.223 1.3 2.0 14.4536 lbf 224.1383 0.0609 1.7031 10.12 x 10-4 2.530 28.0014 0.9807 0.0981 13.959 2.3.7376 7.332 0.0 1.2 x 10-5 750.001 4.0 3.190 t/h (tonne/hour) 3.0197 1.504 14.3.4a 3600 1.81 2.81 x 10-3 44.0 14.859 2201.0446 1.0193 0.0345 10.024 0.0109 24.0 1.2 x 10-4 0.0 0.9878 0.808 2.0 0.0299 0.0 0.0334 ft (water) 33.39 1.102 1.3558 0.56 51.3 x 10-4 0.06 735.455 32.0 9.9842 1.3.0 0.696 0.8827 2.0968 13.667 1000 1632.0 0.2808 0.133 3.2046 1.3048 1.3.3.0255 0.5 x 10-4 kgf 101.7 Torque Table 14.0 24 39.9 7936.0 29.420 73.796 12.57 x 10-3 0.4 Mass Capacity kg/s kg/h lb/h UK ton/h t/d (tonne/day) 86.6350 lb/s 1.87 x 10-6 3.34 x 10-4 14.0 2.0 0.6071 2.6a kN 1.6222 0.715 760.921 0.2330 1.0833 lbin 8.5 x 10-5 atm (water) 0.4912 14.5a 1.3067 33.10 0.113 kgfm 0.2046 1.0115 lbft 0.4536 1016.2822 11.0 0.0133 0.2046 6.3.2 x 10-6 10.07 6.78 x 10-4 0.5 Pressure/Head bar kg/cm² lb/in² (psi) 14.356 1.1329 m mm Hg in Hg kPa 1.4335 1.3.

680 16.102 1.0 13.3.0 0.3.040 10.127 x 10-3 1 0.8 x 10-5 hp 1.428 1.578 70 x 10 -3 lb/ft3 62.4 x 10-7 -3 kW 1000 9806.0 14.6 x 10-4 1.019 x 10 -3 lb/in3 36.3.Technical Data 14.019 3 g/cm3 10-3 1 27.2 x 10-5 ft lbf/s 0.680 x 10 16.34 x 10 0.8067 1.3.0 550.0 9.0 73.82 x 10-3 1.2330 1.001 Table 14.8a kgfm/s 0.1383 76.7 1355.0132 1.428 x 10-3 62.9 Density Table 14.127 x 10-6 36.70 0.8 74.7376 7.8 Power W 1.3558 745.728 x 103 1 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 221 .9a kg/m3 1 103 27.

10 Viscosity Conversion Table When SG = 1.4 3.4 3.8 2. then mutiply cSt x SG = cP Find Stoke.50 0.0 7.2 4.6 4.02 0.3.15 0.0 Read Directly Across When SG is other than 1.8 3.0 10 Saybolt Redwood Universal Seconds Standard SSU Engler #1 31 34 38 47 60 80 100 130 160 210 260 320 370 430 480 530 580 690 790 900 1000 1100 1200 1280 1380 1475 1530 1630 1730 1850 1950 2050 2160 2270 2380 2480 2660 2900 3380 3880 4300 4600 54 57 61 75 94 125 170 190 210 300 350 450 525 600 875 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400 2550 2700 2850 3000 3150 3300 3450 3600 3750 4125 4500 5250 6000 8750 7500 29 32 36 44 52 63 86 112 138 181 225 270 314 364 405 445 492 585 670 762 817 933 1020 1085 1170 1250 1295 1380 1465 1570 1650 1740 1830 1925 2020 2100 2255 2460 2860 3290 3640 3900 Ford #3 Ford #4 Zahn #1 Zahn #2 Zahn #3 Zahn #4 Zahn #5 8 9 10 12 15 19 25 29 33 36 41 45 50 58 66 72 81 90 98 106 115 122 130 136 142 150 160 170 180 188 200 210 218 230 250 295 340 365 390 5 8 10 12 14 18 22 25 28 31 32 34 41 45 50 54 58 62 65 68 70 74 89 95 100 106 112 118 124 130 137 143 153 170 194 223 247 264 30 34 37 41 44 52 60 68 72 81 88 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 27 30 34 37 41 49 58 66 74 82 88 10 12 14 16 18 20 23 25 27 30 32 34 36 39 41 43 46 48 50 52 54 58 64 68 76 10 11 13 14 16 17 18 20 21 22 24 25 26 27 29 30 32 33 34 36 38 40 45 51 57 63 69 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 27 30 35 40 45 49 222 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .6 3.4 1.0 3.10 0.40 0.30 0.2 1.4 4.25 0.60 0.2 2.0 9.2 4.Technical Data 14.04 0.70 0.6 1.80 0.2 3.15 0.0 3.8 3.5 6.6 2.0 10 cSt 1 2 4 7 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 550 600 700 800 900 1000 Stoke 0.0 4.0 8.0 7.90 1.0 8.0 9.70 0.5 6.20 0.4 1.6 1.04 0.60 0.6 4.40 0.2 2.0 Find cSt.4 2.0 5.8 2.4 4.10 0.2 3.01 0.0 5.0 4.07 0.8 5.02 0.0 2.0 1.8 5.01 0.25 0.90 1.6 3.80 0.0 2.6 2.8 4.50 0.30 0.20 0.4 2.07 0.0 1. then mutiply Stoke x SG = Poise cP 1 2 4 7 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 550 600 700 800 900 1000 Poise 0.8 4.2 1.

10a Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 223 .3.Technical Data When SG = 1.0 Read Directly Across When SG is other than 1. then mutiply cSt x SG = cP Find Stoke. then mutiply Stoke x SG = Poise cP 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 100000 125000 150000 175000 200000 Poise 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 cSt 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 100000 125000 150000 175000 200000 Stoke 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 Saybolt Redwood Universal Seconds Standard SSU Engler #1 5200 5620 6100 6480 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9400 9850 10300 10750 11200 11600 14500 16500 18500 21000 23500 26000 28000 30000 32500 35000 37000 39500 41080 43000 46500 69400 92500 138500 185000 231000 277500 323500 370000 415500 462000 578000 694000 810000 925000 8250 9000 9750 10350 11100 11850 12600 13300 13900 14600 15300 16100 16800 17500 18250 21800 25200 28800 32400 36000 39600 43100 46000 49600 53200 56800 60300 63900 67400 71000 106000 140000 210000 276000 345000 414000 484000 550000 620000 689000 850000 4410 4680 5160 5490 5940 6350 6780 7200 7620 7950 8350 8730 9110 9500 9830 12300 14000 15650 17800 19900 Ford #3 445 480 520 550 595 635 680 720 760 800 835 875 910 950 985 1230 1400 1570 Ford #4 299 323 350 372 400 430 460 490 520 540 565 592 617 645 676 833 950 1060 1175 1350 1495 1605 1720 1870 2010 2120 2270 2350 2470 2670 Zahn #1 Zahn #2 Zahn #3 Zahn #4 77 Zahn #5 55 59 64 70 75 80 85 91 96 Table 14.0 Find cSt.

8 35.4 499 930 -22 34.0 77 170.8 -2.6 100 212 414 327 620 17.8 62.0 68 154.0 116 240 464 343 650 18.6 210 410 770 438 820 -220 28.7 -16.4 216 420 788 443 830 -202 28.8 55 131.2 113.8 64 147.0 42.8 ) + 32 Table 14.8 8.0 78.6 6.0 95 203.7 89 192.8 53.8 71 160 320 293 560 13.6 64.8 116.2 88 190 374 310 590 15.8 -7.0 538 1000 Locate temperature in middle column.1 97 206.4 85 185.8 3.4 .2 63 145.3 92 197.4 93.6 154 310 590 382 720 -400 22.4 111.8 98.6 37.4 20.8 121 250 482 349 660 19.6 -5.0 143 290 554 371 700 -436 21.8 -17.7 7.2 104.9 -13.4 -3.1 88 190.0 °C to °F -273 -268 -262 -257 -251 -246 -240 -234 -229 -223 -218 -212 -207 -201 -196 -190 -184 -179 -173 -169 -168 -162 -157 -151 -146 -140 -134 -129 -123 -118 -112 -107 -101 -96 -90 -84 -79 -73 -68 -62 -57 -51 -46 -40 -34 -29 -23 -17.7 2.2 °C 50 .4 188 370 698 416 780 -292 26.0 -4.2 -16.9 57 134.0 171 340 644 399 750 -346 24.2 504 940 -4 35.3 56 132.8 232 450 842 460 860 -148 30.9 75 167.1 -0.6 78 172.8 177 350 662 404 760 -328 25.0 227 440 824 454 850 -166 30.1 52 125.4 39.4 243 470 878 471 880 -112 31.8 44.2 68.4 76 168.8 73 163.4 48.7 71 159.6 127 260 500 354 670 20.2 59.1 -10.4 132 270 518 360 680 -459.0 87.3 74 165.2 54 129.3 83 181.5556 °F = ( °C x 1.8 91 195.8 80.2 90 194.0 5.6 1.6 -10.2 193 380 716 421 790 -274 26.0 69.0 -9.4 75.0 51.6 -15.6 73.8 -12.0 105.4 5.8 107.1 61 141.9 4.2 86.6 46.0 93 200 392 316 600 16.0 114.2 221 430 806 449 840 -184 29.3 8.2 60 140 284 282 540 12.2 -1.4 82 180 356 304 580 15.3.6 118.2 77.0 38 100 212 260 500 10.1 1.7 80 176.7 -11.7 53 127.4 57.2 81 177.Technical Data 14.6 100.2 72 161.2 99 210.6 91.3 65 149.0 66 150 302 288 550 13.8 82 179.2 7.6 60 140.6 0.0 510 950 14 35.0 254 490 914 482 900 -76 32.4 84.2 41.1 70 158.6 87 188.8 516 960 32 36.100 to °F °C 100 .7 98 208.6 238 460 860 466 870 -130 31.3 -12.0 59 138.9 -3.11a 224 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2 -11.8 204 400 752 432 810 -238 27.490 to °F °C 500 .0 96.8 -459 -450 -440 -430 -420 -410 -400 -390 -380 -370 -360 -350 -340 -330 -320 -310 -300 -290 -280 -273 -270 -260 -250 -240 -230 -220 -210 -200 -190 -180 -170 -160 -150 -140 -130 -120 -110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 °C -17.9 66 150.2 138 280 536 366 690 -454 21.1000 to °F 932 950 968 986 1004 1022 1040 1058 1076 1094 1112 1130 1148 1166 1184 1202 1220 1238 1256 1274 1292 1310 1328 1346 1364 1382 1400 1418 1436 1454 1472 1490 1508 1526 1544 1562 1580 1598 1616 1634 1652 1670 1688 1706 1724 1742 1760 1778 1796 1814 1832 10.6 69 156.9 -8.3 3.6 51 123.2 -6.4 102.6 55.0 0.32 ) x 0.0 199 390 734 427 800 -256 27.4 94 201.4 66.0 50 122.49 to 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 °F 32 33.6 109.6 182 360 680 410 770 -310 25.6 96 204.0 -14.8 89.4 54 130 266 277 530 12.9 84 183.1 79 174.1 -5.7 -1.4 -8.2 95.6 49 120 248 271 520 11.4 120.8 43 110 230 266 510 11.3.2 532 990 37. If in °C read the °F equivalent in the right hand column.9 93 199.2 166 330 626 393 740 -364 23.3 -7.4 58 136.4 104 220 428 332 630 17.4 0 .8 100 212.2 2.0 60.4 160 320 608 388 730 -382 23.4 -13.8 488 910 -58 33.11 Temperature Conversion Table minus 459.4 67 152. °C = ( °F .8 71. If in °F read °C equivalent in the left hand column.7 -6.9 9.6 77 170 338 299 570 14.2 50.1 6.3 -2.0 86 186.8 99 210 410 321 610 16.2 249 480 896 477 890 -94 32.4 527 980 37.6 82.6 493 920 -40 33.8 149 300 572 377 710 -418 22.1 -15.2 110 230 446 338 640 18.7 62 143.6 521 970 36.

23 1.7 19.4 Vapour pressure (Pvp) (kPa) 0.1 992.4a Temp.33 3.3 961.62 7.61 0.8 968.1 998.9 958.2 980.71 2.2 38.4 Water Vapour Pressure Table Table 14.7 999.6 47.3 15.2 988.60 12.1 84.9 25.7 101.7 983.9 70.6 965.1 31.1 995.87 1.25 5.0 999.2 990. (°C) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Density (r) (kg/m3) 999.38 9.6 977.8 974.5 57.8 1000.Technical Data 14.3 Vapour pressure: 1 bar = 100 kPa = 105 N/m2 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 225 .40 4.0 985.7 994.2 997.9 971.

5 Pressure Drop Curve for 100 m ISO/DIN Tube 1 bar » 10 m (metre liquid column) Fig.5a Pressure Drop Curve 226 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Technical Data 14. 14.

6a Connection between velocity and capacity at different tube dimensions Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 227 . 14.6 Velocity (m/s) in ISO and DIN Tubes at various Capacities l/h 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 200000 1 m3/h = 1000 l/h Fig.Technical Data 14.

3. 6.7. 5. ARC-SB 2. Koltek MH 2.5 mm 76 mm 101.6 mm 228 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .1 ISO Tube Metric Equipment for ISO tube (for water at 2 m/s) Seat valves 1. ARC. 4. 4. SMO 2. 4. Other valves Non-return valve LKC-2 Butterfly valve LKB 1. 1. 1. Aseptic seat valves 1. 3. 6. AMO 2. 5. 7 1 1 1 10 1 2 2 12 1 3 4 21 1 5 6 20 2 6 9 26 2 7 10 7 5 4 4 6 5 8 8 6 8 13 9 10 8 18 15 15 15 10 17 28 21 20 15 37 28 20 20 18 44 43 27 32 29 61 50 55 36 55 39 88 75 7 5 4 3 5 5 6 4 10 4 14 10 7 3 7 5 8 7 12 6 12 7 27 21 12 8 8 4 13 10 21 14 15 12 32 22 11 7 9 6 13 11 30 19 29 26 50 39 8 6 14 11 19 17 25 mm Equivalent tube length in metres per unit 38 mm 51 mm 63. 3. SRC-LS 2.7 Equivalent Tube Length Table 14. 5. SRC. 4. 3.Technical Data 14. 6.

3. 4. 1. SMP-BC 2. Tee (out through side port) Tee (in through side port) 25 mm Equivalent tube length in metres per unit 38 mm 51 mm 63.6 mm 14 14 5 6 14 14 4 5 14 14 4 4 8 8 27 27 6 7 17 16 4 5 14 16 4 11 7 13 13 34 34 4 18 16 30 20 41 34 5 8 5 25 25 5 7 32 25 5 5 27 29 3 8 7 15 14 25 23 3 29 29 41 27 41 38 26 26 4 5 55 41 5 14 45 52 6 18 11 32 31 101 101 6 84 81 104 75 152 146 6 23 24 3 3 3 7 6 9 6 2 5 3 6 5 5 6 3 6 5 11 10 12 12 3 10 9 18 12 14 14 0. 5. 1.3 0. 1. SMP-BCA 2. 3.2 1 1 1 0. 3-body 2. SMP-SC. SMP-TO 2.7. 7. 5. 4.Technical Data Equipment for ISO tube (for water at 2 m/s) Mixproof valves 1. 6. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 229 . 4. 3. 3. 6. 7. 4.1a * Pressure drop/equivalent tube length is for unbalanced upper plug and balanced lower plug. Bend 45 deg. For other combinations use the CAS Unique configuration tool. 3. 1.4 2 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 4 3 1 1 5 4 2 1 7 5 Table 14. Tubes and fittings Bend 90 deg. SMP-SC 2. 1. Unique * 2.5 mm 76 mm 101.

4. 1. 6. 1.2 ISO Tube Feet Equipment for ISO tube (for water at 6 ft/s) Seat valves 1. Seat valves 1. 5. 4. 3.5 in 3 in 4 in 230 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . SRC-LS 2. 23 3 3 3 33 3 7 7 39 3 10 13 69 3 16 20 66 7 20 30 85 7 23 33 23 16 13 13 20 16 26 26 20 26 43 30 33 26 59 49 49 49 33 56 92 69 66 49 121 92 66 66 59 144 141 89 105 95 200 164 180 118 180 128 289 246 23 16 13 10 16 16 20 13 33 13 46 33 23 10 23 16 26 23 39 20 39 23 89 69 39 26 26 13 43 33 69 46 49 39 105 72 36 23 30 20 43 36 98 62 95 85 164 128 26 20 46 36 62 56 1 in 1.7. SRC. Other valves Non-return valve LKC-2 Butterfly valve LKB 1. 6. 3. 3. SMO 2. 4. 4. ARC. 3. Koltek MH 2. ARC-SB 2.Technical Data 14. 5. 5. 6. AMO 2.5 in Equivalent tube length in feet per unit 2 in 2.

3.Technical Data Equipment for ISO tube (for water at 6 ft/s) Mixproof valves 1.5 in Equivalent tube length in feet per unit 2 in 2. 3-body 2.7. Tubes and fittings Bend 90 deg. SMP-BCA 2. SMP-SC 2. SMP-SC. 3. 3. 3. 4. Unique * 2. Bend 45 deg. 6. 1. SMP-BC 2. 7.2a * Pressure drop/equivalent tube length is for unbalanced upper plug and balanced lower plug. 4.5 in 3 in 4 in 46 46 16 20 46 46 13 16 46 46 13 13 26 26 89 89 20 23 56 52 13 16 46 52 13 36 23 43 43 112 112 13 59 52 98 66 135 112 16 26 16 82 82 16 23 105 82 16 16 89 95 10 26 23 49 46 82 75 10 95 95 135 89 135 125 85 85 13 16 180 135 16 46 148 171 20 59 36 105 102 331 331 20 276 266 341 246 499 479 20 75 79 10 10 10 23 20 30 20 7 16 10 20 16 16 20 10 20 16 36 33 39 39 10 33 30 59 39 46 46 1 1 3 3 3 1 7 7 3 3 10 7 3 3 13 10 3 3 16 13 7 3 23 16 Table 14. SMP-TO 2. Tee (out through side port) Tee (in through side port) 1 in 1. 4. 3. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 231 . 1. 1. 5. 1. 4. For other combinations use the CAS Unique configuration tool. 1. 5. 6. 7.

1.Technical Data 14. 4. 6. AMO 2. 5. 6.3 DIN Tube Metric Equipment for DIN tube (for water at 2 m/s) Seat valves 1. 4. Other valves Non-return valve LKC-2 Butterfly valve LKB 1. 14 2 2 2 14 1 2 2 15 1 5 5 32 2 9 9 36 2 10 14 30 2 8 13 2 1 8 6 5 5 7 6 10 10 6 9 15 11 13 9 20 17 21 21 11 21 42 28 26 22 54 40 34 34 24 64 64 44 46 44 98 77 64 40 57 43 94 84 8 6 4 4 6 6 7 6 11 6 18 15 9 4 9 8 11 10 15 9 18 12 44 34 19 10 13 7 19 16 28 21 27 23 54 36 21 14 18 12 24 22 33 23 33 28 57 43 9 7 17 13 22 18 18 22 29 27 49 38 44 72 72 69 150 89 DN25 DN40 Equivalent tube length in metres per unit DN50 DN65 DN80 DN100 DN125 DN150 232 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . SRC. 3. ARC-SB 2. 5. ARC. Aseptic seat valves 1. 5. 3. 1. Koltek MH 2. 4. SRC-LS 2. 6. 3. 3. 4.7. SMO 2.

SMP-BC 2. 4. 4. Tubes and fittings Bend 90 deg.3 0.2 1 1 1 0. 3. Unique * 2. 3. SMP-SC 2.4 2 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 4 3 1 1 5 4 2 1 7 5 Table 14. SMP-SC. 7. SMP-TO 2. 4. 5. SMP-BCA 2. 1. 6.Technical Data Equipment for DIN tube (for water at 2 m/s) Mixproof valves 1. Bend 45 deg. 3-body 2. 1. 1. For other combinations use the CAS Unique configuration tool. 3. 1.7. 5. 1. 3. 3. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 233 .3a * Pressure drop/equivalent tube length is for unbalanced upper plug and balanced lower plug. 6. 4. 7. Tee (out through side port) Tee (in through side port) DN25 DN40 Equivalent tube length in metres per unit DN50 DN65 DN80 DN100 DN125 DN150 14 14 5 6 14 14 4 5 15 14 4 4 9 9 27 27 6 7 24 22 6 6 22 25 5 13 11 22 22 52 52 5 32 25 46 30 62 54 7 11 8 25 25 5 7 54 41 6 6 44 54 5 15 12 24 23 44 44 5 51 49 72 46 67 64 26 26 4 5 64 50 6 15 54 64 7 21 20 40 37 114 114 6 97 94 124 84 174 167 8 28 30 4 38 31 8 78 61 49 53 7 7 89 133 22 22 3 4 4 9 7 10 9 3 6 3 9 6 8 9 4 7 6 17 13 15 15 4 13 12 24 15 20 21 0.

5. 3. 4.7. 1. ARC.5 in 3 in 4 in 5 in 6 in 234 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 5. Koltek MH 2. 3.4 DIN Tube Feet Equipment for DIN tube (for water at 6 ft/s) Seat valves 1. ARC-SB 2. 4. SMO 2. 4. SRC-LS 2. 4.5 in Equivalent tube length in feet per unit 2 in 2. 1. Aseptic seat valves 1. Other valves Non-return valve LKC-2 Butterfly valve LKB 1. 5.Technical Data 14. 6. AMO 2. 6. 46 7 7 7 46 3 7 7 49 3 16 16 105 7 30 30 118 7 33 46 98 7 26 43 7 3 26 20 16 16 30 20 33 33 20 30 49 36 43 30 66 56 69 69 36 69 138 92 85 72 177 131 112 112 79 210 210 144 151 144 322 253 210 131 187 141 308 276 26 20 13 13 20 20 23 20 36 20 59 49 30 13 30 26 36 33 49 30 59 39 144 112 62 33 43 23 62 52 92 69 89 75 177 118 69 46 59 39 79 72 108 75 108 92 187 141 30 23 56 43 72 59 59 72 95 89 161 125 144 236 236 226 492 292 1 in 1. 3. 3. 6. SRC.

7. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 235 .5 in Equivalent tube length in feet per unit 2 in 2. 3. 3. 1. 4. Unique * 2. 4. 6. SMP-SC. 7. 5. 1. 5. For other combinations use the CAS Unique configuration tool. Tee (out through side port) Tee (in through side port) 1 1 3 3 3 1 7 7 3 3 10 7 3 3 13 10 3 3 16 13 7 3 23 16 Table 14. 3-body 2. 4. Bend 45 deg. 7. 3.4a * Pressure drop/equivalent tube length is for unbalanced upper plug and balanced lower plug. SMP-BC 2. 1.5 in 3 in 4 in 5 in 6 in 46 46 16 20 46 46 13 16 49 46 13 13 30 30 89 89 20 23 79 72 20 20 72 82 16 43 36 72 72 171 171 16 105 82 151 98 203 177 23 36 26 82 82 16 23 177 135 20 20 144 177 16 49 39 79 75 144 144 16 167 161 236 151 220 210 85 85 13 16 210 164 20 49 177 210 23 69 66 131 121 374 374 20 318 308 407 276 571 548 26 92 98 13 125 102 26 256 200 161 174 23 23 292 436 72 72 10 13 13 30 23 33 30 10 20 10 30 20 26 30 13 23 20 56 43 49 49 13 43 39 79 49 66 69 Bend 90 deg.Technical Data Equipment for DIN tube (for water at 6 ft/s) Mixproof valves 1. SMP-BCA 2. 1. SMP-TO 2. 6. SMP-SC 2. 4. 3. 3. Tubes and fittings 1 in 1. 1.

8 Moody Diagram Fig.Technical Data 14.8a Moody diagram for fD (after Miller) 236 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 14.

14.Technical Data 14.9a Initial suction line sizing Viscosity .cSt Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 237 .9 Initial Suction Line Sizing Flow rate .m3/h 100 Fig.

Fluid can become Dilatant at high concentration and high shear rate. this can be Newtonian. The fluid viscous behaviour type shown relates to general terms .10 Elastomer Compatibility Guide Listed below are fluids commonly pumped.WATER BASED ALUM SLUDGE AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE ANIMAL FAT BABY BATH BABY LOTION BABY OIL BATH FOAM BATTER BEER BENTONITE SUSPENSION BISCUIT CREAM BISULPHITE BITUMEN BLACK LIQUOR BLEACH BLOOD BODY LOTION BODY SCRUB BRINE BUTTER CALCIUM CARBONATE SLURRY CARAMEL .in some instances Pseudoplastic fluids can have Thixotropic tendencies. (†) .SOLVENT BASED ADHESIVE . NBR ACETIC ACID ACETONE ADHESIVE .COLOURING CARAMEL .If low concentration. The elastomer compatibilty is for guidance purposes only as this maybe affected by temperature. .TOFFEE CASTOR OIL CELLULOSE ACETATE DOPE CELLULOSE SUSPENSION CERAMIC SLIP ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Elastomer Material EPDM FPM ü ü Viscous Behaviour Type PTFE ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic (†) Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic (†) (‡) Name of Fluid Pumped 238 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Technical Data 14.

Technical Data Name of Fluid Pumped NBR CHEESE CHEWING GUM CHINA CLAY SLURRY CHOCOLATE CHROMIC ACID CHUTNEY CITRIC ACID COAL TAR COCOA BUTTER COCOA LIQUOR COCONUT CREAM COLLAGEN GEL CONDENSED MILK COPPER SULPHATE CORN STEEP LIQUOR CORN SYRUP COSMETIC CREAM COUGH SYRUP CRUDE OIL CUSTARD DAIRY CREAM DETERGENT .NONIONIC DIESEL OIL DODECYL BENZENE SULPHONIC ACID DRILLING MUD DYE EGG ENZYME SOLUTION ETHANOL ETHYLENE GLYCOL FABRIC CONDITIONER FATS FATTY ACID FERRIC CHLORIDE FERTILISER FILTER AID FININGS FIRE FIGHTING FOAM FISH OIL FONDANT FORMIC ACID FROMAGE FRAIS FRUCTOSE FRUIT JUICE CONCENTRATE FRUIT PUREE ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Elastomer Material EPDM FPM ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Viscous Behaviour Type PTFE ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic (†) Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic (‡) Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 239 .AMPHOTERIC DETERGENT .ANIONIC DETERGENT .CATIONIC DETERGENT .

SOLVENT BASED ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Elastomer Material EPDM FPM ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Viscous Behaviour Type PTFE ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic 240 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Technical Data Name of Fluid Pumped NBR FUDGE GELATINE GLUCOSE GLYCERINE GREASE GYPSUM SLURRY HAIR CONDITIONER HAIR GEL HAND CLEANSER HONEY HYDROCHLORIC ACID HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ICE CREAM MIX INK .PRINTING INK .WATER BASED ISOBUTYL ALCOHOL ISOCYANATE ISOPROPANOL JAM KEROSENE LACTIC ACID LACTOSE LANOLIN LATEX LECITHIN LIPSTICK LIQUORICE MAGMA MAIZE STARCH SLURRY MALT EXTRACT MANGANESE NITRATE MASCARA MASHED POTATO MASSECUITE MAYONNAISE MEAT PASTE METHANOL METHYL ETHYL KETONE SOLVENT METHYLATED SPIRIT METHYLENE CHLORIDE MILK MINCEMEAT MINERAL OIL MOLASSES MUSTARD NEAT SOAP NITRIC ACID PAINTS .

VEGETABLE SAUSAGE MEAT SEWAGE SLUDGE SHAMPOO SHAVING CREAM SILICONE OIL SODIUM HYDROXIDE SODIUM SILICATE SORBIC ACID SORBITOL STARCH SUGAR PULP .STARCH PAPER PULP PEANUT BUTTER PERACETIC ACID PETFOOD PETROLEUM PHOSPHORIC ACID PHOTOGRAPHIC EMULSION PLASTISOL POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL POLYVINYL ALCOHOL POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE PROPIONIC ACID PROPYLENE GLYCOL QUARG RESIN RUBBER SOLUTION SAUCE .BEET SUGAR PULP .CLAY PAPER COATING .CONFECTIONERY SAUCE .Technical Data Name of Fluid Pumped NBR PAINTS .WATER BASED PAPER COATING .CANE SUGAR SYRUP SULPHURIC ACID TALL OIL TALLOW TITANIUM DIOXIDE TOBACCO FLAVOURING TOLUENE TOMATO KETCHUP TOMATO PUREE TOOTHPASTE TRUB UREA VARNISH VASELINE ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Elastomer Material EPDM FPM ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Viscous Behaviour Type PTFE ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic (†) Pseudoplastic (†) Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic (†) Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 241 .PIGMENT PAPER COATING .

10a Elastomer compatibility guide ü ü ü Elastomer Material EPDM FPM ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Viscous Behaviour Type PTFE ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic (†) Pseudoplastic (†) 242 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Technical Data Name of Fluid Pumped NBR VEGETABLE GUM VEGETABLE OIL VITAMIN SOLUTION WATER WAX WHEY WHITE SPIRIT WINE WORT XYLENE YEAST YOGHURT ZEOLITE SLURRY ZIRCONIA SLURRY Table 14.

8 1.88 0.2 3.1 2.1 3.4/3.6 2.91 0.11 Changing Motor Name Plates Manufacturer Frame Size Output Power kW Frequency Hz Supply Voltage V Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min Power Factor Rated Current A 2-pole motors ABB 71 C 0.0 3.8 3.3 1.90 0.0 4.75 0.3 3.1 1.91 0.7 5.Technical Data 14.5 2.89 0.5 4.5 1.3/2.2 50 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 380-480Y 200D 220D 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 380-420D/660-690Y 440-480D 400D 380D Standard New Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New 2870 2810 3460 3370 3420 2860 2810 3490 3380 3430 3450 3420 2870 2840 3500 3400 3450 3460 3450 2920 2880 3510 3460 3490 3500 3490 2900 2860 3500 3430 3470 3470 3450 2920 2890 3520 3470 3490 3500 3490 2920 3520 3500 3490 0.4 8.3 3.88 0.1/4.7/3.5 4.5 2.7 10.9 5.78 0.85 0.82 0.3 2.89 0.75 0.9/5.1 5.75 1.3/1.0 5.7 8.8 6.91 0.0 3.55 0.90 0.7 11.81 0.85 0.89 0.55 0.9 10.5 4.75 0.0 3.90 0.87 0.75 0.2 2.1 5.1 2.2 2.5 3.91 2.7 4.2 3.90 0.55 0.88 0.89 0.6 1.89 0.1 1.90 0.2 3.0 3.1 1.91 0.4 3.9 2.1 1.2 2.6 1.86 0.86 0.1 1.55 0.5 3.89 0.88 0.5 3.2 3.3 7.6 1.1/1.3 2.91 0.92 0.75 0.5 1.2 6.91 0.55 0.3 2.91 0.75 1.8 6.91 0.8 9.3 5.82 0.3 2.91 0.1 ABB 80 A ABB 80 C ABB 90 L ABB 90 LB ABB 100 LB Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 243 .1 1.2 2.83 0.90 0.1 1.75 0.0 3.88 0.6 4.1 8.88 0.90 0.85 0.0 3.5 1.85 0.91 0.4 1.5 5.3 5.88 0.

0 12.91 0.91 0.88 0.4 5.90 0.7 25.9 21.8 10.4 ABB 160 MA 11.2 11.9 21.0 3.7/8.4 3.89 0.4 5.89 0.89 13.5 6.0 3.8 4.89 0.88 0.6 7.4 34.5 12.89 0.7 5.9 10.4 14.5/7.0 3.9 10.1 13.6 7.5 11.5 7.89 0.0 11.5/14.Technical Data Manufacturer Frame Size Output Power kW Frequency Hz Supply Voltage V Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min Power Factor Rated Current A 2-pole motors ABB 112 M 4.91 0.5 14.92 0.6 4.5 8.4 6.6 3.4 7.7 7.4 7.90 0.8 7.4 5.91 0.7 5.8 7.92 0.90 0.91 0.4 26.0 7.5 5.89 0.7 13.5 7.9 10.4 5.91 0.8 ABB 132 SA 5.89 0.91 0.5 12.3 10.9 10.4 5.3 7.89 0.9/6.0 20.91 0.7 4.0 14.0 18.0 25.0 12.4 14.0 22.5 12.7 18.91 0.90 0.88 0.89 0.0 244 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .5 20.0 22.91 0.8 4.91 0.4 14.0 12.0 23.91 0.91 0.91 0.89 0.92 0.91 0.7 7.91 0.88 0.9/10.0 10.0 20.0/11.90 0.8/4.2 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 380-420D/660-690Y 440-480D 400D 380D 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 380-420D/660-690Y 440-480D 400D 380D 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 380-420D/660-690Y 440-480D 400D 380D 230D/400Y 200D 440Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 400D/690Y 440D 400D 380D Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New 2850 2790 3450 3360 3390 3400 3390 2850 3450 3400 3390 2855 2790 3455 3345 3395 3380 3370 2855 3455 3380 3370 2855 2825 3455 3365 3405 3415 3405 2855 3455 3415 3405 2930 2900 3515 3475 3485 3500 3485 2930 3515 3500 3485 0.4 ABB 132 SB 7.0 23.89 0.0 14.4 14.0 40.0 40.89 0.89 0.0 40.0 4.4 7.9 25.5 6.5/20.6 8.8 14.2 12.4 7.88 0.88 0.

7 15.0 25.5 33.89 0.0 16.2 6.9 0.74 0.5 34.5 6.75 1.76 0.89 0.91 0.5 77.3 27.5 53.0 22.5 76.5 17.88 0.0 22.91 0.8 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 230D/400Y 200D 440Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 400D/690Y 440D 400D 380D 230D/400Y 200D 440Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 400D/690Y 440D 400D 380D 230D/400Y 200D 440Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 400D/690Y 440D 400D 380D Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New 2920 2890 3505 3470 3485 3500 3485 2920 3505 3500 3485 2920 2895 3510 3500 3490 3500 3490 2920 3510 3500 3490 2930 2920 3530 3505 3510 3520 3510 2930 3530 3520 3510 0.4 18.2 21.5 18.89 0.91 0.0 34.5 17.0 34.0 44.5 51.0 34.0 32.0 38.87 6.5 19.90 0.0 25.0 30.9 0.5 1.9 0.91 0.6 6.0 33.0 46.0 25.0 22.4 18.2/3.1 3.89 0.89 0.89 0.6 1.91 0.88 0.5/22.0 25.5 1.0 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 245 .5 15.0 17.0/38.89 0.0 59.91 0.91 0.86 0.0 25.5 30.0 67.0 14.5 59.90 0.0 30.0 25.86 0.89 46.0 46.0 40.0 60.7 ABB 160 L 18.75 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y Standard New Standard New New New New 1440 1380 1730 1660 1680 1680 1660 0.5 ABB 180 M 22.91 0.0/26.0 16.89 0.5/15.0 40.7 18.0/32.0 27.5 44.9 0.0 4-pole motors ABB 90 L-4 1.91 0.91 0.0 30.91 0.0 15.0 26.Technical Data Manufacturer Frame Size Output Power kW Frequency Hz Supply Voltage V Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min Power Factor Rated Current A 2-pole motors ABB 160M 15.0 25.7 16.0 52.5 21.75 1.0 80.90 0.3 3.0 55.5 1.9 0.5 15.0 19.87 0.89 0.0/18.91 0.9 0.0 14.6 3.86 0.

83 0.83 0.0/15.0 36.5 53.5 12.0 54.3 15.0 ABB 132 M-4 7.85 0.0 35.1 11.5 30.0 14.0/28.0 8.0 18.86 0.0 32.0 ABB 160 L-4 15.85 0.5 5.0 20.4 6.5 6.86 0.4 5.84 0.86 0.0 16.5 6.0 32.1 16.85 0.5 18.0 32.0 5.85 0.5 21.0 246 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .5 6.4 12.84 0.86 0.9/11.3 26.0 16.5 21.86 0.87 0.87 0.0 17.Technical Data Manufacturer Frame Size Output Power kW Frequency Hz Supply Voltage V Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min Power Factor Rated Current A 4-pole motors ABB 132 S-4 5.8 16.0 36.0 71.0 61.85 0.6 11.0 15.84 0.0 55.3 6.0 28.83 0.0/20.5 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 380-420D/660-690Y 440-480D 400D 380D 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 380-420D/660-690Y 440-480D 400D 380D 230D/400Y 200D 440Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 400D/690Y 440D 400D 380D 230D/400Y 200D 440Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 400D/690Y 440D 400D 380D Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New 1440 1430 1750 1700 1730 1735 1730 1450 1750 1735 1730 1450 1440 1750 1720 1730 1735 1730 1450 1750 1735 1730 1455 1440 1745 1720 1730 1735 1730 1455 1765 1735 1730 1470 1460 1765 1750 1755 1755 1755 1470 1765 1755 1755 0.86 0.85 0.0 70.4 27.85 0.83 0.0 7.85 0.85 0.5/16.0 70.4 8.0 21.0 ABB 180M-4 18.86 0.5 21.8 8.2 16.83 0.0 16.8 15.0 21.4 12.85 0.84 0.83 0.3 6.84 0.5 8.0 6.84 0.4 8.87 0.5/6.0 20.87 0.0 14.5 21.85 0.0 40.1 29.2 49.0 41.84 0.0 30.8 16.5 20.87 0.2 15.83 0.3/8.6 8.6 7.5 12.86 0.0 17.4 11.0/35.0 32.0 28.3 6.86 0.4 8.85 0.5 22.83 0.5 18.85 19.0 16.0 40.87 0.2 16.0 41.85 0.

0 0.Technical Data Manufacturer Frame Size Output Power kW Frequency Hz Supply Voltage V Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min Power Factor Rated Current A 2-pole motors Brook Hansen 200 30.90 Brook Hansen 250 75.90 Brook Hansen 250 55.0 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 Brook Hansen 37.90 Table 14.0 55.0 37.89 0.0 50 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 380-420D/660-690Y 250-280D/440-480Y 200D 220D 440-480D 400D 380D 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 380-420D/660-690Y 250-280D/440-480Y 200D 220D 440-480D 400D 380D 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 380-420D/660-690Y 250-280D/440-480Y 200D 220D 440-480D 400D 380D 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 380-420D/660-690Y 250-280D/440-480Y 200D 220D 440-480D 400D 380D 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 380-420D/660-690Y 250-280D/440-480Y 200D 220D 440-480D 400D 380D Standard New Standard Standard New New Standard New New Standard New Standard Standard New New Standard New New Standard New Standard Standard New New Standard New New Standard New Standard Standard New New Standard New New Standard New Standard Standard New New Standard New New 2950 2950 2950 3540 3540 3540 3540 3540 3540 2940 2940 2940 3540 3540 3540 3540 3540 3540 2955 2955 2955 3555 3555 3555 3555 3555 3555 2960 2960 2960 3560 3560 3560 3560 3560 3560 2965 2965 2965 3565 3565 3565 3565 3565 3565 97/53 106 53/31 83/46 107 97 46 53 55 118/68 130 68/38 115/54 131 119 54 65 69 143/79 157 83/46 144/69 158 144 69 72 75 172/95 189 100/55 173/83 190 173 83 100 105 232/128 256 135/74 234/115 257 234 115 128 135 0.0 0.89 Brook Hansen 200 45.0 0.11a Changing motor name plates Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 247 .0 45.0 30.0 75.

Technical Data 248 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

Glossary of Terms This section explains the various terms found in this handbook. Absolute Pressure Total pressure exerted by a fluid i.Glossary of Terms 15. atmospheric pressure plus gauge pressure. Tending to move out from the centre. Connection piece between the motor and back plate on a centrifugal and liquid ring pump. Fluid viscosity increases with time under shear conditions.e. Total absolute pressure differences across the pump during operation i. Pressure at which fluid is leaving the pump. Vacuous space in the inlet port of a pump normally occupied by fluid. Absolute Viscosity Adaptor Anti-thixotropic Back Plate Cavitation Centrifugal CIP Dead Head Speed Density Differential Pressure Dilatant Discharge Pressure Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 249 .ability to clean pump system without dismantling pump and system. which together with the pump casing forms the fluid chamber. Pump speed required to overcome slip for a rotary lobe pump. discharge pressure minus suction pressure. Measure of how resistive the flow of a fluid is between two layers of fluid in motion. Cleaning In Place . Part of a centrifugal and liquid ring pump. Fluids mass per unit of volume. Fluid viscosity increases as shear rate increases.e.

Method of surface finishing achieved by an electro-chemical process. Pressure at which fluid is entering the pump. Energy required to set fluid in motion and to overcome any resistance to that motion. Fluid viscosity is constant with change in shear rate or agitation. Pressure within a gauge that exceeds the surrounding atmospheric pressure. Net Inlet Pressure Required from a pump. Pumping element of a centrifugal and liquid ring pump. using atmospheric pressure as a zero reference.Glossary of Terms Duty Point Dynamic Head Intersection point between the pump curve and the process curve. Net Positive Suction Head describing the inlet condition of a pump and system. Elastomer Electropolishing Flooded Suction Friction Head Gauge Pressure Hydraulic Power Impeller Inlet Pressure Kinematic Viscosity Laminar Flow Multi-stage Newtonian NPSH NPSHa NPSHr NIPA NIPR 250 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Net Inlet Pressure Available in a system. Flow characteristic whereby the fluid moves through the pipe in concentric layers with its maximum velocity in the centre of the pipe. decreasing to zero at the pipe wall. Net Positive Suction Head required from a pump. A pump with more than one impeller mounted on the same shaft and connected so as to act in series. Positive inlet pressure/head. Net Positive Suction Head available in a system. Pressure drop on both inlet and discharge sides of the pump due to frictional losses in fluid flow. Theoretical energy required to pump a given quantity of fluid against a given total head. Non-metallic sealing device that exhibits elastic strain characteristics. Measure of how resistive the flow of a fluid is under the influence of gravity.

Result of change in fluid velocity. Ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces giving a value to determine type of flow characteristic. Outlet Pressure Positive Displacement Pressure Drop Pressure Shock Product Wetted Psuedoplastic Pump Casing Required Power Reynolds Number (Re) Rheology Rheomalactic Rotodynamic Rotor Rotorcase Rotorcase Cover Rumbling Shotblasting Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 251 . which together with the rotorcase cover forms the pump chamber. fittings and other process equipment. Pump type whereby the fluid pumped is directly displaced. Pumping element of a rotary lobe pump. Science of fluid flow. Part of a rotary lobe pump.Glossary of Terms Non-Product Wetted Metallic and elastomeric components not in contact with the fluid being pumped. Metallic and elastomeric components in contact with the fluid being pumped. Part of a centrifugal and liquid ring pump. Fluid viscosity decreases as shear rate increases. Part of a rotary lobe pump. Result of frictional losses in pipework. Fluid viscosity decreases with time under shear conditions but does not recover. which together with the back plate forms the fluid chamber. A machine to transfer rotating mechanical energy into kinetic energy in the form of fluid velocity and pressure. Power needed at the pump shaft. which together with the rotorcase forms the pump chamber. Method of surface finishing achieved by blasting finished components with small metallic particles at great force. Method of surface finishing achieved by vibrating components with abrasive particulate. Pressure at which fluid is leaving the pump.

Moment of force required to produce rotation. Static suction head less the dynamic head.ability to steam clean or sterilise pump system without dismantling pump and system. Difference in fluid levels. Rapid temperature change of pumphead components. Flow characteristic combining both laminar and turbulent flow tendencies. Difference in height between the fluid level and the centre line of the pump inlet on the inlet side of the pump. Sum of the static discharge and dynamic heads.Glossary of Terms SIP Steam or Sterilisation In Place . Fluid level is below the centre line of the pump inlet. Fluid lost by leakage through the pump clearances of a rotary lobe pump. Relationship between the input power at the pump shaft and output power in the form of water horsepower. Flow characteristic whereby considerable mixing of the fluid takes place across a pipe section with velocity remaining fairly constant. Slip Specific Gravity Specific Weight Static Head Static Discharge Head Static Suction Head Suction Lift Suction Pressure Thermal Shock Thixotropic Torque Total Discharge Head Total Efficiency Total Head Total Static Head Total Suction Head Transitional Flow Turbulent Flow 252 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Fluids weight per unit volume. Difference in height between the fluid level and the centre line of the pump inlet on the discharge side of the pump. Difference in height between the static discharge head and the static suction head. Ratio of a fluids density to the density of water. Total pressure difference between the total discharge head and the total suction head of the pump. Pressure at which fluid is entering the pump. Fluid viscosity decreases with time under shear conditions.

Pressure at which a fluid will change to a vapour. at a given temperature. Velocity Viscosity Viscous Power Volumetric Efficiency Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 253 .Glossary of Terms Vacuum Vapour Pressure Pressure in a pumping system below normal atmospheric pressure. Measure of how resistive a fluid is to flow. Ratio of actual capacity against theoretical capacity. Power loss due to viscous fluid friction within the pump. Distance a fluid moves per unit of time.

systems and services are dedicated to assisting customers in optimizing the performance of their processes. separate and transport products such as oil. We help them heat.alfalaval. How to contact Alfa Laval Contact details for all countries are continually updated on our website. cool. Our worldwide organization works closely with customers in almost 100 countries to help them stay ahead. water. Our equipment.com to access the information. chemicals. Please visit www. beverages.Alfa Laval in brief Alfa Laval is a leading global provider of specialized products and engineering solutions. foodstuff. PM66050GB1 2001 . starch and pharmaceuticals. Time and time again.

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