PH.D. (LEIPZIG), D.D., LL.D., F.R.G.S.,









Copyright, 1900,


All Rights Reserved

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it will not truthfully be said that I have not taken pains. In its interest I have made repeated journeys to Europe. Large parts of the book have been rewritten twice or thrice as changes in opinion and the discovery collections of of fresh monumental material have modified the views previously entertained. when not absorbed in the duties of a busy professorship. I have given my time to the preparation of this work. the British Museum in London. and also to the East. Every part of the two volumes rests upon original sources. and the Bodleian Library in Oxford. Whatever may be the judgment of my fellow-investigators in this difficult field. and to treat with courtesy and respect any that I have ventured to reject. DUEESTG the past ten years. In the last named I have had especial opportunity to investigate the early history of cuneiform research in the almost unrivaled early travelers and decipherers. yet I have tried to consider all that modern Assyriologists have brought forward in elucidation of them.PREFACE. and have sought to give due credit for every explanation which I have accepted. The progress of . and the greater part of the text has been written in the University Library at Leipzig.

vi PEEFACE. and to have made contributions to the knowledge of the subject. I may discover in his own have sought to tell now generally understand the whole story as scholars it. rather being disposed to yield to the consensus of opinion. and so vast has the field grown that there are now specialists in even small parts of the subject. Berlin. Cairo. Constantinople. when any exists. To sift. weigh. and I am sadly conscious that it might have been better done yet am I persuaded that schol. The results of all this detailed research are almost scattered in scientific journals and monographs in all the languages of Europe. elsewhere I have received many courtesies . Assyriology in the past twenty years has been so rapid that every book on the history of Babylonia and Assyria published prior to 1880 is hopelessly antiquated. the field intimately will recognize and be most ready to pardon the the difficulties ars who know shortcomings which each province. and decide upon their merits is no easy task. claim to Yet in parts of the field at least I may and in research in the libraries and museums and which I should gladly acknowledge here did it not seem disproportionate to carve great names on of Paris. In travel opinions. and many issued much later would need extensive revision. The work of investigation has fallen necessarily into the hands of specialists. than eager to set forth novel personal be an independent investigator.

ciently useful to no distant day. ROGERS. and made many suggestions. He has read the entire book The in manuscript. I take leave of the book with mingled pleasure and regret. hoping only that it may prove suffidemand and deserve a revision at EGBERT W. 1900. for this new illustration of his my unfailing kindness and generosity to younger men. . so small a structure. September NEW JERSEY. vii obligations to my friend Professor Sayce are. 18. some of which led me to change my view. MADISON. however.PREFACE. so unusual that they must be expressed. while others showed me wherein I had written obscurely or had failed to defend am grateful to him I position adequately.


. 1634 His account of the inscriptions . 15 . I. . . . . .. Herbert... . Mandelslo's account.. . 23 . .17 18 Thomas Herbert. 1677 . Mount Rachmet Odoric's account of Comum (Comerum) 3 . 12 . . .. .. . and columns . Letters of Pietro della Valle. 16 His speculations concerning the characters . PAGE Ignorance concerning Babylonia before 1820 .. . 13 Inscriptions End of Figueroa's account 14 . 7 8 9 10 11 The inscriptions as Gouvea saw them The embassy of Don Garcia de Sylva y Figueroa His description of the ruins of Persepolis Sculpture at Persepolis . 19 20 Further descriptions by Herbert Herbert's later account of the inscriptions His copy of the characters Sir John Chardin born 1643 . . . . staircases. 24 ix . 1 Two The lines of research . . . 2 . . BOOK I : PROLEGOMENA. CHAPTER EARLY TRAVELERS AND EARLY DECIPHERERS. . . . . .21 22 .CONTENTS. . 4 5 6 Importance of Odoric's account Josophat Barbaro at Camara Barbaro and Antonio de Gouvea Gouvea's account of Chelminira The great stones. . . . ruins of Persepolis. Copy of inscription .

. .. ... and Xerxes Darheush and Chshharsha ....... . . 1731 His publication of Zend-Avesta . .. . .. II. . . . Kaempfer's narrative Cornells de Bruin.... Jean Baptiste Tavernier Carreri on the inscriptions . .25 26 27 Continuation of his account Carreri's copy of the characters .x CONTENTS. 46 .. . ..54 55 56 57 58 ..48 .39 40 41 . 1762 Carsten Niebuhr... .. Darius.. Abbe Saint-Martin Grotefend's later work Rask and Eugene Buriiouf . 52 53 Goshtasp Grotefend's partial translations .. ... .. . 28 29 Estimate of Carreri's work .. . 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Publication of vase. 42 43 De Sacy and Sassanian Summary of materials for The problem decipherment 44 45 of decipherment CHAPTER Grotefend born 1775 GROTEFEND AND RAWLINSON. 1765 Niebuhr' s work at Persepolis Niebuhr's publications... .. 1704 Small influence of the travelers 30 31 .. . . 1774-1837 His copies and analyses Tychsen and Miinter Tychsen's erroneous translation Hunter's better success Anquetil-Duperron. . 47 49 50 51 .. . . .. PAGE Chardin's account. . . Begins decipherment " b " and " " of Niebuhr Inscriptions g Persian equivalents for king " " Equivalents for king of kings The names Hystaspes. .. Heeren assists Grotefend .

.. . . 79 80 81 . .. . . . . His own account . . 87 The influence of his narrative 88 89 90 91 John Eldred. . . . Witsen reproduces Flower's signs Cantemir visits Tarku Guldenstadt and Schulz St..CONTENTS. Martin and Burnouf . . . ... . .64 65 He copies inscriptions at Behistun Rawlinson sent to Afghanistan . Edward Hincks His education and early labors The close of the Persian decipherment Other problems Flower's letters . .. ...72 73 His copies of cuneiform characters Aston's publication of them . . .. Rawlinson's memoir on Persian inscriptions His obligations to others . . .. . . The Middle Age ignorant of Babylon Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela His accounts of Nineveh and Babylon His account of Babylon continued . . Holtzmann's translation of Flower's copy ..84 85 . . PAGE 59 . .. . . 63 . . . . .62 . 83 CHAPTER in. .82 . . Anthony Shirley. . ..78 . . . 1599 92 .66 67 .. 68 . 77 Thomas Hyde quotes Flower .. .86 . 74 A retrograde movement begins . birth and education Rawlinson's attempts to decipher . . . . . .60 . . 1583 His account of Babylon He confuses Baghdad and Babylon . .76 75 .. . . 1810. 69 70 71 The Rev. . . The lists xi Lassen's of names at Naksh-i-Rustam work . . . . . 61 Westergaard's copies Sir Henry Rawlinson. . Rich copies Persepolis texts . EARLY EXPLORERS IN BABYLONIA. . .

93 94 95 96 And of Babylon . 113 . . ...120 . . . .122 123 Close of another period of exploration Rich and Porter as leaders in it . 1734-1820.110 . 121 . EXPLOBATIONS IN ASSYEIA AND BABYLONIA. .xii CONTENTS. His influence on later explorers John Cartwright visits Nineveh His account of the city . . . . .100 101 . and first excavations. His first impressions of Babylon . . . Gasparo Balbi visits Babylon Athanasius Kircher receives a brick from Babylon End of the age of travelers 97 98 99 CHAPTER IV. .119 . 1811 115 116 Rennell's criticism of Rich Rich visits Neby Yunus and Kuyunjik . PAGE . . .103 104 1 . .102 . . . Jean Otter begins the new age of exploration Saint Albert visits the East His description of Hillah D'Anville on Babylon .124 125 . 05 106 And Makloube He recognizes relationship Olivier succeeds 107 of Babylonian script 108 him . Ill 112 . . . . .109 .. Niebuhr visits Babylon 1765 And also Nineveh Beauchamp describes Babel .. 117 118 Suspicions of the natives Rich visits Persepolis His influence upon cuneiform research Sir Robert Ker Porter visits Rich at Baghdad His unique equipment for exploration Porter's book on Babylon . Joseph Hager publishes a remarkable book He shows that Babylon was earlier than Persepolis Great influence of his book Claudius James Rich born 1787 . Further description. . . . .114 .

1844 . . PAGE Julius Mohl begins residence in Paris 1823 . General view of mounds opposite the city Botta searches Mosul for antiquities .160 . . .135 136 . EXCAVATIONS IN ASSYRIA AND BABYLONIA.. . 147 . . 131 132 133 Small success of his efforts Begins excavations at Khorsabad .. . . .129 .148 .. . . . ..150 . . And reflections upon their interest .130 . work . Encouraged by Mohl Difficulties . . October. 1843-1854. . . 1844 . .. Nimroud ..139 140.159 .138 Nimroud . . .128 . . . .152 Layard's gifts in description Permission from Constantinople to continue the work 153 Hormuzd Rassam acts as assistant 154 .. . William Kennett Loftus in the Orient . . Discovers winged bull in the Description of the scene mound . . . xiii CHAPTER V. . . . . . 151 . . . . . 155 Excavations at Kalah Shergat Layard's expedition of 1849 Returns to England 1852 Fruitfulness of his 2 156 157 158 . The town of Mosul at that time . 141 Layard visits Botta at Mosul Layard begins collecting funds First night at 142 to excavate in Assyria 143 . Kuyunjik selected for first excavations . . of Botta's excavations. Excitement caused by discovery Second pair of human-headed lions found Layard's musings over the discoveries . 149 . 126 127 Botta sent to Mosul as vice consul 1842 . Obelisk of Shalmaneser II found . 134 . Work End with Turkish officials resumed May 4. 146.. 137 Austen Henry Layard born 1817 His extensive journey with Mitford First description of .145 . .144 ..CONTENTS. . . . .

175 . . . .. Hincks makes still further contributions .165 169.. . Effect of the demonstration . Botta makes some contributions toward the solution . 176 . 178 . Westergaard begins the work De Saulcy uses the name Assyrian Norris publishes second column of Behistun texts The second form of writing deciphered . . . . Excavates at Warka Assyrian Excavation Fund organized Taylor excavates at Mugheir The French expedition to Babylonia Rassam begins work at Kuyunjik Discoveries . . 193 Memoir . . THE DECIPHERMENT OF SUMERIAN AND OF VANNIC. . ASSYRIAN. .177 . . . . 164 .174 CHAPTER The problem VI.162 163. 172.189 190. 191 192. . 161 .179 181 Loewenstein begins Assyrian decipherment 180. .. . . .186 187. . . . .. Organization of the Society of Biblical Archaeology CHAPTER VII. .. THE DECIPHERMENT OF . Workers increase in number . . 173 . 199 Fox Talbot proposes a test of the decipherment 195.. . Jones surveys Nineveh Rawlinson makes discovery at Close of excavations . 168 .194 . . . . 166.197 198.. . . . . . . 170 . PAGE . Hincks continues his work Longperier translates one of Botta's inscriptions 183. . . 167. .xiv CONTENTS.. 171 Ur . . 182 184 185 De Saulcy makes futile attempts . 188 Hincks is much more successful Rawlinson does not equal him Publication of Rawlinson's . made by him there . . . 196 . . . Rawlinson Disputes concerning the origin of cuneiform signs 200 announces discovery of non-Semitic in201 scriptions .

.. Secretary of the Societe Asiatique . Rassam undertakes a new expedition . 239. Sayce publishes important paper on Accadian Lenormant writes grammar of Sumerian ..202 . De Sarzec's excavations at Tello . . Solution of the problem in 1873 Halevy denies the existence of Sumerian . . 215 216. Smith's death at Aleppo. Finds fragments of deluge tablet 229 Important meeting of the Society of Biblical Archae230 ology 231 . 208 But does not convince Assyriologists . Schulz finds inscriptions at Van . . . . . . . 242. . 209. EXPLORATIONS IN ASSYRIA AND BABYLONIA. .. Philadelphia expedition begins work second and third campaigns . . The The The The Wolfe expedition to Babylonia . Belck and Lehmann on Chaldian language . 217 Edward Hincks begins their decipherment 218.. . .. . . 244. Daily Telegraph expedition to Assyria Smith's second and third expeditions 232 . 1876 .228 . 207. 245 246 . . And deciphers the Vannic inscriptions . Which is continued by Lenormant and Mordtmann Guyard language Sayce independently finds the same clue finds a valuable clue to the . .. . . . . .CONTENTS. Julius Mohl. 233 235 234. 212 Delitzsch joins Halevy and later deserts The end of Sumerian decipherment him . .. 203 204 205 206 ... CHAPTER VIII. .. . 238 . . . 1872-1900. . . 227 George Smith begins his work He attempts Cypriote decipherment . Halevy's theory gains recruits Defends his thesis at Leiden. 214 . 210 . .211 . . 243 remarkable work of Haynes at Nippur Hilprecht in charge of excavations . 241 . His studies of " Scythian " inscriptions Hincks names the language Old Chaldean . . 237. 219 220 221 222 223 224 . . 213. 240 . 1883 . 236. . .. . xv PAGE . 225 226.. . ... .

282 285 The fauna of the country The elephant and the wild ass No mineral wealth in Babylonia . . 253 CHAPTER IX. .. . 256 . Clay as a building material Stone found plentifully in Assyria . 267 Chaldea and Assyria Mesopotamia Sources of the Tigris and Euphrates Their tributaries . . . . . 251 Turkish expedition at Sippar . . 271 272. 284 .. 273 . . . . .. 279 280. . . vegetables. . . .. . . .. .. Flood periods in the rivers Canal system Other water supplies . . 266. 247 248. . 283. . 252. Temperate winters Fertility of the soil Its cereals. . . The monuments of Babylonia and Assyria Their character . . THE SOURCES. Climate of the great valley Incursions of sand . .. . . . . 281 and trees . . 254 255. . 260 261. 249 250. 277 . THE LANDS OF BABYLONIA AND two countries . .276 . 268 269 270. PAGE The German expedition at Babylon Discoveries at Tell-el-Amarna . . 264 . 265 CHAPTER The boundaries of the X. . . Conclusion of period of excavation .286 287 288 . . .xvi CONTENTS.274 275 . Herodotus Lesser authorities . 262 263.. . ASSYEIA. . . . .278 . . . Egyptian texts and the Old Testament as sources Greek and Latin writers Berossos Ktesias 257 258 259..

307 308. . . . . . .299 300. 295 . 311 CHAPTER XII. .. . THE CHEONOLOGY. 324 325 Chronology in Tiglathpileser's texts Greek writers Berossos : . . ASSYRIA. . . . . . home of Semites .. . . 289 290 291. 292 Ur and Larsa Girsu. 328 . 320.. Cities of Babylonia : xvii PAGE Eridu . . 302 303 .314. . The Chaldeans 310. and Opis Cities of Assyria: Asshur Calah and Nineveh Dur-Sharrukin and Arbailu Na9ibina and Harran . . 326 327. . ... Babylonian Chronicles stone of Bel-nadin-apli Boundary . Dur-Kurigalzu. . .. .305 306. 321 .. 304 .. . .319 . Uruk Isin and Nippur 293 294. 301 CHAPTER XI THE PEOPLES OF BABYLONIA AND The early Babylonians The Sumerian language The Sumerian people Invasion of Semites Original . 296 .297 298 . . . 312 313 315 The King Lists .. .316 317. . .. Babylonian chronological materials .. 318 The Nabonidus Chronological materials .. . Babylon Kutha. .. . 322 323 Expedition Lists and Synchronistic History Statements of Sennacherib inscriptions . . .. . . . . .. 309 Origin and character of Assyrians . . .CONTENTS. . . Date of Sargon I and Naram-Sin Date of Marduk-nadin-akhe External indications of age Assyrian chronological material .

365 Sargon I and his origin His great career Naram-Sin Ur Bau-and Gudea .. . 346 Kings of Assyria 347.. 334 Egyptian inscriptions and Old Testament Tables of chronology Early Babylonia First dynasty Second dynasty Third dynasty Fourth dynasty Fifth. 348 BOOK II: THE HISTORY OF BABYLONIA. 366. . ... . .371 . . 340. patesi Lugalzaggisi Urukagina Eannatum .. LARSA. The civilization of Shirpurla The favorable location of Ur Ur-Gur and Dungi . ... . .. THE HISTORY OF BABYLONIA TO THE FALL OP The difficult study of origins Earliest cities of Babylonia The land of Kengi .. 374. : 333. 367 368. '341 342. CHAPTER I. . PAGE The beginning of Babylonian history Statements of Simplicius Schwartz on chronology of Berossos .. 364. . 338 339 . 337 .. . . sixth. 362 363... . 369. 332 The Canon of Ptolemy . . Ishakkus of Asshur ... 375 . . . 343 . . ... and seventh dynasties Eighth and ninth dynasties Chronology of Assyria. 353 354. . . 355 356 357 His successors Lasirab and Manishtusu 358.... . 370 . ... 349 350 351 En-shag-kush-ana. 344 345 .329 330. . . 372 373. ..xviii CONTENTS.335 336. 352. 359 360 361. 331 . .

404 405 406 409 Beginnings of Assyria Mitanni . 397 CHAPTER III. . The political development .CONTENTS. . . THE KASSITE DYNASTY.. 399 400 ... 408 410... .398 . xix PAGE 376 377 378 379 ... . . . Unsatisfactory knowledge concerning them The first kings of the dynasty .. .. ...395 396... .. 392. rules all Babylonia Chedorlaomer Arioch Hammurabi. 383 384. 386 387 388 ... .. 380 381 382 . Conquest of Babylonia by the Kassites Their racial affiliations . . . . . 391 The glory of his reign first . 403 Extent of Agum-kakrime's kingdom He restores Babylonian gods Lacunae in King Lists . 407. 385 CHAPTER The origin of the city of Babylon Sumu-abi to Apil-Sin Sin-muballit and Hammurabi II... 393 Samsu-iluna 394 . . End dynasty The second dynasty of the . . the statesman . 411 . . . . Hammurabi 389 '390 . .. 401 Agum-kakrime The titles of Kassite kings . .. . THE FIEST AND SECOND DYNASTIES OP BABYLON. 402. . The kings of Isin The third dynasty of Ur Kingdom of Amnanu Nur-Adad and Sin-iddin Kudur-Nankhundi Chedorlaomer and Eri-Aku End of the kingdom of Larsa Sumerian civilization in early Babylonia . .

. 416 . . . by Tukulti-Ninib 422 423 Meli-Shipak Marduk-apal-iddin 424 CHAPTER IV THE DYNASTY OF Origin of the dynasty Its first kings . .415 . . . . . . . . . .421 . . . . . 428 End of the dynasty 429 . . . .419 420 Kurigalzu II Kadashman-Turgu Invasion to Shagarakti-Shuriash . .417 . . Kadashman-Kharbe I . . . . .xx Karaindash CONTENTS. . . . 314 . PAGE 412. .425 426 Nebuchadrezzar I Marduk-nadin-akhe . ISIN. . . 418 Karakhardash. Kadashman-Bel Burnaburiash I Kurigalzu I Burnaburiash II . . . . 413. . . .427 . . . . . . . .

EAELY TEAVELEES AND EAELY DECIPHEEEES. PEIOE to 1820 the only knowledge possessed by the world of the two cities Babylon and Nineveh. It would then have seemed a dream of impossible things to hope that some future day would discover buried libraries in these mounds^ filled with books in which these peoples had written not only their history and chronology. BOOK I: PROLEGOMENA. their manners and customs. but their science. and of the empires which they founded and led. That the long-lost languages in which these books . CHAPTER I. No single word had come from the deep stillness of the ruins of Babylon. their very thoughts and emotions. their operations of building. no voice was heard beneath the mounds of Nineveh. was derived from peoples other than their inhabitants.A HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA.

at last formed a union. were written should be recovered. It began and long continued to be in the hands of travelers. It was found in the most unlikely place in Persia. which led to the rediscovery of the ancient language of Babylonia and of Assyria was not found in either of these two lands. the natural result of a long. each learning a little from his predecessors. By the one line the ancient sources were rediscovered. it. The pursued separately for a long time. indeed. and somewhat involved process. by the other men learned how to read them. . tedious. It was rather to become the wonder of ages. These are now the chief sources of our knowledge. It was not found by a scholar who set out to search for It was not a brilliant discovery made in a day. that men should read them as readily and as surely as the tongues of which traditional use had never ceased among men all this would then have seemed impossible But this and much more has happened. and then adding first The clue a mite as the result of his own observation. and from that union has resulted present knowledge.2 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and before we begin our survey of the long line of the centuries it is well that we should look at the steps by which our sources were secured. Two lines of research. story of the rediscovery of Babylonia and Assyria is really twofold. even forgotten materials the history of Babylonia and Assyria has become known. From these long-lost.

In Persia. leveled off the top. It had an important commerce with Europe. some measure to the West. Rachmet. The earliest European.EARLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. In front of this ridge. there rises above the plain a vast terracelike platform. and there built great palIn the Middle Ages this land aces and temples. there is a range of composed of a marble of dark which bears the name of Mount grey limestone. at present known to who visited the great terrace at the foot of Mount Rachmet was a wandering friar. and equally uncomfortable in the part. far 3 from Babylonia and Assyria. of Persia became full of interest for various reasons. about . by name. but because it has its own interest. most naturally to diplomatic intercourse of various kinds with European states. and on the way passed between Yezd and Huz. and is instructive as a history of the progress of knowledge. Nature built this terrace in some time erected a wall in front of it. not only because it is necessary to any just appreciation of our present knowledge of Assyria and Babylonia. also. The commercial contact of Persia led. and in a semieverlasting hills. Odoricus. and this intercourse gradually made the land known in us. or Odoric. once the capital of the kingdom. forty miles northeast of Shiraz. He was going overland to Cathay. that were reeking with heat in summer. but man at bleak cold of winter. The story of its finding is worth the telling. circular hollow. and that naturally drew men of trade from Europe into its extensive plateaus.

" (See Sopra la Vita e i Viaggi del Beato Odorico da intulit . Coman. Voyages. by Col. and Discoveries of the English Nation.. Mus. 1866. which : was an huge and mightie city in olde time. FARS. and hath done in times past great damage unto the Romanes. . pp. concerning strange things which hee sawe among the Tartars of the East. Stuni del Chierico Francescano Fr. and appears hardly to have seen them at all. 8].] The following is the original Latin text " Ab hac. In it there are stately palaces altogether destitute of inhabitants. 52. 1320 A. By Richard Hakluyt. Oxford. Dieulafoy. Teofilo Domenichelli. p. p. Romae eius Pordenone. B. the Kinara of Rich. " * of little refinement and. transiens per civitates et terras. [Here beginneth the iournall of Frier Odoricus. The manuscript believe with Yule (Cathay and the Way : . note) that the reading to be preferred is Comerum. i. . et multis victualibus haec abundat. . YULE Comum. D. 1 an oft-recurring statement with The Second Volume of the Principal Navigations. and sometime Student of Christ Church. veni ad quamdam civitatem : nomine Coprum. 1881.4 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. 156. Hakluyt Society. anno 1599. Comerum. 157. though possessed little of a desire to wander and see strange sights. He had no time to look at ruins. Prato. quae antiquitatus civitas magna fuit : haec maximum damnum quondam autem muri bene quadraginta miliarum sunt capaces. Et in ea sunt palacia adhuc integra. p. Yet his record is the first word heard in Europe concerning the ruins at Persepolis "I came unto a certaine citie called Comum. 54. readings are very diverse. etc. con- teyning well nigh fiftie miles in circuite. Preacher. but I Comerum. and everything seems to me to bear out. Traffiques." ' it aboundeth with The passage " man Odoric was a is disappointing. cared for the intellectual or spiritual meaning of It is great places. Thither. and the Kenare of Mme. one of the order of the Minorites. which is the Camara of Barbaro. VKNNI Comum. Henry Yule. Imprinted at London. UTIN. London. C. notwithstanding great store of victuals. above.) is variously written by different authorities . In The name of the place called Comum. 2 This is the judgment of Colonel Yule it \ib.

See for biographical and Siecle du critical material Les Voyages en Asie au XIV" Bienheureux Frere Odoric de Pordenone Religieux de Saint-Francois^ : publics avec une introduction et des notes par Henri Cordier. etc. Cambridge." . Navigationi et Viaggi. not know what place the ancient ruins marked. qual patirono tra gl'Infedeli. and that is in the Reale Biblioteca Palatina de Panne. pp. costumi. & del maritirio di quattro frati delPordine predetto. It is described with facsimiles in Cordier. "Odorichiis de rebus incognitis. as the nu- merous manuscripts still in existence show. The narrative of Odoricus was first published in 1513 under the title. Oxford. di diverse nationi & genti del Hondo. But even though he saw little and said less. Then it became a call to others to go and see also. 1891. So simple is his word that men have even doubted whether he ever saw the ruins with his own eyes . It is only a first voice in the dark this word of Odoric and long would it be ere another wayfarer should see the same relics of the past." and with that He evidently did his simple soul was content. 1583. 1513. Paris." Only one copy of this extraordinarily rare book is known to exist. Delle usanze. and I have not seen it. at Paris. The title of the section is " Viaggio del Beato Odorico da Vdine. In the year 1472 the glorious republic of Venice dispatched an envoy to the Court of Uzun 1 1 Cordier enumerates seventy-nine as still existing in London. ii. & nature. 5 him that he found good " victuals.EARLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. in 4. Not very long after the invention of printing his story found expression in type. cxvii-cxxiii. dell' ordine de' frati Minori. Venetia. pp. and the third reprinting was in Ramusio. and that he cared at all does not appear. and was copied frequently. but there is no real reason to doubt that he did. Paris. his narrative was almost a classic before the invention of printing. Pesaro [per Girolamo Soncino]. 245-253. A second edition appeared in 1528. This beautiful edition I have seen.

to judge from that which can still be seen. and around are forty columns. in our country. The terrace is all of one piece of rock. the figure of a man leaning on his bow. which he thus describes Cassan. on horseback. who look up to him. we represent God the Father inclosed in a circle. . which on one side appears to have been cut and made into a terrace six paces high. and above them is a figure like those by which. dressed in the French fashion and wearing . His name was Josophat Barbaro. but saw a little more. In front is . which means in our tongue Forty Columns. with the intention of giving his beneapparently diction to those below. Below are many others which seem to support those above them. which is said to be a figure of Solomon. and holds up his open hand.6 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. On the summit of this terrace is a flat space. sculptured figures of animals as large as giants. and holding a ring in his hand underneath are other smaller figures. Beyond this there is a tall figure . and upon it stand . which are called Cilminar. this was formerly a beautiful building. near whom are many other figures. and seem to stand in a certain expectation of the said benediction. apparently that of a strong man this they say is Samson. as thick as the embrace of three men some of them are ruined but. and he passed the same way as Odoric. each of which is twenty cubits long. : "Near the town of Camara is seen a circular mountain. and among these is one who seems to wear on his head a papal miter.

in Persia. but his account was not altogether fruitless. as we understand from the inhabitants of the place. The first of these ambassadors to arrive in his kingdom came from the kingdom of Portugal. It was he who freely to ambassadors from Europe. This man was an Augustinian friar. He was somewhat more suchis and of war. Costumi. Messer Suleimen. king of Persia. Two days' journey from this place there is a village called Thimar. M. p. though soon to be superseded. 61. long cloaks.XLIII.D. all he treated with a magnificent courtesy. spese. was cessful 1 in the second than in the first et object. sent When opened of it whom out by Philip III. Luoghi. & della ultima Impressa contra Portoghesi. where there is a tomb in which they Over say the mother of Solomon was buried. began his long and remarkable reign (1586) Persia was a dark land to European eyes. Viaggi Fatti da Vinetia. which means in our tongue Temple of Solomon. and there are Arabic letters upon it. this is built an edifice in the form of a chapel. and two days further off another village. in India in Constanti- nopli. con la descrittione particolare di Citta." ' Barbaro had not made much advance upon Odoric. Shah Abbas the Great. who came with messages both of peace It aim to endeavor to carry a message of Christianity among the Persians peace but also to induce Abbas to make war on the Osmanli Turks. Antonio de Gouvea.EAKLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. king of Spain and Portugal. alia Tana. all 7 these figures are in half relief. & modo di governo suo. et della Porta del gran Turco & di tutte le intrate. which say. and its gate looks toward the east. . In Venezia. Sitti.

After many and sore adventures at the hands of sea pirates he again saw his native land. The place is between two and the tomb of which I have made high ridges. besides another near it which he made for Queen Vashti and this . though he did establish an Augustinian society at the Persian court. and in these terms: sepolis. or Artaxerxes. " We continued our journey as far as a village which in their language means Forty Minarets. who say that Cyrus rebuilt the city of Shiraz. opinion is made more probable by the consideration of the short distance from this site to the city of Suzis. . .8 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. or Shushan. Those called Chelminira. At the foot of the ridge began two staircases made facing one another. erected it for himself. mention is at the foot of the northern ridge.. . . because that was the number in the tomb of an ancient king which stood there. with many steps of stones of so great a size that it will be . . and it is my firm belief that the mausoleum which Artemisia erected to her husband was not more notable. There are indications that Ahasuerus. which has also resisted the efforts of human malice.. . . which seems to have no power against this monument. though it is held as one of the wonders of the world but the mausoleum has been destroyed by time. . in which he generally resided. and published an account of his adIn this story he tells of a visit to Perventures. affirm also that he built for himself this famous tomb. We went to see the tomb of which I have spoken.

. gave their name to the place. were more than twenty-five palms in circumference. there were very many throughout the whole structure. The staircases. of which I walls. of workmanship so whether it could be surpassed and by ascending the staircases access was gained to an extensive terrace. and six or eight high . . The walls of the staircases were entirely covered with figures in reexcellent that I doubt lief. ten or twelve broad. of no more than three stones. The bases might be thirty palms round. when they were first hewn. and of these. on which stood the forty columns which for the building . each formed. and on . particularly in the columns. . 9 beyond belief when I affirm that some of them. ished us most was to see that certain small chapels were made of a single stone doorway. in spite of their great size. . at each end stood out figures of lions and other fierce animals. the columns were beautifully carved figures. . 3 . The porches through which the terrace was entered were very high and the walls very thick. pavement. . met on a broad landing. The likeness of the king was drawn life-size upon the porches and in many other parts. and roof. carved in relief in the same stone so well executed that they seemed to be endeavoring to terrify the spectators. . was chiefly composed of them and it was no small wonder to consider how they could have been placed one upon the other. from which the whole plain was visible.EAELY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. where the stones were That which astonlarger than in any other part. have spoken.

nor Hebrew. . | AM 90110 que alcanetto. ' stone has resisted the and but not without showing signs of injury.10 " HISTOEY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYEIA. & seu | filho em que se tra. q por man| | | | : | dado da Catholica | & Portugal fizenho a Persia." 1 Relagam. nor Arabic. little hoped to make eternal. imagining that it contained a different treasure. And it is because the hardness built still resists of the material of which the wear of time. Augusti| | | Composto pella Padre F. The hard steel. no doubt. was an ascent to another much in the higher. Antonio de Gouvea j Religiose da mesma ordem. which are the languages current in those parts and thus all helps to blot out the memory of that which the ambitious king inscriptions . although the natives. which must have been intended to con- From this place tain the king's body. rao algus Religlosos Real Magesta de del Key D. having which relate to the foundation of the edifice. taking as much trouble perhaps to deface it as the builders had as much done to erect effect of fire it. nor Armenian.. declare the author of it although they remain in many parts very distinct. set to work to do it injury as they could. ill treated or irritated by the numbers of visitors who came to see this wonder.tarn as gueras e gran des victorias grade Key da Persia Xa Abbas do grao Tur co MahomAmethe as quais resultarao das Embaixadas. the inhabitants of the place. also. and. where was a chamber excavated hillside. Felippe segundo de daordem dos Eremitasde S. for they are not in Persian. . memory " The of him who respect for the ancient constructed it. have broken into it. yet there is none that can read them..

was written originally in Spanish. S. . 1646. pp. but connects them with kings. They had already begun to exercise over his mind some little a spell which was soon to hold a large part spell its He of Europe beneath sway. his return to Isfahan he wrote a letter. Relation | em Lisboa per Pedro Crasbeeck. Augustin de Goa. who likewise visited the great ruins. fair degree of exactness with the Persian also is more accurate and explicit concerning the inscriptions which he saw. | derriere le Palais. 30. Impresso et seq. Guerres et | Anno M. The next ambassador whom Philip III sent out to Shah Abbas was Don Garcia de Sylva y FigOn ueroa. recto des Grandes | | victoires obtenues par | le | Roy de et Perse | Cha Abbas fils. 4 TOyselet. Fr. & | professor da sagrada fol. Recteur du College de S. but immediately was done into Latin and published at Antwerp in 1620. Anthoine de Gouvea. From friar 11 this narrative it is plain that the militant had learned more of the ruins than had Odoric or Barbaro.DCXI. | 1'Inquisition. | de A Rouen. pres S. Lo. Achdu voyage de quelques Religieux de 1'Ordre des Augustin envoyez en Perse par le Roy Catholique Dom centre les Empereurs de Turquie | Mahomet suite | Philippe Second | Roy de Portugal. He no longer believes that Solomon had aught to do with them. imprime a Lisbonne avec Licence de 1'oridinaire & du Palais. | met son En Hermites de S.EARLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. 78. This It letter of a brilliant man completely superseded Gouvea's account. | chez Nicolas Loyselet. Reitor do Col Theologia. Traduit de 1'Original Portugais. Professeur en Theologie. | Par le P. in 1619. to the Marquess de Bedmar. and evidently made a profound Within five years it impression in Europe. Religieux du mesme Ordre. j was legio de sancto Augustinho de Goa.

sepolis runs after this fashion "There are yet remayning sepolis. and doe almost lead us unto it by the hand. and Plutarch which Authors doe point us oute the situation of Persepolis. Diodorus. The largenesse. These frames do the Arabians as and Persians nara which : in their is much owne language call Chilmias if you should say in : Spanish Quarenta Columnas. fairnesse. translated into English. or Alcoranas for so they call those high narrow round steeples which the Arabians have in their Mesquites. we have seen and stand eth about a league from the River Bandamir. do move admiration cannot but with layed open. in times past called Araxis (not that which parteth Media from the greater Armenia). sheweth it self e to them that come to this Citie from the Towne of Xiria. so receiving still greater His description of the ruins of Perpublicity. whereof often mention is made by Q. so : most of those huge wilde buildings of the Castle and Palace of Per- much celebrated in the monuments of ancient writers.12 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. yea and onely monument of the world (which f arre exceedeth all the rest of the World's miracles that or heard of). Curtius. This rare. . and : long-lasting matter of these Pillars appeareth by the twentie which are yet left of alike fashion which with other remaynders of those stately Piles . to live in the minde of beholders. and at leisure much labour and since it be is your Lordships hap where you may see some resemblance of the things which I am about to But now at Venice.

ingraven in marble. and notably long beards. write of. their hair : spred to the shoulders. with great maiestie in certayne loftier chayres. which is very worthy of wonder in so divers dresses of so in these tables. 13 I will briefly tell you that most of the pictures of men. the seate being sup- ported with a little foote-stoole neatly made. doe seele the front. like the Punike vest used by the Turks and Persians at . about a hand high. yet shineth as neatly as if it were but new-done) you . though it be ancient. and clad in the same fashion which the Venetian Magnificoes goe in that is Gownes downe to the heeles. And. in use through all Asia. or hath beene these many For though past. Yet verily in all this day. which is the Royall Diademe. and these Cavaia and shashes round about their heads. that. is Antiquitie we can gather no such arguments of the cloathing of Assyrians. which they call Aljuba. and statelier parts of this building. such as use to bee with us in the Quires and Chapter Houses of Cathedrall Churches. with round flat caps. as we finde many of the Greekes and all Eomanes yet it appeareth sufficiently that they used garments of a middle size for length. distinguished yet both by fashion and colour from the Cidaris. are decked with a very comely cloathing. many men as are ingraven none cometh neere the fashion which Ages out of at this day. : this sculpture (which. and Persians. the sides. with wide sleeves. appointed for the in these tables sitting Yee may see some men seates of the chiefe Prelates . Medes.EAELY TEAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS.

nor of any other Nation which was ever found of day to be extant. doth dazzle the eyes of the beBut nothing amazed me more than the holders. which the memorie of man could yet attaine to the knowledge of from any part of the World so that this worke may Now nothing seeme to excede all Antiquities. with characters still so fresh and faire that one would wonder how it could scape so blemish. many and so curiously places there are Tables so wrought and polished that . nor Arabike. hardnesse and. : Jaspers. of the forme of a Pyramide. for in solide. can see no picture that is like or in the workmanship resembleth any other. distinct and perspicuous. Notwithstanding the wondrous and artificiall exactness of the worke. or such a little Obeliske as I have set in the margin (A) so that in nothing do they differ from one another but in their placing and situation. durablenesse of these Marbles and old. yet so conformed that they are wondrous What kind of plaine. They are all three cornered. by which that may easily be discerned. building lonick or mixt) cannot be gathered from the remaynder of these mines which is otherwise in the old broken walls at Rome. : more confiraieth this than one notable Inscription cut in a Jasper table. but somewhat long. many Ages without touch The Letters themselves of the least are neither Chaldean. nor Hebrew. the whole was (whether Corinthian. the beautie and elegancy of it shining out of the proportion and symmetrie. nor Greeke. or at this .14 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA.

But most delicately of all doth Diodorus deliver this storie. Spahani exarata Ad Marchionem Bedmari nuper ad Venetos. discourse of it that he that hath seene this and read that cannot possibly be deceived. Arrianus and Justine make special mention of this Palace and they report that Alexander the Great .EARLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. Persiae Regem Legati De Rebus Persarum Epistola. English translation in Purchas His PiJgrimes. all doth so agree with his porteth. Part ii. Belgarum Principes Regium Legatum Antverpiae ex officina Plantiniana. Austrriae Archiduces. at the foote whereof the Castle itself just so farre is built. the greater part whereof hath yielded to the time and weather. Be- sides the Authors by me alreadie commended. placed on the side of that hill. M. ye 15 may see your face in them as in a glasse.XIX. (at the instigation of Thais) did burne it downe. inscriptions ing to copy which he saw. ff. | | | | | | | M. It was a pity that this did not occur to him. London. and the idea of attemptany of these strange characters never seems to have entered his mind. an. There stand also the sepulchres of their kings. "The whole Castle was encompassed with a threefold circle of walls. 6. Regis v Kal. p. and the monuments stand from one another as Diodorus reIn a worde. for the wide dissemination of his letter would have earlier intro1 Ad Garciae Silva Figueroa Philippi III Hispaniarum Indiarumq. nunc ad Sereniss.DC.XX.DC. ." * Sylva y Figueroa had evidently more interest in the peoples of the ancient Orient than in their lanHe had not given much attention to the guages. | | | | | | 1533-1534. 1625.

Mario Schipano. duced Europe to the idea that here was another great field for study. \ . 1 TT da lui medeimo mold anni sua Printed 1658. and intended to mean something. Amico Mario Schipano. But Europe was now soon to learn something of the appearance of these strange signs. Commenting upon these signs. . In passing through Persia he visited the ruins of Persepolis. leaving smooth precipice surfaces around it.16 HISTOEY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and India. 206. " familiar " this journey he wrote letters. In 64. Lettere familiari . once the capital of ancient Persia. Descritti AW fro piti cari. Vol. he remarks that in the seo 1 il Pellegrino. In the years 1614-1626 Pietro della Valle traversed a large part of Turkey. Here he marked that the city was surrounded upon three sides by mountains which broke off abruptly. . On history. at Naples. he described the appearance of these strange signs. di iii. e . What language this might be or what letters he had no idea. and even went so far as to copy down into his letter a few of them 1 : <T ffi Tf Viaggi dl Pietro della Valle. 1621. erudito. These mysterious signs would even then have attracted attention. . evidently made by the hand of man. In a letter written October 21. . p. to a friend and physician. which were in reality almost treatises upon geography. and ethnology. Persia. Upon this smooth rock in a number of places he found strange marks. and that without very great exactness. In Roma MDCL.

by G. The appearance of these few signs in his published letters were the first sight which Europe gained of the appearance of the written language of ancient Persia. In 2 vols. upon other grounds which he then proceeds to state. for the greater part. London. A brief sketch of his life is printed in the introduction to The Travels of Pietro della Valle in India. consisting of three strokes downright. he decided that this tongue was really to be read from left to right. He was a close and careful observer. there seemed to be indications that it was made from and not from right to left. Printed for the Hakluyt Society.EAELY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. as were most of the oriental tongues of which he had knowledge. So came the learned of Europe to know that the ancient Persians had carved some sort of language on the rocks at Persepolis. He had thus already begun to speculate upon the question as to whether this unknown language was read from right to left. and accurate. 17 ond one of them. tributed But little by little toward the reading of As1 syrian and Babylonian books. or whether it was to be read. Persian. . 1 Pietro della Valle was a man of learning in his age. Edited by Edward Grey. and Arabic. writing and speaking Turkish. but what these signs might mean none knew. His letters were repeatedly reprinted and must have had an extensive circulation. from the old English translation of 1664. and possessing some knowledge of Coptic. Havers. from On the ground already alleged. and left to right. ward and one pointing toward the left to right. in the reproduction of his observations. like the European languages. and there was apparently no clue to their to Pietro della Valle belongs the honor of beginning the long line of men who con- meaning. 1892.

in which Persepolis receives more attention. lonia before reaching England at the end of 1629. pp. 59. however. *lbid. accredited to the Persian court as ambassador. In his suite was a boy of nineteen years of age. . Pietro della Valle was. 1 it merits our paines to begunne | A | Relation | of some yeares j travaile. Esquier. sailed away from England. and isles Adjacent. by T. and is introduced in quaint and enthusiastic phrase. In 1627 Sir Dodmore Cotton. considerably enlarged. . They later Mount Taurus and Casbin.18 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Persian Gulf. 1634. on 1627-8. thus "Let us now (what pace you please) to Persepolis. 56-60. 1 " ingly discursive concerning the Images of Lions. not long left in possession of the honors of primacy in his exami- nation of Persepolis. Griffins. at by name Thomas Herbert. died. Gombrun. but he says not proportion a word about inscriptions. The party landed January visited 10.. In 1638 he issued a " second edition. and thence proceeded to Ashraff for an audience with the king. especially the Territories of the Persian Monarchic and some parts of the Orientall Indies. London. : | | . who was also in the suite. not much out of the road: but were it a : thousand times further. | Anno 1626 | Into Afrique and the greater Asia. . and Herbert was left free to continue his travHerbert saw much of Persia and of Babyels. and Buls of rare sculpture and Tygres. p. In 1634 he published an account of these travels and devoted a few pages to Persepolis and ChilIn his description he is very entertainmanor. where Cotton and Sir Robert Shirley. " which he saw there. H.

. and so alludes to them " In part of this great roome (not farre : from the portall) in a mirrour of polisht marble. a member of an " Embassy sent by the Duke of Holstein to the great Duke of Muscovy and the King of Persia. Albert de Mandelslo. and order as cannot well be called barbarous. yeares | p. 145. 19 Monument being indeed the only brave Antique(not in Persia alone) but through all ' the Orient. He did. rest a few years. however. And." who traveled in the East 1638-1640. or Latine letter. I thought some words had. 1638. as no Hierogliphick. | . but so mysticall. and in that time another traveler had seen the ruins. 9 second edition. and pyramidall. yet questionlesse to the Inventer it was well knowne. obelisk. view it." In this edition he comes up to the question of inscriptions. though to this day " wrapt up in the dim leafes of envious obscuritie. Some resemblance.EARLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. though it have small concordance with the Hebrew. This was J. | Some Travels into | Divers Parts of Revised and enlarged by the Author. pp.. no other deep conceit can be more difficultly fancied. so odly framed. Asia and Afrique London. Greek. more adverse to These consisting of Figures." Even here Herbert did not cease the work of elaborating his description of Persepolis. 143. very faire and apparent to the eye. 146. of the Antick Greek. shadowing out Ahasuerus Theos. yet in such Simmetiy triangular. The account of his wanderings 1 Ibid. wee noted above a dozen lynes of strange-characters. . and perad venture may conceale some excellent matter. | . the intellect.

WagenThe first German edition which I have seen was published at inge. Hebrew. or Arabian. Faithfully rendered into English. which have nothing common with either the Greek." l In 1677 Herbert issued the fourth impression of the account of his travels. engraven 1662.20 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. which. in Neer duyts overgeset door D. he includes a specimen plate. . . . of Holstein . In its revised form the account deserves : quotation here " Adjoyning these toward the West is a Jasper 1 The first edition which I have been able to find of Mendelslo's travels appeared at Utrecht in 1651. are triangular. " Schleszwig In Jahr The Voyages thus : MDCLVI. 5. There are twelve lines of these characters. but so well graven and so pro- whot did them cannot be Some believe. they are Telesthought Barbarians rnes.LXII. or like obelisques. M. V. nor indeed with any other language.DC. and it is altogether probable that he was moved to this by Mendelslo's book." & The first English edition bears title-page Travels of the Ambassadors sent by Frederick. secretary to the embassy. P. Secretary to the Embassy. Piramidal. and that they contain some secrets which Time portionate. was written down by Olearius. London. certain unknown characters. as to their figure. Duke written originally by Adam Olearius. that those : will discover. In this he devotes still more space to Persepolis and its inscriptions. : upon a square pillar. and an English translation appeared in Mandelslo also described the columns as usual and then added this statement "Near these chambers may be seen. by John Davies of Kidwelly. and being desirous that he should not lose the credit of being first to publish a copy of the inscriptions.

yea so far from our deciphering them that we could not so much as make any positive judg- The Characters usual shape ment whether they were words or Characters albeit I rather incline to the first. by the posture and tendency of some of the it Characters (which consist of several magnitudes) may be supposed that this writing was rather from the left hand to the right. albeit I have since compared them with the twelve several Alphabets in Postellus. all of them eye. as the Armenian and Indian do at this day. Romans and other Nations imitaNevertheting their Alphabets have accustomed.writing we familiarly practise Nor indeed could we judge whether the writing were from the right hand to the left. and the stone so well polished that its lustre. which indeed comprehend all or most of the various forms of letters that either now or at any time have been . and after that with those eight and fifty different Alphabets I find in Purchas. And concerning the Characters. icks .EARLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. tal and usual manner of these Orien Countreys . . comprehended words or syllables. are very perfect to the it reserves are of a strange and unneither like Letters nor Hieroglyph. wherein are inscribed about twenty lines of Characters. every line being a yard and a half broad or thereabouts . and that they as in Brachy: ography or Short. 21 or Marble Table about twenty foot from the pavement. as the Greeks. less. according to the Ohaldee. most of which are borrowed from that learned Scholar Gromay. or from the left hand to the right.

in use through the greatest part of the Universe. for it is very likely that this structure was raised by Astyages or his Grandson Cyrus j and is acknowl: semblance or coherence with any of them . same . I could not perceive that these had the least re- which and certainly renders it the greater is very strange. Astyages. as he was of those memorable Buildings at Shushan and Ecbatan . which is writ the contrary way to the and Hebrew). who probably might be the survey our and instruct the Architector of this Palace. and perad venture by Daniel. . edged that a ing this great Prophet (who likewise was Civil Officer in highest trust and repute dur- those great revolutions of State under the mighty Monarchs Nebuchodonosor. yet doubtless in the Age these were engraven they were both legible and intelligible and not to be imagined that they were there placed either to amuse or to delude the spectators for it cannot letter in the Chaldee . without doubt they were at some time understood. Darius. to us. or (if I may so compare them) with the Lamed in the Samaritan Alphabet. Belshazzar. and therefore well worthy the scrutiny curiosity of some ingenious Persons that delight themselves in this dark and difficult Art or Exercise of deciFor. and Cyrus) had his mysterious Characters So as how incommunicable soever these Characters be to us (for they bear the resem: blance of pyramids inverted or with bases up- wards. how obscure soever these seemed phering. Triangles or Delta's.

development of the author's knowledge. tive according to the testimony of a learned Author. qui hodie in vestigiis unter. Persae proprios habebant Characteres. These were the first that had been published in England. | | | | . London. 141. as also sevliving) as well many Addi eral Sculptures. times 23 be denied but that the Persians in those primi- had letters peculiar to themselves. scription. antiquorum Monumentorum vix inveniHowever. 1677. however. but unhappily they did not form a complete inThe first two lines come from one inscription." These quotations from the successive editions in the very process of but they unfortunately do not show much growth. and brought forth from them some copies of cuneiform signs. Great . I have thought fit to insert a : few of these for better demonstration which nevertheless whiles they cannot be will in all probability like the Mene read. and the of Herbert show a book copying was not very well done.EARLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. . 142. which differed from all those of other Nations. and the third from another. 1 It | was a pity Some Years . never before Printed. Herbert had. Tekel with' out the help of a Daniel hardly be interpreted. in the fourth impression consulted his notes to greater advantage. | Travels | into | Divers Parts | of Africa and Asia the In this fourth Impression are added (by the Author now tions throughout the whole work. pp.

1711. and early a wanderer. nothing of importance to the pursuit of knowledge concerning the East. see p. In the same manner the few signs which an English traveler. and among them had found how important it was to make copies of inscriptions. copied and published in England failed of arousing any interest and their inscriptions at Persepolis. Born at Paris in 1643. 3 torn. Flower. That would have been a genuine contribution to learnAs it happened Herbert's book contributed ing. Flower had a most singular history. had not taken the time and pains that Herbert necessary to make a complete as well as a correct copy of one inscription however small. Many things he had learned in his journey ings. en Perse r Orient. however. autres lieux de . He was the in the rocks 1 2 first 1 to copy one of these little Persian inscriptions which These copies of Mr. aroused no special interest. inscriptions at Persepolis. scientific certainly true that this entertainingly written narrative may have influenced later work by arousing fresh interest in the ruined palaces. saw the rocks at Persepolis. and there was in reality hardly enough of these signs even to awaken curiosity.24 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. this man. It is. The first real impulse to an attempt at unraveling the secrets of Persepolis was given by Sir John Chardin. whether one could read them or not. Amsterdam. an outline of is given in the Excursus below. 74. S. et 2 Voyages de Monsieur le Chevalier Chardin. and the mystic The copies of a few signs by Pietro delle Valle and by Herbert. however. Mr. after long voyages.



some genuine interest in the matter. After Chardin the next man to see the ruins of Persepolis was Jean Baptiste Tavernier. and to the same city he returned December 3. torn. 1699. plate at p. It was now plainly seen that the characters were made up of little wedges and arrowheads of which the latter were formed by the combination of two of the former. having accomplished the task. 25 When this was published ' it was at last possible for students to see some of the peculiarities of this method of writing.. On June 1693. there was found no man so bold as to essay a decipherment of the enigmatic signs.EARLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. The prevalence of this rule seemed to confirm the guess already hazarded more than once that the language But. Chardin's published inscription awakened. entire. right. In all of them this one abiding rule seemed to be followed. however. more than the to present. and that the arrowheaded forms were always open toward the right. that the wedges always pointed to the right or downward. Giovanni Francesco Gemelli-Carreri started away from Naples make the circuit of the globe. too much interested in himself and in his was really to be read from left to reception by the king to pay much attention to the past and its great monuments. In 1694 A ' Ibid. . though for the first time. But in a short time there came another traveler who was interested in the past 13. iii. By combinations of these wedges and arrowheads the most complex-looking signs were produced. 11 8. who was.

nor Hebrew. nor of any of those Languages the Learned have Knowledge. but only Triangles of the various several Sorts. the Goris themselves being at present very ignorant as to their Antiquities. . Man proposes to himself for whereas the Author thought by means of those inscriptions to have . is an Inscription in the same Character. and express'd some Thoughts. nor Arabick. how easily human Judgment is misand how different things happen to what . nor Greek. Not far off on a same black marble. began to consider . After some preliminary description he makes some statements about the inscriptions in form On the South Side outwards there is an Inscription cut on an empty space 15 spans long. and 7 broad. . that they are Characters of the ancient Goris.26 lie HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. severally plac'd. and another on such another Stone which I observing. and unfit to give any Judgment of such Pilaster of the things. who were Sovereigns of Persia but this is not easily to be made out. in such a character that there is now no understanding Person in the World that can this " : make anything of it. as to how he traveled to the ruins Ms statements is and careful in reporting the dimensions of everything which he saw. It is neither Caldee. . taken. and remembering those I had seen before. was in Persia and naturally visited the ruins of He is very explicit in Persepolis. placing . whereof perhaps formed divers words. The most receiv'd Opinion is. with myself.

and was scarce come to the place where I had left my Armenian Servant before I hear'd him as'k me whether I had found it. showing the columns of the palace still standing in front of the mountain. .EARLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. picture are Above : this two lines of inscription as follows . The Reader therefore it enough that I have drawn the Plan will think of the Palace. eternizM his 27 Memory with is Posterity. and a vast charge to print them. which the beauty of the work well deserv'd. fortunate searcher into the oriental languages his wit may employ " Having very well spent all the Day in seeing and distinctly observing the best part of those Antiquities. as the Carvansedar had told him which made me laugh heartily all the Way. Such precious Remains of Antiquity well deserve to be cut in Copper for the satisfaction of the fault of the natives Ingenious. and two lines of twelve there are in the inscription on the Pilaster of the first Floor perhaps hereafter some more ." the side of this narrative Carreri presents a copperplate illustration of the platform at Perse- By polis. yet quite the contrary " we see fallen out. draw above two thousand Basse Relieves. on the Treasure in Portugese. . that there may be some knowledge of the several Habits of the antient Persians. and that he believing the Inscriptions were I had Read them and taken . the Treasure. before they are quite lost through the but it is a difficult matter to . . . I returned. with some of the principal Figures .

at least. Voyage round the World. P. In this pidly. with but slight changes. then. D. the search for facts about records at Persepolis. 246. 1 even of Voyages and Travels [Churchills]. Daulier-Deslandes. V. par M. . 1-606. 1 ] size as the copy given in Churchill's republica- purpose of Carreri to leave upon the reader's mind the impression that he had copied these characters himself. MDCCXXVII.LXXIII. is a clear case of deception proved at once upon the NeaHe has borrowed. however. (Andrae Daulier Des Lands Vardomois. pp. M. N. A . and that rather stupolitan. Should be p. John Containing pp. is certainly not true. 402. Here. slight examination and It is evidently the A comparison reveal the fact that these two lines are made up out of the three lines of Herbert. The pagination is incorrect. L. Plate The plate is better reproduced in Voyage du Tour du Monde p.DC. 3 It had already appeared in It has His punishment has been severe. D. Translated from the Italian. . is also borrowed without acknowledgment. Francis Gemelli-Carreri. Traduit de F Italian de Gemelli Careri. the picture of the platform at Persepolis. [Reproduced in the same tion of Carreri's narrative. By Dr. he has made no contribution to matter. To make the matter rather worse. Collection A MDCCIV. 172. . par le Sieur A. Paris. iv. 8 Les Seautez de la Perse . . . Vol. 175.) Paris. London.28 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. from his English predecessor. 174. This. which he gives beneath his plate of inscriptions.

The slow assaults upon these inscriptions at PerThe sepolis were now becoming international. a common habit then. where he had studied the botany and then the manners. indeed. howan excess of skepticism. and French had all Spanish. the book of Carreri is . English. but there is really no reason ever. He doubtless borrowed much from his predecessors. made their observations. and never been absent from Naples at all.EARLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. of importance in the history of decipherment not indeed that his copy or his description was of but because his book was widely read in Europe. and the history of that then . Italians. 29 that Carreri copied scriptions men have been moved to say that much more than the plate of in- and the Plan of Persepolis. should make his contribution to the unraveling of the mystery. It was now in order that a German. nor had seen anything which he describes. and not altogether unknown among travelers even now. physician. Kaempfer was a Germany. been this. any practical use. to believe that the whole of Carreri's narrative was fictitious. This is. And that was no mean service. that he had copied. He had already made important contributions to science through long residence in Japan. customs. But that question aside. Engelrecht Kaempfer. born and trained in but largely become a Hollander by resi- dence and service. everything in his book. and had its share in keeping alive the interest in Persepolis and in stimulating more.

fasciculi v. The longer inscription appears to have interested him most. copied again the little threeline inscription which pared for publication. 1712. and may very 1 Kaempfer's important investigations are published in his great book. and not to the smaller one at all. From Chardin had already preThat would have been no the work had he gone no but he made a gain by publishing for the further. which was not in old Persian at all. quibus continenter variae relationes. and upon this he made some observations which sprang naturally out of his former studies in Chinese and Japanese. or in ideographic characters ? Or. collector ab auctore Engelberto Kaempfero. If he had reference in this judgment only to his longer inscription. do these little wedge-shaped case a letter. . multa attentione. first time a long inscription. His question was in simplest form this Have we in these : strange-looking inscriptions a language written in alphabetic. a syllable. and he certainly did not know in what language or languages these texts might be written. land. each of them representing a word. in another form . in peregrinationibus per univer- Amoenitatum & & siim Orientem. observationes descriptiones rerum Persicarum ulterioris Aftiae. or signs represent in each a word ? His decision was that the signs were an idea or ideographic.Babylonian.30 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. his decision was correct. but in Assyro. and not knowing exactly what he did. Quart. in syllabic. Lemgoviae. D. unknown the mystery of Japan he turned to the mystery of Persia. exoticai~>im politico-phy&ico-medicarum. The contribution to 1 new difference between the two inscriptions he does not appear to have noticed.

1 lished in Dutch. there were reproduced two In reality the inscriptions in a threefold form. Cornelis de Bruin. door Persie en Indie. His work might almost entirely be claimed as Holland's contribution to this national enterprise do. 2 Voyages de Corneille le Srun par la Moscovie. and not merely two scriptions in- Bruin repeated in three languages. numbered 131. 31 possibly have influenced those who came after him to a proper decision at the beginning of their researches. and also copied inscriptions there. 134. Kaempfer spent the later days of his life in the Netherlands. 2 torn. t'AmFolio. and India was published In this in new work sumptuous style in Amsterdam. but Bruin believed that he had really published six inscriptions. progress of these studies was surprisingly The very costliness of its magnificent original publication might have made it accessible to few. en Perse. two other inscriptions each in a reproduced Bruin's book was first pubsingle language. who visited the ruins in 1704. and between 217 and 218 are the copies of the inscriptions. and in this 1 steldam. Ten years later an account of his travels over Moscovia. in- . 1714. The plates in this edition are between pages 270 and 271.EARLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. if inter- But Holland was now there were any need so to to make its own direct contribution through one of its own sons. 1718. a Amsterdam. but afterward appeared in French. Cornells de Bruins Reizen over Moskovie. et aux Indes Orientates. threefold' form was later discovered to be three languages. Persia. Between pages 216 and 217 are magnificent cop- perplate views of the ruins at Persepolis. ii. and between 272 and 273. 8 Its influence upon the small. serted in vol.

more must have had a considerable circulation. possibly some explanation of its slight But the French edition. Europe looked idly over the plates in which these strange characters appeared and apparently made no attempt to get at their secret. every wr edge. would read the accounts of their predecessors. If the proposition the number . every little corner. There could be no hope of a suc- decipherment until the quiet scholar in his library had copies in which every line. was accurately reprocessful duced. The gain had been chiefly in of texts offered. and.32 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and in a form more simple. or even decipherment. inspired by them. is there influence. in a language extensively used. and every single suggestion or hint weighed and considered. eagerly scanned. pursuit of them shortly. Yet even from this there came no impulse. and then each line published by one traveler after another would be ters of curiosity. which were yet made were too good chance for All the copies brief to offer a translation. They were still mat- but their publication at all was an achievement which could not be permanently The restless spirit of man would be in fruitless. In this was the chief hope for the future. far not The improvement in this respect had thus been great. would go to see the same ruins and to bring back more complete copies of these little inscriptions. were furthermore inaccurate in very imporThey tant matters. Other travelers planning to visit these same lands in the age before guidebooks.

made by the Royal Society of London. . men would certainly have seized upon this little vase as containing a clue to the decipherment of the cuneiform characters. Like the publications which preceded it. By the side of this shorter line were some hieroglyphic characters. In this story of a slow-moving effort at decipherment the small must find its mention along with the great and there is need to turn for a moment from Persepolis to mention the publica. . . cinquieme. tion made in 1762 of a beautiful vase. in 1693. Flower's copies were first presented. monuments at Per- torn. that. and then it l became known Jiecuil cTAntiquites. It would then have appeared as a bilingual text. followed by a shorter line of the same. this also failed of any influence upon the progress of research at this time. 1 Upon this were inscribed at the upper part one long line of cuneiform characters. for the Rosetta stone had not yet been found by Napoleon's soldiers as they threw up their breastworks. like the . 1762. in The which the Egyptian formed one part and the cuneiform the other. had been followed. Paris. hieroglyphic signs were not yet deciphered. the at- tempts to decipher would have undoubtedly begun much earlier than they did. and a complete copy made of all these inscriptions by a competent hand.EARLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. By this means Egyptian would have become the mother study for Assyrian. If the Egyptian could have then been read. planche xxx. Later this vase played a part both in Egyptian and in Assyrian studies. . 33 when Mr.

and. the ruins of Persepolis were visited by Carsten Niebuhr. Niebuhr's description of the ruins of Persepolis makes careful note of the changes which had come to the ruins by the ravages of time and the hand of man siuce Bruin had seen them. the cuneiform texts were in reality written in three separate languages. was a of exact and methodical habits of work. like some of his predecessors. unlike the others. furthermore. had had long man experience of travel. was now to begin making contribu- tions of great importance which should carry the investigations far beyond anything that had yet been attained. giving their share of time and labor to the international work. also. He. His distinguished son has thus set forth the enthusiasm and the methods of Niebuhr in these researches : . The was publication of the inscriptions on the vase made by the French. So were the European nations. the smaller had yet hardly begun. even when their work appeared to count for little at the time. In the month of March. The former show afresh references which he gives to the two the continuity of study and indicate how much these early voyagers had really accomplished. the people of Denmark. prepared for just this work a perusal of Bruin and Chardin. two ]ines of sepolis. and apparby ently. one by one. He had.34 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. One of these. and then hurries on the real matter which most concerned him. 1765. even by the reading of Pietro della Valle. The greater ones among them had now done something.

number of inscriptions and sculptures made him. as in this atmosphere the hard. already affected by the uninterrupted work. gem of all that he had "Three weeks and a half he remained beneath them. The inscriptions are placed high up on the walls. much against his will. insufficient the Nothing out of drawings hitherto published were. and the The remembrance of night saw him sleepless. originally polished marble is not weatherworn. if once correct copies of them were placed before him and Niebuhr's keen eye told him how . he could not rest until he had reached Persepolis. by comparing them.EARLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. obliged him. and bas-reliefs had been sufficiently well represented by three former travelers to arouse the attention of Niebuhr as The the most important monument of the East. his eyes. to leave the old Persian sanctuary before he had completed his drawings. would be able to understand them. inscriptions. 35 "These ruins. and were clearly to be distinguished only when the sun shone upon them. these ruins remained ineffaceable all his life long . all that he saw in Asia attracted last him so powerfully in anticipation. as well as the death of his Armenian servant. hope that an interpreter might be found who. and this. were dangerously inflamed . in the midst of a wilderness." . and during this time he worked without interruption at the measurement and drawing of the ruins. they were for him the viewed.

36 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. To these he added four texts which had not before appeared in any work. 3 vols. . Kopenhagen. The description of Persepolis is in vol. A certain amount of leisure was now secured. ' and while writing the narrative of his travels for the press he went over these little inscriptions and made some It was discoveries concerning them. It would seem from this that it was the design of Niebuhr to copy every inscription which he could find at Persepolis. ended in Denmark on November 20. ness he achieved a result attained by no one who had preceded him. but in a form far excelling them for accuracy. and with that in That was a good mind he comin pared all his copies and soon determined that them there were writing. Reisebeschreibung nach Arabien und andern umliegenden Landern. 1767. He republished several of the texts which Bruin and Kaempfer had published before him. in the first place clear to him that the conjectures of earlier students. in the second the complexity 1 had some- Carsten Niebuhr. point of approach. that this writing was to be read from left to right. really three separate systems of These three systems were always kept In one of them the distinct in the inscriptions. 1774-1837. were correct. ii. But Mebuhr made other contributions besides merely reporting the state of the ruins and giving His long journeyings copies of the inscriptions. That would have been a Even without this completegreat task indeed. little wedges were not so complex in their combinations.

nor had he at command the various historical 1 For data necessary for 1 its solution. vol. which he to Class I. while in the third it 37 much greater.EAKLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. characters. calling them Class I. Having come thus far. . between pp. whatever it might be. what increased. He held rather to the view that the proud builders of Persepolis had carved their inscriptions in a threefold form. this. Far beyond all his predecessors had Niebuhr gone. He did now seems a natural had become come to what not. He then arranged all those. 132 and 133. and III. ii. however. however. he did not possess the requisite linguistic genius. When Niebuhr had made his list of signs he naturally enough decided that this language. conclusion. plate xxiii. that three lan- guages were here represented. He had given the Ibid. II. It is a pity that he was not able to go still further and essay the decipherment of one of these little inscriptions of the first class. according to the manner of their writing. was written in alphabetic This much was finally determined. These he copied out and set in order in one of his plates. the same words being written in more complicated characters. he made still another step in advance. that belonged and by careful comparison decided that in them there were employed altogether but forty-two (42) signs. He divided these little inscriptions into three distinct classes. This list of signs was so nearly complete and accurate that later study has made but slight changes in it. and future investigation would not overthrow it.. had copied.

. world the material in a new and substantially correct form. in Germany. Soon after the richer store of Niebuhr had been published. the rest must be left for another.. two scholars were at work seriously attempting to decipher these texts. but inclined diagonally. professor of ori- ental languages in the University of Rostock. p. *2bid. are trilingual. that remained to guide future He observed that there occurred at workers. For just this which Mebuhr had furnished the learned world had been waiting. the Danish academician of Copenhagen. 6. Of more general importance was his statement that "all the inscriptions of Niebuhr. p. simply because so little had been offered by them. the other was Friedrich Miinter. Rostochiij 1798. with a single exception. 24. The words of Bruin and Chardin had awakened no scholar to attempts to decipher the texts which they had copied."* In that sentence spoke a linguist.38 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. the previous 1 De cuneatis inscriptionibus Persepolitanis lucubratio. The first was Olav Gerhard Tychsen. and he had pointed out the proper place to begin. Tychsen made a very important discovery in the beginning of his researches. irregular intervals in the inscriptions of the first class a wedge that pointed neither directly to the downward. ery later 1 This very simple discov- became of very great importance in the hands of Miinter. This wedge Tychsen suggested was the dividing sign right nor used to separate words.

argued wrongly as to the age of and reached the erthese inscriptions roneous conclusion that had been written during the Parthian dynasty (246 B. " This is the king. The matter was now in the hands of 39 men men accustomed to deal with languages. and that scarcely a word of it had been correctly rendered. gained several smaller steps. He the buildings at Persepolis." But a later investigator was to show that this was not an inscription of Arsaces at all. This error in history vitiated his promising attempt at the decipherment of one small inscription which had been found above the He rendered it thus figure of a king. of skill. C. workers had been travelers. but in making that he had. this is Arsaces. This statement makes the work of Tychsen appear almost abortive. The rest of Tychsen's work was not of enduring character. this is Arsaces.. Miinter was more fortunate than Tychsen in his historic researches. and at the place thus attained another might begin and travel farther. men of science. but such a judgment would not be just. this is Arsaces the divine. D. He had indeed failed in the greater effort. p. the pious. .EAELY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. and the promise of ultimate success was yearly growing brighter.). this is Arsaces the great. 29. nevertheless. and that made him also more He rightly successful in his linguistic attempts. 227 A. the admirable : ' hero. identified the builders of Persepolis with the Achae1 Ibid. the perfect and the king.

but it did cast welcome light upon them. he recognized the oblique wedge as the divider between words. adapted to such work. It was an achieve- ment far exceeding that of the decipherment of the Egyptian hieroglyphics. new material which would This greatly simplify the labor of decipherment. new material did not directly concern the inscriptions of Persepolis. but it is present point vowel " a " and the consonant " b. This was great gain. of view it may sound small. former workers that the texts were to be read from left to right.40 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and so located in time the authors of the rnenides. but events were now make accessible to another man of genius. and was able to go far beyond this. taken bodily out of the darkness and gloom which had settled over assistance of this language centuries before. which was secured by the aid of a bilingual text containing Greek. It is connected with three great names . the material which Miinter had it would difficult to have been go farther. the full force of which he was not able to appreciate nor to utilHe also agreed with the judgment of the ize. even to the recognizing of the This was the From our first sure step in the decipherment. of which the first. and was beyond them in his full recognition of three languages. last two were translations of the Independ- ently of Tychsen. inscriptions." to be remembered that it was made without the any bilingual text. The name all of Miinter may well be held in honor among who With to covet knowledge of the past of the Orient.

who secured for him a small stipend as a student of Arabic and Persian. he could not read. carried on for this purpose.EAELY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. He enlisted as a common soldier. as Avestan. of reaching the land of his dreams. The times were troubled. war was likely at any time to begin between France and England in In- and even now French troops were about to be dispatched thither. but long erroneously called Zend. there to learn from the priests of Zoroastrianism the language of their sacred books. In the seminary studies. With these lay his only hope dia. but before he had sailed from 5 . as in its scientific connections. be. even in his hopeless poverty. He determined. and destined him to the priesthood. Here he attracted the nohis day. to get out to India. the young man learned He- brew. In the year 1731 there was born at Paris a boy whose parents gave him the name of Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron. in few leaves of an oriental manuwhich were written words sacred in the The language best known religion of Zoroaster. In that treasure-house of human knowledge there fell into his hands a script. and romantic in its personal. tice of Abbe Sallier. and that introduced him to the fascination of the oriental world. as it has many another since His soul forgot its dedication to the priesthood and became absorbed in oriental study at the Royal Library of Paris. and his soul burned with longing to learn what these strange characters should and what the language which they expressed. 41 in the annals of oriental studies.

42 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. at Pondilanded. the greatest Arabic scholar of his age. but laden with oriental manuscripts to the number of one hundred and eighty. 1755. 1762. who gave him a discharge. He on the 10th of August. tized The linguistic collections of Anquetil-Duperron were organized and systemaby Eugene Burnouf. When the war broke out between France and England he suffered terrible privations. After Anquetil-Duperron and Eugene Burnouf there is to be added the name of Silvestre de Sacy. In May. as one who. Out of this store he published in 1771 the Zend-Avesta. and it was this fact that was to have an important bearing upon the study of the inscriptions of Persepolis. without intending so to do. cast a valuable side light upon Persepolitan research. L'Orient his friends had appealed to the minister. where he ingratiated himself with the priests and acquired enough salary paid knowledge of the language to translate the dictionary Vedidad-Sade and other works. . but it was now destined to exert another followers of Zoroaster. provided free passage. potent influence. he arrived at Paris poor and exhausted. and waited a short time to study modern Persian. and ordered a him on arrival at his destination. which brought to Europe its first sight of the sacred books of the This publication was of immense value to the study of religion and of history. with a seat at the captain's table. At last his reward came at Surat. cherry. and later at Chandernagore to study Sanskrit.

German. D. there had been brought to Europe copies of some scriptions written in cuneiform characters.. the of Iran and Aniran. Italian. Out of Persepolis. and soon its which conquered their mystery least their general sense. reaching from the earlier part of the fourteenth century down to the very beginning of the nineteenth. and that they run about in this style " N. English. like the work of Duperron and Burnouf. we be the better able to understand the method and the results which were now to be revealed.). little in- It had already been learned concerning them that they .. de Sacy. began the decipherment of these inscriptions. Spanish. son of : king of kings. the great king. If now we and gather up the shall loose threads of our story. the king 1ST. look back over this long story. 43 In Persia travelers had long been noticing inscriptions written during the Sassanian period in In the the Palevi character (227-641 A." That discovery had its own importance in its own field. sufficiently to gain at He found that they had a stereotyped form from which there was scarcely ever a departure. who was later years 1787-1791 Sylvestre to lay the foundations of Arabic philology on present structure is still standing. Danish.EARLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. etc. the great king. by the combined efforts of a long line of travelers. but. Dutch. it was now to be applied to other uses by a man whose aim was to decipher much older inscriptions. and Portuguese.

from the more ancient tongue which scholars were now trying to decipher. The style in which the Sassanian kings wrote their inscriptions discoveries of De Sacy . namely. finding something that might be made useful to the decipherer. "a" and "b. valuable hints might be had from the concerning the inscriptions of Sassanian kings. also. or lexicon of Avestan there was a good hope of reminiscence of old Persian. syntax. while of some others possible or even probable meanings were suggested. with possibly some syllabic signs.44 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. It was exceedingly probable that it had taken up many words. But not only from this work of Duperron and Burnouf was there new material. It was likely. of which the first was ancient almost. belonged to the age of the Achseinenides. some In grammar. and that of these alphabetic signs two. but they had not known how to use it with best effect. Some of this material was accessible to Tychsen and to Miinter. There is a gift is for deciphering. Persian. that this ancient Persian was if not quite wholly. To this were now to be added two valuable side The decipherment of the Avestan language had supplied the grammatical structure and much of the vocabulary of a language spoken lights. that they were written in three languages. with some changes. as there a gift of tongues. an alphabetic language. over the very same territory as that in which Persian had formerly held dominion. to represent in its grammatical structure. in its declensions or conjugations." were almost certainly made out.

But even while this preliminary work was going on the genius who should achieve the result was it work preparing. and now there was a call for a man able to practice a method by which all that existed of fact or of hypothesis could be brought to bear.EARLY TRAVELERS AND DECIPHERERS. . In this we have shown what the material was. 45 was very probably copied from the style in which the older Achsemenides had written. what the problem. but as a hypothesis upon which to might prove useful. and what the essays made for its solution. and the successful result be achieved. That was not certain.

and for this purpose studied first at Ilfeld and later at the University of Gottingen. he was appointed in sion for the unraveling of difficult He . but also as an ingenious man with a pas- and recondite formed the friendship in Gottingen questions. and all these were present in the extraordinary man who now attacked the problem that had baffled so many. not only as a classical scholar of promise. though great scholars have been successful decipherers. not impossible. He may know but little of the languages that are cognate with the one whose secrets he is trying to unravel. Here he attracted much attention. Tychsen. GKOTEFEND AND KAWLINSON. the historical sense. He may indeed know nothing of them. On the recommendation of the first named. Georg Friedrich Grotefend was born at Mtinden. the feeling for archaeological indications. the power of combination. 1775. On June 9. He was destined to become a classical philologist. CHAPTER IT were difficult.46 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYEIA. to define the qualities of mind which must inhere in the deHe is not necescipherer of a forgotten language. Germany. the divine gift of insight. and Heeren. But the patience. of Heyne. the persistence. in Hanover. sarily a great scholar. if II. these must be present. as has several times been the case.

His method was exceedingly simple. His fundamental principles were taken over bodily from He began with the assumption the that there were three languages. 1803. 1802. No. and may be 1 made perfectly clear without the possession of any linguistic knowledge. Up But in 1802 to the study of oriental languages. None of these were published by the society. drew the attention of Grotefend to the inscriptions from Persepolis. his friend. in the society's archives and published in the Nachrichten von der Koniglicken Gesellschaft der wissenschaften zu Gottingen. of Gottingen. and that of these first was ancient Persian. probably his life little enlisted. 1893. 14. Grotefend was at once had no oriental learning. The original papers were found by Professor Wilhelm Meyer. . quas vacant inscriptionibus persepolitanls legendis et esplicandis relatio) and presented by a friend to the Gottingen Academy September 4. and May 20. the language of the Achsemenides. though he set himself to the work.GROTEFEND AND RAWLINSON. 47 1797 to an assistant mastership in the Gottingen Gymnasium. 1802. For his first 1 attempts at decipherment he chose two of first Grotefend's paper was written in Latin (De cuneatis. who had erected these palaces and caused these inscriptions to be written. It was followed by others on October 2. and his simplest facts his predecessors. November 13. dreaming of how many years of would be spent upon these little inscriptions or upon the work which grew out of them. which brought him reputation and a superior post in the Gymnasium at Frankfort-on-theto this time he had given no attention Main. the librarian Fiorillo. Two years later appeared his first work. and placed in his hands all the literature which had hitherto appeared. and.

which accompanied figures of kings." the plate will show that in these two inscriptions. Following Tychsen and Minister. and that when it appeared twice in each of these texts in exactly the same the place. In these two inscriptions this word appeared both in the shorter and in the longer form. The inscriptions thus selected were those numbered "B" and " G" by Niebuhr (see plate). after the first word divider. sometimes in a short form and sometimes longer. these old Persian inscriptions and laid them side by side. appear the two sets of signs exactly alike. A glance at expression meant "king of kings. Grotefend placed these two inscriptions side by side and carefully examined them. he held that these inscriptions. in the second line.48 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and were presumably similar to the inscriptions of Sassanian kings which De Sacy had just deciphered. which. as Mtinter had discovered. the frequent recurrence of the them seemed to indicate that their contents were similar. as though in the latter case some grammatical termination had been added to it. and finally they were clearly and apparently accurately copied by Niebuhr. In the work of Mtinter a word had been pointed out which appeared frequently in these inscriptions. first the shorter and then the longer form. may be designated simply as first and second (I and II). for the pursame signs in pose of this exposition. Grotefend was persuaded that this word meant king. thus : . were the titles of these monarchs. The ones which were chosen were neither too long nor too short .



and supported by clear evidence. namely : T T- Here. this same word. and these words must each be separated into its alphabetic constituents and these understood. occurred again in both inscriptions.GROTEFEND AND EAWLINSON." hence " king great. after all. was another expression containing the word king. looked plausible enough. great Icing. before anyone would or could believe in . yf. namely. and in both instances it was followed by the same word. the whole exBut further pression signifying Icing of Icings. but it only conjecture. and that (c) meant " great." that is. K-. then. All this was.KY. The supposition was that (a) meant Icing while (b) was the plural and meant kings. It must all be sup- ported by definite facts. thus: . 49 this is followed by the same word. but much in- creased in length. and then made the conjecture that this was the same expression. What could it mean ? Grotefend looked over tions De Sacy's translations of Sassanian inscrip- and found that the expression " great king " occurred in them. in the first line. supposed to be king.

in the Sassanian inscriptions the first word was alking's name.50 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. king of kings" and " this same king appears in II thus of N" In number II this name was folid wed by the word for king. But one mX K it IMrf.< . followed immediately by " great king. it was probably true in this case. the decipherment. But. Thus I begins " JV great king. as will. fore. if true. To this Grotefend now bent every energy.and after this another word which might mean " " son. but changed somewhat in its ending. king of kings. then these two inscrip- ways the " tions were set in the first up by was : different kings. for the name w ?f. His method was He had made titles as simple as beout to his own satisfaction the "great king. or to complicate the matter. while in the other was : to simplify. so that it stands thus : concluded that two places Grotefend was the name in the nomina(d) tive and (f) was the same name in the genitive. king of kings . "son of king" the order its From situation in the : N . this name with which I begins appears in II in the third line." Now." so that the whole phrase in II would be of JSTking son" that is.

. thus: where the it follows a king. appears also in I. and the Greeks were not careful to reproduce exactly the names of other peoples who were. do.GROTEFEND AND RAWLINSON. who succeeded him and bore the title of king and (3) the grandson. only . title surmised that in name which does not possess From all these facts Grotefend these two inscriptions he had the : names of three rulers (1) the grandfather. Hystaspes. which is supposed to mean son. not Cyrus. suit. But this same word. whereas on the two inscripThe next three to be tions they are different. who The next thing to do also had the same title. These will. however. was to search through all the known names of the Achamenides to find three names which should The first names thought of were Cambyses. the son. line five. and Cambyses. If these be correct. it Of course Grotefend did not expect to find written in that way exactly. . who had founded a dynasty. of 51 words being presumably different from that to which we are accustomed. in their view. then the seven signs with which I begins must be the name Darius (see d above). Darius. for the modern European spelling has come to us from the Greek. The next thing in order was to find the form of the considered are name Darius in ancient Persian. because the name of the grandfather and grandson are exactly alike. but did not possess the title of king (2). Xerxes.

in trying to represent as accurately as possible the Persian form. and only the first was wanting. This was for nearly all these same comparatively easy. while Strabo in one passage. This name was therefore read thus : CH SH H A R SH slight. out the letters name were here again used. nor interfere with carrying it out further. He lexicon that the ascertained from the Hebrew Hebrews pronounced the word Daryavesh. which correct. barbarians. The next task was to make at the beginning of II. work very well down D A R H E U SH That seemed to fit well enough. Neither of these would and on a venture Grotefend gave the word the form of Darheush. it was almost wholly and E. to put it boldly. gave it as Dareiaves. The error in this also was exceedingly when one considers the extreme difficulty of the task and the comparative bluntness of this tool of conjecture or surmise or. and as later investigations have shown. there being only errors in H did not vitiate the process. . and so the first word was thus to be set into the seven characters. It was easy to supply this from the Hebrew form of the name and also from the Avestan language so recently deciphered. guess.52 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA.

as in the other two. but this time only in the first two characters. and thus made out the name : G In this O SH T ASP word. as we have already seen. and after much doubt decided to cut off the last three as ending. pears in line four. and take what this remained as the king's real name. Perhaps the Avestan language (then called Zend) would help him. and some signs at the end must be cut off as the genitive ending. This was the name which apI. later discovery showed that he had made a mistake. Grotefend believed that word was in the genitive case. and that was a much more problem. last word. But how many? That was the question. To Grotefend's own mind the whole case seemed clear and indisputable. To the study of this he now had recourse. for the same characters occurred in . the late Persian form of which Grotefend followed.GROTEFEND AND RAWLINSON. was Hystaspes. 53 This name was supposed to be the Persian form for Xerxes. The next thing in order was to find the letters for difficult the third name. The name which he was seeking. thus : Here were ten signs.

thus I." GiJttinyiscJie Gelehrte Anzeigen. in the very beginning. the mighty king. orientalist at all by training or experience. This was an epoch-making result. by a simple process of combination. . in its transactions. and thus each supported the other. king of kings son of Darius. Aurmazda. . to discover in the shorter cuneiform inscriptions of Persepolis. . did not fully realize it. describing He was not an work.54 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and even Gro. the names and and simplest of the three forms of character. September 18. The Gottingen Academy of Sciences refused absolutely to believe in his methods or his results. it was not easy. thirteen. in fact. To this he He now felt himself able to translate these : in- scriptions in part. which he had examined titles of Darius and Xerxes. or perhaps for criticism. That should have been easy indeed. . written in the 1 first with this purpose in view. Darius. This anxious to get before the learned world for acceptance. and also by the analogy of the Sassanian inscriptions. tefend with all his enthusiasm and with all the much he was confidence of genius. three names. and would not take the risk of disgracing by publishing Grotefend's paper. . king of kings son of Hystaspes. . but. using the word for the name of god in these texts. namely. At this time the Persian alphabet was supposed to contain forty-two alphabetic characters. Xerxes. II. the mighty king. 1802 (No. announced that Grotefend "had been led by certain historical presuppositions. of which Grotefend believed that he had found all soon added more. the king. 149). and the learned men of Gottingen who were orientalitself 1 his This refusal is the more noticeable as the Academy had.

on the whole. offered to give space in the appendix to Grotefend for the purfriend. fend's essay appears in vol. and that from Ideen uber die Politik. later to receive 1 Those who doubted the whole scheme were a severe setback. by plates better . Volney denounced it as names which were at least doubtful and might be incorrect. ists 55 any good thing could come out of Nazareth. 563. L. Heeren. Heeren. 1815. plodding decipherer. i. and there appeared his work. and Trade of the Principal Nations In this edition Grote- of Antiquity. und besonders der Inschriften von Historical Heeren's book was translated into English with the Researclies into the Politics. ii. Heeren. and with him joined many German voices.GEOTEFEND AND RAWLINSON. den Verkehr Welt.. under the title die Erklarung der Keilschriften. title. Intercourse. It met. now an aged man. H." and the immortal De Sacy received it with enthusiasm and hailed it as the beginning of the sure reading of these inscriptions. whether a man who was not an orientalist could possibly offer a contribuThe case was tion of value to oriental learning. L. The paper by Grotefend Ueber Persepolis. 313. Oxford. printed in vol. ff. accompanied executed than those of the German edition. Volker der alien von A. At this juncture a personal 1 A. Grotefend eagerly seized the opportunity." that is. asked whether a sad one for the patient. H. is und den Handel der vornehmsten 3 vols. by A. ff.. H. pp. Gottingen. On the other hand resting on forms of Anquetil-Duperron. who was about to puba book on the ancient world. pp. lish pose of setting forth his theoiies and discoveries. 1833. waiting "with calmness the dissolution of his mortal frame. for it was not easy to see how he could gain any publicity for his " work. L. with a cold reception.

and a completely changed mental furnishing. be remembered that while the Persepolis inscriptions were still i n the copying stage a beautiful vase had come to Paris which contained some Egyptian hieroglyphics. ff. 1839. R. howcipher a whole inscription. 1822. Saint(Memoires de V Academic Royale des Inscrip. Tome xii.56 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. part 2. in Paris. ft Bdlts-Lettres. Meanwhile Grotefend himself was continuing his efforts to get beyond these few words and deAt this stage. les inscriptions de Persepolis. and book the Abbe Saint-Martin. 113. December 20. according to Champollion. pp. work in Heeren's signs like those found at After the publication of Grotefend's also some suggested to the abbe that they should try to decipher together the marks upon the vase. SH. but it increased the faith of many in the method and results of Grotefend. This was a small matter in some ways. . A. SH. entirely different traits of mind were needed. In the preliminary work the type of mind which 1 Grotefend possessed was admirably 1 adapted to Nouvelles observations mir Martin. ever. It will an unexpected source. was engaged in the decipherment of the Egyptian hieroglyphics. devoted much thought and time to its critAt this same time Champollion icism and study. A and this was remarkably confirmed by the finding of the same name. in the Egyptian signs. 33. i. Persepolis. par M. When this was attempted the : He abbe found that the name on the vase in cuneiform characters should be transliterated thus CH.) This paper was read before the Academy.

had been used in or about the same territory. In other words. From this. came the power to read the words of Babylonian and Assyrian. By them also the much greater worlds of Assyria and Babylonia were likewise rediscovered. The mental training de- rived from long study of the classics of Greek and Latin was likewise of constant service. In order to secure words of ancient Persian he must know words in the related oriental languages or in those other languages which. However fend unsuccessful the later efforts of Grote- may have been. It was he who first learned how to read an ancient Persian word. and men ancient inscriptions. in due course. nothing can ever dim the luster of his fame as a decipherer. though he devoted much time for all the rest of his life to this matter. be able to understand in advance just about what an oriental was likely to say. sive pletely. He now reached the point where extenand definite knowledge of the oriental languages was imperatively necessary. His later work was therefore largely abortive.GROTEFEND AND RAWLINSON. however. abandoning his real field of classical literature. without. He must also know the oriental spirit. Much of what learned to read its . have a feeling for oriental life. though not related. None of these possessions were his. the 57 work to be done. through the discoveries of Grotefend the world of ancient Persia was reopened. He tried to translate entire inscriptions. however. and failed almost comhad. and so might have borrowed words from old Persian.

ending appears also in another word after who was who had savant. This was the French Eugene Burnouf. Heinrich von der Hagen. 1 king of kings. . It was his good fortune to discover the plural ending in In ancient Persian. 28. inscriptions of Persepolis. in learning far better equipped than any same the word "king. Rask. p. par M." The correctly apportioned the characters. and this was now achieved by Rask. While he lived and worked others with better equipment in a knowledge of the oriental languages took up his work. d'Hamadan. To very few men. Memoire sur deux inscriptions cuneiformes trouvees pres Paris. In the Sassanian inscriptions the phrase is "king of lands. R. which had baffled Grotefend. 1826. Ueber das Alter und die Echtheit der Zend Sprache und des Zend-Avesta und Herstellung des Zend-Alphabets nebst einer Uebersicht der gesammten Sprachstammes. Eugene Burnouf. Rask.* He had already gained fame 1 R. the work of decipherment Grotefend never got so far as to determine all the characters in the phrase. Berlin. . The first of these was a Norwegian by birth. we know of ancient Persia came from them almost all that we know of Assyria and Babylonia was derived from them. in all time. who Rask also for this suggested a very plausible rendering. 2 nebersetzt von Fried.58 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. 1836." why might not this be the same ? That question would find its answer at a later day. has it happened to make discoveries of such still moment. And now appeared a man to grapple with the problem of the preceded him.

and Burnouf used it all as a master. in one respect at 1 Some believe that Lassen borrowed these results from Burnouf s communications to him. as the 59 man who had given the grammar of Avestan that language in all a scientific basis. Induced by the remarks of Burnouf. study of old Persian. In the next he determined finally that old Persian was not the same language as Avestan. Burnouf had called the attention of Lassen to this list of names. made. but that it was closely this it names of countries. He found in one of the little inscriptions which Niebuhr had copied at Naksh-i-Rustam a list of this learning could he gave close study. accomplished almost at a In the first stroke several distinct achievements. 1 He had. however. its intricacies. he found the equivalent for almost every place character in the Persian alphabet. and before their publication. He knew To this he added a knowledge of and religion in the period following that to which these inscriptions belonged. Before his own discoveries were made in full. . and by means of To and that therefore there was good hope that Avestan as well as certain Indo-European languages would contribute important light to the related to it. Lassen made this same list of names the subject of investigation. which were almost identical. All Persian life be brought to bear upon these inscriptions. and therefore count him dishonest in making no ac- knowledgment. and at about the same time as Burnouf published the results of his study.GROTEFEND AND EAWLJNSON.

partially at least. and that in every other case it was included in the consonant sign." below) was only used at the beginning of a word. He if the system of Grotefend were least. rigidly followed. very definite progress over Burnouf. THTGUS." "bu. KTPTUK. that certain signs were used to represent not merely an alphabetic character like "b. that is." He believed that he wholly or almost wholly As instances of such words he left had " a " successfully demonstrated that the sign for " (see second sign in f. He came. in inscription I the first : word of the second line ought to be read thus Va while in inscription II three should be so read Za Ka the middle word Ra in line : Ra Ya Va H U . toward which his knowledge of the Sanskrit alphabet did much to bring him. This situation led Lassen to a very important discovery. a good many words could not be read at all. FRAISJM. discovered that. in one word." "bi. and to every letter was given the exact equivalent which Grotefend had assigned. but were." but also a syllable such as "ba. mentioned QPRD. syllabic. or before a consonant. while others would be without vowels. For example. or before another vowel.60 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. to the conclusion that the ancient Persian signs were not entirely alphabetic.



This discovery was of tremendous importance, and may be said to have completely revolutionized
the study of these long puzzling texts. To it two other scholars made important contributions, the one

being Beer, and the other Jacquet, a

Parisian savant.

This long line of successful decipherment had been carried on with only a small portion of the
inscriptions of ancient Persia, that were still in existence. Other and better copies of the inscriptions were even at this time in Europe, but had

not been published. In 1811 an English traveler, Claudius James Rich, had visited Persepolis and copied all the texts that were to be found, in-


cluding those which Niebuhr and his predecessors These were discovered in the papers copied.
Rich, and in


were published, coming

naturally at once into the hands of Lassen, who found in them much new material for the testing
of his

method and

for the extension of the process

of decipherment.

and more valuable material was placed in Lassen's hands through the travels of Westergaard, a Dane, who, in this, imitated worthily his fellow-countryman Niebuhr. Westergaard had again gone over the old ground at Persepolis and had there recopied and carefully collated all the well-known inscriptions. In this he had not
Still greater
1 1

gaard's Mittheilungen.

Lassen, Die Alpersischen Kdlinschriften nach Herrn N. L. WesterBand Zeitsckrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes.

Bonn, 1845.

See especially pages 1-3.



done a useless task, for only by oft-repeated copying and comparing could the finally definite and perfect text be attained, without which the decipherment would always be subject to revision. But "Westergaard went further than this; he visited at Naksh-i-Rustam the tombs of the Persian kings, and there copied all the tomb inscriptions which were hitherto unknown. On his return this new


was now

accessible to Lassen, who fairly the leader in this work of decipheralso


Lassen found that the new copies of the old texts were so important that he went over some of the ground afresh and found it useful to

some of


The same

material called a

work which had before seemed new worker into


field in

the person of Holtzinan, of Karlsruhe,

Germany, whose work, however, made no very deep impression on the general movement.
In the work of decipherment thus far the chief positions had been held by Grotefend and Burnouf, but for the maintaining of its international character the time was calling for workers from other lands. As it happened, at this very time an Englishman was at work on the same task, from a different point of view, and with different

was well that

conclusions thus far

was so, for the reached would probably have

failed of general acceptance

but for the support


by the



zur Erklarung der Persischen Keilinsckriften, von Adolf HolzCarlsruhe, 1845.


Erstes Heft.

achieved by a



of different nationality


diverse training. decipherment of


The history of all forms of unknown languages shows that concerning them is far more prevalent

than either its opposite, credulousness, or the happy mean of a not too ready faith.

The man who was thus to rebuke the gainsayer and put the capstone upon the work of the decipherment of the Persian inscriptions was Major, (afterward Sir) Henry Rawlinson, who was born at
Chadlington, Oxford, England, on April 11, 1810. While still a boy Rawlinson went out to India in
the service of the East India Company. There he learned Persian and several of the Indian vernacu-

This training hardly seemed likely to produce a man for the work of deciphering an unknown language. It was just such training as had

produced men like the

earlier travelers

who had



copies of the inscriptions at PersepIt was, however, not the kind of* education

which Grotefend, Burnouf, and Lassen had In 1833 the young Rawlinson went ceived.



Persia, there to work with other British officers in the reorganization of the Persian army. To Persia
his services

were of extraordinary value, and met

with hearty recognition. It was in Persia, while engaged in the laborious task of whipping semibarbarous masses of men into the severe discipline of the soldier's life, that the attention of Rawlinson was attracted by some inscriptions. The first
that roused an interest in

him were those





This was dan, which he copied with great care. in the year 1835, at a time when a number of European scholars were earnestly trying to decipher
the inscriptions from Persepolis.

Of all

work Rawlinson knew comparatively


this eager It is

impossible now to determine exactly when he first secured knowledge of Grotefend's work, for Norris, the secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society, has

us no record of

when he


sent copies of

Whatever was

Grotefend's essays to the far-distant decipherer. sent in the beginning, it is quite clear that Rawlinson worked largely independently for a considerable time.

He had



work and adopted his method before he learned of what was going on in Europe.' Rawlinson's method was strikingly like that

adopted in the






had copied two trilingual inscriptions. That he had before him three languages, and not merely
three styles of writing, he appears to have understood at once. To this ready appreciation of the presence of three languages Rawlinson's experience
of the polyglot character of the East had probably In 1839 he thus wrote concerning contributed.

proceeded ... to compare and inter, line the two inscriptions (or, rather, the Persian columns of the two inscriptions, for as the comand also on his work as a decipherer, see now A On Rawlinson's

his method of "





Memoir of Major-Oeneral Sir Henry Creswicke Raiolinson, by George Rawlinson. London, 1898. The notice of Rawlinson's work here given was written before the appearance of this memoir.



partments exhibiting the inscription in the Persian language occupied the principal place in the tablets, and were engraved in the least complicated of the three classes of cuneiform writing, they were naturally first submitted to examination) I found
that the characters coincided throughout, except
in certain particular groups, and it was only reasonable to suppose that the groups which were

thus brought out and individualized must represent proper names. I further remarked that there were

but three of these

groups in the two inscriptions; for the group which occupied the second place in one inscription, and which, from its

position, suggested the idea of its representing the


of the father of the king

who was there


memorated, corresponded with the group which occupied the first place in the other inscription, and thus not only served determinately to connect the
inscriptions together, but, assuming the groups to represent proper names, appeared also to indi-


The natural infercate a genealogical succession. ence was that in these three groups of characters I
had obtained the proper names belonging to three consecutive generations of the Persian monarchy and it so happened that the first three names of Hystaspes, Darius, and Xerxes, which I applied at

hazard to the three groups, according to the succession, proved to answer in all respects satisfactorily

and were, in fact, the true In the autumn of 1836, while



at Teheran,
x, pp. 6, 6.


Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society,




secured an acquaintance with the works

and Klaproth, but found in them nothing beyond what he had already attained by his own unaided efforts, and in certain points he felt that he had gone further than they, and with
of St. Martin

greater probability.

the copying of the great inscription of Darius on the rocks at BehisThis was a task of immense difficulty, cartun.

Rawlinson's next

work was

on at the actual risk of his life, from its position high up on the rocks and beneath a blazing sun. In 1835, when he first discovered it, Rawlinson was able to study it only by means of a field glass. At this time he could not copy the whole text, but gained more of it in 1837, when he had become more skilled in the strange character. In

that year he forwarded to the Royal Asiatic Society of London his translation of the first two

paragraphs of this Persian inscription, containing the name, titles, and genealogy of Darius. It must be remembered that Rawlinson had accomplished this without a knowledge of the related languages, except for what he could extract from

the researches of Anquetil-Duperron.

In the au-

tumn of 1838, however, he came into possession of the works of Burnouf on the Avestan language,
which proved of immense value in his work. He also secured at the same time the copies of the Persepolis inscriptions made by Mebuhr, Le Bran, and Porter, and the names of countries in them

See Athen&um, November


1884, No. 2976, p. 593.




were of great assistance to him, as they already

had been to Burnouf and Lassen.
vantage of almost


the ad-

all that European scholars had Rawlinson was now able to make rapid progdone, ress, and in the winter of 1838-1839 his alphabet

of ancient Persian

was almost complete.



however, unwilling to publish his results until he had ransacked every possible source of information

which might have any bearing on the matter. In 1839 he was settled in Baghdad, his work in reality finished and written out for publication, but still Here he hesitating and waiting for more light. obtained books from England for the study of Sanskrit, and a letter from Professor Lassen, which greatly pleased him, though from it he was able to obtain only one character which he had not Here also he received the previously known. copies which Mr. Rich had made at Persepolis, and a transcript of an inscription of Xerxes at Van which had been made by M. Eugene Bore. In this year (1839) he wrote his preliminary memoir, and expected to publish it in the spring of

Just at this juncture he was suddenly removed from Baghdad and sent to Afghanistan as political agent at Kandahar. In this land, then in a state of war, he spent troublous years until 1843. He was so absorbed in war, in which he won distinction, and in administration as well, that his oriental studies had to be given up entirely. In December, 1843, he was returned to Bagh-



dad, the troubles in Afghanistan being for the

time ended, and at once resumed his investigaHere he obtained the fresh copies and cor-

rections of the Persepolitan inscriptions which Westergaard had made, and later made a journey to

Behistun to perfect his copies of those texts which

had formed the

basis of his first study.



many delays and discouragements, he published, in 1846, in the Journal of the Hoy oil Asiatic
Society, his memoir, or series of memoirs, on the ancient Persian inscriptions, in which for the first time

he gave a nearly complete translation of the whole Persian text of Behistun. In this Rawlinson attained
an imperishable fame in oriental research. His work had been carried on under difficulties, of which the

European scholars had never even dreamed, but he had surpassed them all in the making of an intelligible and connected translation of a long inRemarkable as this was, perhaps the scription. most noteworthy matter in connection with his work was this, that much of it had been done with He had, indeed, small assistance from Europe.
1 1

George Rawlinson has attached himself to the view that


Henry Raw-

linson had almost completed the work of decipherment of the Old Persian He says : alphabet before he learned anything of the work of Grotefend. " Up to this time [end of 1 836] he had no knowledge at all of the antecedent or contemporary labors of continental scholars, but had worked out " his conclusions entirely from his own observation and reasoning (Memoir, This view rests upon the decipherer's own recollections of his work. p. 309).


however, almost certain that Sir Henry Rawlinson forgot just when learned of Grotefend's work, and thought that he was independent, when in reality he was assisted by Grotefend, Burnouf, and Lassen. In


1884 he carried on a spirited controversy with Professor F. Max Miiller concerning the right of priority of discovery. In one of his letters he



received from Norris, Grotefend's results, though not at the very beginning, and he was later supplied with all that other scholars had been able to accomplish. Furthermore, as early as 1837 he was in correspondence with Burnouf and Lassen, from both of whom he gained assistance. When all allow-


for these influences, his fame is not diminished nor the extent of his services in the deis


His method was settled cipherment curtailed. early and before he knew of Lassen's work. That two men of such different training and of such opposing types of mind should have lighted upon the same method, and by it have attained the


results, confirmed, in the eyes of

many, the


The whole history of the decipherment of these ancient Persian inscriptions is full of surprises, and another now followed immediately. In January, 1847, the Dublin University Magazine contained an unsigned article with the taking title,

Passages of the Life of King Darius," the opening sentences of which were as follows



speaks thus of the matter



Now, for my own part, I take leave to say worked independently, and with some success, in my early


attempts to decipher the Persian cuneiform inscriptions (from 1835 to 1839), still I never pretended to claim priority of discovery over Grotefend, As I was in pretty active correspondence with . Burnouf, and Lassen. .

Burnouf and Lassen from 183Y to 1839 on the values of the cuneiform characters, it is impossible to say by whom each individual letter became
identified" (Athenceum, November 8, 1884, p. 593). This letter makes it sufficiently plain that Rawlinson himself when he carefully considered the matter did not make so great a claim for himself as does his brother in

the admirable memoir.

His fame is secure, and needs not to be estabby any attempt to prove that he was wholly independent of Euroall his earlier

pean scholars in


leagh." Dublin University Magazine. "In adding this new name to the catalogue of royal authors. p. and herein displays a mastery of the whole subject which could only be the result of years of study. Apart from the internal evidence there is now no doubt that this paper was written by Hincks. p. 184*7. 2 . p. 14. we do not hesitate to say that a more interand on many accounts a more important esting . There was but one man in Ireland who could have written such a paper as that. October. l addition to our library of ancient history has never been made. though published anonymously. 439. 1888. Edward Hincks. displaying in every sentence the most exhaustive acquaintance with the whole history of the various attempts at decipher- Then he falls into courteous and gentle but incisive criticism of some of Major Rawlinson's readings or translations. this account of his accession. Dublin." After this introduction the writer proceeds to narrate how Major Rawlinson had copied at Behistun the inscription of Darius and how he had the paper proceeds. As by Grotefend and others. the Rev.70 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. See Adler. is now monarch's own before us and unpretending as it is in its appearance. and compare Stanley Lane Poole. we assure our readers that we The volume which contains are perfectly serious. 1 County Down. xxvi. Dictionary of National Biography. the anonymous writer goes beyond the work of Rawlinson to tell of what had been done in Europe successfully deciphered it. and he was a quiet country rector at Killyment. Pro~ ceedings of the American Oriental Society. civ. and of the various rebellions that followed it.

and was therefore the senior of Rawlinson by about eighteen years. that wonderful nursery of distinguished Irishmen. translations of some of the His first published memoir Persepolitan texts. and it is impossible to determine just when he first It began to study the inscriptions of Persepolis. publishing in 1832 a Hebrew grammar. and his contributions to that great work are acknowledged now to be of the highest rank. 1846. but he early began to devote himself to oriental languages. before Rawlin- son's work appeared. where he took a gold medal in 1811. He had much surpassed these two without the advantage which they enjoyed of more complete litera- May ture. but he seems not to have seen the works of the other continental decipherers. in 1792. . is. independently of Rawlinson. and had among his papers. In this paper Hincks shows an acquaintance with the efforts at decipherment which had been made by Westergaard and Lassen. to spend the remainder of his life. he was settled in 1825 at Killyleagh. After an education at Trinity College. 71 He was born at Cork. Dublin. Unhappily his life has never been worthily written. was read before the Royal Irish Academy on June 6. His first contributions to human learning appear to have been in mathematics. having been written in the month of in that year.GROTEFEND AND RAWUNSON. clear that. He was one of the pioneers of Egyptian decipherment. however. he arrived at the meaning of a large number of signs.

much more to be learned as the ancient Persian inscriptions concerning the language and concerning the historical material which the inscriptions had provided. this Dr. there were beginning to be hints that these other two languages were important.72 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. work of the decipherer . Though the work upon Persian was in this advanced stage. Hincks did not cease his work. silent had spoken again. On these and other points investigation But the pure was ended. In the work of Hincks the Persepolitan inscriptions had been now for the third time independently deciphered and in part translated. and there was. painful study through a series of years by scores of men. It was believed that the columns written in two other languages contained the same facts as those which had been so laboriously extracted from old Persian. similar study of them nobody now knew. of which we later in this story. and that one . each contributing his share. of course. It seemed a dream long it was a genuine reality. the result of long and would go on even to this hour. therefore. shall hear The work of decipherment was now over as far were concerned. the texts were A language long dead lived again. but With went on to larger conquests. very little had yet been done with the other two languages upon these same What might be the result of a inscriptions. Before the end of this period. Men read. however. There was. little incitement to their study.

of 73 them was the representative of a great people who possessed an extensive literature. We turn now the story of deto a second story. permitted to speak. all the groups at To wrought up by this study men were now to be the brilliant work of explorers. unimagined results which were soon to follow from a study of the third language which existed in Persepolis.GROTEFEND AND RAWLINSON. Great results had already flowed from the Persian studies. as beall this was as nothing its compared with the untold. The proofs that this was indeed true were now slowly beginthem ning to accumulate. the men who were gifted with the decipherer's skill would turn from the Persian to unravel the secrets of the unknown and unnamed languages which the kings of Persia had commanded to be set up by the side of their own Persian words. . We have traced one story cipherment. but for itself. the story of exploration. and. not through fore. when enough of were gathered to make an impression. New had been cast upon many an enigmatical passage in Herodotus a whole kingdom had been light . But enemies.

it & hinted at a Summary Delineation. all its solecisms. and their history was so peculiar and of such considerable importance that they are here reproduced and the story of their misuse in various forms is set forth.74 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. with runs thus : Sir. w Persia for our East India Company. The first published ical Transactions for June. I here put into my send you some Fragments of Papers hands by a very good Friend. This Desire of the Royal Society. I believe. pag. pursuant to the third Enquiry for Persia. relat- h lating to antique and obscure Inscriptions. . who while he was a Merchant at Aleppo had taken up a resolution to procure some Draught or Representation of the admired Ruines Agent in at Chilmenar. Flower. THE ROMANTIC HISTORY OF FLOWER'S COPIES OF INSCRIPTIONS. which. the Stories their \sic] pictured of the Place. &. were retrieved after the Death of Mr. sent " in characters from Persepolis which were England appeared in the Philosoph- The beginning of the story is found in a letter by Francis Aston to the publisher. some may not be found sufficiently skilled in those a Draught parts.. viz. 1693. as carved. 420. EXCURSUS. that might be engaged to make actions. mentioned in the Philosophical Tran- whether there being already good Descriptions in words of the Excellent Pictures and Basse Relieves that are about Persepolis at Chilmenar yet none very particular.

w h plate of inscriptions was a lithographed from Nocturestand. secondhand fourth of these inscriptions are Sassanian and Greek. while the third and sixth are Arabic. Or "*<-<-=:. Persepolis. the rest its hoped may in some wise be recovered. taking his own opportunity for the h avoiding much Expence. (w you know they So I cannot but think are never able to bear :) h Mr. whether it be the ancient of the Gawres and Gdbres. & dy mg suddainly after. TT. left his Draughts <fe Papers dispersed in several hands. and from Chahelminar. that is Naksh-i-Rustam. or a kind of writing This . =. 1667. The fifth consists of two lines of cuneiform characters as fol- lows: 7. one part whereof you have here." Accompanying this letter November. SHTT. if Sir John Chardins exact & accurate Publication of the entire Word do not put a period to all further Curiosity. The first. Flower conceived it to be a business much easier to perform then [sic] he found it upon the place. where he spent a good deal of Time and Money. 5STJ. They had been copied by Flower in I heartily wish.GROTEFEND AND RAWLINSON. To added " these cuneiform characters Mr. that is. Flower this explanatory note : had character. \ 75 w might be perform'd by a Man qoalify'd in a few days.

being a part there engraven in white Marble. Aston appears to lived to give them forth. " Collected out of the Ancient Sculptures. Herbert reckon'd in one large Table Twenty Lines of a prodigious Breadth. Flower had compared these cuneiform signs with twenty-two characters. Aston doubtless supposed that the char- formed an inscription either complete or at These characters. Mr. diversely posbut not joined together. Right. a curious catalogue of mistakes might have been avoided. this A in Persia legible or understood at Learned Jesuit Father. and Lines. as a matter of fact." It is unfortunate that Flower died without pubIf he had lishing his own copies of inscriptions. each of several ited." have been much interested in these papers of his deceased friend. who de- ceased three years since. to be found this day extant in the admired Hills of Canary. As to the Quantity of the Inscriptions. affirmed this character to be known & used in Egypt? : The editor appended to this a note which showed that he was a man of some penetration "it seems written from the Left to consist of Hand to the Pyramids. for he recurs to the matter again to say that in February. 1672. Of this sort here are distinct Papers. and do not form an inscripacters least connected. were selected by Flower from the three languages at Persepolis.Telesmes of is is what is found only at Persepolis. . & by no man Day.

si) syllabic signs. and it is a pity that a man who could copy so well had not been able to issue all his work. as the following list will show. the next is word-divider. one Susian (ak) and then another Assyrian (kha) sign. Instead of really contributing to a forward movement in the study of the Persepolis inscrip- day tions. sa. Assyrian (u). u. These are followed by one Susian (ti). and after it the Persian After these come one Persian (th) and three Assyrian (bu. and AsThe first syrian. ra. tion 77 As published by Aston they are at all. Susian. if for It deserves to else naught than for be followed step by step its lessons in the weakof nesses of human nature. and finally one Susian (ta). The second and finally one Assyrian (i) character. then one Susian (sa). taken at random from Persian. nu). The signs were exceedingly well copied. line is equally mixed. first man who appears to have noticed them was . Flower's copies resulted in actual hindrance to the study. The cuneiform characters Flower now began The an extraordinary and unexpected career.GROTEFEND AND RAWLINSON. sa). It begins with a Persian sign (probably bumi) followed by three Assyrian (a. one Persian (h). one Assyrian (rad). It might have hastened the of the final decipherment. one Persian (kh). one Assyrian (ya). history of this retrograde movement is a curious chapter in the history of the science of new The language. line begins with three Persian characters (a.

Oxonii. Palmyrene texts Hyde waxes eloquent of denunciation. show that these letters. Thomas Hyde. and gives a long argument to letters. nee pro Literis intendebantur . He adds that Herbert and Thevenot had given three fforum. like other Hebrew professors in later days. . * " Hyde waves were not this statement majestically aside. 556. and gives them that very name (dactuli Next he quotes pyramidales seu cuneiformes. . 2 3 Ibid. p. p. judice non sunt Literae. 526 . sec.. Ibid." sed fuerunt solius Ornatus causa. but. p. under the title Veterum Persarum et Parthorum et Mediorum Religionis 1 Historia. 557. 1700. first edition. in which he discussed 1 always displaying much willing receptiveness for things that were new. He bewails the sad fact that these wretched scribblings. He reproduced in a plate the cuneiform characters many things. . Historia Religionis velerum Persarutn. along with some Sassanian and PalOver the Sassanian and myrene inscriptions.. second edition. " Me autem ond edition. His great book was on the religion of the Persians. Thomas Hyde. Hyde was professor of Hebrew in the University of Oxford. first edition.78 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYEIA. signs nor intended for 3 but are attached great importance to the interpunction in Flower's copy. 527 . without of Flower. devoted much energy to other oriental study. he comes to a discussion of the cuneiform characters. and purely ornamental.) Aston's statement that Herbert had mentioned twenty lines of cuneiform writing at Persepolis. made perhaps by ignorant Then soldiers. eonimque MaThe second edition appeared at Oxford. p. in 1760." had been left to vex a later day.

or worshipers of fire. and had in memory confused him with Thevenot. who was gifted with a keen eagerness for the Hyde scriptions at all. walls. has told me he had seen on arches. the in- terpunction was the invention of Flower. it is said. Witsen. Two specimens of them are given here. copies of Mandeslo. Gabres. to the language of the ancient Persians. Throughout the . and Osmin. he pronounces Just here he made a series their copies worthless. In the first place. Gaures. which he had most probably copied from Hyde. "is a country where a German medical man. though these char. In the next place. lines of the 79 same kind of ornamentation. copies in some place and marvelous. Boeriah. of mistakes. and mountains sculptured letters of the same form as those found on the ruins of Persepolis. He calmly reproduces Flower's char- acters. and introduces them to his readers in a "In the lands beyond remarkable narrative. This writing belonged. which he had also seen. who had traversed it when flying from the anger of Stenko Kasin.GROTEFEND AND RAWLINSON. acters are now unintelligible. The next man who was moved to make use of the characters of Flower was a Dutchman. Tarku. and was. but as they did not give any interpunction. Thevenot gives no copies of in- had evidently seen some was quoting from memOne wonders whether he had not seen the ory. merely his way of indicating that he had copied only separate and selected signs." he says. as we now see. of course.

This chapel had formerly belonged to the pagan Persians ' who adored a divinity in 1 fire. In 1723 Derbent and Tarku were visited by 1 Xicolaus Witsen. 1705. but entire scenes and representations of men gaged in the same business. and arcades for walking over Among other monuments there pits and valleys. Noord en Oost Tartarye.80 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. in the mounbeside which the road passes. besides broken encol- umns. II Part." This whole account bears every mark of having been manufactured to fit the inscriptions. and this was Witsen's method. 177. Quoted by Burnouf. Memolre sur deux inscriptions. Paris. this medical whole country. 1836. . Amsterdam. counted for in some way. No such ruins have been seen by any person in the country described. aqueducts. is there a built of stone. said at a tains little man. p. 178. one sees sculptured on the rock figures of men dressed in strange fashion like that of the ancient Greeks. 663. above all distance from Derbent. and on the walls of which were engraved many of the characters of which I have spoken. But more and worse things were still to be invented to account for these same little characters of Flower. or perhaps Romans. pp. and not only solitary figures. and no inscriptions have been found The cuneiform characters had to be acthere. and reverenced by chapel some Armenian Christians who live in its neighborhood.

Bayer. and made references to it. Peter the Great. for when Guldenstadt's papers came into the hands of Klaproth he attached to the Flower characters this note " : In- scriptions de Tarkou. Prince of Moldavia. The prince's papers passed into the hands of Th. in his search for antiquities and inscriptions. whereas that would have given the most concluscriptions. Now.GROTEFEND AND RAWLINSON. But the end was not yet concerning the papers of the unfortunate Prince of Moldavia. 81 Dimitri Cantemir. and the inscriptions he saw are all cata- logued by Frahm. S. but he evidently did not believe in the marvelous story which Witsen told concerning the cuneiform inhe makes no reference to it at all. Professor Guldenstadt planned a trip through the Caucasus in 1766-69. De Muro Medo-Persian empire. who utilized them Caucaseo. found at the very wall which he desired to prove was Medo-Persian in origin. qui se trouvait avec les Instruc- . and friends put in his hands certain papers to be used on the journey. Bayer was acquainted with Witsen's book. It seems probable that he was informed that this copy belonged to Cantemir's papers. book which Here were inscrip- tions of the Medo-Persian people. in which he tried to prove that this wall was built in the time of the in a book. who had the patronage of the czar. d'apres un Dessin du prince Dimitri Cantemir. for sive proof of the main thesis of his could possibly be suggested. Among them was a copy of Flower's cuneiform characters. and there is no cuneiform inscription among them. He died at Derbent.

-Zeitung. Lit. 1820. informs his readers that this inscripgravely 3 tion was carved above the gate of Tarku. Schulz's copies were " " published. and one might have expected 1 Burnouf. Hall. 845. This was in 1820. and he took with him the Flower signs. 3 IP Serie. 178. ibid. des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. however. were Flower's signs localized at Tarku. les 2 Nowielles Observations sur inscriptions de Persepolis. and the inscription of Tarku appears with the rest. for of course he had no doubt that it really existed. April. p. xii. allffem. 3 Naturally enough the Flower copy made its way who was. recognized at once that it really consisted of a number of characters selected from all three He languages which were found at Persepolis. and when many of his papers were recovered. mistakes. p.82 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and deceits. was murdered at Julameih in 1829. 114.." ' Now here. Saint Martin. Mem. 4 Aug. It was probably his intention to go to Tarku and collate the copy with the original inscription. St. however.. de 1'Acad. p. to allude to it was Saint Martin. not deceived by it. Schulz. E. and of course considered a veritable inscription. Schulz was sent by the French government to the East to search for inscriptions. tions de Guldenstadt. par M. by a chapter of accidents. here was found among them the same old copy of Flower. with Klaproth's note attached. 1807. thus adding a little definiteness to the tradition. In 1826 F. torn. though he did not know that Flower was the copyist. The next man who to Grotefend. P. .

as well. 336 by Bagoas. is a dash of humor if. The in- was indeed a memorial of Arses. Burnouf s translation did not suit the next investigator very well. inscriptions. the Achamenian. 83 that this would end the wanderings and the fictitious history of Flower's copies. But not just yet there was still vigor in the story and the race was . three different languages. He found that they contained the name of Arsakes. Holtzmann O / : thus translated the text " Arses (son) of Artaxerxes. In 1836 Burnouf got a copy of the same lines and set to work earnestly to decipher them. in it 1 Happily there dewx. Holtzmann. 176. King of Provinces. and attached himself to Grotefend's view." Here was indeed a fitting conclusion of the whole Flower had copied a few signs out of matter. Memoir e sur . Burnouf. and out of them had been woven this elaborate history. who was murdered in B. Paris. not yet over. It is a melancholy story from one point of view. In 1838 Beer discussed the 1 lines. 1836. made (this). pp. This was A. and he began afresh to de- cipher and translate.GROTEFEND AND RAWLINSON. recognizing the fact that they did not form an inscription at all. But it is instructive showing that progress in knowledge is not uniform. C. re- peated three times. but has its undertow as well as its adalso as vancing wave. who argued scription learnedly that the lines formed a genuine Persepolitan text of great interest.

they were mentioned. Even the monk in his cell.84 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. the city of Nineveh fell. whose sins had destroyed them. there was alsite The very of Nineveh most as its little known of that great capital as of northern neighbor. III. In the Middle Age the world forgot many things. in the prophets but then Nahum had cursed the one and Isaiah predicted the destruction of the other. and when Babylon was finally given over to the destroyer. had imperishable fragrance in his nostrils. it is true. He knew of Jerusalem and of Bethlehem. But after a time came for these . and he sighed as he thought that they were now in the hands of infidels. In the general spell of forgetfulness it cast away all remembrance of these two great cities. EAELY EXPLOEERS IN BABYLONIA. and then with wonder- ful vigor began to learn them all over again. They were sacred cities in a sacred land. and they had received their deserts. CHAPTER WHEN deep ruins. . though a tradition lived on which located the spot where Babylon had stood. to whose industry as a copyist the world owes a debt that can never be paid. a darkness of ignorance settled over their was forgotten. But Nineveh and Babylon. nor cared. Where they might be he knew not. and. recked little of barbarous cities.

but were for the more who knew part hopelessly ignorant of the Old Testament. and thence into Italy. D. and gave much attention to the learned and pious men of his own faith whom he met. and then journeyed on eastward to the Tigris. where he visited the Jews of Mosul. From Italy he passed over to Greece. Of Mosul and : its surroundings he has this to relate . set out from home about 1160 A. son of Jonah. and The Crusades travvis- roused Orient. heroes. and crossed the Euphrates. home to tell wonOf these almost all were Christians. and then on to Constantinople.. and journeyed overland across Spain and France. Syria. But at last there appeared a man who had wider interests the land of Palestine. in the kingdom of Navarre.EARLY EXPLORERS IN BABYLONIA. or kings. As he went he made the most careful notes of all that he saw. and one after another of Egypt were travelers who Europe. to relearn. but cared little for associations with Old Testament prophets. After he had visited the sacred spots in Palestine he went over the desert by way of Tadmor. the period that with 85 when Europe began wonderful avidity. than even those that concerned He was a Jewish rabbi of Tudela. with which he was profoundly impressed. The Rabbi Benjamin. gree the New in greater or less deTestament. all Europe to a passionate interest in the ited ersed by sacred scenes and came derful stories in Palestine. They would fain see the land of the Lord.

p. interprete." or From Baghdad Benjamin went on Ras-al-Ain. Merchants of all countries resort thither for purposes of trade. Although the latter lies in ruins. pp. and streets still now lies in ruins . 1 Itinerarium Beniamin Tudelensis.LXXV. Nineveh is on the Tigris distant one parasang from the town of Arbil. is of great extent and very ancient . situated on the confines of Persia. and then continues his This is but the to G-ihiagin mistakenly identified From hence it is one day to Babylon. gardens. Ibid.D. narrative thus " he 12). there numerous inhabited villages and small towns on its site. 69. . Ex Hebraico Latinum factum M." From Nineveh Benjamin of Tudela passed on down the river and visited Baghdad. then a great center of culture both Mohammedan and Jewish.86 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and is joined by a bridge to Nineveh. 70. The ruins of the Bened.. the country in in palm trees. and it is as to a climax that his last sentence concerning this city comes are 1 : " The city of Baghdad is three miles in circum- ference. and it contains many * wise philosophers. Aria Montana 2 Antverpise. " This city. extend thirty miles. which it is situated is rich and orchards. and this was more to him than even its wealth. the ancient Babel. which x. so that nothing equals it in Mesopotamia. well skilled in proficient in all sorts of sciences. and magicians enchantment. : with Kesen (Gen. it stands on the banks of the Tigris. 58.

leads up to the summit. built into the tower (in stages of ten yards each). and especially A. the country being one wide plain and quite level. Reisetagbuch des Rabbi BinFor English translations 16. London and Berlin. which is at a distance of five miles. It is constructed of the base measures two miles. who This synagogue is of remote anrests in peace. 70. it is a valley well known to everyone. from which we have a prospect of twenty miles. 91. . Bamberg. 1840. The heavenly fire. The Itinerary of Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela. it tiquity. the breadth two hundred and forty yards. 100. Twenty thousand Jews live about twenty miles from this place. with the burning fiery furnace into which were thrown Hananiah. London (Bohn). which struck the tower. Mishael. but are afraid to venture among them on acpeople count of the serpents and scorpions with which they are infested. A spiral passage. 18. pp. 105-107. Asher." That Benjamin of Tudela 1 ' actually did visit Ibid. Early Travels in also Martinet. al-ajurr . Palestine. and Azariah . Here the traveler may also behold the palace of Neb- uchadnezzar. contains about ten thousand Jews and four synagogues. pp. 1848. . 92. . 94. pp. Four miles from hence is the tower built by . pp. 1858. having their is constructed of solid stones and bricks. the dispersed bricks called Generation. i. and the height about one hundred canna. Hillah. split it to its very foundation.. 71. Compare jaminvon Tudela. see Thomas Wright. palace of Nebuchadnezzar are 87 still to be seen. and perform worship in the synagogue of Daniel.EARLY EXPLORERS IN BABYLONIA. been built by Daniel himself.

and fifteenth centuries. ruins of Babylon. the book of Benjamin Though appears to have attracted no attention to the buried cities of Nineveh and Babylon. . In 1633 appeared. He is here probably reproducing simply what he had heard from others concerning these ruins. lie saw across the river the great mounds which marked the ruins of Nineveh there is no reason to doubt. at Leyden. appeared in English and French. for that city is deIt is. for his description lacks the little touches which accompanied the former narrative. the Rabbi Pethachiah of Ratisbon. The next word ancient sites was of information concerning the brought to Europe by another Jew. when it appeared at it Constantinople in the rabbinic character. scribed in the terms of an eyewitness. and thus over a large part of Europe. but was not printed until 1543. whose recollections were set down by one of his disciples. these notes of Benjamin of Tudela would bear fruit in a later day. and that there make the visit to Baghdad. fourteenth. thus well known. not certain that he had really seen the however. Benjamin of Tudela wrote his narrative in Hebrew. but it is not so clear He did that he also saw the ruins of Babylon.88 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Mosul. It was known to the learned during the thirteenth. with a Latin translation. Like the first scant notices of Persepolis given It later became known by the earlier travelers. for they would incite other travelers to visit the same mysterious ruins.

an English traveler and merchant. In 1583 the Orient was visited by John Eldred. Most of them. His account is as landed at Felugia the 8th and 20th of June. and really believed that the Mohammedan capital was the same city as that which Nebuchadrezzar had made powerful. concerning these great follows : cities. however. where we made our abode seven dayes. and of these many visited both Mosul and Baghdad. and a place appointed for dischargeing of such goods as come downe the river the . though he visited both Mosul and Baghdad. The time was now hastening on toward period when men of Europe began to travel tensively in the Orient. did not pay any attention to the ruins which Many. and. but were contented to report what they had heard Marco Polo appears to have concerning them. like Sir John Manlay near these cities.EAELY EXPLORERS IN BABYLONIA. whose quaint notice of Babylon and of Nineveh was among the very first hints which came directly to England them. after the scanty notes 89 which he had made by the the ex- way. for lack of camels to carie our goods to Babylon. cared nothing for the ruins. is "We such in those men are loath to let out their camels is This Felugia a village of some hun: dred houses. The heat at that time of the yeare parts that to travell. never refers to Others confounded Baghdad with Babylon. deville (1322-56). made no journey to these sites.

a towne on Euphrates. have reported. and sundry found the remnants yet standing about a quarter of a mile in compasse. Not finding camels here. in crossing whereof we spent eighteen.90 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and hired an hundred asses to carie our English merchandizes onely to New Babylon over a short desert. also. and neere Euphrates. the bricks being six inches thicke. Master Cartwrlght. : come to the lesser and lesser it of Paules steeple in London. whereon Old Babylon stood. having made three voyages between the New citie of Babylon and Aleppo over this desert. than a mile. are inhabitants Arabians. But I can scarce think it to be that tower or temple. Here also are yet standing the ruines of the olde tower of Babell. but it The brickes remaining in sheweth much bigger. which I John Eldred have often behelde at my goode leisure. and about forty miles space) there is seen a ruinous shape. as men passe from Felugia. In this place which we crossed over stood the olde mightie citie of Babylon. many olde ruines whereof are easilie to be seene by daylight. because authors place it in the midst of old Babylon. stone worke 1 1 " For about seven or eight miles from Bagdad. Thus Master Eldred and Master Fitch. which being upon a plaine ground seemeth a farre off very great. and my friend Master Allen. whereas this is neerer . yet remaining as sound as if they had beene laid within a yeere's space. to " avoid the great heat. but the nearer you appeareth times I have gone thither to see it. eight broad. by testimony of their own eyes. to this newe citie on Tigris (a worke of eighteene houres. and almost as high as the it. we were constrained to unlade our goods. houres. of a shapelesse heape and building. travelling by night and part of the morning. in cir- cuit less in London. about the height of the stoneworke of Paule's steeple and a foot long (as Master Allen measured) with mats of canes laid betwixt them.

etc. and Student sometime of Christ-Church iu Oxford. Deputies to Christopher Baker. and the river of Tygris runneth close under the wall. p. stone set therein.EARLY EXPLORERS this IN BABYLONIA. and this they doe be they never of their noses a ring like a somewhat so poore. and let the water of the same runne round about the towne. 1589. By Richard Hakluyt. 232. and they may if they will open a sluce. Arabian. Printer most excellent Majestic. quoted in to the Site of Babylon. 321. 1626. It is about two English miles in compasse. 91 most ancient monument be half a yard thicke and three quarters of a yard long. to wit. 1839. 1 edited by his widow. and Turkish tongues : : the people are of the Spanyards complexion and the women generalie weare in one of the gristles wedding ring. being dried in the Sunne only. the Persian. which remaine sounde and not perished." He appears not to have seen the Purchas Narrative of a Journey his Pilgrimage.. and might well induce others to set out to see such sights. Tigris. 50 (folio edition). to the Queen's ." The old confusion between Baghdad and Baby- lon plainly exists in the mind of Eldred. Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation. London. and citie of New aforesaid desert the inhabitants generally speake three languages. p. but with a pearle and a Turkish greater. Master of Artes. but apart from that error his words have a magical ring in them. as though they had beene layed within one yeere. by the late Claudius James Rich. Imprinted at London by George Bishop and Ralph Newberie. The Babylon joyneth upon the where the Olde citie was. p. and betweene every course of brickes there lieth a course of mattes made of canes. The Principall Navigations.

Ibid. English mile from it is a place called Mosul. . " is . 21. of the greate Tower. 2 p. London. all. which God hath suffered to stand (if man may speake so confidently of His greate impenetrable counsels) for an eternal testimony of His work in the confusion of Man's pride. . a 1 Sir Anthony Sherley. nothing standing in that Peninsula between the Euphrates and the Tigris. hath not one stone standing which may One give memory of the being of a towne. was more fortunate sailed ruins of Nineveh at who and also more romantic. not to the intent to tell stories. either of the huge ruines of the first Towne or the splendour of the second. and that Arke of Nebuchadnezzar for as perpetual a memory of his greate idolatry and condigne punish" ment. that which God Himself calleth That greate Citie. threatened by His Prophets. and that a small part. There is more of eloquence (or Sherley).92 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. " I will speake'-of in Anthony Shirley cities : who thus wrote of both Babylon . whose vengeances. but only part. but another Englishman. but because nothing doth impose anything in man's nature more than example to shew the truth of God's word. 2 Nineve. are truely succeeded in all those parts. . from Venice in 1599. 1613. His Relation of His Travels into Persia.* All the ground on which Babylon was spred left now desolate.

and definite knowledge was wanting. ously this The former travelers had looked curiupon these mounds and then passed on. Anthony Shirley did not see that day. The most that had been accomplished was the perpetuation and the stimulation of interest in these cities. rather to be a witnesse of the other's of any In these words is sounded for the first time the note which would bring eager explorers to these mounds. ated in the text of Ortelius." ' 93 small thing. mightinesse and God's judgment than fashion of magnificence in it selfe. In all these notices of passing travelers ignorance was mingled with credulity. 1596. amount of progress that cated by the publication l The very small had been made is indi- in 1596." an lbid. Ortellii Antverpiani Thesaurus Geographicus Recognitus et Antwerp. Plantin. of the great Geographical Treasury of Ortelius. . but he belonged to it in spirit. and on Babylon script notes of his. The real force behind the large contributions of money for these explorations was this desire to know anything that had any possible bearing on the scriptures of the Old Testament. man saw in them facts which illustrated the Hebrew prophets. In a later day expeditions would go out from England for the very purpose of seeking in them books which might confirm or illustrate the history and the prophecy of the Hebrew people. at Antwerp. merely wrote in the margins some Arabic words which had been transliter2 Abrahami Auctus. The copy which the writer used in the Bodleian Library had belonged to Joseph Scaliger. and contained manuOn Nineveh he had nothing to add.EARLY EXPLORERS IN BABYLONIA.

94 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. but as he had no definite information. but not equall or square . except It is clear cepts. and an- swerable magnificence. was Ninevie built by Nimrod. a very antient towne in this countrey. as well A beginning what they saw. he had to let the matter rest at that. the two shorter ninty furlongs. It is agreed by all prophane and confirmed by the Scriptures that this writers. on the bankes of the Tigris. and in the rein Here gion of Eden. citty exceeded all other citties in circuit. and these plaines of Assiria. sides had each of them (as we gesse) an hundredth and fifty fur- longs. and that position he acBabylon by Ortelius. is made by an English John Cartwright. and so pitched on the bankes of the river Tigris. who should was need and understand traveler. but finished by Ninus. which . for more travelers from this that there see. list of places. For it seemes by the ruinous foundation (which I thoroughly viewed) that it was built with four sides. though he makes more of a contribution to the knowledge of the subject " Having passed over this river [the Choaspes] : we set forward toward Mosul. with. for the two longer sides. Of Babylon even less was known. whose tone is very similar to that of Sherley. such descriptive geofacts added as were then known. sixe dayes journey from Valdac. identify with Baghdad. All the authorities quoted Benjamin of Tudela. Orgraphical telius states that certain writers identified Nineveh alphabetic with Mosul.

being the Lady of the East. and the riches of the world. Cartwright supplied some extracts from its history and then concluded thus "Finally. C. The walls whereof were an hundredth foote upright. the Queene of Nations. penned by I. that this city was farre greater than : l : Babilon. (preface signed lohn Cartwright). Sundry times had we conference with this Patriarch : and among many other speeches which past from him. then (sic) a sepulture of her self. 1611." After these descriptions of the past and present of Nineveh. and a strength no lesse admirable for the nature of those times. pp. which gave exceeding beauty to the rest. but twelue miles up the riuer. he continued the error of confusion 1 The Preacher's Travels. as three Chariots might passe on the rampire in front these walls were garnished with a thousand and five hundreth towers. which he affirmed was undoubtedly a part of Paradise? Keen as Cartwright was after historical and leg- kingdome : endary material. at the deuotion of the Turkes. hauing more people within her wals. which makes three score miles.EAELY EXPLORERS IN BABYLONIA. 89. than are now in some one but now it is destroyed (as God foretold it should be by the Chaldseans) being nothing else. he wished us that before we departed. where the Patriarch of the Nestorians keeps his seate. 90. . accounting eight furlongs to an Italian mile. to see the Iland of Eden. 95 amounteth to foure hundred and eighty furlongs of ground. a litle towne of small trade. and had such a breadth. London.

as is a quarter of mile in compasse. & that therefore many trauellers haue bin deceiued. who suppose they haue seene . . Some do thinke.96 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. as if "The was built after the Floud. better. . to the end. the remnant of the tower of Babel there at this : standing as much. This city was built experi- upon the riuer Euphrates. of Nimrods tower. Baghdad and Babylon. day that which remayneth. there lyeth a course of mats made of Canes and Palme-tree leaves. The brickes are three quarters of a yard in length. that it should not receiue any cleft in the same. . contained some new matter of : " Two places of great antiquity did we thoroughly : view in the country the one was the mines of the old tower of Babel. and between euery course of brickes. the nephew . on the other stately buildings was the of Bel. . and as high as the stone-worke of Paules steeple in London. spending two dayes journey the ruines thereof. erected by Semiramis in the middle temple of this citie. however. His descriptions. and a quarter in thicknesse. that the ruines "Amongst . "And now called. (as the inhabitants hold unto this day) built by Nymrod. . the mines of old Babilon. which fresh. because it was the first citie. as we found by and ence. . so they had beene layd within one yeere. other place remarkable is. of Cham. Noahs is sonne. It was built of burnt bricke cimented and joyned with bituminous mortar. . is but the foundation of this temple of Bel.

called Babil by the natives. Pietro della Valle. and Don Garcia de Silva y Figueroa. but made no advance in their investigations beyond that which had been seen by slightly later time. Following these came the great traveler. Venise. their predecessors. But who can tell whether it be the one or the other ? It may be that confused Chaos which we saw was the mines of both. Paul's Cathedral." J Temple of Bel being founded in this narra- There are not wanting indications tive that Cartwright ley. He also visited the great mound confusing Baghdad with near Hillah. Pietro della Valle believed. was the ruin of the Tower of Babel. an Englishman.. ist. This. Ibid. 186(X 3 See p. whom the description of Sherhe almost seems to quote in the com- knew parison with St. Francfort. which he pp. 100. *Viaggio nette Indie Orlentali. See also Recueil des Voyages aux Indes Orientates. which probably few of his predecessors had done. 16. . a Spaniard. a Venetian. Alexander Hamilton. ancient Babylon. who has received so much attention already in a former narrative con3 He made the same mistake of cerning Persepolis. 99. 1 This mound he had sketched by an artand from it he collected some bricks. the on that of Nimrod. par les fibres de Bry. but he visited Hillah. 97 a part of that tower which Nimrod builded. 1590.EARLY EXPLORERS IN BABYLONIA. The visiting of Babylon and Nineveh was now becoming was the observing as much of an international matter as of the ruins of Persepolis at a 2 Gasparo Balbi. followed soon after Cartwright.

the Jesuit. Carmelites. who wrote a learned treatise on the Tower of Babel. Kircher believed that this brick had formed part Tower of Babel. and it is still preserved. Though it was not what Pietro della Valle and Kircher supposed. a silent monitor from the great age of the He placed it in his museum. and Franciscans some of whom visited the sites covered with ruins. Far beyond the dreams of the mediaeval student of the Tower of Babel were this first brick and those which were to follow. nevertheless. wrecked by the hand of God. a brick from.98 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. They were generally impressed with the thought that they were in lands where God had signally manifested his displeasure with the sons of men. It was the harbinger of great stores of tablets and of building bricks which were soon to flow from that land. Jesuits. This is probably the very of the original first Babylonian antiquity which came into Europe. the glorious period of Babylonian history. afterward took back to Rome. but none of them appear to have felt any quickening of imagination at the thought of the great deeds of human history which had . while others were content to report what they had heard. to cany the thoughts of men. After these men of the world. and must always have a great interest on that account. others bent on errands of religion passed up and down the valley Augustinians. One of these was presented to Athanasius Kircher. dispersion of tongues. it was. and to the world of letters had a meaning of tre- mendous import.

the traveler who went and saw. and no more. should be led to dig up these great mounds they must be roused to interest in them. was now nearly over. So the end of the seventeenth century had come. and the day of the scientific exBefore men plorer was rapidly hastening on. of the 99 meaning of They naturally knew no more the mounds than did those who had preceded them. . and no man knew more of the history of Babylon or of Nineveh than could be gathered out of the pages of the Greeks or the Latins. and the intellectual quickening of the times manifested itself in a thorough study of the mounds of Nine- veh and Babylon. there been enacted.EARLY EXPLORERS IN BABYLONIA. The age of the explorer and of the decipherer had come. or from the The day of stirring words of the Old Testament. and that the traveler had done in some measure.

new age that had now begun "Abulfeda [the Arabian Geographer] says that Nineveh was on the eastern bank of the Tigris. CHAPTER IV. Its tone of of sifting out the false from the true. however. THE man who began the new age of exploration was not himself an explorer. EXPLORATIONS IN ASSYRIA AND BABYLONIA. 1734-1820. Jean Otter. or the inhabitants of the district are greatly in error. He was a student of geography and history. If we attempt to . is criticism. His notice of the city of Nineveh is very different indeed from all that preceded it. being sent thither for the purpose of study by the Comte de Maurepas. He was. a man of scientific spirit. member of the French Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres. He was not seeking marvels. and afterward professor of Arabic at the College de France. nor anxiously inquiring for evidences of strange dealings in dark days. on the spot which they call Eski-Mosul. nor were several of his immediate successors. been mistaken. for the latter place Nineveh on the western bank of the Tigris. spent ten years in western Asia. and in that differed from the men who had gone before him.100 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and went into the Orient specially charged to study them. opposite the modern Mosul either he must have the tone of the : .

Otter. A scientifically trained scholar. but in manuscript form came into the hands of D'Anville. located the The true ancient city of Babylon near Hillah. for Eski-Mosul is seven or eight leagues higher up the stream. location of the city even he did not make out. His account was not published. but the site was almost determined. nothing is gained. and that is. Paris. who presented to the Academy of Inscriptions at This paper Paris a paper on the site of Babylon. and especially that now offered by the Voyage en Turquie et en Perse. with a better knowledge of the Arabian geographers than any of his predecessors." that is Nineveh was bah to say. 101 the two opinions built by supposing that on both sides of the river. they say. 134. 1748. 1 . de 1'Academie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. pp. Father Emmanuel de Saint Albert. He saw the ruins at Hillah and made a very important report upon them to the Duke of Orleans. One point seems to favor the belief of Abulfeda. upon the description of southern Babylonia given by Pietro della Valle. in its conclusive portions. 133. as Otter was. that opposite Mosul there is a place called Tell-i-TouHill of Repentance where. but the thoughts of men were at least pointed away from the identification with Baghdad. had not found it. the ' Otter also visited the mounds at Hillah.EXPLORATIONS. and. After Otter the land of Babylonia was visited by a Carmelite missionary. was based. conciliate 1734-1820. par M. the Ninevites put on sackcloth and ashes to turn away the wrath of God.

We went to the opposite hill. circumference. . Opposite this hill. which made me conclude that these ruins were of the highest antiquity. known characters. which. differ in The words of the latter important respects from the descriptions of any travelers who had preceded him. . of the other. at the same distance from the Euphrates. which is opposite and exactly like . . I found it very like the other. about an hour's distance from the Euphrates. . Carmelite missionary. and the other is in Mesopotamia. Many people insist that this latter hill is the remains of the real Babylon but I know not what they will make upon this hill a A . fragment of thick wall. between two reaches of the river at an equal distance. and distant two leagues. and I brought away some square bricks. still standing on the summit. and both exactly opposite to each other. Both masses seemed as if they had been vitrified. which I have already mentioned this one is in Arabia. another similar hill is visible. looked like a large tower. which had the same imI remarked pressions as the first-mentioned ones. similar mass was lying overturned beside it and the cement was so solid that it was quite impossible to detach one brick whole. from a distance. He says " : Before reaching Hillah a hill is visible which has been formed by the ruins of some great building. It may be between two and I three miles in brought away from it some on which were writing in certain unsquare bricks.102 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. .

EXPLORATIONS. 44. xxviii. He decided that this was really Babylon. and would have none of the stories of the natives. He had. and opens up the new era of study of this part of the Orient "The written characters which. in the very middle of the eighteenth century. t. They show J part of the original be for scholars who wish to pene- how this the study of the city of Babylon lagged behind the investigation of the cities of Persia. par M. 8 Comp. 1 and not only was the site of Per- Memoire stir la Position de Babylone. d'Anville. so completely and accurately described these ruins that the work of D'Anville was comparatively easy. Memoires des Inscriptions et des Belles-Lettres. this missionary cared nothing for the marvelous. p. this one. The people mounds and the Jews 1 call the latter the prison of Nebuchadnezzar. 256. D'Anville is interesting." Unlike the travelers who had preceded him. . 1734-1820. are impressed upon the bricks which remain of buildings so ancient that they may have formed trate into the Babylon would most remote antiquity an entirely new matter of meditation and study. however. Europe was stirring with interest in the great Achaemenian dynasty. 103 me of the country related to a thousand foolish stories about these two . as we have already seen." These words were written in 1755. : as Father Emmanuel says in his report. At very time. in Evetts. ibid. trans. and that Baghdad was not The final word of its modern representative. p.. annee 1755 [published 17611.

ii. entirely failed to the meaning of these important facts. Kopenhagen. but state of He was still deeply impressed by their vast of a high more by the evidences which they indicated. and no man living could have done so but that they existed.104 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. daran Reisebeschreibung nach Arabien und andern urngar kein Zweifel. Niebuhr could not read a line upon them. name has already mind absolutely certain in his own that these ruins belonged to the city of 1 He was Babylon. however. It was not yet time to turn from the study of Persepolis to the study of Babylon. ancient Babylonians. and men were eagerly trying to decipher them. Academy had done much In his skillful interpreter before the to bring the hour December. its inscriptions had been several times copied. whose filled a large place in this story in connection with the ruins of Persepolis. Eugrasp rope believed that a people who could only write Europe. 1 ist " Dass Babylon in der Gegend von Helle [Hillah] gelegen habe. 1765. Father Emmanuel and nearer. He found lying upon the ground and about the great mounds numerous bricks covered with inscriptions. size. was now well known in Europe had." licyenden Landern. p. visited Hillah. sepolis well known. . upon clay must have been a people in a low state of civilization indeed. and that the writing was the writing of the civilization . Carsten Niebuhr. and must have possessed but Niebuhr quotes from Bryant a small literature. 1778. but the hour was rapidly hastening on. 287.

290. 353. remain longer at the study its ruins. 9 . 8 Ibid. mother city of Babylon. The hope and wish of Niebuhr that others would soon follow him to carry on researches at Babylon were soon gratified. or none at all. on July 6. the more thoroughly to to leave un- calls earnestly for others to work which he had Niebuhr also visited the mounds near the Tigris and opposite the city of Mosul. The site of Nineveh he identified without difficulty. pp. 291. To his mind the presence of these inscribed bricks was evidence of a very high state literature of civilization. and they were fairly representative " I of the general opinion entertained in Europe : cannot help forming a judgment of the learning of a people from the materials with which it is expedited and carried on.. Ibid. and the greater. and I should think that must have been very scanty. de Beauchamp sailed away from Marseilles to 1 carry on astronomical observations at Baghdad and to make historical and geographical studies 1 " Man kann daraus vielmehr den Schluss machen. p. where the means above mentioned were apTo Niebuhr such reasoning appeared to plied.EXPLORATIONS." be folly. and continue the finished.. but it appears to have impressed him much less than the more ancient. dass die Babylonier es in der Schreibkunst und den Wissenschaften schon sehr weit gebracht haben mussen. 1 He lamented that he could not site. In 1781. M. Here also he was as clear and cogent in his reasoning as he had been at Hillah. 105 these words. 1734-1820.

263. Monuments Antiques inedits. vol. Paris. which he considers the site of Babylon. by Milliu. 1802. I was informed by the master mason employed to dig for bricks that the places from which he procured 1 them were chambers.. a statue as large as life. but withal he marks a fresh step of progThe mound which had now long been known ress. On one wall of a chamber he found the figures of a cow and of the sun and moon formed of varnished bricks.106 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and. large. about eight years ago. Some idols of I clay are found representing human figures. Of the mound at Hillah he says: "Here are found those large and thick bricks. He Arabs. His of the languages and the archaeology knowledge both of the past and the present of the Orient was not equal to that of Niebuhr. sels. tributed further to visited Hillah. thick walls. . and sometimes He has frequently found earthen ves- engraved marbles. to travelers as the mound of Babel he now designates under the name of Makloube. which he threw amongst the rubbish. . and conits exact localization. For the first time he directs attention to a second mound close by the first. and he therefore made curious mistakes concerning the names which the Arabs had given to certain portions of the mounds. ff. it is the mound called El-Kasr by the in the neighborhood. pp. specimens of which I have presented to Abbe Bartholomy. 1 Afterward published in beautiful copies ii.. imprinted with unknown characters.

and was probably the wall of the city. as I mon. . of a white substance. 1734-1820. which appears to be made of linie and sand. from the marks he showed me. . I found in it a subterranean canal. covered with very small writing. Four I saw one . These ruins extend several leagues to the north of Hella. where they are united by a very thin stratum of white cement. which. 107 found one brick on which was a others a half lion. side. I was assured that they were very commentioned them to the master mason. is covered with pieces of sandstone six or seven feet long by three feet wide. It ran perpendicularly to the bed of the river. and on moon in relief. there are solid cylinders. but I was not eager to proyears ago cure it. which is well preserved. and incontestably lon. instead of being arched over. .EXPLORATIONS. . three inches in diameter. along a valley which he dug out a long while ago to get at the bricks of a wall. which I have mentioned. . who . . for it is as common on bricks buried in the walls as on those on the out. The bricks are ce- mented with bitumen." "Most of the bricks found at Makloube have writing on them but it does not appear that it was meant to be read. except in one place. that. mark the situation of ancient Baby- "Besides the bricks with inscriptions. I led " The master mason me guess to have been sixty feet thick. resembling the inscriptions of Persepolis mentioned by Chardin.

338. ff. sometimes found such." ' In these descriptions and narratives of the learned and inquiring abbe are found the first notices of excavations and the first accounts of the finding of inscriptions beyond the mere building bricks stamped with names and titles of kings. As 1 definite knowledge of the at least site of Nineveh.108 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. The second is published in Journal des Savant*. The extracts given above are from the latter." The cylinders. as The description Abbe Beauchamp made first is two visits to Hillah. as by olis mentioned by Chardin. pp. 1790. were "covered with very small writing. met with. resembling the inscriptions of PersepThat showed. but left Black stones them among which have inscriptions engraved on them are also told me that lie the rubbish as useless. 2418. ff. and later the full knowledge of the One observation past histoiy of the great valley. European Magazine. Mai. May. . pp. of the found in Journal des Savants. he prophetic instinct. This second paper is pp. 340. 1792. ff. ff. 852. 1785. of the abbe is now come of great importance in this story. . says. The to period of description of mounds has an end and the period of excavation has fully conie. These had been seen often before and several had been taken to Europe. These little inscriptions which at first awakened so slight an interest in Abbe Beauchamp would soon be eagerly sought with pick and shovel. Then would come the effort to read them. ff translated into English in the for extracts see pp. 2403. December. the very line which would be pursued for the decipherment of the literature of Babylon. pp.

1 ancient Babylon very far exceeded the knowledge of Nineveh. 1734-1820. These excavations. proper to say that had been found. however. Paris. was now soon secured by a French physician. and he does not appear to have seen At this time the knowledge of any inscriptions. iv. and were the subject of much discussion. 283. Guillaume A. and these were recognized as being pieces of writing from the ancient people The words of Beauchamp produced an of Babylon uncommon impression in Europe. 12. pp. 109 Abbe Beauchamp had achieved of the site of Babylon. and excavations on a very small scale had been begun at Babylon. however. 1 The first move in this direction Olivier. and therefore of the ancient world as the failed to make any independ- ent contribution to the progress of knowledge reHis references to the city are specting Nineveh.EXPLORATIONS. scriptions were found. a sight of these inscriptions the books of the Babylonians and for an effort to read them. . inneighboring country. it is true. In England especially were men aroused by them to a sense of eager thirst for . Olivier. He had no such knowledge abbe. A. an. scanty enough. It is. V Egypte et la Perse. par G. So soon as this desire should crystallize it was certain to result in an attempt to secure some of them for an English museum. who was sent into the East for the purpose chiefly of scientific study. Voyage dans C'Empire Ottoman. were primarily made to obtain building material which was to be used in the both sites construction of dwellings for the people about the Incidentally. 284 [published 1801-7].

and of that ment. on October 18. It was true. At this time the work which resulted in the reading of Here were now inscriptions in ancient Babylonian. 1801. These inscriptions were the first that had reached London.D. which forwarded. which was in progress ancient Persian. London. was made by the East India Company of London. a letter to the governor of Bombay instructing him to give orders to the company's resident at Bussorah to have search made for some of these inscribed bricks. by Joseph Hager. In a few pages he reviewed the history of the obser- House. This general interest was focused by a remarkable book by Joseph Hager. There were at last enthusiasm and real interest in Babylon. and their very position in London called upon men to attempt their decipher- They Their resemblance to the inscriptions of Persepolis had also been pointed out. 1797. Early in 1801 the first case arrived at the East India House in London. however. He was then to have them carefully packed and sent as soon as possible to London. that no man could read them.110 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. stood. The reproduc1 tions have probably never been surpassed for beauty or accuracy. At the end this beautifully printed little volume contains five plates reproducing the Babylonian inscriptions which had been found on the East India House antiquities. D. 1 was the direct result of his inspection of the Babylonian inscriptions that were now in the East India Hager's small book was epoch-making both in its suggestions and in its conclusions. A Dissertation on the Newly Discovered Babylonian Inscriptions. . and they must also be read. as silent monuments of the past. there was now no doubt. indeed.

xvli." It must be remembered that this little book of Hager was written before the Persepolis inscriptions had been deciphered at all. 1 Even beyond Ibid. but that they had been appropriated to . Ill and then connected the inscribed stones there found with the Persepolitan His statements on these points well inscriptions. the whole difficulty in regard to their origin is re- moved . like ours. pp. and others for alpha- betic characters. " By the Babylonian bricks here exhibited.. vations 1734-1820. at Babylon. was much than Persepolis. xviii. as it is evident that Babylon. like the Chinese express characters. and others the characters of the Guebres. when name of the Persians was scarcely known. in point of earlier cultivation. or antient inhabitants of Persia .EXPLORATIONS. others held them for mere hieroglyphics. and ' the that the Qhaldeans were a celebrated people. . sions to which men would come when both the inscriptions of Persepolis and these new texts were finally deciphered. made deserve repetition "It is well known that for more than a century past. solely for the palace of Istakhar. . by European travellers. much divided respecting believed Some have them to be talismans. them KAEMPFER supposed whole ideas. these deductions . and this makes all the more remarkable the generalizations of this who seemed to foresee the very conclugifted man. about which time the Persepolitan inscrip: tions were first discovered the opinions have been these characters.

1802. was Hager led when he summed tip his conclusions at the end of his volume. 1 Museum de la Bibliotheque Nationale. came not from His copy Persepolis. 4 Monuments Antiques inedits ou nouvellement expliquts. to publish in facsimile" a small inscribed stone brought several years before from the neighborhood of Baghdad to Paris by the botanist Michaux. par A. then deeply absorbed in his efforts to decipher the records of the Achsernenian kings. qui appartient au plates. Hager's little of writing and this before he as seen an Assyrian inscription influence out of all book had an proportion to its size. but of this beautiful little inscription was another added to the increasing list of objects which awakened in men the belief that beneath the mounds at and about Hillah must That these characters were the Chaldaic characters with which." though his own stateit ments show that from Babylonia. 61.. the epitaphium of SARDANAPALUS at Xineveh was engraved . according to ATHEN^EUS. A. Millin. sqq. to go. into His book was soon translated distinct impression German and made a upon Grotefend. The a " article of Millin called this little inscription Persepolitan monument. p. In its English form it became known in France. L. tome i. Ibid. 1 for there he claimed that even the Assyrians must have used the same of method had even so much any kind. and other ancient authors. 58. POLY^ENCS. the Assyriac characters mentioned by HERODOTUS.112 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. DIODORCS. The great tomes of many travelers had utterly failed to excite more than a passing interest. L. pp. with two beautiful . Description (Tun monument persepolitain. Millin. there to inspire the archaeologist. Paris.

but spent his childhood at Bristol. and there secured his earliest education. 113 buried great stores of monuments of the past of Babylonia. and espe- with Hebrew. and then in Egypt while a sojourn in .EXPLORATIONS. in 1787. he had found opportunity to concially tinue his oriental studies at Constantinople and at Smyrna. and men were still curiously examining the East India House inscriptions. Though he had not probably been consciously preparing for this particular post. a man was preparing for a work which would demonstrate the truth of these hopes and astonish the world with unwhile suspected discoveries. Aramaean. lie 1734-1820. France. Italy put the language of that people at his service. went early in life to Bombay in the Gifted exservice of the East India Company. by fortunate accidents. all that he had learned and much that he had experienced now became of the greatest In the beginning of his residence at Baghdad he appears to have been most interservice to him. Before he was twenty-four years of age he had been appointed the resident of the East India Company at Baghdad. ested by the city itself and its immediately sur- . Claudius James Rich. who had been born at Dijon. he there made himself acquainted with Latin and Greek. While these publications were appearing. England. Later. Arabic. Persian. traordinarily with a love for languages and with a readiness in their acquiring. and even somewhat with Chinese.

variety. in others merely of a vast succession of mounds of rubbish of such indeterminate figures. and this most assuredly was the tower of Belus. His first impressions were disWhen he could secure tinctly disappointing. There stood the palace. Less. I found the whole face of the country covered with the vestiges of building. In 1811. than I actually did. in some Babylon. I should ' : places consisting of brick walls surprisingly fresh. and perfect state of some of the particular parts of them. however imperfect. collection of rounding country. and more. because I could have formed no conception of the prodigious extent of the whole ruins.114 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. he saw for the first time the great mounds. and less. way led to visit the ruins' and at once there was awakened in him a new passion. solidity.' I was completely deceived. On December 10. I imagined. to which he was now to devote so much energy and enthusiasm. of many of the principal structures of have said Here were the walls. and began the materials for a history of its Pashalic. because I thought that I should have distinguished some traces. or of the size. the first opportunity to write them down he said: "From the accounts of modern travelers I had expected to have found on the site of Babylon more. and extent as to involve the person who should have . he was in some of ancient Babylon. however. and such must have been the extent of the area. 1811. instead of a few insulated mounds.

On the western face the mud bricks were not only laid on reeds. The part of the mud wall standing on the west front is not thick that on the northern side is more so. of which the following words may serve as a suffi- men with pickaxes and shovels the Mujelibe.EXPLORATIONS. however. The pages 129-162 are reprinted in the volume edited by his widow. . London. and had correctly located them by astronomical observations." ' 1734-1820. 115 in inextricable confusion and This first visit of Rich to Babylon in was brief. In the northern face.. 1813. but only laid on layers of them here I found some beams of the date tree. 1839. now first published. the bricks are not mixed up with reeds. are of any considerable thickness. * Ibid. where a part is also still standing. On the north front the height of the whole pile to the top of the * parapet is 1 32 feet. 129. with inscriptions laid in mortar. The narrative of Rich extends 1861." durch eine Gesellschaft von Liebhapp. kind of parapet of unburnt bricks appears to have surrounded the whole. 1 Fundgraben des Wien. 20. formed any theory contradiction. He also tested the mounds by digging cient description " I went with ten : into them in several places. specimens of . 129-162. Orients. 197-200. In that short time. they top. A which I brought away. bearbeitet p. he had planned all the mounds. for he was back again Baghdad on December 21. and also pp. The southeast angle is higher. but mixed up with them. Narrative of a Journey to the Site of Babylon in bern. etc. to make experiments on on the dug into the heaps and found layers of burnt bricks. p. but none of them .

published in Vienna. it. but at the other chief center. Free as it had been from theorizing. enough. and has formed from that day to this the basis for every subsequent examination of them. The results of this visit were written out at Baghdad in the month of July. but in the main confirmed and established his former conclusions. upon but later acquaintance. like the first publication of Rich. In his second visit he did find some things to correct. these walls lie From took specimens of the in- scribed building bricks. 1817. which were later to form a part of the treasures of the British Museum. at Babylon. carried forward very distinctly the investigation of the^ancient city. . Rich's work at that time seemed small in amount. but he was to do still more for oriental study. and likewise. and. but it was the first serious survey of all the mounds. to verify or to correct his first statements.116 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. change his conclusions His first account was. nevertheless. to slightly. who argued that Rich had not properly considered the allusions of classical historians and geographers. not. indeed. had therefore improperly identified some Rennell's paper determined Rich to visit the ruins again. So carefully had his work been done that he required. called forth a review and criticism from Major Rennell. and ruins. when posinhabitants various sible. strangely but it was eagerly read and discussed in London. Rich had already achieved enough to gain fame. purchased from the smaller inscriptions.

and some that had been found by the natives were in shown to him. Here he learned that even a cursory examination by means of the spade would uncover inscriptions.EXPLORATIONS. as the natives said. 1820. he set out from Baghdad to escape its heat by a journey in Kurdistan. where their influence would soon be felt. and there spent four months. The first of mounds to be explored was that known these the natives as Neby Yunus. He visited and sketched with plans every one of the great mounds which might be considered as forming a part of the results in the visited ancient city of Nineveh. where he surveyed the mound. and this was productive of valuable geography of a land then but little by Europeans. Rich reached Mosul on October 31. . After the investigations at these two mounds Rich went down the river and studied the mound of Nimroud. In this journey Mr. 1820. drafted a plan of it. but some were secured for the British Museum. which Rich of course could not read. They were written cuneiform characters. because it among was supposed to contain the tomb of the prophet Jonah. the city of Nineveh. where. and conversed with the natives. learning from them little more than that most of the inscriptions were found at investigations Neby Yunus. 1734-1820. 117 In April. The experience which had been gained in his work at Babylon was now splendidly used. From Neby Yunus Rich to transferred his Kuyunjik.

being cut into stones. They showed at the very first correct. Rich appeal's to have found no opposition among the natives to his study of the mounds. Many were. but he did find various suspicions of himself and of be easily transported collection. he purchased for his however. The cupid- ity and fear which rendered miserable the lives of later explorers did not trouble him. as was necessary in the of his successors. and there formed the nucleus of the great Assyrian and Babylonian collections of the British Museum. and partly because he did not dig up the ground. Some which were small enough Nimrod buried. to his motives among the more ignorant of them. is In every Arab village which he visited Rich found inscriptions in the cuneiform character. He . glance that the daring guess of Hager was They were indeed written in the same kind of characters as those which had been sent home to London from the ruins of Babylon. monumental in character. That fact alone was of so great moment as to make distinguished all the work of Rich at Nineveh. and so did not unnecessarily wound their sensibilities. work The inscriptions which Rich had secured soon came to London. partly because he knew by long association the temper of the natives. which the Arabs had used in the erection of their miserable hovels.118 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. In one of his tours about Mosul the remark was overheard that he was probably seeking a suitable place to plant guns and take the city.

Ages seemed at once to present themselves to my fancy. My other inducements. To all this work at Babylon and at Nineveh Rich was to add useful labor at Persepolis. 1734-1820. lie the ruins. My expectation was greatly excited. when I was a mere child.EXPLORATIONS. I was in the moment of enjoying what I had long waited for and what a delightful moment that is At last the pointed summit began to detach itself from the line of the mountains to which we were . 119 had laid the basis for all future work in that he had previously done in Babylon. and the city. His and drawings must be used by whoever plans should next take up the work.' Tod pointed it out Under At that moment the moon ' : ' that rose with uncommon beauty behind it. ! advancing. Chardin. as : desires excited in us in childhood are too vivid Their gratification has a relish which motives suggested by reason and judgment late antiquaare unable afterward to equal. also added their ever to be effaced. and as I rode over the plain by the beautiful starlight. with Journal of a voyage down the Tigris to Baghdad. and an 1 ." Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan and on the Site of Ancient Nineveh. His approach to the city was graphically described in these words "It was dark when we left the bridge of the Araxes. had inspired me with a great desire to see these ruins. rian researches had. which he visited in August. however. 1821. reflections innumerable on the great events that had interest to my happened there crowded on my memory. Mr.

Others had done much. 1836. On the way back to Baghdad from this visit to Persepolis Rich died of cholera. at Shiraz. and more. and so had made possible his work. in awakening interest. for even his inspirational power. London. others while bravely serv- who were suffering from the dising The man who had wrought so wonderfully ease. Shiraz and Persepolis. while a very few had accurately determined ancient sites. shows that Chardin had done this for him still others had made observations of lasting value. . and none had equaled celled him in him in the collecting of definite information con- cerning the ruins both of Nineveh and of Babylon. The impulse which Claudius James Rich gave and Assyrian study has never yet lost its effect. indeed. and his copies proved to be of great value to those who were to engage in the criticism and the perfecting of the work of Grotefend. and Rich's own testimony. Journal. account of a Rich. All these things. Esq. Here at Persepolis he made more exact copies of the inscriptions to which already so much discussion had been given in Europe. visit to Edited by his widow. Rich had accomplished.120 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. by the late Claudius James Two volumes. vol. 218. quoted above. ii. possessed it. intended only as the basis of future careful writing. None who preceded him had exto Babylonian . p. for the study of the ancient world now died a hero in the humblest service for the poorest of humanity.

if not even a man of genius. made his investigations at Babylon. as we have seen. To had made he added the unique distinction of having been court painter at St. It was natural that he should Porter had discuss them with this newcomer. and by the copying of already inscriptions had added his name to the long and worthy line of those who had made the work of Grotefend possible. and Rich had. Petersburg. Sir Robert Ker Porter. 1818.EXPLORATIONS. in the almost regal state which was then deemed necessary in order to overawe the impressible natives. a man of this A 10 . man of talent. This was October 14. Others had small. In these matters Porter was far behind Rich and the former wanderers. 1734-1820. Of all those who had yet been in Babylonia none were endowed in the same manner as this new visitor. an artist who his name famous in England by many a canvas depicting the glory of England in war. 131 His quickening and informing influence worked wonders in his immediate successors. though even experience was not Others had had better scientific equip- ment in knowledge of surveying and in acquaintance with oriental languages. and published them in Europe. While Rich was still living in Baghdad. and the history of her people in Church and State. he received a visit from a fellowcountrymen. surrounded by a great retinue of servants and soldiers. visited Persepolis. But Porter was an artist. possessed in greater this experience his in travel.

and 20. man with greater scien- A equipment but with less social following might have written a work more valuable scientifically. nevertheless. and his gift brush added vividness to his pen. Armenia. Upon by his return the account of his travels in 1 was published illustrated sumptuous style. Though Porter was lacking in many things. Travels in Georgia. durinff In two volumes. accompanied him to the ruins at Hillah. social following great in Great Britain and in had entered the highest circles such and even married a Russian princess was Sir Robert Ker Porter. by Sir Robert Ker Porter. have completely failed in influence on the age. 1821. offered the needed supplement to the tific 1 the years 1817. Porter's work. etc. Rich gave him willing assistance. however. for striking description in words. London. His skill as a painter qualified him admirably to sketch the ruins of Babylon. The big book was received with acclaim in England. . 8. his observations were useful and served well in directing later workers bent on definite Russia.. where he work. 9. and his trained eye was ready to observe the lay of land and the external conditions of the modern surroundings of ancient He had had experience in the copying sites.122 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA.. of texts at Persepolis. and Rich's admirably trained secretary. and could now copy He had a at Babylon with additional sureness. which would. Bellino. Persia. 1822. Ancient Babylonia. and apparently also on the continent. etc. beautifully his own brush.

and here was the expressed opinion that they had not yet been fully What better thing could have been explored. Rich and Mr. those of Rich. who may to-morrow become an ex- plorer himself or a patron of such pursuits in others. times was very dry indeed. Porter saw his own book published. Just as the book of Chardin had roused the boyish enthusiasm of Rich and sent him in his early manhood to the scenes which it described. and heard the popular plaudits. Here were pictures of mounds and ruined walls and inscribed bricks. duly intermingled with quotations from previous observers. and fortified by the word of Mr. Bellino. 123 work Rich had written very little indeed. or that its glowing and pictured pages should fail to excite the wonder of even the ordi- nary reader.EXPLORATIONS. Here was at last a description of Babylon as it now was. and that was concerned with details. and at of Rich. It was. . its popular influence was great. done for the recovery of Babylon at this time than the publication of just such a book as this of Sir Robert Ker Porter! It was impossible that its publication should not be followed by a rekindling of zeal in the pursuit of oriental learning. besides this. not published in a complete form until after the author's death. so would this new book exert a similar influence upon others. 1734-1820. and it is to be ranked with the greatest of all the influences which con- are not to be Though its named with scientific contributions tributed to the recovery of Nineveh and Babylon.

a word had heard it was soon clearly shown. But it represented a clear step forward beyond that of description. very slow. and that the people Of . But all this was recovering absolutely indispensable work. and very rarely to the the days of the credulous seeker for marvels. preparatory and perhaps little more. the With work of Sir Eobert Ker Porter another period of exploration in Babylonia and The progress had been indeed in Assyria closes. for the English people were then willing to give much if there were promise of any such result. It was. the people must get some promise of interesting "result. in monarchies or democra- would join heartily in costly excavations. and some taste for the color of the cies. In France that which failed in the popular interest and enthusiasm was . further. an era of popularization. and before governments or peoples. The whole story is a narrative of measurement and summit of actually inscribed monuments. It was foundation work. it was well that the people should come to believe that a study of the mounds of Babylon and NinOrient. that issue assurance was given in many from Shirley to Rich. In the greatest of the democracies. eveh might give results of value to the study of their Bible. In France there was probably less diffusion of popular biblical knowledge yet from France was to come the first real step which should prove that England's hesitation had been unwise. also.124 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. rising at times to survey. some zeal for the learning of the past history of humanity.

that now the period closed by two Englishmen whose names belong high up on the record Clauthis great follows dius James Rich and Sir Robert Ker Porter. 125 supplied by the love of learning in the few and by the great liberality of the government.EXPLORATIONS. But the story of work belongs to the new era. 1734-1820. in a land where governments have always done marvels for the pursuit of learning. .

CHAPTER 1843-1854. but the suc- THE was not so rapid as might have been exThe whole history of the progress was pected. to become the pupil of the Arabist of the day.126 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. greatest whose name has already appeared in the story of In 1840 Mohl became one of the decipherment. he was. where he had taken in the previous year the doctor's degree. culminating work was begun. nevertheless. But this pause was cession full of preparation. period of exploration in Babylonia was succeeded by the era of excavation. to secretaries of the Societe" Asiatique. and there saw the inscribed Babylonian bricks which the East India Company had brought together. language. EXCAVATIONS IN ASSYRIA AND BABYLONIA. Though classics his masters had taught him the Arabic the learning of the older Orient. and there was now a pause before the really slow. V. Paris. about the time of the pause in the progress of Babylonian exploration Mohl visited London. and literature. full of a desire to rather than know At of its history. Silvestre de Sacy. In 1823 Julius Mohl came from Tubingen. and thus became permanently attached to the French capital. He was filled with an overmastering belief that .

with the full ardor of youth and the to it. The man selected to fill the new post was admirably suited Paul Emil Botta was now but thirty-seven years of age. but Babylonia to seek these long-lost there soon came a time when he could arouse another to this call. awaiting the exca- He returned to Paris to read of vator's spade. and must there have learned of the methods of archaeological study in which the French had already met with distinguished success. site Mosul. and to reflect upon the untold treasures light if properly sought. 127 bricks were the promise of an immense literature which lay buried.EXCAVATIONS. He had had service as the French consul at Alexandria. steadying influence of experience of the world. Before Botta departed from Paris for his new post Mohl had impressed strongly upon his mind that a great opportunity was now his to dig. explore. and no more of it was needed. and the new departure was really made in the interest of archaeoto establish at this happily chosen logical study place a French archaeological mission. mounds in Babylonia and Assyria. tunity found for Mohl himself to which must come to There was no opporgo to Assyria or monuments. In 1842 the French government created at Mosul a vice consulate. these little 1843-1854. Rich had made it to describe. and not merely and plot the mounds oppoThe preliminary work of plotting and examining these mounds had been well done. . French commerce with the district did not warrant or demand this.

we should of it know little own letters reference. was Botta's give When its scarcely more than a passing he stood by the banks of the river Tigris charging he could see the river Choser dissluggish and muddy waters into the great river. and determine finally whether they covered any remains of the ancient city of Nineveh. entirely unnecessary for any follower of his to repeat more of that work. It had once possessed an extensive commerce with the East. or even in the comparative comfort of Alexandria. It was now Botta's duty to dig beneath the surface of the oft-described mounds. lying upon the right or western bank of the Tigris.128 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. the homes of a peasantry more fearful of . Botta was persuaded. little city. little for Botta seems to have cared fanatical inhabitants. historic day in the annals of Assyrian The French diplomat and the marks of a archaeologist. whose face bore the fine lines of the scholar rather than man of the world. of which the it still retained the remnants. town or what it its and were it not for the comments of Layard. The eye could follow the little river back over a plain which melted away into the mountains of Kurdistan upon the east and northeast. Upon this plain there were a few squalid villages. at this time. and went out to Mosul to occupy his consulate on May 25. found himself in a place little suited to one who had lived in Paris. That was an study. built Mosul was a mean more of mud than of stone. 1842.

129 Over these the the taxgatherer than of death. in the mound. most noticeable objects were several vast mounds. upon the rising ground along the upper Choser and distant about fourteen . pasha of Mosul exercised a sway. patriarchal only The land had once supin its severe authority. lay the prophet's bones. It might seem to the untrained eye at first glance merely a hill. Romans. the first that was noticeable was south of the Choser. and might mark the remains of an ancient line of wall which inclosed them both. Beneath. The mound was called Neby Yunus that is. according to the tradition of the natives. Upon its top rose a mosque. Prophet Jonah and to his honor and memory the mosque was dedicated. on his right hand as he looked across the river. This mound was larger than the other. As he looked farther north on the opposite side of the Choser lay a larger mound called Kuyunjik.EXCAVATIONS. the sides unnaturally regular and steep. 1843-1854. They had been often described before. but the top was too flat. and beyond them was a raised line which seemed to unite these two mounds. Farther back from the Tigris. a bit of nature's own handiwork. and grouped round this were several poor houses forming a little village. . ported a vast population of that the history left by Greeks. As he swept his eyes over them. and Hebrews made no doubt Besides these wretched villages the possible. where also there were some human habitations. and Botta knew just what they were supposed to be.

residents. so he would find in Mosul huts erected of bricks taken from the ancient city. Other miles north-northeast mound lesser from either in sight or the descriptions of travelers or mounds were Botta looked the field where to begin. and he began a process of questioning the natives concerning He would any finds that might be known. were known from native over and doubted of ancient-looking bricks. The mounds were so large as to discourage aimless seeking. and especially for any that were inscribed with cuneiform characters. This surprising news that a man had come to Mosul who would buy old stones became noised about the whole country. and he had numerous offers of bits of stone and clay. then ascertain from what mound these had come. and these he bought from their owners. Gradually some pieces of inscribed stone were brought forth from hiding places. His plan. was to go over Mosul and seek for signs therefore. To his great surprise and discomfiture he found no such memorials of the past.130 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. was another with a village called Khorsabad. He had been led to believe that as the towns about the ruins of Babylon had been built of brick dug from the remains of the ancient city. But even with advertising of his wishes the number of antiquities offered was much less than that which all this . His first discouraging experience resulted from a careful survey of the town of Mosul itself. from Mosul. and was therefore left without this hint as to the proper place to begin excavations.

EXCAVATIONS. Botta's own mind swerved gradually round to the notion that the most promising mound was Neby Yunus. 1843-1854. Besides this there were Mohammedan mound. which would make digging almost impossible without the utter collapse and ruin of the miserable hovels. This plan was therefore abandoned and the mound by Kuyunjik was At the western edge selected for the first efforts. it was difficult to ascertain where the natives had secured what was offered him. was not Jonah himself buried beneath its surface ? To disturb a graves in the spot thus sacred would mean a revolution among the natives which might set the whole region ablaze with fanaticism. of this mound near the southern extremity a few large bricks could be seen which were joined with bitumen. Furthermore. discovered some fragments of bas-reliefs and broken bits of . suaded by the awkward fact that a village occupied the better part of the top of the mound. Here. thereHis fore. however. and he carefully considered the possibility of digging From this purpose he was finally disthere. for they naturally desired to work these mines for their own gain and not permit the Frank to learn of their exact whereabouts. above all. and. These seemed to offer a hope that they belonged to some ancient building. whose slow movements promised little results. Botta began to dig in December. 131 the passing traveler reported at Baghdad or at Hillah. funds were very limited and he could employ but a few workmen. 1842. The workmen.

but it was perfectly clear that this man was seeking inscriptions. It was. contained any of these strange He was. Every little fragment found which While this little wedge-shaped marks was carefully numbered and laid aside. whatever they might be. however. his faith in this mound gave out. 1843. At last. on March 20. howprofitable mound for excavations. still hopeful of success at Kuyunjik. however.132 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. fearing lest the records . and within the first month of the excavations brought down from Khorsabad two large bricks with inscriptions. and continued to work on. One of the bystanders whose home was at Khorsabad observed this proceeding. ever. and he determined to send a few men to Khorsabad to try the mound there. and not discouraging complete monuments. work was in progress the inhabitants round the ditches and watched curiously gathered the slow and careful work. to find only broken pieces. for it offered proof positive that this mound really did cover some ancient building or buildings. This gave him the hint that perhaps Khorsabad might be a more He was. For three months the work clay inscriptions. skeptical. They did not know what it all meant. It was a fortunate resolve. In three days word was brought to him at Mosul that antiquities and inscriptions had already been found. which he offered to sell to Botta. What was found was interesting indeed. went on and nothing large or valuable or beautiful came out of the little ditches or wells.

Thence he wrote on April 5. but some appreciation of it was Botta's own. a quiet. 1845. not of a city. fore unwilling to go himself lest and was therethose which had been found should prove valuless. His workmen had lighted upon a very well-preserved ancient wall. He sent a servant with instructions to copy a few of the inscripThe reply showed beyond tions and then report. together with a num- ber of well-preserved inscriptions. Paris. a doubt that the antiquities were really Assyrian. publiees par M.EXCAVATIONS. Botta's Letters on Decouvertes a Kkorsabad. but of a building. the Discoveries at Nineveh. 1850. This they had followed round and so uncovered a large room. digni' 1 Lettres de M. 1843. believed at once that this was but one room. almost perfectly preserved. and proved the supposition at once by causing wells to be driven near by in several places. and then had to return to Mosul for other duties. out of which came other bas-reliefs. '133 Arabic graffiti.Mohl. In these his eyes looked upon a sight which no man had seen since the great royal city fell before its enemies more than two thousand four hundred years before. He as he looked down into the rude excavation. Thereupon Botta went to the scene. . calcined by fire. in which were lying fragments of sculptures. might be some late 1843-1854. Botta sur les J . M. The full meaning of this new room was not ascertained until long after. London. T. translated from the French by C. to behold a sight that thrilled him. Only one day could Botta remain at Khorsabad. per- haps of a great palace.

and he almost a victim. and three thousand francs were placed at Botta's disposal for further re- searches. A month later a second and more important letter moved the French government to its old line of generous assistance to archaeological research. M. Mohl. He first set guards over Botta's workmen. and that these inscriptions which he copied were talismanic guardians from which he would learn its exact Yet others supposed that he was searchlocation. and hampered his work at every turn. ing for old title deeds by which to prove that all this land might stories to Europeans. and he entered gradually upon a policy of oppression. but it roused Mohl to contribute of his own small purse and also sent him to the Academy of Inscriptions -with Botta's letter and the ac- tions companying diagrams. He pressed by great difficulties. Botta's course seemed clear and his success certain. and cheered on by the ever-active Mohl. author of his scarcely a first fied letter to the enthusiasm. Some supposed that he was digging for buried treasure. though with some opposition on the part of the pasha. whose business it came to the ears of Mohammed .134 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. however. was. then governing the pashalic of Mosul. who thus claim its restoration. sorely The climate was fell dangerous. These and similar had belonged Pasha. Meanwhile the excavawent slowly on. Thus supported by France. The natives were suspicious beyond measure. There is word of enthusiasm in the letter.

and not to his own machinations. dispatched a courier to the French ambassador at Constantinople. for himself a small hut where he might find a resting place when he came up on visits from Mosul. 1843-1854. he the painful emergency. The was wily pasha now pretended that this was in reality a fortress and that the trenches were its defenses. Upon these the Sublime Porte ordered that tions should at once cease. all representations the excava- Botta was equal to On October 15. "that the first rains of the season had caused a portion of the house erected at Khorsabad to fall down. 1843.EXCAVATIONS. Can you imagine. and turning to the numerous officers by whom he was surrounded. laughing in the most natural manner. begging him to make such representation to the Porte as might secure permission for the continuance of the excavations. that it was scarcely worth the trouble. that it might be carefully examined to determine whether it was This caused so little inconvenience to Botta gold. It was evidently Botta's intention to overawe the country by force of arms and detach it from the sultan's dominions.' said he. "I told him one day. l . 135 to seize any piece of metal that might be found and dispatch it to him. and he soon felt compelled to resort to more strenuous measHe had given permission to Botta to erect ures. While these petitions were pending amid the usual delays at Constantinople the wily pasha was pretending to Botta that all his difficulties were due to the people of Khorsabad." says Botta.

Flandin. p. and not until May 4. Botta copied the inscriptions. 1852. I . while he himself was the author of the lie. When Botta attempted to begin excavations again he found that it would be necessary to raze and thus be free to dig over the the_little village whole mound. E. to destroy it. I can assure you." At Constantinople difficulties innumerable and delays uncounted were found. and a little rain sir.' spoke. did the firmans allowing the work to proceed reach Botta at Mosul. for having dared It was in this manner that he to accuse you. It was already decided in Paris that everything else should be carried thither. anything like the impudence of the inhabitants of Khorsabad ? They pretend that the French consul has constructed a redoubtable fortress. . and his menaces alone were the obstacles which prevented the inhabitants from exposing it. London.136 ' HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. who had been sent from Paris to copy and sketch all the antiquities which were too bulky or heavy to be removed. is sufficient that. ' 1844. I not afraid of hurting your feelings. 15. They were brought from Constantinople by M. while Flandin planned all the rooms and buildings that were 1 Quoted in Bonomi. Nineveh and Its Palaces. The work now went on apace. were would have them all bastinadoed till they were dead they would richly deserve it. This was accomplished by paying the inhabitants to remove to the level ground at the foot of the mound and then entering into an agreement to restore the mound's surface as it was for their rebuilding.

Scores of inscriptions. mesure et dessine par M. P. So ended in a worthy publicity the first great expedition to Assyria which had succeeded in bringing to Europe the 1 first Assyrian monuments Monument de Ninive decouvert et decrit. par M. Botta. upon stone and monumental incharacter. all the copies of inscriptions. and three hundred native laborers worked lustily with pick and shovel to lay bare this portion of the ruined chiefly city. Great winged bulls that once had guarded palace doors came to light.to be transported to Paris and deposited in the Louvre.EXCAVATIONS. 137 found. 11 . E. but at last. 1843-1854. Ouvrage public par ordre du gouvernement sous les auspices de M. Paris. E. were now found. 1849. in De- cember. Botta stopped the work and soon began to arrange for the transportation of the antiquities to Paris. To crown the work the French government published all the drawings of Flan din. The success liefs of much beauty the hopes of Botta and all the enthusiastic predictions of Mohl. 1844. le Ministre de 1'Interieur. 1846. Imprimerie Nationale. Tomes i-v. thence . The difficulties were great and the delays annoying. the entire mass of material was successfully landed at Havre. and almost of the all work passed exceeded the belief of the learned world in Paris. and all the descriptive matter of Botta in five magnificent folio volumes. et sous la direction d'une Commission de 1'Institut. In October. Flandin. Bas-reportraying scenes of peace and war arose out of dust and dirt. 1 in a style worthy of French traditions and of French liberality to archaeological research.

138 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. awakened in him a love for the fine arts. . France. whose early training. would probably have gone back to Khorsabad or to some other mound in the district of Nineveh after the publication of his discoveries had he not been sent into government service His work might well call him to reelsewhere. gathered here and there in England. Herein again. his eager reading of the Arabian Nights Layard was mixed with study of Fellowe's travels in Asia Minor and with the perusal of Rich's accounts of discovery at Babylon and Nineveh. did not awake in him an enthusiasm sufficient to 1 The early life of Layard is sketched very briefly by Lord Aberdare in the introduction of the second edition of Layard. It which the Occident had ever was a noble work of Botta. the influence of enthusiasm carried over from man to man. Rich's journal filled him with desire to see these great mounds beneath which lay ancient memorials of Botta 1 untold interest. turn. is seen the continuity of research in these lands. of Flandin. and a passion In the boyish days of Austen Henry for travel. London.Persia. an interest in archaeology. Early Adventures in . Susiana. and of France. of Mohl. 1894. there was born in Paris an English boy of Huguenot descent. and Babylonia. but another would soon continue it. Fortunately for science Layard's education had been too uneven to fit him for the pursuit of a profession. and the law. 1817. seen. as often before. and Italy. On March 5. for which he was destined.

determined. 1843-1854. two volumes. by Edward Ledwich Mitford. that Layard and Mitford first saw Mosul and examined somewhat curiously the mounds on the opposite bank.EXCAVATIONS. B. The story is continued in Early Adventures in Persia. two volumes. he set out to make the journey overland in company with Edward Ledwich Mitford. therefore. amid savage animals and even more savage men. Layard abandoned the plan of seeking his fortune in Ceylon. and the quiet ways of England were too tame for the almost Gallic spirit within him. . Persia. 139 overcome the early defects. 188*7. when a mere boy in ap- pearance and but twenty-two years of age. London. Susiana. 1884. who was bent upon the same business. by Sir Henry Layard. where he had learned the Arabic dialect there Before setting out upon this journey Layin use. 1 was upon May 10. G. 1840.. S. which describes the European travels and the oriental as far as Hamadan. which Layard had learned from Rich to consider the reIt The story of Layard's early wanderings is told in A Land March from England to Ceylon. Mitford's book very curiously refrains from 1 mentioning Layard's name. C. The restless fever was in his blood. F. Mitford was nearly ten years older than Layard and had had experience in Morocco. B. and therein archaeology triumphed over commerce. and Babylonia. Upon Mitford pursued his way on to Ceylon. G. ard had learned a little Arabic and Persian. and Layard returned into western Asia. He in Ceylon. to seek a career and in 1839. London.. tried to' had make reaching Hamadan. and other hasty preparations for the dangerous voyage over lands almost unknown. forty years ago.

swollen by the melting of the snows on the Armenian hills. mains of Nineveh. stretched from its base. But all aroused in him pression a deep longing to learn their secrets. The mounds of Kuyunjik and Neby Yunus did not make so great an im- upon Layard as did the great mound of Nimroud. gave rise to serious thought and more earnest reflection. and formed a vast quadrangle. which stretched around it. its waters. upon which might be traced It The the well-defined wedges of the cuneiform character. were covered with flowers of Amidst this luxuriant vegetation every hue. still retaining the appearance A of ramparts. long line of consecutive narrow mounds. were broken into a thousand foaming whirlpools by an artificial barrier built across the at . than the temples of Baalbec or the theaters of This spell deepened as he saw more of Ionia. spring rains had clothed the mounds with the richest verdure. " These huge mounds of Assyria made a deeper impression upon me. pottery. were partly concealed a few fragments of bricks. Even then he could say." more Nimroud by rafting down the dad. and the fertile meadows. His words to follow : Tigris toward Baghare a promise of the work that was " was evening as we approached the spot. Did not these remains mark the nature of the ruin. farther south.140 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. it might have been confounded with a natural eminence. and alabaster. The river flowed walls or some distance from them.

my companion explained to me that this unusual change in the quiet face of the river was caused by a great dam which had been built by Nimrod. It was. over which we were carried with some violence. 1843-1854. spreading present inhabitants of the land should assign to one of the founders of the human race ! them The Arab was the telling me of the connection between dam and ant the city built by Athur. one of those monuments of a great people to be found in all the rivers of Mesopotamia. were fre- quently visible above the surface of the stream. which were undertaken to insure a constant supply of water to the innumerable canals. the lieutenof Nimrod. Once safely through the danger. the huge stones of which it was constructed.EXCAVATIONS. small raft gave himself up we approached this religious ejaculations as formidable cataract. der. before the winter rains. and that in the autumn. now represented by the mound of Harnmum Ali and of the histories and fate of kings of a primi- . stream. in fact. the vast ruins of which were of its purpose as a now before us causeway for the mighty hunter to cross to the opposite palace. like network over the surrounding and which. masonry still withstood its had been but a solid mass of Arab who guided to my The impetuosity. even in the days of Alexancountry. squared. and united by clamps of iron. 141 soil On the eastern bank the washed away by the current. were looked upon as the works of an ancient No wonder that the traditions of the nation.

: onward these singular ruins. "My curiosity had been greatly excited. D.. was too much a man of dignity. whenever it might be in my power.142 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. theme of the inhabitants tive race still the favorite of the plain to of Shinar. pp. and I fell alseep as we Baghdad. In the two years which had passed Layard had attempted to secure aid to enable him to undertake His own just such work as this.C. ." The resolve expressed in this last sentence is very striking taken in April. though the good fortune of the latter gave him the precedence in the field. London. even in his youth. Y. when one remembers was This was more than two that it years before Botta had even seen the mounds. by Austen Henry Layard. has always 1 Nineveh and Its Remains . and an enquiry into the Manners and Arts of the Ancient Assyrians. who was now doing what he had been dreaming. and the Yezidis. 1842. 1840. to feel government was not archaeologists as as the easily induced to aid government of France. At least in the thought of excavation Layard antici- pated Botta. and from that time I formed the design of thoroughly examining. Esq. when the last glow of glided twilight faded away. 8. or Devil-worshippers . In May. but in vain. 1849.L. and found Botta established as consular agent and already engaged in Layard carrying on excavations at Kuyunjik. Two volumes. with an account of a visit to the Chaldean Christians of Kurdistan. whether monarchical or republican. any envy of the fortunate Frenchman. i. Layard passed through Mosul on his way to Constantinople.

and Sir Stratford gave him 60. When Botta was discouraged at his small success it was Layard who wrote urging him to persevere. 1843-1854. Layard then formed terms of friendship with Botta. To him Layard man. afterward Lord Stratford de Redcliffe. patience. Mohammed Pasha was now governor of the province. who had secured for the British Museum the marbles of Halicarnassus. 1845. 143 been. and from him Layard could expect no help. to which was to add an equal amount collected among Layard friends. The British ambassador at Constantinople was now Sir Stratford Canning. and ardor with which he had pursued the efforts required to obtain these had increased his own interest in the monuments of the past. told 'the story of the mounds. the time of this second visit to Mosul. but after a few days gave out that he was going He to hunt wild boars. "With this small therefore concealed the object of his mission. sum Layard left Conand traveled with all stantinople October. At Constantinople. and then left Mosul by a raft to float down to Nimroud. but every possible interference. where he had deter- mined to begin excavations.EXCAVATIONS. however. Layard w^as on his way home to England. The skill. and entered upon a correspondence. and described his eagerness to try excaAt last he had found the right vations in them. he was detained and sent At thence to Salonica upon service for the British embassy. haste to Mosul. Here an Arab tent .

all was reburied and I was standing on the grasscovered mound. His record of the night pasha's before the first spade was struck into the ground reveals the enthusiasm of the man. i. Arab host]. hearing the voice of Awad [his . I rose from outside the hovel. I was at length sinking into sleep when. after a visit 1 Nineveh and Its Remains. and gives some sheltered clue to his great success " I had slept little during the night. p. 25. of sculptured figures. my carpet and joined him The day had already dawned he had returned with six Arabs. Visions of pal. Mm. After forming plan after plan for re- moving the earth and extricating these treasures. The hovel in which we had taken shelter. . The plans pursued were exactly the same as were followed against Botta. again. Exhausted. When the excavations were resumed.144 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. I fancied myself wandering in a maze of chambers from which I could find no outlet. they could have been forgotten had my brain been less excited. of gigantic monsters. : but such scenes and companions were not new to me. Then. who agreed for a small sum to work under my direction. and hearts more tender than the watched over him. Hopes long cherished were now to be realized or were to end in disappointment. and its inmates. did not invite slumber aces underground. and endless inscriptions floated before me." The excavations thus begun were carried on until December amid constant difficulties set on foot by the pasha.

the remainder of which was still part buried in the earth. without further words. Whilst Awad ad- vanced and asked for a present to celebrate the occasion. I saw at once that the head must belong to a winged those of Khorsabad and admirable preservation. in February. told by Layard himself: l Hasten. standing near a heap of baskets and cloaks. they were again interrupted by the fanatacism of the Arabs. They had uncovered the upper of a figure. the Arabs withdrew the screen they had hastily constructed and disclosed an enormous human head sculptured in full out of the alabaster of the country. and found the workmen. "On Wallah. 1843-1854. O Bey.EXCAVATIONS. direction of their tents. When they were again resumed. lion or bull. who had already seen me as I approached. approaching me they stopped. The expression was calm. and both joining " On new reaching the ruins I descended into the trench. for they have found Nimrod himself. but it is true is eyes. similar to It was in Persepolis. in this pious exclamation. and was returning to the mound when he observed two Arabs hastening to meet him with excited The narrative of what followed is best faces. 1846. Layard left the mound to visit a neighboring sheikh.' exclaimed one of them 'hasten to the diggers. seen it is wonderful. . in the they galloped off. 145 to Baghdad. Ismail Pasha. operating upon the new governor of the province. him with our ' There we have no Grod but ! God .

a noise of horsemen was heard. "While the earth. that of the human-headed bulls hitherto found in Assyria. majestic. When . had thrown down his basket and run off toward Mosul as fast as his legs could carry him. was superintending the removal of which still clung to the sculpture.146 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. slowly ascending from the regions below. As soon as the two Arabs had reached the tents and published the wonders they had seen everyone mounted his mare and rode to the mound. appeared on the edge of the trench. the bowels of the earth. unlike period. I was not surprised that the Arabs had been amazed and terrified at this apparition. to satisfy himself of the truth of these inconceivable reports. and. followed by half his tribe. thus rising from. was rounded and without ornament at yet the top. One of the workmen. and I giving directions for the continuation of the work. might well have belonged to one of those fearful beings which are pictured in the traditions of the country as appearing to mortals. and presently Abd-ur-rahmar. blanched " with age. It required no stretch of imagination to conjure up the most strange fancies. on catching the first glimpse of the monster. and the outline of the features showed a freedom and knowledge of art scarcely to be looked for in the works of so remote a The cap had three horns. I learned this with regret. This gigantic head. as I anticipated the conl^sequences.

peace be with him cursed before the flood. in the expectation of finding a corresponding figure. . and came in crowds. standers concurred. of which all the Arabs near partook. * There is no God but God.EXCAVATIONS.' but of those infidel giants of whom the prophet. As some wandering musicians chanced to be at Selamiyah. with their children. ! the result of a careful examination. about twelve feet distant.' In this opinion. i This * . and Mohammed is his It was some time before the sheikh prophet ' ! could be prevailed upon to descend into the pit and convince himself that the image he saw was of stone. into which I would not allow the multitude to descend. peace be with him! has said that they were higher than the tallest date tree this is one of the idols which Noah. from afar. morning Arabs from the other side of the Tigris and the inhabitants of the surrounding villages congregated on the mound. and before nightfall reached the object of my search. all the by- "I now ordered a trench to be dug due south from the head. Engaging two or three men to sleep near the sculptures. 147 they beheld the head they all cried together. I sent for them. My cawass was stationed during the day in the trench. Even the women could not repress their curiosity. exclaimed he. I returned to the village and celebrated the day's discovery by a slaughter of sheep. and dances were kept up during On the following the greater part of the night. is not the work of men's hands. 1843-1854.

had thrown the town into commotion. who. and had some difficulty in making him understand the nature of my my discovery. called the mufti and the ulema together to consult upon occurrence. and a formal protest on the part of the Mussulmans of the town against proceedings so directly contrary to the laws of the The cadi had no distinct idea Koran. this unexpected Their deliberations ended in a procession to the governor. Entering breathless into the bazaars. As he requested me to discontinue operations until the sensation in the town had somewhat subsided."As I had expected. I consequently received a somewhat unintelligible message from his excellency to the effect that the remains should be treated with respect. " I called upon him accordingly. carried by the terrified Arab to Mosul. I returned to Nimroud and dismissed the workmen. met that The news soon got to the ears of the cadi. and be by no means further disturbed. anxious for a fresh opportunity to annoy me. retaining only two men . he announced to everyone he Nimrod had appeared. whether the bones of the mighty hunter had been uncovered or only his image. nor did Ismail Pasha very clearly remember whether Nirnrod was a true believing prophet or an infidel. He had ing scarcely checked his speed before reachthe bridge. the report of the discovery of the gigantic head. and that he wished the excavations to be stopped at once. and desired to confer with me on the subject.

That the spectator might have both a perfect front and side view of the figures they were furnished with five legs. facing the chamber. were in full and partly in relief. encircled the These sculptures. and three on the side.EXCAVATIONS. forming an entrance. Expanded wings sprung from the shoulder and spread over the back. the back being placed against the wall of sun-dried bricks. entire. to 1843-1854. showed at the same time a correct knowledge of anatomy and form. and In one hand each figure carried a goat or in the other. and portal. were in full . 149 dig leisurely along the walls without giving__ cause for further interference. the human shape being continued to the waist and finished with arms. The relief of the body . differing from those previously discovered in form. found them to be length. ending in loins. The head and partly fore part. which hung down by the side. the muscles and bones. I ascertained by \ the end of March the existence of a second pair of winged human-headed lions. tassels. two were carved on the end of the slab to face the chamber. but only one side of the rest of the slab was sculptured. though strongly developed to display the strength of the animal. stag. They were about and the same number in por- The body and limbs were admirably trayed. They formed a northern entrance into the chamber of which the lions previously described were the southern I completely uncovered the latter. a branch with three flowers. twelve feet in height. a its knotted girdle.

and muse over their intent and What more noble forms could have ushhistory. the most minute lines in the details of the wings and in the ornaments had been retained with their original freshness. and warriors had borne sacrifices to structed races their altars long before the wisdom of the East had penetrated to Greece. power. winged human-headed lions were not idle crea- tions. priests. They may have been buried.150 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and the slab was covered in all parts not occupied by the image with inscriptions in the cuneiform characThese magnificent specimens of Assyrian art ter. Through the portals which they guarded kings. They had awed and in- which flourished three thousand years ago. than the wings of the bird. and had furnished its mythology with symbols long recognized by the Assyrian votaries. inscriptions. of rapidity of motion. and three limbs was high and bold. were in perfect preservation. Not a character was wanting in the "I used to contemplate for hours these mysterious emblems. unaided by the light of revealed religion. to embody their conception of the wisdom. than the body of the lion . the offspring of mere fancy . and ubiquity of a Supreme Being ? They could find no better type of intellect and knowledge than the head of the man of strength. and . their meaning was wiitten upon them. ered the people into the temple of their gods ? What more sublime images could have been bor- rowed from nature by men who sought. These .

their existence 1843-1854. and his boughs were multiplied. in the words of the prophet. and his top was among the thick his height was exalted above all the boughs trees of the field. multitude of waters fowls of heaven and under field nests in his boughs. but they have stood forth for ages to testify her early power and renown. lodge in nations. . both the cormorant . while those before me had but now appeared to bear witness. desolation down and dry like a wilderness. The wealth of temples and the riches of great cities had been succeeded by ruins and shapeless heaps of earth. and flocks lie in the midst of her: all the beasts of the and bittern. 151 may have been unknown. that once 'the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches. before For twentyfive centuries they had been hidden from the eye of man. ! . his branches did all the beasts of the ' when he made their shot forth.EXCAVATIONS. because of the the foundation of the Eternal City. . All the bring forth their young. Above the spacious hall in which they stood the plow had passed and the corn now waved. and his branches became long. and under his shadow dwelt all great nations for now is Nineveh a ' . and they now stood forth once more in ^ But how changed was the"" their ancient majesty. Egypt has monuments no less ancient and no less wonderful. The luxury and civilization scene around them had given place to the wretchedof a mighty nation ness and ignorance of a few half-barbarous tribes. and with a shadowing shroud of an high stature.

none had ever displayed so much of enthusiasm and so great a power of description. enterprise. he knew how to make all that he saw bear upon the words of the Bible. life. they who loved the Bible saw in him a man who was making discoveries which promised to illustrate or confirm records to them most dear. In one respect this narrative of Layard's far excels all that had been written by the men who day had seen or measured or worked in these mounds. these influences became so potent that the British government was moved to lend a hand to this work. i. and movement .152 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. their voice sings in the windows and desolation is in the thresholds. In due time. the upper lintels of it . also.' " ' . Nineveh and Remains. In another respect Layard becomes a successor of one of the earliest of English travelers and explorers. The colossal 1 figures which so deeply moved Its Layard. They who cared nothing for the Bible were moved by the fire and the beauty of his description. . 65. and so that which had been begun upon slender private means became a great national covered them. Like Shirley. He could quote the very words out of the Scriptures and make the dust- monument reflect a bright light upon These two powers the power of description in color and the power of biblical comparison ranged all England at his back. None before had ever told the before his story of their experiences or of their discoveries in words so full of color. ft.

Layard had supposed that the winged lions had guarded the entrance of some great temple. Soon after which his health.were extremely limited Kuyunjik. procured by Sir Constantinople Stratford Canning. Layard were indeed a noble 1843-1854. and the results were not encouraging. 153 sight. but they were not so important as the smaller inscriptions which were later to be dug out of their resting places." upon Layard's work. Upon his return to Mosul he found letters from 12 . the spade was later to show that they had stood at the portals of the palace of Shalmaneser I. He therefore resumed with fresh vigor the work at Nimroud. It was therefore a great when he received from a " vizirial letter. compelled him to cease work and make a mountain journey for recuperation.EXCAVATIONS. for transportation to England. from which he was shortly able to send a large consignment of monuments on a raft to made some Baghdad and thence to Bassorah. and enabled him to do openly work which had hitherto been carried on with as much concealment as possible. authorizing the continuation of relief to Layard's anxieties the excavations and the removal of such objects This put another face as might be discovered. The work which revealed these monuments had been carried on under many difficulties and with a constant dread of interruption from the suspicious natives or their rulers. He now small attempts upon the mound of but his funds. already undermined by the enervating climate.

In all this Layard had the valuable assistance of Mr. Huts were erected for shelter from the storms. with which the chamber walls were wainscoted. wandering Arabs were induced to pitch their tents near by. ducted most of the dealings with them. With such resources as he had the work was resumed in October. and these were found to be richly carved in relief . Many a new plan of dealing with troublesome natives was tried and the better adopted. and kept the peace without use of force. whose brother. were successful beyond his wildest dreams. As the trenches followed round the walls of room after room they uncovered great slabs of alabaster. and that therefore he must stint and economize and strive to utilize every penny. 1846. and that furthermore the Museum had received -from the government a grant of funds for continuing the work. Hormuzd Rassam was native born and understood the peoHe conple as no European could hope to do.154 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and a winter campaign was carefully planned. and with the powers which Layard then possessed. England advising him that Sir Stratford Canning had presented to the British Museum the antiquities which had been found. though Layard had to lament that it was so much smaller than Botta had enjoyed. The excavations carried on under these auspices. and instead of living by plunder draw wages for labor in the trenches. Charles Rassam. This was good news indeed. Hormuzd Rassam. was British vice consul at Mosul.

" It was covered on three sides with inscriptions and with twenty small bas-reliefs. though when found these facts were of course unknown. One trench ten feet beneath the surface uncovered the edge of a piece of black marble. the objects which they represented.EXCAVATIONS. 155 with scenes of hunting. Day after day the work went on with the regular and constant discovery of stone slabs from the place . Layard was therefore particularly anxious to get lest it away some mishap should befall it. together with iron and bronze helmets. field in The very life of palace. lying on its side. The inscriptions recorded and the bas-reliefs illustrated various forms of gift and tribute which had been received by Shalmaneser II. As the trenches were dug deeper or longer monuments carved or inscribed were found daily. and of solemn ceremony. of war. while these received an addition to their verisimilitude by the discovery in some of the ruins of pieces of iron which had once formed parts of the same kind of armor as that portrayed on the reliefs. It was the corner of "an obelisk about seven feet high. camp. No inscription equal in beauty and in the promise of valuable historical material had yet been found in Assyria. while in others were found vases and ornamentally carved pieces Here were the pictures and there were of ivory. 1843-1854. and Assyrian days came back again before the astonished eyes of the explorer. He therefore set Arabs to sleep and watch by it overnight and had it speedily packed for shipment.

some of which belong to the permit earliest of the great I. method of procedure. Assyrian conquerors. and then the work had to cease because of the consumption of the means for its carrying on. after having sent the last of his discoveries down the Tigris. 1847. Tiglath- But what ancient city this might be pileser was unable to ascertain. was a discovery made afterward. where he had before desired to make excavations. even though they did not appear to be immediThis would have been the best ately productive.156 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and similar to those with the finding of inscribed bricks which. On June 24. p. . but the means would not it. For his next adventure he chose the mound of Kalah Shergat. Layard left Mosul for the land the of mound journey to Constantinople. much more the trenches began to yield less material Layard determined to try elsewhere. contained historical material. though not so beautiful as the stone. and Layard had to seek fresh soil. 297. Out of these ruins were taken an interesting sitting figure and many small bricks with inscriptions. A few days were also given to excavation in 1 Kuyunjik with similar good fortune. first capital of the kingdom. Had his funds not been so severely limited. That it was Layard none other than the city of Asshur. After a few months' rest in England. devoted 1 See infra. he would have When continued still further the excavations at Nimroud. which had been found before.

. but far below the standard of beauty set by Botta's superb volumes. this The British Museum secured more funds for the work and he was directed to set out for Assyria again. and so keen was he now become in the examination of inscriptions and tables of genealogy that he recognized the fact that this edifice 1 These books were Nineveh and Its Remains (see references above) and The Monuments of Nineveh. Layard was ordered to Constantinople to service with the He had not been able to finish British embassy.L. for the press the work which he had written. Mr. and went out to his duty not knowing whether his would awaken any interest or not. and landed there on the thirty-first day and began the journey to Mosul. for Trebizond. and at once all England rang with story 1 his praise and with an eager expression that further. his departure.C. Cooper. In the former he discovered the great palace of Sennacherib. an artist. work must go on and Dr. London. a physician. 1849. 157 measure to the preparation of the narrative of his expedition and of the copies of the monuments which he had found. In this expedition he laid the chief emphasis upon the mound of Kuyunjik and Neby Yunus. He does not appear even to have dreamed that any special call would come to him to resume the excavaBut the books were published after tions again. Sandwith. by Austen Henry Layard. From England Hormuzd Rassam.EXCAVATIONS. 1849.. The latter contained one hundred plates. They set sail from the Bosphorus on August 28. in considerable 1843-1854. Esq. F. were induced to accompany him.. D. many well exe- cuted.

while his son Esar-haddon erected greater than in the first expedition were his discoveries at Kuyunjik both for the history. London. the literature. It is remembered that he made this conjecture without being able to read Assyrian at all. with travels in Armenia. Later study has determined that he had correctly ascertained the facts. from A drawings made on the spot during a second expedition to Assyria. Kurdistan. Second Series of the Monuments of Nineveh. to England. by Austen Henry Layard. Upon these excursions he visited and for the first time described the great mound of Niffer. but with little success. 1853. At Hillah he made some excavations. Sargon built the palace at Khorsabad his son Sennacherib built the palace . and the Desert being the result of a second expedition undertaken for the trustees of the British Museum. . Nimroud.P. of his narrative and the preparing of his inscripHe found that his pre1 : 1 Discoveries In the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon. Seventy-one plates. But he also conducted the palace at Mmroud. From Mosul he made excursions to various sites in northern and southern Babylonia. M. including bas-reliefs from the palace of Sennacherib and bronzes from the ruins of Nimroud. 1853. His first work was the writing tions for publication. M. and Khorsabad. Even Kalah Shergat. and the art of ancient Assyria. Lay- ard. met excavations at After another season he returned in April. London. 1852.158 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. at Kuyunjik. belonged to the king whose son was the builder of the palace at Niinroud and whose father built the palace discovered to be by Botta at Khorsabad. by Austen H. where a later expedition was to achieve unparalleled successes.P.

159 made him famous. to hold the post of consular He -agent at Mosul and continue Botta's work. and. notably at Constantinople. 1843-1854. each land been moved to assist . cooperating afterward with a French expedition. Meanwhile in England interest in the whole eries in the of Babylonia and Assyria grew apace. and it now joined in the work in still another way. which he appears not to have been so happy. as we have already seen. as he had once served it by his own labors. an in architect of great skill. and their influence lived far beyond even Layard's own life. had not accomplished much when Layard's work ended. vious books had discoveries reputation.EXCAVATIONS. others were found to continue it. For a long time the frontier between Turkey and Persia had been a bone of contention. Even while Layard was still at work in Nineveh the French government sent Victor Place. but remained and made important discovdepartment of Assyrian art. while the new would be certain to add much to his This secured for him honored diplo- matic posts. where he was able to serve Assyrian study by dealing with the Turkish government in the interest of explorers. though he laid the work down to take up diplomatic service. touched the popular heart in many points. manifest- ing itself in many ways. His books had. The government had Layard's investigations. Layard's two expeditions to Assyria had been fruitful indeed beyond those of Botta. to which attention must later be paid.

and the very sight of them filled him with enthusiasm. 1849. whereupon England and Russia intervened. after a session lasting four years. In 1839 and 1840 war almost ensued between the two nations. he says " I know of nothing more exciting first than the A and surmises concerning its past eventful history and origin its gradual rise and rapid fall naturally present themselves to the mind of the specof early morning is peculiarly favorable to considerations and impressions of this character. and Persia. and a commission was appointed to sit at Erzerum to conduct negotiations for a peaceful settlement of difficulties. This work was carried on by representatives of England. Russia.160 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and the gray mist intator. Mr. gaining or losing as the fortune of war might be. while predatory bands belonging neither to the one nor the other made reprisals upon both. mound of Hammam. The most prominent of these was Colonel "W. The hazy atmosphere . the : or impressive of one of these great Chaldean sight piles looming in solitary grandeur from the surthousand thoughts rounding plains and marshes. the basis of which lay in a survey of the doubtful territory between the two states. William Kennett Loftus was sent out from England to serve as geologist upon his staff. Of one. Turkey. In January. This commission. F. agreed upon a treaty. "Williams. and a proper de- limitation of the border. Loftus found time amid other duties to visit large numbers of mounds in Babylonia.

they were not to be compared with the reThis was due in chief sults of Layard's work. measure to the exceedingly meager means at the disposal of Loftus. therefore. the ancient city of Erech. is further heightened by mi- which strangely and fantastically magnifies its form. and often dangerous. though many interesting antiquities were found." In the spring of 1850 Loftus carried on small excavations at Warka. excavating in Babylonia. Upon this first expedition Loftus rendered distinguished services by his long. by William Kennett London. Even to this present some of Loftus's work remains useful. and minutely located. .S. that the beholder ' is lost in pleasing doubt as to the actual reality of the * apparition before him. Loftus. and a number of lesser sites. An oppor1 Travels and Researches in Chaldcea and Susiana.EXCAVATIONS. F. 1843-1854. 1857. elevating it from the ground. Upon these trips he visited Niffer. 161 tervening between the gazer and the object of his reflections imparts to it a dreamy existence. most of which had never before been visited by Europeans. and causing it to dance and quiver in the rarefied air. This fairylike effect rage. and further to the great diffibut. and expressed a longing to dig in some spots which have since proved exceedingly productive. These he carefully described. travels culties of over southern Babylonia. Mukayyar (Mugheir). He had also a keen eye for the peculiarities of mounds.G. No wonder. rendering thereby access easy for others.

It attracted. This direction could hardly have been placed in better hands. At this time Sir Henry C. ble mass of mortuary remains. with many vases. and to him was intrusted the general oversight of such excavations as might be planned and carried on. Loftus was sent by the fund to conduct excavations and carry on explorations in the southern part of the country. not that it was unimportant. though less in amount than Layard's. While almost travelers and explorers were busy among savage mounds continued. and peoples English interest in the finally eventuated in the organization of an Assyrian Excavation Fund. but chiefly because Loftus did not possess Layard's popular gifts. which undertook to gather popular subscriptions and to direct excavations in Assyria and Babylonia with the means thus acquired. His work was successful in bringing to London considerable numbers of inscribed tablets.162 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. little popular attention. tunity to do some of the work lie had planned was soon to corne to him through private enterprise in England. Rawlinson was British resident and consul general at Baghdad. and long residence in the East and his remarkable attainments in the decipher- ment of ancient Persian had fullest fitted him in the degree to take charge of efforts intended to make the buried records of the great valley accessible to the world. and a considera- however. and was unable to set forth his dis- . His extensive travels.

I worked along at a depth of 10 feet and a breadth of 6 without finding anything. British vice consul at Bassorah. their surface. It was rather at the southwestern corner that his great discovery was to be made.EXCAVATIONS. Tay1 lor. I . here. and was found standing on one end. composing this solid mass within were here of an amazing thickness. Taylor dug straight into the center of the mound. and then relinquished this corner for the northwest one. E. also. but at 12 feet from the surface. I excavated some little distance further without any success. . to Mugheir. finding almost nothing as a reward for his pains. Of it he has this story to tell : " I began excavating the southwest corner. mingled with sun-dried. I found a second cylinder similar to the one above menAt this tioned. he would have remained almost unknown. Here. corner I sank a shaft 21 feet deep by 12 broad. Had it not been for the notes which Rawlinson sent home. coveries 1843-1854. I then returned. This it had been relic was in the solid masonry placed in a niche formed by the omission of one of the bricks in the layer. 290. bricks. 163 in such attractive fashion. 6 feet below the and worked a few found a perfect inscribed cylinder. clearing away large masses of rubbish formed of the remains of burnt. 1 See infra. feet north along the brick casing of the western wall. Rawlinson's next move was to send J. p. probably the ancient Babylonian city of Ur. The sun-dried bricks.

xv. This accounted for when looking at the iris easily regular surface of the ruin. 404.. Just below the cylinder were two rough logs of wood. ff. has been subject to greater ravages from rain than the other sides. E. owing to the greater depression of the surface toward these points. 1 J. I sank a shaft in each. 263. I naturally concluded the same objects would be found in the two corners still remaining. pp. which." by Royal Asiatic Society." Taylor also conducted excavations 2 ' at Abu Sharein and Tel-el-Lahm. At the work this time expeditions were so numerous and of different men in various places so it is constantly in progress that impossible to fol- low them in detail and almost impossible to arrange them in chronological order. Taylor. which ran across the whole breadth size of the shaft. " . 264. and found two other cylinders precisely in the same position. was 16 inches square and 7 inches thick. Having thus found two cylinders in the solid masonry in two corners. apparently teak. at the southeast corner and south side generally. and in the same kind of structure.. . one at 6 and the other at 2 feet from the surface. but without important results. Journal of the * Ibid. . Esq.164 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. While yet Lof tus was still at work and Taylor had not even begun his labors the French government was taking steps to resume excavations upon " Notes on the Ruins of Muqeyer. . p.

and as " it is stated by sheer carelessness and mismanagement. and the published results of the expedition were notable. 1856). At the same time Place was conexcavations at Khorsabad. made important researches at Babylon and visited a large number of mounds. which was reached July 7. 1843-1854. . Though this sore mishap had occurred. formerly consul at Jeddah.EXCAVATIONS. Oppert brought back to Europe much fresh knowledge. Unhappily. This expedition excavated at Birs Nimroud and found rich treasures of art and of inscriptions. The materials tinuing found both by Place and by the expedition at Birs Nimroud were loaded on rafts to be floated down the river to Bassorah. an expedition set out from Marseilles for Hillah. some of which Loftus had already seen. Leon Fancher. an architect. ^Expedition Scientifique Paris. par Jules Oppert. 1863-1867." the rafts were overturned and the whole collection was lost in the river. and on October 9. The members of this expedition Fulgence Fresnel. and F. He were MM. professor of German at the Lycee. At last he moved M. 165 was the indefatigable Mohl who kept government and people in France ever incited to good works in this matter. a large scale. iii.000 francs. Thomas. to ask the assembly for a credit of 70. Jules Oppert. en Mesopotamie. Oppert had already done important work upon old Persian and was a trained orientalist. Reims. the minister of the inIt terior. 1 2 1 Journal of Sacred Literature. 1851. 2 vols. 1852. p. 471 (July.

His former assistant was. Hormuzd Rassam accepted the post. every energy to its successful accomplishment. When he reached Mosul he found that Sir Henry Rawlinson had drawn a line across the mound at Kuyunjik. he was devoted to the business he had in hand. however. In one respect he was unfortunately not so well equipped as the brilliant Oppert. for the work of excavator as few who had ever dug in these mounds. which ended so unhappily. and eager to give . In the same year that the French expedition. under the general direcRassam was fitted tion of Sir Henry Rawlinson. assigning the northern half of the mound to the French and retaining the remainder for the " English sphere of influence. Layard was now absorbed in the diplomatic service. and to him the authorities appealed.however. not yet dug at all in this . To his lasting honor Mr. while Rassam knew nothing of the lan- guage in which the ancient records of his countiy were written." Place had. Oppert knew all that was then known of the cuneiform writing. who was now busy among the mounds of Babylon. He knew land and people from his birth up he had served a long and useful apprenticeship to Layard. was being planned the trustees of the British Museum secured a grant from Parliament to begin anew the work at Nineveh. now studying at Oxford. and would not go out to take up the work again. and set out at the end of 1852 to begin excavations at Kuyunjik.166 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA.

Place made no move toward even the beginnings of excavation at Kuyunjik. but was busy with the continuing of exRassam was endowed cavations at Khorsabad. and believed that the northern part of the mound was by far the most promising. and from his trenches and wells there made. and Rassam finally concluded that. His first essays were to be made at night so as to prevent any possible interference by Place if it should be attempted. clay cylinders. I selected a number of my old 1 December 20. and now beautifully preserved tablets." to move over to the top of the mound and see what might be found. own " story is romantic. For nearly a year and a half his work continued. 167 mound. 1843-1854. Sir Henry Rawlinson had exceeded his authority in setting off a part of the to the French. 1853. after all. were constantly brought out inscribed records of the past. beyond Place in a feeling for archaeological . . now obelisks. now fragments of tablets. and therefore determined.investigations. but felt himself prevented by the arrangement which Sir Henry Rawlinson had He concealed from Place his feelings and went sturdily to work upon other parts of the mound. neat writing of the ancient now Assyrians.EXCAVATIONS. with the fine. From the very beginning he desired most to try excavations there. During all this time M. and Rassam's laconic sentences best describe it : 1 The After having waited a few days for a bright moonlight night. mound "come what might.

and on seeing some good signs of Assyrian remains I doubled the number of workmen the second night and made them work hard all night. faithful Arab workmen who could be deon for secrecy. "The next morning I examined the trenches. I superintended the work till mid- night. but had not been asleep two hours before my faithful Albanian overseer came running to give me the good tidings of the discovery of some broken sculptures. and gave them orders to assemble at a certain spot on the mound about two hours after When everything was ready I went and sunset. but at this time I directed the workmen to dig across them and go deeper down and having superintended the work and . I left them at to stop them work at work (after dawn) and went to bed. after the destruction of the occupied the Assyrian em- I could only find out this from experience. I hurried immediately to the spot. the upper been destroyed by the Sasanians portion having light the lower part of or other barbarous nations who mound pire. As usual. and then went to bed.168 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. by examining the foundation and the brick wall which supported the bas-reliefs so I directed the . . marked them three different spots on which to There had been already a number of trenches dig. myself telling till midnight. with a trustworthy overpended seer. dug there on a former occasion. and on descending one of the trenches I could just see in the moon- two bas-reliefs.

the workmen who were not employed at night must have seen their fellowlaborers leaving their tents and not coming to work the next day. for the men had not been at work three hours on the third night before a bank under which they were 13 . I increased the workmen. It can be well imagined how I longed for the close of the day. ashes. seeing that all the families of the On workmen who were employed . which clearly showed that the slabs belonged to a new palace. superintending the work. worse than all.EXCAVATIONS. which did not surprise me. but. but on digging around them we came upon bones. and resolved to remain in the trenches till the morning. 1843-1854. moreover. I was not disappointed in my surmises. the third day the fact of my digging at night oozed out in the town of Mosul. on the third night. consequently. who had always imagined that we were enriching ourselves by the discovery of fabulous treasures. Not only did I fear the French consul hearing and coming to prevent me from digging in what he would call his own ground. in the nocturnal work knew that they were digging clandestinely somewhere and. 169 workmen to clear the lower part of the sculptures. that it should be thought I was digging for treasure by the Turkish authorities and the people of Mosul. and no trace whatever was left of any other sculptures. as there was no doubt in my mind that some Assyrian structure was in existence near those broken slabs which had been found the night before. and other rubbish.

170 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. I had no doubt in my mind that this was quite a new palace. Rassam has told the story again in Asshur and the Land of Nimrod (New York. British Museum. because. I did not know which was most pleasing. the discovery they all collected of this faithful new palace or to witness the joy of my and grateful workmen. and new hands put to work in the daytime. ." The discovery thus made was the greatest which had yet been made either in Assyria or Babylonia. vii. among which I believe was discovered the famous Deluge Tablet. "We kept on till and seeing that by this time morning. as I had now no more fear of being thwarted by my rivals. The night workmen were changed. pp. In the center of this long room or passage there were heaps of inscribed terra cottas. or Sardanapalus) in his chariot hunting lions. 24. 39-41. and began to dance and sing from their inmost heart. Indeed. and no entreaty or threat of mine had any effect upon them. fell and exposed a most perfect and beaution which was represented an Assyrian king (which proved afterward to be Assurbanipal digging ful bas-relief. cleared out all the lion-hunt 1 Hormuzd Rassam. 1 Excavations and Discoveries in Assyria. Transacof Biblical Archceology. 189*7). palace for the British nation. by the Society tion of pp. working three perfect sculptures had been uncovered. I had secured this During the day we room of Assurbaniwhich is now in the basement room of the pal. Undoubtedly this was the record chamber of Assurbanipal. ff. The delight of the workmen was past all bounds . according to all rules.

and religion royal city of Nineveh brought to light. to be sent. 171 Rassam. by the exercise of a skilled judgment and the fortunate combination of circumstances. This task he fulfilled recovering many more with complete suctablets. Well might Rawlinson join with Layard in applause over this happy and fortunate discovery. who had finished his researches in the south." illustrative of the maps of the chief cities of . which had linked Rassam's name forever with the history of Assyrian research. history. of March. 1843-1854. ready to be studied in the West. " Topography of Nineveh. In March. and Loftus. when the method of its reading was fully made out.EXCAVATIONS. in a masterly fashion during the month til 1 and three great maps were which remain the standard records unpublished. as progress the East a most valuable Rassam's were. was sent to Kuyunjik to complete Rassam's work. in manner. to the British Museum. Hyslop. Mosul to was accomplished M. This J. On the request of the trustees of the British Museum the company dispatched Commander Felix Jones. Rassam returned to England. from Baghdad to survey the whole Nineveh district. While India these works were in Company again took part. 1 to-day. assisted by Dr. had actually uncovered the long-buried library of the the library which Assurbanipal had gathered or caused to be copied for the learning of his sages. cess. Here was a royal storehouse of literature. 1862. 1854. in the work of Assyrian study. science.

xv. so as to afford a good point for obtaining the exact mag- netic bearing of the two sides. such as Taylor had found at Mugheir. and while this was being done busied himself elsewhere. . For two months the work was not very and then Sir Henry Rawlinson visited the successful. and I then ordered the work to be resumed.Joseph Tonetti by name. he had placed "an intelligent young man. which fortunately projected a little." in charge of excavations at Birs Nimroud. But at the very end Sir Henry Rawlinson was the tions And now During the months of August and September. or 'treasure Assyria . in the hope of finding commemorative cylinders. works in person. M.] Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. ff. and the author of a remarkable discovery. where the ill-fated French expedition had carried on its work. 297.172 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. the long and brilliant series of excavawas drawing near to another period of rest. He first directed removal of bricks down to the tenth layer above the plinth at the base. When this had been finished he was summoned back. and Surveyor in Mesopotamia. Commander Indian Navy. pp. and after some examination determined to break into the walls at the corners. by Felix Jones. thus describes the happy fortune which ensued: " On reaching the spot I was first occupied for a few minutes in adjusting a prismatic compass on the lowest brick now remaining of the original angle. [With three large folded maps. No sooner had the next layer of bricks been called out there was removed than the workmen a Khaz&neh. 1854. and the general geography of the country intermediate between the Tigris and the upper Tab.

And now ended. 2. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.B. was certainly a won' derful instrument. They could be heard whispering to each other that it was siJir. ff.] " . and a little later a second was found. Nebuchadrezzar had taken great pains to preserve the records of his great works of building and restoration. Men 1 the long series of excavations was of learning in the history of the On the Birs Nimroud. pp. and had accidentally placed immediately above the cylinder." by Sir Henry Rawlinson. The workmen were perfectly bewildered. 173 that is. as the corners in which they had presumably been placed had long before been broken down. xviii (1860). hole ' 1843-1854. The Great Temple of Borsippa. or magic. The remaining The two were not recovered. and bring out the cylinder. [This paper was read January 13.' I said. seized and held up in triumph a fine cylin- baked clay.' ' cylinder thus recovered was one of four originally set in four corners of the building. in as perfect a condition as when it was deposited in the artificial cavity der of above twenty-four centuries ago. in the corner at the distance of two bricks from the exterior surface there was a va- cant space filled up with loose reddish sand. Clear away the sand. or.C.' while the graybeard of the party significantly observed to his companion that the com' pass. I had just before been using. as I have mentioned.. 1855.' and as I spoke the words the Arab. ' ' groping with his hand among the debris in the hole. K. which.EXCAVATIONS.

results before beginning Europe waited for the new excavations.174 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. had been overwhelmed by the mass ancient Orient than by the startling character of the The spade and the pick might discoveries. . There was great work to do in the reading of these long-lost books. great now be suffered to lie idle and rust for several no less years.

Behistun. without comIt He was. and separate languages. be expected that Grotefend would attempt the task. Many generally of these inscriptions form. and now Medes. THE DECIPHERMENT OF the masters of decipherment. The great achievement of really beginning this decipherment . and other less important sites. The second called for atit was ancient Persian. In reality a number of men in different places were at work simulta- was to neously upon the fascinating problem. and opinion now called them Scythians.THE DECIPHERMENT OF ASSYRIAN. ASSYRIAN". Rawlinson. indeed. But whatever their language might be named. and this he did. and Hincks. None knew what people these were whose language appeared side by side with ancient Persian. tempts at its decipherment. some one must essay its decipherment. and. had brought to happy conclusion the reading of the ancient Persian inscriptions which had been copied at Persepolis. 175 CHAPTER WHEN VI. as has already were threefold in been shown. unfortunately. his training for work of this kind. but. it was now believed that they represented three The first was now read. they were still confronted by a great series of prob- lems. Grotefend. hardly fitted by plete success.

for Hystaspes. and for other nationalities." "von N. D. and again. 114. The language he called Median. for the Persians. Transactions of the Royal On the three kinds of Persepolitan writing. by the Rev. L.. ibid. By this means he learned a number of the signs and sought by their use in other words to spell out syllables or words.D. 2 On the first and second kinds of Persepolitan writing. and on the Babylonian lapidary characters. Irish Academy. pp. 233-248. were tentative at the in But Westergaard's results best." rather than the "Japhetic. whose meanings were then ascertained by conjecture and selected the He by comparison. Hincks. as before. vi. and judged the writing to be partly alphabetical and partly syllabic. for Niels Louis Westergaard. used by Grotefend in the decipherment of Persian. and needed the severe These they obtained two papers by. Dr. showed criticism of another mind. pp." family." Hincks clearly advanced upon Westergaard.176 HISTOEY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. 33Y. Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes. . himself a master of all the processes of cuneiform decipherment. After Westergaard and Hincks the work was 1 " Zur Entzifferung der Achamenidischen Keilschrift zweiter Gattung.. if. and compared them with their equivalents in the Persian texts. Westergaard. whose paper laid the foundations for the suc' was reserved very first cessful reading of the second class of Persepolitan His method was very similar to that writing. read before the Royal Irish Academy. ff. names for Darius. He estimated the number of separate characters at eighty -two or eighty-seven. and classified it in the " Scythian. xxi. Edward Hincks.

At great personal cost of money. had done their work with very defective materials. It was very improbable that the study of the Median or Scythian would get beyond de Saulcy's attempts without the publication of fresh material. All three. F. It was now than ever that if the second language. and de Saulcy. De Saulcy looked back upon the decipherment of ancient Persian and compared the signs of the Median language. and in . through the generosity of Sir Henry Rawlinson. time. whatever it was. and dangerous labor he had completed the copy of the inscription at Behistun. whether Median or Scythian. The first column was in ancient Persian.THE DECIPHERMENT OF ASSYRIAN. He observed that they were similar. Hincks. for so he also named this second language. This was soon forthcoming. To this great end de clearer Saulcy contributed by his increased success in the study of Median. who was able to see farther than either. Westergaard. could be deciphered. De Saulcy was not the first to give this title to the third form of writing found at Persepolis that designation was now becoming common but he was the first to point out the remarkable resemblance between the signs or characters in the second and third groups of the texts. then he looked ahead and saw that they appeared almost identical with the characters in the third language. de Saulcy. the way would be open to the reading of Assyrian. to which he gave the name Assyrian. 177 taken up by a French scholar.

H. it Edwin it over with full permission to use Norris. Kjobenhavn. H. 1-84. " The Inscriptions of Mai. 465-485. forste Hefte. ' 2 followed him in a paper too little leaning upon the work of predecessors. and with several marked improvements. 1-126. the decipherment of this he had won imperishable The second column he had not time to fame. pp." Femte Raekke Historisk og philosophisk Afdeling Andet Binds.178 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. xxiv. Kileskrift. 4 "Ueber die Keilinschriften zweiter Gattung. 2ieme partie." by A. Sayce ." by A. Actes du Vlieme Congres International des Orientalistes. as he wished. publish at once himself. : . 2 Westergaard. H. in . nevertheless. but. E. iii. was almost epoch-making in the history of the study. pp. pp. leaning in the beginning strongly upon Westergaard. and therefore containing useless combinations and repetitions. Norris. 637-756. Mordtmann. and it was long before it was superseded." by Mr. 1852.. pp. 4 " Memoir on the Scythic Version of the Behistun Inscription. Transactions of the Society of Biblical Arch&ology. 431-433." von A. pp. and therefore gave to Mr. Sayce. 39-178. xv. 3 "Erklarung der Keilinschriften zweiter Gattung. A. section 1 Semitique. pp. D. Sayce. tenu en 1883 & Leide. His paper. with fresh conjectures. pp. Om den anden eller den sakiske Art af Akhaemenidernes Del kongelike Danske Vedenskabernes Selskabs Skrifter. xv. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft.Amir and the Language of the Second Column of the Akhaemenian Inscriptions. He the name was 1 making a few gains upon the named the language Susian and happily chosen. succeeded in deciphering almost all of it. Mordtmann 3 problems. Norris.. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1856. 1-213 addenda. "The Languages of the Cuneiform Inscriptions of Elam and Media." ibid. read before the Royal Asiatic Society of London on July 3. " . The work of Norris drew Westergaard once more into the arena with criticism.

be for a and learning that had been employed ing. . and returned again to this matter in a second paper. It traveler 1 See especially Jules Oppert. and their words were few. The translation was necessarily frag- mentary. But how merous. slow at first. Amardian for the language. The progress. et la Langue des Medes. also and made studied these texts shortly after Sayce. 179 attacked the problem next in two brilliant papers. contributions of importance to the problem. 1879. Die Achamemdenimchriften Znadter Art. Persian weary and Susian at last were read. Leipzig. Oppert. The problem of the second form of writing at Persepolis and at Behistun was solved.THE DECIPHERMENT OF ASSYRIAN. Weissbach. who gave most of his great skill to other questions. 1890. and in 1890 Weissbach" was able to gather up all the loose threads and present clear and convincing translations of the long-puzzling inscriptions. the first of which even went so far as to present a transcription and partial translation of two small inscriptions. had at last become very rapid. skill. Le Peuple F. which likewise reg1 istered progress in the decipherment. however. If now we pause fail we cannot to moment and look back. 9 H. As yet. the historical results had been comparThe inscriptions were not nuatively meager. but none of the former workers had He argued learnedly for the name equaled it. moved by the patience. Paris. in the un- raveling of these tangled threads of ancient writ- was a long and a hard hill. and many a had toiled up its slope.

just as he had in the old Persian texts. fruits of ing their trove it Babylonian discovery were likewise findway to Europe. men would have before them all the literatures of Assyria and Babylonia. Persepolis and at Behistun was undoubtedly AsHere in Susian and in syrian or Babylonian. If it could be read. More material was imperatively necessary before much progress could possibly be made. ' of the Assyrian Caylus 1 It and Egyptian inscriptions on the was hardly a good place to be- Essai de dechiffrement de VJUcriture Assyrienne pour servir a Vexplica- . would be if different this be deciphered. and the first clear. Persian were the clews for its deciphering. As soon as the Mohl were published announcing the discoveries at Khorsabad a man was letters from Botta to found who plunged deciphering boldly into the attempt at Assyrian. What that meant was even now daily becoming more could only the third language That third language at While Norris was working quietly in England Botta and Layard were unearthing inscriptions by the score in Assyria. Isidore de Loewenstein made his chief point of departure in a comparison vase.180 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Grotefend had picked out among the Assyrian transcripts of the Persepolis inscriptions the names of the kings. but was able to go but little further. With such a treasurewas not surprising that men almost jostled each other in their passionate eagerness to learn the meanings of the strange complicated signs which stood third at Persepolis and at Behistun.

13. Ibid. Of tion zig. it was not given to read an Assyrian text. p. and all had hope that at last the way out to the light must be found. 12. Loewenstein was much more successful. and Aramaean. that proved to be a task much more difficult than anyone had imagined. 3 Ibid. * however.THE DECIPHERMENT OF ASSYRIAN. 1847. which were transliterated in the Assyrian texts. alone dignify his work... Paris and Leip- Expose des elements constitutifs du systeme de la troisieme ecriture cuneiforme de Persepolis. gin. He du Monument de Khorsdbad. Paris and Leipzig. Loewenstein made the exceedingly happy stroke of suggesting that the it is and Assyrian language belonged to the Semitic family and was therefore sister to Hebrew. par Isidore Lowenstein. 10. and this a beginning might well be made in happy fashion. not very successful in determining the values of the signs. 3 . and in that there was the In the second memoir * greatest need for success. 1 all these none was gifted with such marvel- ous skill in decipherment as 1845. This suggestion would Arabic. Edward Hincks. He chose for comparison the proper names of Pers sians. He was. now With such comparisons made. however. pp. for it became exceedingly fruitful in the hands of later workers. 181 therefore surprising that his success was so great as it really was. But workers were increasing in numbers. where a complete list of the names used is given. footnote 1. par Isidore Lowenstein. for his point of departure was more happily chosen. of speech. To beginning Loewenstein him.

" Polite Literature. 249. and apparently with ease. his work upon the second was exceedingly important. 233. Upon November 30. What he accomplished in those three papers it would be difficult to A number of Babylonian exaggerate. In the preparation of these papers it seems quite clear that Hincks had received no help from any other worker. He even succeeded at this time in He was texts." he modified somewhat the views expressed in the two former papers.182 HISTOEY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. had already had a goodly share in the decipherment of the first form of the Persepolis inscriptions. . and on the mode of expressing numerals in cuneatic characters. ibid. 1 determining correctly a large part of the numerals. The work of Hincks was independent in every way. ff. he read before the Royal Irish Academy two papers. afterward printed as one. In a third paper. even under the pressure of the On dary characters. late. and again upon December 14. xxi. and. the three kinds of Persepolitan writing. Loewenstein's first paper he had not seen. on the clear high road to a reading of the but he was too careful to venture to transHis method. and the second paper was not yet published. and signs the meanings then assigned remain the standard to this day. and on the Babylonian lapiTransactions of the Royal Irish Academy. and advanced a step farther. were definitely determined in meaning. as we have just seen." pp. in which he plunged boldly into the decipherment of the Babylonian. 9 On the third Persepolitan writing.. 1846. ff. pp. Both these services he was now to surpass. 1 read on January 11. 1847.

He same order in the could not do this work without a longing to read these unknown characters. the [ of kings. but he had at least selected a group of signs. great. and after long comparison A. " ft. king of the land of Assyria. ' 1 Journal Asiatique. 601. pp. Lettre & M. In these texts of Botta a little inscription was often repeated. 532. after comparison with old which he believed represented the word and was probably to be pronounced rabou. pp. From the heavy wooden cases came slabs of stone.. S. . 1847. the great king. also Revue Archeoloyigue. he began to ponder over the hard problem. And now the inscriptions which Botta had un- earthed at Khorsabad began to come to Paris. king is . and so began his own efforts is standing upon Loewenstein's shoulders. He was familiar with Loewenstein's work. 1847). covered with dust. It true that Loe wen stein could not give him much help with individual signs. enthusiasm that must have tingled in his veins. like others elsewhere. 183 re- mained rigidly scientific. . He assumed its correctness and pushed on a bit further. " Glorious . Comp." Loewenstein had learned this from the Persepolis inscriptions. x. and so. Longperier found the same group in the inscriptions from Khorsabad. Henri Adrien de Longperier was now to arrange them in the Museum of the Louvre. but bearing strange wedgeshaped characters. Isidore Lowenstern sur les inscriptions cuneifonnes de PAssyrie" (20 Septembre.THE DECIPHERMENT OF ASSYRIAN. " : ] Sargon." king. de Longperier translated the whole inscription in this way Persian.

and." Yet the researches that were to follow showed that the translation was almost a full and correct If De Longperier representation of the original. that he could not name or pronounce a single word in it all except the one word. the progress It is in. and there paused. But the strange thing about this translation was this. and Ireland. and sees the little gain here and another there. by some means. rdbou " great. he might have gone further.184 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and in appears to be increased rather than diminished by . move deed true that the men who worked in France or managed through published paper or letter society meeting to keep fairly well in touch. England. still worse. had had before him the list of signs and meanings which Hincks had already proposed. the much more brilliant Irishman beyond But two stormy channels found no way of learning promptly what they were thinking. If. inevitably have been more rapid. each worker might have known at once the must of his friendly rival. As it was. cation of hypotheses and of results still continues a measure. he cannot but think that the slow progress was chiefly due to lack of communication. he made out the name of Sargon. was not readily able to make known his work to them. When one looks back upon all this work in France. So much was this latter fact painfully true that the keen Frenchmen worked steadily on without This lack of ready communihis invaluable aid. in spite of all improvements in printing and in dissemination of documents.

THE DECIPHERMENT OF ASSYRIAN. pp. 3. is Botta looked over the Persepolis inscriptions. This at once and forever If there settled all dispute about an alphabet. whereas in No. 138.. this investigation For a rather more detailed account of Botta's see Hommel. 1848. 1848. Here was another added difficulty. He made or to translate. 94. or both. Kaulen. . and continued until Mars. He differentiated no less than 642 separate signs enough to to decipher the inscriptions elaborate lists of the decipherers quail. Assyrien und Babylonien. Consul de France 4 Mossul. for even if 1 This memoir of Botta began in the Journal Asiatique. 1 he sometimes found the Babylonian. Botta. method in 14 Paris. It now became clear that this Babylonian lan- guage was partly at least written in ideograms. some of them certainly must But represent syllables. 1847. 3. or a meaning. that is Persian. par M. Mai. the vast 185 number of societies and of journals de- voted to the pursuit of science. and made the signs which he found upon them. of a country represented by several signs. make the stoutest heart of were 642 characters. Geschichte. he found the same country represented by only one sign. and 5te Aufl. It was published entire under the title Memoire sur Vecriture cuneiforme Assyrienne. pp. must be found. comparing inscription No. 137. with inscription No. Botta was now back again in Paris and was publishing in parts a memoir upon the language of the inscriptions which he had brought back to the ' world. in the proper place. 95. that name In No. For every one of these signs a value. but little but he collated effort all which he had found. be so many syllables ? bly how could there possi1.

could not spell the words out in Roman He could set down a sign and characters. its pronunciation? surely. He had. say. and a few others of less importance. This has brought him somewhat under the ban of the unthinking. it ever be possible to learn the word or. that means ''land] but I absolutely but still do not know how the Assyrians read it. De Saulcy made the mistakes. people. the means for its solution did not appear at that time. In this he was like Hincks. and he finally picked out the words for king.186 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA." With knowledge so defective as this Botta naturally did not attempt any complete translations. and went on cheerfully to repair them. days. He published some papers which unhappily reached no successful result. made a useful contribution in positive directions. and a still more useful one negatively by showing how untenable were some alphabetic theories. who themselves never dare make a mistake. and . many work went however. land. and had in that school of learned much the processes of decipherment. "There. one should learn the meaning of these ideograms. without this most desirable knowledge. Botta's and on. soon perceived them. and hence never accomplish anything. of the old Meantime De Saulcy went on with his struggles over the Persepolis and other inscriptions of the Achsemenian kings. to speak loosely for the moment. nor for That was a problem. however. He had also been working at Egyptian. how would itself.

for to all these separate signs De Saulcy had assigned the meaning R. xxii. hints in Now De Saulcy was ready to take the daring step of attempting to decipher and translate an entire inscription. This paper was not fully completed until January 19. a sign for RA. In this plaining the method word by word. and presumably also for TIE. Then there was a AR. read June 25." 1. . and even he first was the difficulties could hardly claim that he had resolved fairly the which hung around the repetition of signs for the same consonant. There was. 1849. though he did not fully and perfectly define the last two. up to which time Hincks continued to make additions and corrections to it. 1850. and IR. pp. ff. Hincks showed how vowels were expressed along 1 What De with their consonants in the same sign. Saulcy could not accomplish was achieved by Hincks. and sign for still another for RU.THE DECIPHERMENT OF ASSYRIAN. De Saulcy set down one hundred and paper twenty signs the meaning of which he thought he knew. This was indeed a 1 Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. for example. In a remarkable paper on the Khorsabad inscriptions. vol. Here was an enormous gain. At its very end he added a few lines of translation from Assyrian. but the uncertainty was great. This publication of an entire Assyrian with a commentary justifying and exinscription. and another for BJ. " Polite Literature. 187 De Longperier seems also to have gained useful the same school.

translation in a sense attained preter. . and now that he was again in London it is not surprising that he should at once seize upon the beautiful obelisk which Layard had brought from the mound of Nimroud. concluding with a tentative translation of those parts of it which appeared to his study to give a reasonable sense. ff. then an attempted transcription into Roman characters. and the year 1850 had begun with every sign of hope. and its amazing display of powers of combination.188 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. It is impossible to read this paper at this late date without astonish- ment keen at its grasp of fundamental principles. Layard's discoveries at Nineveh had begun to reach London. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. it suffers it is considerably 1 by the comparison. No man had suffered so much in his efforts to secure copies of inscrip- tions. xii. 401. If we compare this work of Rawlinson with the work of Hincks. its insight into linguistic form and life. where they could not fail to rouse afresh Assyrian It study. pp. The year 1849 had ended well. of was natural that the first man to avail himself the fresh material thus made accessible should be Sir Henry Rawlinson. It by no other inter- gave first the Assyrian characters. In two papers read January 19 and February 16 Rawlinson gave an elaborate and an acute handling of this great ' inscription. just as Botta's had done in France. Rawlinson. Now were even greater things in store. and finally the almost complete and very nearly correct translation.

done. and trying to wring the last secret from the com- plex signs before he ventured upon its issue to . though the means for this had not been given by E-awlinson in his characters. over the Persepolis inscriptions he was livgling tribution to the ing alone in Baghdad. It is clear that never be translation. and Edwin Norris. laboriously working it over. and so obtain a complete copy of the great trilingual inscription of Darius. has often hit the 189 true sense of a passage. lonian. seeking every opportunity to study the rocks at Behistun. or disprove the values he assigned to the who without this there can determined progress in any work definite. tran- scription. and the copy of this Rawlinson still held in his own possession. On the other hand. he did not give text. But even after this Rawlinson's great con- decipherment was still to be While scholars in Europe had been struggiven. and translation together.THE DECIPHERMENT OF ASSYRIAN. more often he has even presented a smooth translation which late study has gone far to justify. He had already published the Persian part of this text . as Hincks had and it was therefore impossible for students could not examine the original to criticise. and thereby supplying full material for the use of later workers. of interpretation. true. had issued the second (then called Median) The most important part was the Babypart. its transcription and trans- lation. printing the sign with he had discussed a number of words. with his permission. verify. Nevertheless.

For the length of this delay Rawlinson has been most unjustly blamed and criticised. Max Muller in his Biographical Essays. as some little compensation for the loss of ease and for the privations and toils which he had endured. vol. At last in 1851 appeared the long-expected. and elsewhere. pp. accompanied with an interlinear transcription into tion into Latin. and few would be likely to take pains to conserve to Rawlinson the fame which was justly due his achievements. They were eager for the phantom of fame for themselves. notes in Roman characters and a translaTo this was added a body of which many principles of grammar and of were discussed. . eagerly-awaited Memoir? Kawlinson published one hundred and twelve lines of inscription in cuneiform type. That he was jealous of his fame is made clear the world. Here at last was a long and difficult inscription almost completely translated. of Rawlinson is justly to be conan epoch-making production. together with brief lists interpretation of signs. 284. Others were at work in the effort to decipher these longlost records of old world peoples. but in this he was well enough justified. 2 Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. xiv. and here was the subject of the Assyrian language carried even to the point This Memoir sidered See the allusions made to the subject by F. These and other allusions in the same paper which seemed to reflect upon Rawlinson led to an 1 animated controversy in the Athenaeum in 1884. entire (1851). 1 enough by the controversial letters of later years.190 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. 287.

etc. Dan." one man "do you know when this sign is to be say. and society have too little honored the Science man who dared and executed this great task. it did very much to destroy all faith in the proposed interpretation of "How. difficulty upon difficulty. But great as was the result of Rawlinson's work there was a sense in which it brought new difficulties and trials to the patient interpreters of the texts. or how do you know that it does not mean Dan?" "Yes.THE DECIPHERMENT OF ASSYRIAN. also. which had the syllabic sign values Ial. 191 of close disputing about grammatical niceties. It became perfectly clear from his studies that in Assyrian or Babylonian the same sign did Such not always possess the same meaning. and was not thus easy to overthrow. his knowledge had come to him by painful steps and slow. or when Mib. It did. Here. Rib. with a single eye. however. read JZal. This principle seemed to some of Rawlinson's critics perfectly absurd. This was added was a In the popular mind. or with " how do you such a system of writing as that ? The whole thing is impossible on the face of it. the Babylonian inscriptions. have weight in popu- . for example." adds another." Of course such criticism could make no impression upon Rawlinson himself. It was indeed the completion of a gigantic task pur- sued amid great difficulties. would expect us to believe that a great people like the Assyrians and Babylonians ever could have kept record with such a language. signs as these Rawlinson called polyphones.

p. It was. which only a brief sketch was published. 1850. where he circulated among the members a lithographed plate containing a number of This paper. London. Meeting of the British Association for the Adat held Edinburgh in July and August. and had reached the point of studying the 1 grammar of the language which was in his Report of vancement of the Twentieth Science. It would be easy after a while to prove that his interpretation was correct for that day he could wait patiently. of great importance. he appears to have attended the meeting of the British Association at Edinburgh. unfortunate that Rawlinson could not have set forth together with In this particular one must feel some disappointment over the great all his reasons and all his processes. in this at least Memoir it was not equal to the papers of Hincks. of signs registering forms of verbs. with plate at the end. It 1 shows that Hincks had gone beyond the point of mere guessing at the meanings of sentences.192 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. however. 1851. all the critical apparatus. 140. has been almost overlooked in the history of the progress in Assyrian research. . It had to be reckoned with. 1850. despised or cast aside even by scholars. It is. and the popular estimate cannot be lar estimation. however. as Rawlinson knew well enough. While Rawlinson was now thought by many to have solved the problem in the main points. Hincks never relaxed for a of interpretation. moment his energetic pursuit In July and August.

others. By this means he is able to test the values proposed and to verify them. ub. Secondly there were simple vowels. In the next year he published a list of two hundred and fifty-two Assyrian characters.THE DECIPHERMENT OF ASSYRIAN." pp. He was present at the meeting of the British Association at Glasgow in 1855. as bar. etc. D. such Meantime Jules Oppert had returned from Babylonia and soon after visited England to see the British Museum collections. he showed that Assyrian possessed a most elaborate system There were first signs for single of writing. part ii. such as ab. In this paper. 1 syllabic characters. rxii. This paper marks an extraordinary advance over all that had gone before. u. hands. but adds to this method a new and far more delicate one. the rules of which he discussed separately.D. Edward Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. ban. forms according to its use in different conjugations. During the year 1851 Hincks appears to have published nothing. also. i. He analyzes grammatical and shows how a root appears in different forms. Hincks. bu . 1 Literature. thirdly there were complex syllabic characters. . and was then probably engaged in a study of all the material that was accessible. by the Rev. rab. 293. " Polite ff. bi. and there heard Sir Henry RawlinOn the Assyria-Babylonian Phonetic Characters. vol. He now applies no longer the old methods of decipherment alone. ib. such as a. 193 all In this field he was soon to excel and lay deep and solid foundations of Assyrian grammar. ba.

But with all the new workers in Ireland. which he asserted contained the name Tiglath-pileser.194 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. France. and England. and in England there was a new accession in the person of Fox Talbot. carefully sealed. 148. pp. . after his two years of absence. Ixxii. unwilling longer to hear these doubts without some effort to dissipate them. He therefore de- vised a novel and striking plan. Fox Talbot was. who gave in their adhesion to the principles and the results of decipherment. H. had lithographed the contents of a cylinder. Nimroud. there were many who derided or who doubted the whole matter. London. in the fresh enthusiasm of his scholastic life. for Oppert was a great accession in Paris. who at once made a translation of the This parts which he could readily make out. 149. Rawlinson was now about to publish for the trustees of the British Museum lithographic copies of selected As- He had already copied and syrian inscriptions. held at Glasgow 1856. 1865. An advance copy of this lithograph was sent to Fox Talbot. The workers were now increasing in numbers. Often before had doubts been expressed about the translations. and the investigators passed quietly on and paid no attention. a remarkably gifted man. and himself spoke upon the results of his own work in Babylonia. translation he put in a packet. and Report of the Twenty-fifth Meeting of Advancement of Science. 1 the British Association for the in September. 1 son's account of the excavations at Birs however.

and he suggested that his translation be kept sealed until Sir Henry Rawlinson's should be published. A will explain " my object in doing so : Many Sir in the truth of the persons have hitherto refused to believe system by which Dr. I have made from it the translation few words which I now offer to the society. and the interpretations based cious. . accompanied by a letter the purpose of which appears clearly in the following extracts " Having been favored with an early copy of the lithograph of this inscription by the liberality of the trustees of the British Museum and of Sir H. Hincks and H. To which it is replied that such a license would open the door to all manner of uncertainty that the ancient As. and that. 150. Syrians themselves. as each 1 Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Rawlinson have interpreted the As- syrian writings. could never have read such a kind of writing. because it contains many things entirely contrary to their preconceived opinions. but not always the same syllable times one and sometimes another. If then the two were found in substantial agreement. therefore. and then that the two versions be compared. xviii." * upon it must be falla- This was the situation as Talbot apprehended it. Rawlinson. p. sent to the 195 Royal Asiatic : Society. the natives of the country. each cuneiform group represents a somesyllable. .THE DECIPHERMENT OF ASSYRIAN. . it would go far to convince the doubting. For example. the system cannot be true.

plete version. Henry Rawlinson. were very remarkable. Grote. Edward Hincks. and Jules Oppert to send to the society. Dr. translations of this same inscription. enough for effective comparison. Sir Gardner Wilkinson. furnished an almost combut neither Dr. H.196 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. When this communication was read before the Society Sir Henry Rawlinson moved that measures be taken to carry out Mr." . however. These translations were then to be opened and compared in Talbot's plan upon even a greater It the presence of the following committee: The Very Rev. The versions were found indeed to be in closest correspondence. and occasionally a curious identity of expression as to particular words. the Rev. both as to the general sense and verbal rendering. Mr. Paul's (Dr. the Dean of St. In most parts there was Sir : Henry Rawlinson a strong correspondence in the meaning assigned. and the committee reported that "The coincidences between the translations. and Prof. would have been made entirely inde- translation pendently of the other. Whewell. Oppert had had time to complete theirs. Milman). In the interpretation of numbers there was throughout a singular correspondence. scale than he was determined to request Sir had purposed. H. They sent in. Where the versions differed very materially cases each translator had in many marked the passage as one of doubtful or unascertained signification. Wilson. W. under sealed covers. Cureton. Hincks nor Dr.

fully gained and completely held. should be tested by fresh minds. Taylor. appear. With this popular demonstration the task of interpreting the Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions may properly be regarded as having reached position. and the popular mind in Great Britain is a force in science as in The results of its influence would soon politics. however. Paris The material which Botta had sent to was being quickly read. The ground was. were yielding up their secrets.THE DECIPHERMENT OF ASSYRIAN. This testing it secured as man after man came to the fore as a student of Assyriology. and especially Kassam. It was indeed necessary that the work from the very beginning of Grotefend's first attempts at decipherment of the Persepolis an assured all inscriptions. and the Royal Asiatic Society published all four translations side by side. Loftus. Assyrian study was able to take its place by the side of older sisters in the universities of the world. and papers dealing historic results were appearing almost weekly. The tion effect in Great Britain of this demonstra- was great and widespread. In England the inscriptions which had been sent home from the excavations of Layard. The examiners then drew up 197 tables of coin- cidences and of variations. It could not be long until popular opinion would demand that the excavawith its . It gradually became clear to the popular mind that the Assyrian inscriptions had really been read.

secretary. at which time the Society of Biblical Archaeology was formed. in the rooms of Mr. Payne Smith were vice Among the earliest list of members presidents." As the result of this preliminary conference a public meeting was convened at the rooms of the Royal Society of Literature on the 9th of December. workers were busy securing the results of previous expeIn the midst of ditions. Joseph Bonomi. and Dean R. to institute an association for directing the course of future investigations. the Right Hon. there met land.198 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. tions be resumed. . Gladstone. Cooper. and to preserve a record of materials already obtained. E. of the British Museum. Lincoln's Inn company of men summoned by him and by Dr. if it appeared desirable. Samuel Birch. whose records are centered around the venerable pages of the Bible. to collect while Sir Henry Rawlinson. and. R. " They were bidden to take into consideration the Fields. and Mr. . all these efforts at decipherment a movement destined to influence there began greatly the progress of Assyrian studies in EngOn the 18th of November. W. a present state of archaeological research. Dr. 1870. Samuel Birch was chosen president. an association whose special objects should be from the fast-perishing monuments of the Semitic and cognate races illustrations of their history and peculiarities. W. to investigate and systematize the antiquities of the ancient and mighty empires and primeval peoples. however. At this time. 1870.



were found Edwin Norris, Hormuzd Rassam, W. H. Fox Talbot, Rev. A. H. Sayce, and George Smith. The society was successful from the very
beginning of

existence, its influence

upon As-

syrian and Babylonian study being particularly The first volume of Transactions was noticeable. issued in December, 1871, and in it Fox Talbot " wrote on " An Ancient Eclipse (in Assyria), and George Smith contributed an elaborate paper on

"The Early History of Babylonia." In a short time the society's publications became the chief
of investigations made by English scholars in the books of the Assyrians and Baby-






the ancient

who attempted to decipher Persian inscriptions made much of the

difficulty of the

cuneiform characters.

They were

so totally unlike

any other form of writing that even while men were busy in the effort to find

origin. If the signs of objects, as did

meaning disputes began as to their had looked like rude pictures

Egyptian hieroglyphics, there would have been some clue to their origin, but during the decipherment process no one could
discern any such resemblance. ment of Assyrian began men

When the decipherwondered


as to the inventors or discoverers of the strangely

When Assyrian was finally complicated signs. read it became clear to several investigators almost
simultaneously that


belonged to the Semitic

The history of the Sumerian discoveries and disputes has been written by Weissbach (Die Sumerische Frage, von F. H. Weissbach, Leipzig, 1898) in so masterly fashion that all who now study this interesting and important episode in cuneiform research can hope for nothing more than the position of gleaners, and may be pardoned if they sometimes doubt whether even a single full head of grain remains. It were pedantic to at-

tempt to do the work


over again without drawing upon his unrivaled

this chapter therefore depends very much upon him, and hearty acknowledgment is here made of the fact. It attempts to seize upon the salient points and emphasize them, but students who wish

collection of materials,


to follow the minute discussions, unsuitable for a must have recourse to Weissbach.

book of

this character,



family of languages. That discovery intensified the difficulty concerning its method of writing.

In 1850 Edward Hincks called attention
fact that,


to the

though Assyrian was a Semitic tongue, yet was its script totally unlike that used by any

He suggested that the of the related languages. script was related to the Egyptian, and put forth the hypothesis that it was invented by an IndoEuropean people, who had been in contact with Egyptians and had borrowed something from their method of writing. Shortly afterward (1853) Rawlinson wrote to
the Royal Asiatic Society* announcing the discovery of a number of inscriptions "in the

Scythian language,"
lated to the

w hich he thought were




texts of the Persepolis inpronounced these new inscriptions

to be older than the Persepolis inscriptions, and also older than the dynasty of Nebuchadrezzar,

and argued that the Scythians were

in possession of the western country before the Semites apHe was clearly of the opinion that he peared.

inscriptions written in cuneiform charHe seems, acters, but in a non-Semitic language. in a word, to be moving toward the idea that

had found

these Scythians had invented the cuneiform method of writing. This view was propounded in the
1 Report of the Twentieth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1850. Transactions of the Sections, p. 140. See also

Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy,
p. 295 (dated

vol. xxii,


Polite Literature,"


24, 1852).

Athenceum, 1853,

p. 228.




very next year by Oppert, who attempted to show how this assumed Scythian script had passed over into the hands of the Assyrians.

Rawlinson was now busily engaged in the investigation of the new problem, and on December 1, 1855, was able to report substantial progress to the Royal Asiatic Society. He had been study2

" " ing so-called Scythian inscriptions as old as the thirteenth century B. C., and he found the same

language in the left columns of the Assyrian syllabaries. These syllabaries he explained as conof comparative alphabets, grammars, and vocabularies of the Scythian and Assyrian lanHis theory now was that these Babyloguages.

nian Scythians were known as Accadians. They were the people who had built the cities and

founded the civilization of Babylonia. The Semites had merely entered into their labors, and had adopted from them the cuneiform system of writThe language of the Accadians he thought ing. more closely related to the Mongolian and Manchu type than to any others of the Turanian languages.

Hincks had meantime been studying some small bilingual texts and was prepared to state some of the peculiarities of the newly found Accadian



observed, in the


place, that

Athenceum franfais,

3, p.


October 21, 1854.

*Atherueum, 1855, p. 1438. 3 Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgerdandischen Gesellschaft,

x, p.



verbs were entirely unchanged in all persons and numbers, while the substantives formed a plural by the addition of ua or wa. He found also

where we should use prepositions, was a resemblance to the Turanian lanand this guages, though he would not go so far as Rawlinson in saying to which one of them Accadian seemed most nearly related. year later Hincks abandoned the name Accadian, preferring to call This it by some such name as Old Chaldean. was his last contribution to the investigation of the inscriptions and the languages which they exOn December 3, 1866, he died, leaving pressed. behind an imperishable record of painstaking labor, accurate scholarship, and amazing fertility and resourcefulness of mind. To the new science of Assyriology he had made more contributions of



permanent value than perhaps any other among the early decipherers. The death of Hincks left
Jules Oppert as the leader in the work of unraveling the tangled threads of the new language.

In 1869 Oppert read a learned paper on the origin of the Chaldeans, in which he gave the name Chaldean or Sumerian as the name of the language which Rawlinson had called Accadian.



The name Sumerian was judged by many be more suitable and gradually came into use,

though Accadian

even yet used by some schol-

Atlantis, iv, 57,



Comptes rendus de

la Societe frangaise de







while for a short time the phrase Sumero-


Accadian was in vogue.

Up to this time the study of Accadian or Sumerian had been carried on very largely along
No single text historical and geographical lines. had been studied, expounded, and translated until 1870, when Professor A. H. Sayce devoted to a small inscription of Dungi the most elaborate The words in Accadian philological exegesis. were here compared one by one with words of similar phonetic value in more than a score of languages and dialects, and for the first time Accadian loan words were recognized in Assyrian.

This paper marked a distinct advance in the study of Sumerian, at the same time that it indicated the position attained by his predecessors in the


study. Sayce had proved a worthy successor of Hincks in philological insight, and had contributed much to the grammatical study of


He was

terial in


speedily followed in this by contributed more grammatical ma3

excellent papers.

none had dared to compile a Suinerian grammar, though material was rapidly accumulating. But in 1873 Lenormant began to


to this time


the second


of his

Lettres assyrio-

logiques* the

part of which contained a com113,


On an Akkadian

Seal," Journal


Journal Asiatique,


of Philology, iii, 1, ff., 1871. and Memoires du 1 Congres intern, des





Lettres assyriologiques, II Serie

J&udes accadiennes, T.

en 4 parties.

Paris, 1874.



In plete and systematic grammar of Sumerian. the section relating to phonetics Lenormant noted
the correspondence between

Sumer ( (Gen. x, 10), Sdmarrah (Abu '1-farag, Hist, dyn., ed. Pococke, p. 18), Sumere (Amm. Marc. 25, 6). The second part of this book was wholly given up to

= Sungiri)

ng and m, and idenwith Sennar, Shinar

paradigms, while the third contained an extensive list of cuneiform The fourth and last part signs.

was given over to a long

discussion of the



the language, in which Lenormant learnedly op-

posed Oppert's name of Sumerian, and contended for the older name Accadian. The whole book


in itself

make a

considerable scholarly repu'



ishing brief

was followed by another in an astonspace of time. In this Lenormant was

not directly concerned with the Sumerian language, but in two chapters, entitled " The People of Ac" cad and " The Turanians in Ohaldea and in

Western Asia" he again entered upon the difficult He had now advanced to the view that subject.
the Accadian language, as he

upon must be classified in the Ural-altaic calling family and considered as the type of a special group. In certain particulars he judged it to have most affinity with the Ugro-finnic, in others
with the Turkish languages. In spite of all that has been achieved by the English and French investigators the subject was




La Magie






origines accadiennes.

Paris, 1874-76.





and when Eberhard

Schrader, later justly called

the father of Assyril



Germany," wrote

Assyro-Babylonian avoided it. In this book he must needs refer to
the language which appeared in the left column of the syllabaries, but he did not enter into the

important book on he almost inscriptions

vexed questions in dispute between Lenorniant and Oppert. Two years later, however, in a rea view of Lenormant he definitely took sides with him against Oppert and adopted Accadian instead In this he was followed by his disof Sumerian.
tinguished pupil, Friedrich Delitzsch, who contributed some further explanations of the sylla3


When the year 1873 drew to its close scholars had reason to feel that the question which had They were puzzled Hincks in 1850 was settled. able to say that all scholars were agreed upon two propositions, namely, 1. The cuneiform method of writing was not invented by the Semitic Babylonians or Assyrians. 2. It was invented by a people who spoke a language which belonged to the agglutinative forms of human speech. There

Schrader,Eberhard, Die assyrisch-babylonischen Keilinschriften. KritiscJie Untersuchung der Grundlagen ihrer Entzifferung. Zeitschrift der Deutschen

Leipzig, 1872.
! 3


xxvi, pp. 1-392,

1872; also separately.

Jenaer Literatur-Zeitung, Assyrische Studien, Heft


Rec. No. 200, 1874, quoted by Weissbach. Assyrische Thiernamen mil vielen ExGlossar,
Leipzig, 1874.


und einem


und akkadischen
cit., p.

So formulated by Weissbach,

was indeed


new language whether
tions concerning

a dispute about the name of the it should be called Acca-

dian or Sumerian, and there were numerous quescharacter, age, literature,


history which might occupy the skill and patience of investigators for a long time, but the main

question was settled. But alas for the danger of overassurance



Oppert and Lenormant were disputing concerning


of this ancient language, there lived in

Paris an orientalist, Joseph Halevy, who held distinguished rank as a scholar in the difficult field
of Semitic epigraphy.

an Assyriologist at


Halevy was not known as but he had followed every

detail of the process of deciphering Sumerian,

had watched every discussion of its grammatical peculiarities, and had never from the beginning believed
in its existence

July 10, 1874, the Academic des Inscriptions listened to the first of a series of papers on the Sumerian question from him. Other In papers followed on July 24 and August 14.



Halevy discussed three questions




ing its existence, does the Accadian language belong to the Turanian family ? 2. May the ex-

Turanian people in Babylonia be conceded? 3. Do these so-called Accadian texts present a real language distinct from Assyrian, or

of a


Comptes rendus de VAcad. des

inscr., iv, ser. 2, 201, 209,



see also

pp. 261-264.
ser. 3, 461,


entire paper is published in

Journal Asiatique,

So stated by Weissbach,



p. 25.

long used by Semites. by The signs which they had supposed represented the syllables or words of a language spoken in Babylonia in the very beginning of recorded time were to him but the fanciful product of the fertile minds of Assyrian priests. It was a most daring act for a man not yet known as an Assyriologist to oppose single-handed the united forces of scholarship in the department. and then passed on to the other two. and ethnological. and the Sumerian words so called were only cryptic formulae. Halevy's mind was stored with learning philological. Halevy should have begun with the third question. he was a dialectician superior to Lenormant or Oppert he had the keenness of a ready there cannot be as to the . But. whatever may be said of the method.. Halevy had to prove no less a thesis than that all sought scholars from the beginning of the investigation Hincks and Rawlinson had been deceived. merely an ideographic system of writing invented by the Assyrians ? As Weissbach has pointed out. p. two opinions debater in searching out the weakest places in the arguments of his opponents and the skill of an expert swordsman in puncturing them. consummate ability of the discussion. . 25. 1 the order of these questions is strange and unmethodical. The cuneiform writing was the invention of Semites. 1 signs.208 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. invented and especially used for mystification in incantations or religious Ibid. historical.

xxix. vii.. pp. attacking Halevy's positions or defending the ground which but a short time before had seemed so sure as to need no defense. 2 cit. 5. column 1075.. pp. 27. ff.. nevertheless continued to peculiar tenets against Lenormant. in a review of Lenormant's book. 1875. 47. Delitzsch. ff. and Delitzsch. 941. vii. 1875. footnote 1. Schrader. philologie suivie d'un glossaire accadien. 5 Etudes sumeriennes. 1875. 3 1st das Akkadische der Keilinschriften eine Sprache oder eine Schri/t ? Ge&ellschaft. opposing Halevy with all his learning and acuteness. and earnest 5 argue for his own Halevy had unmust be said in doubtedly been. also ranged himself with them. 1. not succeeded in finding this paper. and quote it on the authority of Weiss- bach. 455. op.. ff. de la Chaldee et les Idiomes touraniens. had written a large volume in oppowhile Schrader was content with an able 3 4 a and much briefer paper. Jhg. *Lit. 1. Ctntralblatt. In a few months Lenormant sition.SUMERIAN AND VANNIC DECIPHEEMENT. y p. while Oppert. 1874. fitude de Paris. . Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenliindischeii 1876. Sumerien ou accadien ? 2. nevertheless. La Langue primitive et d'histoire. The issue was now squarely joined. 267. ff. and only one anonymous writer ventured to accept Hale"vy's papers 1 When On the other hand. 442. ser.every Assyriof note who had had any share in the preologist vious discussions was soon in the field with papers his conclusions. Sumerien ou rien ? Journal Asiatique. 209 were published not a single Assyriologist was convinced by them. ff. him from the justice that they had not driven and able though the replies to it 1 I have This unknown writer wrote in Ausland.

footnote 3. and Paul up. . 3 1876. Nouvelle Considerations sur ff. In 1876 he read before the Academic des Inscriptions. and he was encouraged to press on with fresh arguments. 1 $ To Lenormant Halevy had replied promptly. 1877. F. 49. and wherever they differed Halevy skillfully opposed the one to the other in his argument. Jhg. Meanwhile the lines of those who still believed in the existence of the ancient tongue were closing agree 3 4 5 Gradually Oppert's name. le November 201. 1 La Lenormant. vii. and with this he began to win some adherents to his views. was at least a slight gain. Read before the Academic des InscripParis. 456. 39. 4 in which he modified his views somewhat. 31 pp. 26. yet strenuously insisting that the entire system was Semitic. ff. Recherches critiques sur Porigine de la civilisation babylonienne. 1875. Paris.. ff. tions 9 pretendue Langue d'Accad est-ette touranienne ? Reponse a M. 1875. the earliest That being W. ser. The defenders of the existence of the Sunierian language did not among themselves on many points.210 field. HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. op. Quoted from Weissbach. 1876. Deecke and Moritz Grunwald. Centralblatt. 5 Ausland. foremost among whom were the pupils of Delitzsch. 7. Fritz Hommel. cit. and afterward published.. in book form.. This paper was then reprinted. was accepted by scholars. 1876. p. along with the former publication of 1874. Journal Asiatique. Sumerian. sylldbaire cuneiforme. 268 pp. and had done much to diminish the effect of that scholar's attack upon his position. 584. a paper on the Assyrian origin of the cuneiform writing. *Lit.

and his handling of the Sumerian family laws showed how to treat a bilingual text in a thoroughly scientific manner. Paris. 1879. In 1884 the first part of his book containing copies of the newly found inscriptions appeared. Leipzig. von Dr. 3 Stanislas Guyard came over to Halevy. 12. Revue crit. 1 211 Haupt. Uebersetzung. nouv. ff. viii. 236. pp. Decouvertes en Chaldee. and had been sending to the Louvre most interesting specimens of his discoveries. 3 75. ser. while Lenormant conceded a point and called it the language of Sumer and Accad. Eine Assyrlologische Studie. 1. und zahlreichen JExcursen. Revue critique. Publ. 4 Journal Asiatique. Between these two dates De Sarzec 8 had been carrying on his excavations at Tello. To Sumerian scholars there seemed no doubt whatever that these inscriptions were written in the Sumerian language. viii. pp. 47. 1884. 5 See below. ser. Haupt was then a young man of extraordinary gifts.. Die Sumerischen Familiengesetze in Keikchrift. vii. In 4 1879 there appeared a small book by Paul Haupt which may truly be said to open a new era in the whole discussion. (31 Mai. Paul Haupt. ser. 4 these being the first Assyriologists to embrace his views. in 1880. ff. ix.SUMEEIAN AND VANNIC DECIPHERMENT. position. f. 425. . 6 413. par les soins de Leon Heuzey. ff. ii. nebst ausfilhrlichem Commentar und Transcription. Halevy 6 at once began to explain their strangely sounding 1 8 Journal Asiatique. in southern Babylonia. 1884. 1880).. and in 1884 Henri Pognon. There can be no doubt that Haupt had done much to stem the tide which was threatening to set toward Halevy's Nevertheless. 2. 378.

Bezold likewise joined with the older school. Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie." 1 Leide. Jensen. Leipzig. but in the larger view It was significant that the younger really losing. tabula VI. His became more earnest. Biissps. who was later to be known first one of the most eminent Assyriologists of his time. 535. fur 279-322. at the International Congress of Orientalists in Leiden. Halevy's paper is entitled Apercu grammatical de Vallographie assyro-babylonienne. i. . ii. as did also Henrich Zimmern whose first paper was of even Carl greater importance. neither did the appearance of the De Sarzec monuments and inscriptions move him. Bab. opposed Halevy's view in his very as 2 8 work. 1886. presented a most elaborate paper in which he presented his theory in its fullest and most scientific form. pp. if. and Guyard's was likewise full of vigor. Also partly Monachii. i. 5 reprinted as dissertation. tenu en 1883 d " ii. Leide.212 HISTOEY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. 1885. In some notes added to Zimmern's first book" Actes du Qieme Congres international des orientalistes. and in 1883. efforts school of Assyriologists were strongly supporting the Sumerian view. 4 But encouragement of the very highest kind was even now almost in Halevy's hands. 2 De incantamentorum Zeitschrift . support the cause was not gaining. 1885. 1885. ff. Halevy was not convinced that his views 1 were incorrect by any of the arguments already advanced. 15-61. 4 Kurzgefasste Ueberblick uber die Babylonisch-Assyrische Literatur. Leipzig. words as in reality Semitic. sumerico-assyriorum seriei quae dicitur shurbu Keilschriftforschung. ii. Babylonische Busspsalmen. Nevertheless. 52-68. 113. 306-311 3 416-425.

slender ranks of the anti-Accadians.SUMEKIAN AND VANNIC DECIPHERMENT. 1 lileralur. u. The accession of Delitzsch is the high-water mark of Halevy's theory. 188T. examination. talist rejoice over such a promised accession. English edition same date. w. The morrow would bring a great change. but the antiSumerian paragraph was severely handled by its In like manner the anti-Sumerian position of the dictionary met with a criticism which indicated that even the great name of Delitzsch was not increase confidence in Halevy's cause. Well might the great French oriensubject. 1st part. Leipzig. Assyrische Orammatik. 25. Lehmann. and when part of Delitzsch's Assyrian dicappeared every page contained proof first Assyrian grammar appeared a whole para8 graph was devoted to a most incisive attack upon his the Sumerian theory. 2 Assyrisches Worterbuch zur gesammten bisher verojfentlichen Keilschrifts. 1889. in a review no less remarkable for the range of its learning than for its scientific sufficient to protested against Delitzsch's method. as critics. 213 Delitzsch took occasion to speak in warm terms of Halevy's very important contributions to the and while not yet ranging himself at his declared that his view deserved very close side. Sayce. Leipzig. Delitzsch's grammar was received with asm. in a big book devoted to the inscriptions of spirit. . enthusi- it well deserved to be. When the 1 tionary that in his case Halevy's long and courageous Delitzsch had joined the still fight had won.

pp. the wonderful results of the American expedition to Nippur. however. 3 57-173. pp. 1 a late Assyrian king devoted an entire chapter to the Sumerian question. von 1892. Beneath this humorous phrase there lies. Professor Delitzsch. iv. F. *Jbid.. the editing of all these had texts found by previous explorers some link with the Sumerian question. Shamashskumukin Konig von Babylon. In it the whole subject was treated with a freshness and an ability that left little * to be desired. none but Halevy dared deny that it marked a step forward in the process of tearing down his elaborate theories. f. In 1897 down by the weight of more 1 allied abandoned Halevy's side and once As he himself to the Sumeriologists. In the very same year in which Delitzsch's grammar appeared Bezold made a brilliant discovery in finding upon an Assyrian tablet the Sumerian language mentioned. iv. The newer discoveries of De Sarzec. borne fresh evidence.214 HISTOEY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. 3 Almost every month after the year 1892 brought some new material to be considered and related to the ever-debated question. asking Halevy to permit the language to live. Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie. as the Assyrians had mentioned it by name. In his announcement of this new fact Bezold writes banteringly. 434. Lehmann. chap. C. though not conclusive as to the main question. Leip- zig. Though some minor criticism was passed upon it. a quiet note of recognition that the mention was important. .

another language likewise written in the cuneiform characters. so was he now even a Halevy indeed gained others to his greater loss. it has no longer the same Year by year the question is less and intensity. Though the debate still continues. she had seen the beauty of the country. " Was there a Sumerian language were there less. the pureness of the the clearness of the foun- . none bore so famous a name. The school side. 215 had been a great gain. air. The history of the study of cuneiform inscriptions is complicated by the number of different languages which used the wedge-shaped characters. and we have also set forth at length the long discussion over the question of Sumerian.SUMERIAN AND VANNIC DECIPHERMENT. but which he had founded was waning. Rawand Oppert. " What was the Sumerian language who were the Sumerians " ? linson. Sumerians ? " and is more and more. The of wedge-shaped characters may well dispose the mind to accept the statement that still another people wrote their use by four different peoples language in similar fashion. Susian. Every year seems to justify Hincks. and Assyrian languages. We have already shown that the cuneiform inscriptions at Persepolis and Behistun were in the Persian. The Armenians have preserved for us among their traditions of Seuiiramis the statement that she had at one time determined to build a new city in " Armenia When as the place of summer residence. the great masters who laid the foundations in this increasingly fruitful field.

When these had been carefully copied he sought elsewhere and was rewarded with the disco veiy of still 1 ischen ubersetzt. Schulz departed from Erzeroum determined to suffer any loss in the effort to find the summer city of Semiramis. GeschicJite Gross-Armenietis. 32. and the other tains of water. three quarters. . but. he turned in at the gates of the fascinating city of As Van and began its a search through the remains of former greatness. M. Beneath the great citadel of Van was found a small chamber approached by steps. 1869. There logical an English translation of the History of Armenia. amid such beauty of water and of land.216 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. then almost unknown to Europeans. D. Ed. pp. during the cold weather. 1827 Fr. Regensburg. Lauer. About the end of June. or rather the GeneaAccount of Great Armenia. of Moses of Chorene (about 430 A. which is summer.' scholars found the name Semiramis full of mystery and attraction. and were anxious to learn more about her great deeds.). and the murmuring of the swiftflowing rivers. London. in As" Even so late as this present century syria. There is no need to say that he did not find it. she said: 'In such a balmy air. 31. is Des Moses von Ckorene. 736 4to. but it is not accessible to me. he went along the borders of Lake Van. like many another searcher. in the comfort of Armenia. aits dem Armenvon Dr. ] by Winston. found something far more important. we must build a city and a royal residence that we may spend the one quarter of the year. a flight of twenty found inscriptions Above in the these steps he cuneiform character carved in the face of the solid rock.

on the Euphrates. and but the remaining thirty-nine were Babylonian. pp. but Grotefend was able to go no further. 1. This negative conclusion was of some importance as a guidepost. two hundred and fifty miles west of Van. and he was quick to discern that they did not belong to Assyrian kings. pp. Susian. ff. but so soon as an attempt was made to decipher them doubts arose as to their accuracy. In 1847 Sir A. . others. also in Original Papers read before the Syro2 Egyptian Society of London. H. Seme serie. At this 1 time the Persian decipherment had indeed been well begun. 70-75 . and published in 1840. as had also Assyrian. tome ix. when the difficulties are considered.SUMERIAN AND VANNIC DECIPHERMENT. but none were able to read the new inscriptions for which Schulz had given his life. They were exceedingly well copied. Monatsberichte uber die Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde zu Berlin. It was soon found that three of the inscriptions were in Persian. when his papers were recovered and brought to Paris the inscriptions were splendidly reproduced by lithography. and forty-two inscriptions. tion in this same language was found by Captain written by Xerxes. The copies by Schulz as well as this new text came before the eyes of Grotefend in due course. and were von Muhlbach near Isoglu. 16 i. 217 In other places in the neighborhood he found more. 25*7-323. 1840. pp. 131. In 1840 an inscripin some unknown language. i. until he had copied no less than Schulz was murdered. Layard found another 1 inscription of the same Journal Asiatique.

It was now clear enough that this new kind at Palu. 1848. new series. 1847. p. or Aryan. and went on to argue erroneously that it was Indo-European. and the signification of several words. He read the names of the kings as Niriduris. in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. as he called it. Dr. Kinuas. and Arrasnis. pp. 8 Society. in which the error. chiefly in the city. n He had thus perceived that the language was inflectional. . There was in these facts an urgent call for some man able to decipher and translate the records and construct a grammar of the language in which they were written. language belonged to a people of some importance in the ancient world. the Royal Asiatic Society. 378 (1882). Ishpuinish. ix.218 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Edward Hincks ? And two papers by him were read before the Royal Asiatic December 4. Skuina. Minuas. Who should attempt this new problem but that marvelous decipherer of strange tongues." . 2 Both papers are published in the Journal of 387-449(1848). 1 on the eastern bank of the Euone hundred and eighty miles from phrates about Van." while the accusative ended in "n. and March 4. xiv. In these papers Hincks determined correctly the meaning of a large number of the characters found the meaning of such ideographs as " people." 1 " Sayce. whose civilization or dominion extended over a considerable territory. He further was able to show that the termination of the nominative singular and plural of substantives was "s. but very shortly corrected them into Milidduris. and Argistis.








is difficult

to exagger-

ate the importance of this work, but we may gain some idea of its value by comparing with it Raw-

on the subject published two years There are," says Rawlinson, " it is well later. known, a series of inscriptions found at Van and in the vicinity. These inscriptions I name Arlinson's note "



that was used

are written in the same alphabet in Assyria, but are composed in

a different language a language, indeed, which, although it has adopted numerous words from the
Assyrian, I believe to belong radically to another There are six kings of the family, the Scythic.


line following in a line of direct descent.

I read their




Alti-bari; 2.








Ari-mena; Ariduri (?)."

In the reading of these names Rawlinson is distinctly behind Hincks, as he was always less keen
in the treatment of philological niceties.

For a long
cessor in the

series of years

Hincks had no


work of decipherment. But every few years new inscriptions were found written in the same language, and each one naturally increased the probability of a successful outcome of the efforts after decipherment. In 1871 Lenormant 3 took up the task where

Hincks and Rawlinson had

laid it




A list

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, xii, p. 475 (1850). 5s given by Sayce, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, new
Lettres assyriologiques,

series, xiv, pp. 380, 381.

pp. 113-164 (1871).



searching. early history of Armenia, as he had learned its outlines from the Assyrian inscriptions. That was to be the historical basis of his work, and from it


method was and





his work, sketched the

he hoped to extract useful geographical material which might help in the securing of names in the Vannic inscriptions. He proposed to call the language Alarodian (Herodotus, iii, 94 vii, 79), and argued that it was non- Aryan, and that its closest modern representative was Georgian. He pointed out that " bi " was the termination of the first person singular of the verb, and that parubi signified


I carried away."

In the next year Dr. A. D. Mordtmann attacked the question and five years later returned to it again. He determined the meaning of twelve


words, and supplied a most valuable analysis of all the inscriptions, but did not succeed in the translation of a single one of them. Nevertheless,

he had made a gain. The next decipherer was Dr. Louis de Robert (1876), who deliberately cast away all that had been gained by Hincks, Bawlinson, Lenormant, and Mordtmann, and set out afresh upon

a totally wrong road.


tried to

show that the


Entzifferung und Erklarung der armenischen Keilinschriften von Van der Umgegend, von Dr. A. D. Mordtmann. Zeitschrift der Deutschen

Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, xxvi, pp. 465-696 (1872). Ueber die KeilinIbid., xxxi, pp. 406-438 (1877). schriften von Armenian.

tude philologi que sur


inscriptions cuneiformes de












was nothing, and the next Assyria. worker must return to the methods of the old


inscriptions were constantly comBronze shields with the name of Rusas were found by Sir A. H. Layard, and exca-

Meantime new

ing to light.
vations near



Lake Van by Hormuzd Rassam unmore inscribed objects in bronze.

Layard also laid a firmer foundation for future work by recopying more accurately all the inscriptions for which Schulz had given his life. On the 9th of April, 1880, M. Stanislas Guyard 2 presented to the Societe Asiatique in Paris "some

observations upon the cuneiform inscriptions of Van." He had noticed at the end of a good many
of the inscriptions a phrase in which occurred the word "tablet." He remembered that Assyrian
inscriptions frequently ended with an imprecatory formula, heaping curses upon whomsoever should

destroy this tablet, and he suggested that here was a formula exactly the same. When he had
tested this

new clew he found

that the words

thus secured seemed to
other passages, firmed.

exceedingly well into


his guess

seemed thereby


It is curious that the very same clew as that followed by Guyard had also independently been discovered by Professor A. H. Sayce, who had


Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, xiv, p. 384. Journal Asiatique, 7 ser., torn, xv, pp. 540-543, Mai-Juin, 1380.



been working for several years upon these

He had fortunately found out a few more words than
Guyard and was able to push on farther as well as more rapidly. The words in which he began to explain his method to the Royal Asiatic Society were strong, but every one was justified by the
says: "The ideographs so freely emthe Vannic scribes had already showed ployed by me that not only the characters but the style and


phraseology of the inscriptions were those of the Assyrian texts of the time of Asshur-natsir-pal and
I believe, therefore, that I have at last solved the problem of the Vannic inscripII.


in deciphering them, thereby a grammar and vocabulary of the compiling both language in which they are written. Owing to the

and succeeded


of the texts, their close adherence to their Assyrian models, and the plentiful use of ideo-

be found that the passages and words which still resist translation are but few, and that in some instances their obscurity really results from the untrustworthiness of the copies of them which we possess." The long paper which followed these words began with a survey of the geography, history, and theology of the Vannic people, derived very largely from Assyrian sources, but tested and expanded from the native sources which he had just After this followed an account of deciphered. the method of writing, an outline of the grammar,




Journal of the Royal Asiatic



series, xiv, pp.




analysis, and a translation of the inscriptions. was a most remarkable piece of work, as sur-

prising because of its learning as because of its proof of a perfect genius for linguistic combination. It reminds the reader continually of Hincks
at his best.


effect of its publication



Guyard reviewed it at length, offercorrections and additions, yet showing plainly ing enough that the work was successful. Further

contributions to the subject were or D. H. Miiller, of Vienna, who

made by Profess-

had been studying the texts independently both of Sayce and More inscriptions also came to light, Guyard. and in 1888 Professor Sayce was able to review the whole subject, accepting heartily some of the many emendations of his work which had been proposed, rejecting others, and so putting the cap-

The mystery of the inscripWhen new texts in the same language should appear men might indeed dispute as to the name of the language whether to
stone upon his work.
tions at

Van was


call it

Vannic or Alarodian or Urartian or Chalbut they would at least be able to read it. dian, So rested the matter of the language of Van
1892, when Dr. C. F. Lehmann" began a series of studies in the inscriptions which Sayce

had deciphered, seeking to determine more closely a host of historical and geographical questions which grew out of them. He first demonstrated

Melanqes 7

d Assyrioloqie. C


Paris. 1883.


Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, 1892, pp. 131,



that the people who had written many of these texts were the same as the Chaldians (Xd/UJot, not



are XdXdaioi) of the Greeks.


language was therefore to be called Chaldian, and another difficulty was cleared up. Beginning in 1895, Dr. Waldemar Belck and Dr. C. F. Lehmann

published a series of papers of great acuteness, working out the life history of this old people, who had thus been restored to present knowledge,

up many points previously obscurely or incorrectly set forth by Sayce. In further pursuit of the studies thus begun Drs. Belck and Lehmann departed from Berlin in




1898 for a journey through Persian

and Russian Armenia.

They visited Van and carefound which

fully collated all the inscriptions previously by Schulz and others, and found new texts

had been overlooked by

all their predecessors. of Assyrian kings, especially of inscriptions Tiglath-pileser I and Shalnianeser II, were found,


and by these, also, our knowledge of Chaldian history was increased. The results of this valuable expedition are now being made known, and it
regarded as the concluding event in the history of the decipherment of the Vannic inscriptions.

may be

Ibid., 1895, pp.

578-616; 1896, pp. 302-308.

der Koniylich Preussischen schaften zu Berlin, 1899, pp. 116-120.


Akademie der


Zdtschrift fur Ethnologic, 1898, pp. 227, 414-416, 522-527, 568-592; 1899, pp. 411-420,







impulse to excavations in Assyria was a German scholar who had established given by himself in Paiis. Julius Mohl cheered on Botta


and kept him encouraged while it dragged along. During all the time that Layard, Loftus, and their coadjutors worked in the field Mohl watched them from afar, and He was now seccarefully noted their successes. retary of the Societe Asiatique of Paris, and in
to the


of excavation,

his annual reports he told the society of all that had gone on in the great valley amid the graves

In his report for the year 1855 his note was distinctively sad. He recorded the
of ancient

fact that every single expedition which had been sent out to dig had laid down the work or had



That seemed


circumstance, for to his discerning eye the soil

him a lamentable was

life of

monuments recording the whole the vast empires which had held sway in Nineveh or in Babylon. He was impatient to have the excavations resumed, and he called on
underlaid with
the governments to take steps to this end. The future was to confirm Mohl's view fully, and even more than confirm it, of the vast treasures that lay buried.


time, however, for their



excavation had not come in the year 1855. Neither governments nor free peoples would carry on
excavations for antiquities that were mere unmeaning curiosities when they were found. That

work must wait until the decipherment had reached a sure result, and until the work of translation
had been so far popularized that the results should be generally known. As a former chapter has shown, the period of doubtful translations ended and the period of surely known results began It was only necessary that these matters in 1857. should be popularized, and that would require some time. This popularization was, fortunately, carried on chiefly, at least in England, by the



Talbot,Norris these were the

Rawlinson, Hincks, a remarkable list of names, surely
in popular

men who made known

papers or by lectures and addresses the great

coveries in Assyria. Some of these papers struck the old note of Shirley, and revealed the im-

portance of Assyrian studies for the light they were sure to shed upon the Bible. That would

be certain to arouse interest in Great Britain and,
as before, might result in the beginning of more excavations. The sequel will show how wonderfully this very zeal for biblical study operated in the stimulating of Assyrian research.

George Smith by name, destined for the work of an engraver, read in the short spaces of his crowded days the magic words of Kawlinson and the other pioneers, and was moved to begin

A boy,




the study of Assyrian himself.

As he


witnessess, he was first roused to definite study by the interest of biblical history, and with the

purpose of doing something for it, he applied in 1866 to Sir Henry Rawlinson for permission to

study the original copies,

casts, or

fragments of


scriptions belonging to the reign of Tiglathpileser.

Rawlinson gladly gave the permission, and Smith went earnestly to work. His success was not great with these, but his industry was rewarded by the discovery of a new inscription of Shalmaneser with the name of Jehu upon it, by which he
ascertained the

which Jehu had paid
ery, the first original

year of Shalmaneser's reign in 5 In this discovhis tribute.
hint of use to the

there was one




work which Smith had done, Old TestaSmith had begun as he was to go

After this discovery Sir Henry Rawlinson was so struck by the young man's success that he


suggested his employment by the British Museum work in the new Assyrian department. There he was established in the beginning of 1867, and
Assyrian Discoveries, by George Smith. London, 1875, p. 9. Smith's report of his first discovery is so interesting in the history of Assyrian study that it is here reproduced entire


"Assyrian Inscription.
in the British

While examining part of the Assyrian



I lately discovered a short inscription of


eser II, king of Assyria, in which it is stated that Jehu, king of Israel, sent him tribute in the eighteenth year of his reign. That he received tribute

from Jehu



known from

the black obelisk inscription, but the date

of the event has not been previously ascertained. This fact is of chrono' I may add that Jehu in this inscription is styled Son logical interest.

of Omri,' the same as on the black obelisk." No. 2031, September 29, 1866, p. 410.



1 871. While still feeling his way along the intrito the British cate mazes of cuneiform decipherment there came Museum some copies of the then un- deciphered Cypriote texts. The depletion of force through constant and difficult work of his was probably the ultimate cause explorations which were early death. and it was applied with wonderful skill and with surprising results. In his own survey of museum Smith remembered most vividly the biblical discoveries. On November 7. and soon he was engaged in an attempt to read them. he read a paper before the Society of Biblical Archaeology " On the Reading of Cypriote Inscriptions. and Hoshea. king of These stirred his pulses and drove him on Israel. and Smith possessed in unusual degree a gift for decipherment. . A man possessing genius of such order was sure to win fame in the new 1 field of Assyriology." The : method which he used was similar to the plan of Grotefend. pp. He had picked out the word for king. i. king of Israel. He found on the texts names and notices of Azariah. Ms his work in the vital even at the peril of his health. king of Judah. after the brilliant series of discoveries now before him. though he knew no Greek with which to make comparisons. Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. success was immediate. 129. ff. and had identified forty out of fifty odd characters.228 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Birch called his attention to them. Dr. Pekah. and these were they which gave him his first popular reputation and the opportunities of his life.

When Smith had translated enough of the tablets to make a somewhat connected story of the deluge. published the announcement of his discovery. In that year. upon which he soon read unmistakable parallels to the biblical account of the deluge. its influence fell far short of that of a discovery which Smith made in 1872. Rawlinson pre- . he read a paper subject before the Society of Biblical Archaeology on December 3. Yet. 1872-1900. The piece thus found was soon followed by three duplicates and other lesser fragments.EXPLORATIONS. for it contained the accounts of the campaigns and of the building operations of Asshurbanapal. while working among some fragments brought home by Rassam. immense gain to history from the discovery and decipherment of the Assyrian inscriptions. Sir Henry C. as the Babylonians told on the it. 1872. and that it gave the history of He a great hero whom Smith called Izdubar. and Asshurbanapal was forgotten. Smith picked out a broken clay tablet. But England did not know how to be calm in the presence of such a discovery as this. few probably thinking of the great king who had made the library out of which these newly found tablets had come. 229 From 1867 to 1871 discovery followed discov- ery until Smith's edition of the Asshurbanapal inThis volume made clear the scriptions appeared. great as all this was. The meeting was large and enthusiastic. first From these he ascertained that the found was the eleventh in a series of part twelve tablets.

Smith. Professor Sayce.230 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. December 1872. biblical narrative. Then Mr. which he said had come from the East by way of Phoenicia. Birch spoke last and not first. move The The Times (London). 1 It did not or could not and the public would not 4. Though not present himself at the meeting. concluding with the magic word "religion. Gladstone's last sentence returned. instantly. Again was struck the old note of Shirley. sided. and to that phase Mr. and at a late hour the company went away to spread abroad this marvelous story of the discovery of an early narrative which all thought illustrated. and then enthusiasm had sway when it was pointed out by Dr. . but it was not exactly what the company most desired to hear. 7. he had spent the afternoon with Mr. p. and later had a full account of the meeting from Dr. Gladstone all spoke." The cheers broke forth then with a good will. This was appreciated. however. Birch that this had immense importance for the study of the Bible. is inclined to think that the order of addresses in the meeting was somewhat different. showing how valuable these discoveries were for the study of the ori- gins of Greek culture. He believes that it was Mr. the biblical 1 story in Genesis. The account of the meeting given above rests chiefly upon the report in The Times published the following day. and again that audience responded. and many believed confirmed and corroborated. Birch. Smith presented his translation. The government was urged material at once to resume excavations on the site of Nineveh to find more which might illustrate or confirm the wait. Gladstone who emphasized the importance of these discoveries in their bearing upon the Bible. and that Dr.

moved by the editor. April 9.EXPLORATIONS. The discoveries made were few. 1873. as the proprietors of the Daily Telegraph were satisfied . a month after Norris's death. Two more fragments of the Deluge tablet were shortly afterward found. that Smith should lead it. Asshurbanapal. and rived. a widely circulated journal. and then on June 9 the excavations were stopped. began small excavations at Nimroud. paper describing On January 20. 231 proprietors of the Daily Telegraph. and Senscriptions nacherib. On May 14 Smith secured from the same room in which Rassam had found Asshurbanapal's library a new fragment of the Deluge story which fitted into the ones previously found. 1872-1900. Edwin Ar- perceived the opportunity and seized it. but was also in his return on the highest degree gratified by the finding of inof Esarhaddon. Smith set out upon his enterprise. This fact was considered of sufficient moment to be telegraphed to London for Smith was naturally publication in the paper. and on March 2 he reached Mosul. and excavations undertaken at Kuyunjik on May 7. They offered a thousand guineas to pay the expenses of an expedition to Nineveh on condition nold. much pleased with the discovery. and that the firman had not arHe therefore made a trip to Babylon. and this mound was therefore abandoned. He soon found that delays were the order of the day. his experience and send letters to the and discoveries. and comparatively unimportant. ready to begin excavations.

He was harried with petty annoyances by Turkish officialdom. 1875. and its influence upon public feeling and opinion in England were moved by his spirit. and reluctantly left for England at once with his treasures. his words and works. but nothing of startling imas regards the Bible was found. Smith was much disappointed at this decision. Smith reached Mosul on January tive of 1. the work might have ceased altogether. he set out for Constantinople to seek to obtain a firman which should permit the resumption of his excavations. November Museum. and in October. with the discovery of the Deluge fragments and did not wish to continue farther the work. no less than by Men out such inspiration. with the explorations of Laycompared left ard and Ras?am the work of Smith was comparatively small in amount. however. many inscriptions These were producand of interesting archae- ological materials. it is well to remember. The British Museum again determined to avail itself of Smith's services. 1874. 1873. but at last secured the coveted . Smith portance ceased work and When Mosul on April 4.232 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. who had sent out again from London on 25. by the trustees of the British set apart one thousand pounds for further excavations at Nineveh. He was. to desire that new excavations should be undertaken. "With- was very great. and immediately began excavations at Kuyunjik. but it was valuable in the recovery of much historical material.

1876. and was careless in the providing of good food suitable for the climate. pp. 1876. p. in Germany. and alienated their sympathies without impressing them by his power. which he sketched or planned. At times he rode for days eating only crusts of bread. 1872-1900. f. Ignorant of the laws of health. by which Europeans are so closely bound in the Orient. and proceeded to Baghagain to inspect some antiquities which were offered for sale. set out for the East. p. the unsettled. The Athenaeum. 10. 1876. It was then his purpose to begin dad but the plague had appeared. and there was every possible interference made by natives and by TurkIn previous expeditions he had not ish officials. 1876. 338. country was In students as a thunderclap out of a clear sky. See also TransacThe Times. x.EXPLORATIONS. he for his third expedition. September 7. who was on very intimate terms with Smith. 233 permission and returned to England to prepare In March. vi. 1876. 2 Professor Delitzsch. p. ber 5. Septemtions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. learned how to deal with orientals. 265. he worked too much. rested too little. He was also disturbed more or less by a quarrel with Rassam and his family. has 17 1 . 4 c. 266 (by Boscawen). On his way back he fell ill of fever. 1 See notices of his life in The Academy. he had to content himself with visits to numerous mounds. 574. 2550. and not permitted to excavate. and died at Aleppo. Smith's death came to the little world of Assyrian excavations. pp. he was looked upon by scholars and England 8 people alike almost as a prophet. . August 19. No. September 9. Beset behind and before with difficulties.

where a new and vigorous school of Assyriologists had begun its work. and in November. After a fruitless wait of four months he returned to England. indicated with sufficient clearness his sense of loss in the reprinting ( of portions of Smith's last diary in his great geographical treatise das Paradies ? pp. W. men were thrown into confusion by the severity of the loss which they felt. Rassam was back own in Mosul. This was indeed a fortunate appointment for Assyrian studies. 267). which Smith was natural that they should turn at once to Rassam. but went out again when Sir Austen Henry Layard became British ambassador at Constantinople. Rassam set out for Constantinople to seek a firman the same errand which had cost Smith so many pangs. for he had been absorbed in diplomatic service. St. the British Museum by the appointment of Mr. In November. Layard would be justly expected to exert himself to secure opportunities for further excavation if that was possible. Wo lag . 1877. The ranks closed up at science dare not linger. His representations to the Porte were successful.234 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. It was indeed a sore blow to the new study but . 1876. Chad Boscawen. It was indeed a long time since he had worked in the field. and the trustees sought a man It had to begin again the excavations laid down. but responded immediately to the call for service in the same field as that in which his earliest fame had been won. 266. He was now living in retirement in England.

Rassam further extensive journeys over portions of Babylonia. began excavations at Kuyunjik and at Nimroud. These he v had had to Professor Sayce.EXPLORATIONS. made small excavations there. the beautifully inscribed and adorned bronze plates which had covered at one Rassam similar to that held days to Botta. from which the fragments had come. where small numbers of interesting inscriptions were found. The natives had been finding at the hitherto unexplored mound of Balawat. some specimens of which been sent to him in England. His choice of a site for excavations was most happy. He also. 235 where he received by telegraph the news that the firman was granted. and among other results identified the site He visited Babylon and made some of Sippara. and advised Rassam to begin diggings at that site. discovered their importance. Though not so rich in results as his former expedition. The result time the palace gates of Shalmaneser. While Rassam was busy a new discoverer peared in the East and very quietly began . about fifteen miles east of Mosul. however. fragments of bronze plates. who found the name of Shalmaneser upon them. this last venture of Rassam helped on the national collections of the British Museum. Sayce had thus come into a relation to shown by Mohl in earlier was most successful. 1872-1900. and thereby added to the knowledge aphis of ancient history. returning then by way of Van to England. Rassam discovered in this mound.

and De sixty miles north of Mugheir. He went again and worked in the mound from January to March. whose outer walls were one hundred and seventy-five feet long and one hundred feet broad. In the interior he found thirty-six . and enHe had tered upon his duties in January. prolonged over a considerable period. Ernest de Sarzec was appointed French consul at Bassorah. 1881. The results were full of surprises to the guild of Assyrian students. 1877. and instead of merely running trenches hither and thither. his new work. been in Abyssinia and had served in Egypt. on the Persian Gulf. to March 15. and he carried to work. In July. These bricks were tightly fastened together by bitumen. built of great baked to bricks one foot square. and also November His work was thus 12. and again from February 18 June 9. 1880. lying in the great alluvial plain of southern Babylonia. 1880. He uncovered a fine temple. Two post strong enthusiasm for archaeological months after he entered Bassorah Sarzec had begun excavations at Telloh a mound four miles in length. bearing the name Groudea. 1877. he dug systematically over a large part of the mound. 1878. He knew the desert and its people. he returned to Paris and found himself famous. erected upon a vast mound from sixteen to twenty feet high. 1878. about five De miles from the banks of the Schatt-el-Hai. The outer wall was five feet thick.236 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. On this mound Sarzec worked from March 5 to June 11. and were indeed almost revolutionary. M.

In one room alone there were found no less than eight diorite statues. from an early period of Babylonian art. lines of inscription. forming thus the longest inscriptions from an early period then De Sarzec's work was done in masterly fashion. or Layard's in England. 237 though one was fifty- by sixty-five feet. in perfect preservation. 1872-1900. mound during each twenty-four inches in length by twelve in diameter. and and reliefs some faint idea was conceived of the appearance of the great . They did not receive the same acclaim as Botta's discoveries had done in France. chiefly small in five size. From the inscriptions the early language of the Sumerians from the statues first was more perfectly learned.EXPLORATIONS. for all were headless. but they were even of greater value scienfor tifically. how- ever. together with the discoveries of Botta. which had been unfortunately mutilated by some later barbarians. Each of these contained no less than two thousand known. the pioneer. In almost every room there were found objects of interest or of instruction for the study of the history of early Babylonia. and these objects found a place beneath the great roof. it was felt that indeed a new era had French archaeological study. and when the inscriptions and objects of art were brought to Paris and deposited in the Louvre. In another part of the very first season there were found two beautiful terra cotta cylinders. The valuable the inscriptions were. rooms. Quarters opened were fitted up in the Louvre.

service which De Sarzec had rendered. guished It alone was sufficient to give him high place on live the roll of those again. and industry.238 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and . In 1894 the spades of struck into a chamber from which were taken no less than thirty thousand tablets a vast hoard of archives mostly of a business character and relating to trade. to be tablets sold and scattered all over the world both in public museums and in While this is private hands. and many thousands were stolen. carried on long period of exploration and by almost all the nations of Europe. people who had laid the foundations of civiliza- That was a distintion in southern Babylonia. The mass of was so great that it was not possible to them from the thieving propensities of the protect natives. With this exception De Sarzec has been successful in securing for the Louvre an important part it is to be deplored. and the During all this excavation. who had made Babylonia Again and again since 1881 has De Sarzec resumed his work at Telloh. there have been developing in America schools of students of the languages. agriculture. perhaps safe to expect that in the end very few of them will be lost to science. of the brilliant results of his explorations. history. commerce. and every year has he brought forth from the same mounds fresh discoveries of moving his workmen interest. with a goodly number of temple documents and religious notices. end of his work is not yet.

Sterrett. Boston. afterward connected with the Archaeological Institute of America. Dr. D. 318-375." by William Hayes Ward. Haynes.D. of New York.D. pp. H. 1872-1900. 1885. and on September 6. G. Constantinople. . Peters in Nippur. W. 1886. These and other gentlemen finally formed Hall. Ward. consisted of Dr. 1884-85. for the purpose of raising funds to send out to Babylonia an expedition to explore the country and see where excavations might profitably be undertaken. Papers of the Archaeological Institute of America. pp. 1 The personnel of this expedition J. Lyon. June to December. Toy and D. William Hayes Ward. Peters. and Professors C. of Philadelphia. Professor Francis Brown. Miss Catherine Lorillard Wolfe. H. 239 religions of the ancient Orient. Society and of the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis. then an instructor in Robert College. the Wolfe expedition to Babylonia departed from New York. LL. and Professor Isaac H. i. 1884. Ward is published in part by Dr. J. were participants. William Hayes Ward. of New an organization. S. Appendix F. conferences were held ental upon this subject in which Professor John P. and also "The Wolfe Expedition. men should begin to talk of efforts to assist in the great work of recovering the remains of Babylonian and Assyrian civilizaIn 1884." by Rev. vol. They trav>See "Report on the Wolfe Expedition to Babylonia. H.. also. Mr. and Dr. The diary of Dr. 56-60. Journal of the Society of Biblical literature and Exegesis. at meetings of the American Orition. of Harvard University.. gave five thousand dollars to defray the expenses of this preliminary exploration. York.EXPLORATIONS. the Rev. R. It was natural J that in America.

Perez Hastings Field. He advised that Anbar be the site chosen for this purpose. visiting where excavations had previously been made. vol. Papers of the Archaeological Institute. 1888. Of this company Dr. as well as scores of mounds that had not yet been examined by archaeologists. Journal of the Society of Biblical Literature. 29. 179. The labors John P. 1885. Harper. Mr. and an expedition was sent out by the University of Pennsylvania which departed from New York June 23. . Report of Dr. were Assyriologists. of the University of Pennsylvania. of the University of Chicago. 1 then erroneously identified with ancient Calneh. Dr. Hilprecht. but the leaven efforts The Ward bore no immediate was steadily working. and were proceeding in several directions to secure funds to undertake excavations. among them at Niffer. eled over sites much of the land of Babylonia. of Dr. 1 Rawlinson reached the negative result that Anbar could not be identified with any Assyrian or Babylonian 8 site. New York. and J. Peters at last bore fruit. pp. 8 city." report of Dr. Ward. architect. " There nothing has been done it is a most promising site of a most famous . Ward earnestly recommended that an expedition be placed in the field to engage in the actual work of excavation. but spoke with enthusiasm of the opportunities in other places. 1897. p. 178. and Professors Hermann V. and Robert F. Peters was director. fruit. 60. On this mound of Anbar compare a most interesting note by Sir Henry Rawlinson quoted in Nippur by John P. i. Peters. Upon his return. of which he said.240 HISTOEY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYEIA. p. in June.

and with sundry Turkish officials. door socket of Kurigalzu.EXPLORATIONS. there was a shipwreck of part of the expedition on the island of Samos. with many individuals among them. vol. with a maximum force of two hundred Arabs. about twenty-five Hebrew bowls. commissary. It was. long ere the expedition could come to its work. terra cotta brick stamp of Naram-Sin. Nippur. At last. 241 H. pp. stone tablet. The difficulties were enormous. But in spite of all this the expedition made a trigonometrical survey of all the mounds and won from them more than "two thousand cuneiform tablets and fragments (among them three dated in the reign of King Ashuretililani of Assyria). fragment of a barrel cylinder of Sargon of Assyria. the site of ancient Nippur. or Niffer. excavations were life 1 of health and of begun on the mount of Nuffar. Haynes. on February 6. and photographer. business manager. i. several fragments of inscribed vases (among them two of King Lugalzag- inscribed gisi of Erech). . there were difficulties in the gathering of equipment and in the assem- bling of the staff. and perils during the long journey overland to southern Babylonia. There were the usual delays in securing permission from the Imperial Ottoman government . 1-241. and continued until April 15. for there were constant struggles with some of the native tribes. however. 1872-1900. a number of inscribed bricks. a large number of 1 stone and terra cotta vases of various sizes and See the lively narrative of Peters. 1889.

Peters as director. i. Old ii. 1896. 279. figurines. vii. It was a brilliantly successful year in eveiy particular. by troubles with the Arabs than the All these antiquities were sent to ConMuseum. p. i. copper. p. and their an- shapes. xii ." 2 influenced by the great difficulties with probably the Arabs which embittered the last days of the to Dr. During this season about eight thousand inscribed tablets Haynes as business were taken from the ruins as well as antiquities of other kinds in large numbers. a number of weights. . and various precious stones." jewelry in gold. silver. vol. pp. and compare the full and entertaining narrative of Peters. part ii. being also less 4 disturbed former. i. seals. chap. The Catastrophe. 8. and with a maximum force of four hundred Arabs. vol. reliefs. ' it seemed that the first year's work "was more or less of a failure. From January 14 May 1890. so far at least This judgment is as Nippur was concerned. though vol. bronze. importance by that which to though far surpassed in was to follow. with Dr. ibid. p. weapons and utensils in stone and metal. 3. 8. manager. 4 See the summary by Hilprecht in Old Babylonian Inscriptions. vol. Chiefly from Nippur. Peters. 3 It was successful. vol. and toys in terra cotta. the Univer- sity of Pennsylvania expedition was again at work at Nippur. ii. Babylonian Inscriptions. i. terra cotta images of gods cient moulds. yet seal cylinders. Nippur. stantinople for the Imperial 1 later This summary of the year's operation is quoted from Hilprecht. and It is an excellent record. * 3 part Philadelphia.242 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and Mr. See Peters. ff. passim.. Peters work. Nippur.

arose directly out of the dignified and generous course pursued by the authorities of the University of Pennsylvania. 1894. but had gone much further than this. Haynes. Professor Hilprecht has not spoken too cordially in saying that " the crowning success . 1896. remained steadily on the ground at work Haynes until February 15. but also with such tact as to call forth expressions of gratitude from connected with the museum. They had honestly handed over the antiquities to the Constantinople authorities. 1893 the University of mitted.EXPLORATIONS. 243 considerable portions of them were presented to the museum of the University of Pennsylvania as a This gracious act personal gift of the sultan. the sultan aimed to repay the Uniall who were versity of Pennsylvania for this free gift of his services. of which Professor Hilprecht was himself a curator. with a short break from April 4 to June 4. By gifts of antiquities to the museum in Philadelphia. 1872-1900. as indeed they had promised to do. at Nippur were interbut on April 11. Pennsylvania had another expedition in the field under the directorship of Mr. Never before had a European ventured to carry on excavations through a hot season. H. Then began one of the most important of all the long : For a time excavations series of expeditions in Babylonia or in Assyria. J. This work was done with great skill. Professor Hilprecht was sent to Constantinople to catalogue these same collections for the Imperial Museum.

situated in the neighborhood of extensive malarial marshes. where the temperature in enormous height of 120 Fahrenheit (= c. question whether extensive excavations carried on at Niffer would produce " any very important or Interesting results (p. for the unselfish devotion was reserved ing task. 39 Reaumur). p. It was indeed no easy task for any European or American to dwell thirty- four months near these insect-breeding and pestiferous Affej swamps. 565. where the stifling sandstorms from the desert rob the tent of its shadow and parch the human skin with the perfect shade rises to the heat of a furnace bite .. had regarded even such as it men as practically impossible to excavate continuOn ously in the lower regions of Mesopotamia.' where Layard him* excavating several weeks without success. while the ever-present insects . c. and ' among be found in the most wild and ignorant Arabs that can this part of Asia. and who themselves had exhibited unusual courage and energy. the ideal Babylonian exBefore he accomplished his memorable were entitled to an independent opinion. 562). the very same ruins of Nippur." Haynes has spent almost three years continuously.244 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. isolated from all civilized men. efforts of and untir- plorer. . and most of the time without the comfort of self nearly sacrificed his life in a single companion. " On the whole I Layard. Nineveh and Babylon. pp. and sting and buzz through day and night is while cholera camp and 1 lurking at the threshold of the treacherous Arabs are planning robbery am much inclined to * Layard. Haynes. 1. 556-562.

in the full significance of the l word a monumentum aere perennius" During the third campaign of the University of Pennsylvania about twenty-one thousand cuneiform tablets and fragments were taken out of the mound. and murder hours to 1873-1900. the Philadelphia expedition began work again in February. though derstood that one is in contemplation. vol. 245 and yet during all these wearisome fulfill the duties of three ordinary men. and besides these there were found large numbers of antiquities of other kinds. J. H. An account of this it is expedition by Mr. un- . p. brick stamps. Under his direction "an extensive group of hills to the southwest of the temple of Bel" were systematically excavated. Haynes as manager and Messrs. After a brief and necessary interruption. Old Babylonian Inscriptions. i. Among these were large numbers of vases and fragments of vases from the veiy earliest period of history. p. all of great importance in the reconstruction of the past his- tory of Babylonia. drain tiles. with Dr. statues 2 In January. beautiful clay coffins glazed in tile fashion and finely preserved.EXPLORATIONS. 9. achieved at innumerable sacrifices. and diorite and fragments. Professor Hilprecht reached Nippur and took charge as scientific director. 1900.. 10. ii. ibid. Truly a splendid victory. Haynes himself has not yet appeared. part Compare the summary in Hilprecht. water cocks. Geere and Fisher as architects. 1899. and under a burden of labors enough for a giant. From the same location about twenty-five hundred tablets were taken in 1 2 Hilprecht.

historical fragments. Fortunate in its directors at home. No home. life. and treasure. building and business inscriptions. 276. here were letters From and dispatches. Alone among the greatest of the modern nations Germany had done very German little in the field of ex- had been so busy.246 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Within six weeks " a series of rooms was exposed which furnished not less than sixteen thousand cuneiform documents. p. and later excavations had innumber to about fifteen thousand. first the creased the campaign. tax lists. forming part of the temple library during the latter half of the third mil- lennium B. C." Sunday School Times. the results attained have been worthy of all the expenditure of energy. Germany should not also seek to find new tablets as well as to read them. Professor Friedrich Delitzsch. had made the highest contrischolarship butions to decipherment and to the scientific ploration while other peoples treatment of texts unearthed by the patient exIt were strange if plorers sent out by others. May 1900. syllabaries. 5. votive and plans of estates." l these four campaigns had come a vast store of literature of all kinds. had ever been more successful and expedition none had ever been more warmly supported at tablets. . rich in the scientific directorate of Professor Hilprecht. astronomical and religious texts. long an exponent of the science of Assyriology 1 " Hilprecht. Latest Research in Bible Lands. inventories. chronological lists.

of Munich. 1898. 160. Reisenotizen aus dem winter 189Y-1898. von Eduard Sachau. 247 and one of the most eminent scholars of modern times. departed for the East October 23. 1900. Bruno Meissner. . Koldewey as director and Dr. a measurable degree from the very beginning in 1 See Friedrich Delitzsch. and in the end of the year an expedition was sent to the East with Dr. retired and The latter. To it peror made scholars gave their aid. which was now fairly started. urged the formation of the German Orient Society/ which was finally constituted early in 1898. mit 5 Kartenskizzen und 32 Abbildungen. the German Ema grant of funds. Leipzig. after very E. Even before the proposed ized society was organin- a "commission for the archaeological vestigation of the lands of the Euphrates and " Tigris prepared to secure direct information conise cerning the various sites which seemed to promthe best results when excavated. of Halle. was succeeded by Dr. Lindl. useful service. Ex Oriente Lax ! Ein Wort zur Forderung der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft. To this end Eduard Sachau. Babylon. beneath which were the remains of the Success was had in palace of Nebuchadrezzar. Leipzig." and Professor brought back abundant information for the use of the new society. In the spring of 1899 work was commenced in the great mound of El-Kasr. Robert Koldewey. 1897.EXPLORATIONS. 2 Am Euphrat und Tigris. pp. accompanied by Dr. They thoroughly explored Babylonia and Assyria. 1872-1900. of the University of Berlin. as Assyriologist.

193). The future work. better. El. for he writes " Tell el-'Amarna (or (Baedeker's Egypt. or. 205). Wissenscliaftliche Veroffentlichungen der Deutschen Orient Gesellschaft. about one hundred and eighty miles south of Memphis. Dr. Koldewey. 2 There is a dispute as to whether the name of the place should be Tellel-Amarna or simply El-Amarna. the end. Winckler has adopted the latter on the basis of a private communication from Professor Maspero. Vorwort von Prof. A peasant woman. Akh-en-Aten. Friedrich Delitzsch. Little did she know that beneath this rubbish lay all that remained of the temple and palace of the great heretic king of Egypt. 1898. Petrie (History of Egypt. Leipzig. as he called Her concern was himself. p. was searching for antiquities among the sand and stones by the mountain side some distance back from the river. which might be only sold to those strange people from Europe and America. Budge (The " On the Tell-El- . who asserts that El-Amarna is alone heard from the lips of the natives on the spot.* on the Nile. is in good hands. August 1899 und veroffentlicht von Dr.'Amarna) other hand.248 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. for German patience and persistence will be certain to continue it to In 1888 there was made in Egypt a most sur- and dispatches written prising discovery of letters for the most part in the Babylonian script and language. Leipzig 1900. living in the wretched little mud village of Tell-el-Amarna. 1 who buy things simply because they are 1 Heft. 1 the discovery of a new Hittite inscription and of many tablets of the neo-Babylonian period. ii. To this view also Steindorff is inclined. to find some bits of anteeka. which must continue for a num- ber of years. Die Hettitische Inschrift gefunden in der Konigsburg von Baby- lon am 22. Rob. p. Amenophis IV.

EXPLORATIONS. Abimilki of Tyre. while others are 8f One huninches by 4i inches and even larger. of Vienna. some of them only 2i inches by 1-B. says in a personal note to the writer : which is the Egyptian name of a Beddwin tribe (El-Amaran). E.Adda of Byblos. Dushratta of Mitanni. But there is a Tel el-Amarna and a Der el-Amarna. 1872-1900. and presented to the Royal Museum in the latter city. old. and were purchased from him by Herr J. some miles to the south of the Tel. and Sayce. all of whom the place well. vate hands. Their historical value is great not only because of the chronological material deducible from them." 18 . The documents thus restored to the world are most important of cuneiform discoveries. Asshur-uballit of Assyria.inches. Professor Sayce " There is no place called El-Amarna. princes. and governors of western Asia. and to be reckoned with the many others. Rib. Eighty-two were bought for the trustees of the British Museum by Dr. dred were acquired by Herr Theodore Graf. Wallis Budge sixty came into the possession of the Gizeh Museum in Cairo. A. and sixty of these. Simon. many of them fragments. of Berlin. but also because they give a noteAmarna know Tablets in the British Museum. and a few into pri. unite in reading Tell-el-Amarna. 249 dred pieces Out of the mound she took over three hunof inscribed tablets. among whom were Kadashman-Bel of Babylonia. p<issim). Abdi-Kheba of Jerusalem. They consist of letters and dispatches which passed between Amenophis III and Amenophis IV on the one hand. and on the other various monarchs.

Ixxxvii. During the long series of years that excavation had been carried on in the East by Europe and America but little interest in the subject was aroused in Turkey. a man of fine natural taste and of great personal enthusiasm. historical results is the Tel-el-Amarna discoveries in general consult the valuable biblithe British Museum leith Autoff. 1892. London. 1 On ography in The Tell-el-Amarna Tablets in type Facsimiles. of the general Liepzig. Hamdy Bey was admirably fitted for the post of director-general of the Imperial Ottoman Museum.. Keilinschriftliche Bibiiolhek. in whose great empire all these finds were made. Der Tlwntafelfund von El-Amarna. 1889. Hamdy Bey succeeded in interesting the sultan himself in the matter and inducing him to provide a sum of money from his private purse to undertake excavations at Abu-Habba. the thereby. 1899. upon the entire social relations worthy side light 1 of the time. Ably seconded by his brother. due almost entirely to the wisdom. He has transformed it and all its arrangements and made certain a great future for it. vol. and add Winckler. best situated in all the world to gain thereby. Trained in Europe. and also A useful summary given by Carl Niebuhr. and learning of one man. v. .250 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Berlin. But during the latter part of the period there came a great revival of enthusiasm for antiquity in Turkey itself. Die Amarna Zeit. pp. he gave great and continued help to the Philadelphia expedition. should itself undertake excavations. the site of ancient Sippar. to that especially seq. Halil Bey.. and magnificently has It his museum profited remained only that this museum. patience.

Besides these great expeditions other smaller and less conspicuous undertakings have frequently been made to secure the archaeological treasures by Scheil in Recueil de a Varcheoloffie Egyptiennes et Assyriennes. The Turkish govern- ment is able to control its own representatives in the neighborhood of the mounds. vol. at a cost of only three thousand method francs. . pp. and especially Extrait d'une lettre du P. ff. and literature. scarcely set to the great results that any may be be expected for may our knowledge of ancient Babylonia. had been Turkish commissioner to the Philadel- The director of the expedition phia expedition. and if it is once thoroughly aroused to the interest and importance of excavating science. who was accompanied by Bedry Bey. and compare the survey. p. as well as many vases and other objects similar to those Scheil was found by the expedition at Nippur. its untold buried treasures of limits art. in the short space was completely successful. mostly and contracts dated in the reign of Samsuiluna. 81. 184. letters 1 naturally supported by all government officials in the most loyal fashion. Scheil.. who ologist.EXPLORATIONS. and therefore the best knew by experience The expedition of exploration. Recent Research in Bible Lands. xvi. the son and successor of Hammurabi. 251 was the French Father Scheil. ibid. Philaits 1 On this expedition relatifs and results see Notes Travaux a la Philologie et delphia. by Hilprecht. and of two months. gathered a fine store of over six hundred and seventy-nine tablets and fragments. a distinguished AssyriDominican. 1872-1900. and his success is an interest- ing promise for the future. 1897.

This practice brings into the possession of museums and so into the hands of scholars hundreds of tablets that otherwise might long remain hidden. for the gain has been so large. While great expeditions have their periods of labor and their periods of rest one form of ex ploration goes on all the time in spite of many efforts to prevent it. and the source . with a thorough understanding of the natives. who market them in Baghdad. But the native digs on surreptitiously and smuggles the results into the hands of merchants. No public He account of his work has been made. of the British Museum. The most successful of Babylonia and Assyria. and elsewhere. Yet it is greatly to be deplored. London. for much is thus broken by careless and ignorant handling. these are doubtless the repeated oriental among visits of Dr. and no narrative of his labors can therefore Here rests for a be given here. has been able year by year to increase the collections of the museum. The natives of the district have learned that antiquities may be sold to Europeans and Americans for gold. has gone quietly into various parts of the East and. that new expeditions must ever seek an opportunity to labor in the same fields. The traffic in them in Turkey is forbidden by law. time the story of expeditions to cities uncover the buried of Babylonia and Assyria. E. A. Wallis Budge. and their export from the country is interdicted.252 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. the rewards so great. For a short time only in all probability.

EXPLORATIONS. . It is therefore on accounts to be hoped that the Turkish government may ultimately succeed in many and may secure for its own rapidly growing museum more of the objects that are found by chance. is unknown or concealed from fear of the government. 1873-1900. a point of great importance. 253 or origin. and to governments to wealth. All that has been found yet is but a small part of that which doubtless lies buried beneath the mounds. preventing it. The gaps that yet remain in our knowledge of ancient Assyria and Babylonia may in large measure be easily filled up by the same methods that have given us our present acquaintance with that mighty past. continue the work that has already been so marvelously successful. Therein is an urgent call to men of to learned societies.

ssyi*ia. THE SOURCES. IV. tian hieroglyphic texts III. CHAPTER IX. The Greek and Latin writers. From mounds that cover the ancient cities of Babylonia and Assyria there has come a vast store of tablets. THE and heads : sources for the history of the Babylonians Assyrians may be grouped under four main I. while is even in the tab- themselves there life matter relating to the of the people. and from these dates much may be learned lets for chronology. Of these four by far the most important in every particular are the monumental remains of the Babylonians and Assyrians. The monumental remains . These tablets contain the literature of the two peoples. it is vast in In the end all of this literature may be considered as sources for history. I. which now number certainly not less than one hundred and sixty thousand in the various museums of the world. Every business tablet is dated. a literature as varied in form and content as extent. The Monuments of Babylonia and the A. The EgypThe Old Testament . all of which must ultimately be valuable in the reconstruction of the so- daily . of the Assyri- ans and Babylonians themselves. H.254 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA.

Even little statuettes and vases bear the royal mark. scriptions. while the bricks used in the erection of large buildings were stamped with the king's name and the names of the lands over which he ruled. however. cial history. are here concerned chiefly with political history. Of all the ancient sources these are by far the most important. Simple and uninteresting though these often are. General votive in: . often a matter of first- . sources for the study of So But as we the history of religious development. giving an account of the fall of campaigns and conquests of the royal arms. caused their names and titles to be written in some way upon all their constructions. In the annalistic inscriptions the deeds of the king are arranged in chronological order by years of reign. give the political relations of lands and. enable us to trace out the line of political development. in connection with other materials. all incantations. and then chiefly as mere These early kings records of names and titles. for from them we learn the exact order of events. there was early developed a narrative form of royal inscription. they tions. . Campaign inscriptions 3. Annals 2. the primary sources are the so-called royal inscrip- These royal inscriptions begin very early in Babylonian history. 255 omens and also are all religious texts. Alongside of it.THE SOURCES. of This style to the name and title writing continues down the Babylonian empire. These narrative inscriptions are of three kinds 1.

and conquest are almost exclusively AsThe inscriptions of Babylonian kings syrian. While this second class is just as important as the first for the mere statement of events. Besides these texts the kings inscriptions in which the events rate importance. and usually after a geographical plan. and often widely departs from a chronologias some kings have left us only texts of this kind. and with all manner of boasting phrases concerning the king's prowess. it is. have are left many arranged in campaigns. The w hich have come down T to us are almost without exception peaceful in tone and matter. and hence the sequence of conquests or of defeats. order of events in their campaigns against other peoples as well as for the events themselves we must rely almost entirely upon non-native In addition to sources. The general or votive inscriptions begin usually with a most elaborate ascription of titles. valuable to us. arranged in groups. these historical sources the Babylonians and Assyrians have left a great mass . it is impossible to understand the sequence of events during certain reigns. royal inscriptions which describe battle. much less the arrangement of cam- paigns it is sometimes difficult to ascertain the exact order of events in time. The order cal one. They then set forth the king's conquests. From nevertheless. siege. They record little else than the erection of temples and palaces or the restoration of those which had For the fallen into partial or complete decay.256 HISTOEY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA.

do they contain palpable exaggerations of kingly prowess. They bear for the most part the stamp Often. is still not so valuable as the primary The monumental source. The second source is of far the first. In respect of their value as sources of knowl- edge these monumental remains can only be said to be as valuable as the records of other ancient peoples. and so be able to check the measure of extravagance in the narraWhen subjected to the same tests and tried tive. while more important than the second. sifting is and rigid criticism. third source. The Old Testament. The gain of the Old . III. Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts are of very slight importance as direct sources of knowledge concerning the political history of Babylonia and yet is at II. of victories. But in most cases it possible to learn from the issue of the events the relative importance of them. They therefore require of reasonableness. indeed. but they contain many place and personal names useful in the elucidation of corre- sponding names in Assyrian texts.THE SOURCES. of chronological material to which 257 we must give attention later (see Chapter XII). less importance than times exceedingly valuable. Assyria. by the same canons of criticism the Assyrian and Babylonian monuments yield as just and true a picture of their national history as the sources of Greek and Roman history to which the world has been so long accustomed. and of conquests.

First in monumental records. He was a stands Babylonian by Bel. or Berosos. and a are equally unknown. As sources the Greek and Latin writers once held first place. and need be used to check and control the retain importance among all the classical writers name god is Berossos. constantly to native writers as well as to assist in the ordering of their more detailed materials. while of even greater importance. Testament has been greater from Assyrian studies than the reverse. gotten that it was interest in the Old Testament which inspired most of the early explorers and excavators and some of the earlier decipherers and interpreters. Jere- IV. and Ezekiel. Nahum. miah. The priest of the great date of his birth and of his death origin. but it is clear that he was living in the days of Alexander the Great (356- . but are now reduced to a very insignificant position by the they native still theless. though the apologetic value of monumental testimony has often been greatly Nevertheless. The Greek and Latin Writers.258 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. for so the also transliterated into Greek. and that from the historical notices in the Old Testament came not a few points for the outworking of details in the newly discovered The historical portions of the Old inscriptions. are the prophets Isaiah. Neversome importance. it must not be forexaggerated. for Assyrian Testament which are still of importance as sources and Babylonian history are especially 2 Kings. in many instances.

There he wrote an enormous number of books relating to ancient history. from whom he received the name of Cornelius. 1 259 323 B. he received the Roman citizenship tion as a and lived in Rome with some distinc- man of letters. The history of these fragments is a very curious example of book making in antiquity. if we had them in even fairly well preserved form. the original work has perished. Both lists and narrative of Berossos could not fail to be of considerable moment to us. the title of which was probaby Babyloniaca. In 82 B. Berlin.). Chronica. He wrote a great work on Babylonian history. C. Antiochus I Soter. while of lists of kings without any with the third began the real story of events. Alfred Schoene. . of which the first dealt history from the chaos to the flood. 11. however. though it is also referred to under the title of Chaldaica by JoIt was dedicated to his sephus and Clemens. Unhappily. the second from the flood to Nabonassar. and all that remains are excerpts which have come to us after much copying and many transfers from hand to hand. and continued to live at least as late as Antiochus I Soter (280-261 B. 1875. ed. and the third from Nabonassar to Alexander. The first with human two consisted only proper historical narrative.). In the Mithradatic war a certain Alexander of Miletus was taken prisoner and carried to Rome as the slave of Lentulus. C. The Bahyloniaca was patron. p. divided into three parts.THE SOURCES. C. and on that account received the name of J See Eusebius.

also. while the dynasties have come down to us from George the Synkellos. 1874. and in this manner he compiled a history of Assyria. Eusebius copied only pose. Alexander Polyhistor und die von ihm erhaltenen Reste jiidischer und samaritanischer Geschichtswerke. tion and productivity was between TO and 60 B. His historical works were simply excerpts from the writings of his predecessors. especially Rauch. 1 The period of his greatest distincPolyhistor. Apollodoros. and the further references there given in footnote. It came also into the hands of Josephus and of extracts of Eusebius. From Berossos but little is to be learned of direct value. p.260 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. 17. 1 843. Josephus was seeking especially those of the history which illustrated the history parts of the Jews. but the support which we gain from these fragmentary re- mains for the general course of the history 1 is very On the life istische Studien. Breslau. was worked over into pseudo-Ionic Greek by Abydenos. and the third book of the Sibyllines. Heidelberg. Ckronica. De Alexandri Polyhistoris vita atque scriptis. portions. Jahresbericht des jiidisch-theologischen Seminars. and Chronica. this process we have Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews. of Alexander Polyhistor compare J. and naturally took from Alexander only those parts which were suitable for his purIn like manner. Freudenthal. Wherever we can secure enough of Berossos to compare with the native monumental sources we find most remarka- ble agreement with them. small parts of the great work of Berossos. C. . the exact title of which is not now known. This history was made up from Berossos. HellenHeft I. By preserved in and in Euse- bius.

to his own time. The severity of the judg- ments* against him probably arise partly out of 1 Gilmore. He was accused of being untrustworthy and indifferent to truth. 8 As a specimen of a sharp modern judgment upon him. London. 416 to the court of Persia and became body physician to King Artaxerxes Muemon. The next Greek writer who comes before us as a possible source is Ktesias. He was a contemporary of Xenophon. 401. to his native city. B. and wherever quoted became at once the object of sharp controversy. The Fragments of the Persika of Ktesias. great. 1 (d^dsQai His work was extensively used in the ancient world. Geschichte Assures . chronological material much complexity and difficulty is obtained from certain parts of these fragments. and Xenophon. 3. 1888. and the rest the history of Persia down Assyria. among them Strabo. Niebuhr. C. names no less than thirty-four writers. and was born of the family of the Asclepiadas at Cnidus. and the charges and the controversy continue until to-day. one may refer to Marcus v.THE SOURCES. in which he claims to have used the royal annals of the Persian kings Paotfaical). 2. both personally and as an author. books a history of Persia (Regaind) in the Ionic three The first six books treated the history of dialect. He wandered thence in B. whom he cured of a severe wound received in the In 399 he returned battle of Cunaxa. who have preserved portions of Ktesias. and in the ease thus achieved proceeded to work up into historical form the He wrote in twentymaterials he had collected. Plutarch. pp. 261 of As will later appear. C.

110. 2. While as a specimen of a more favorable judgment see Sayce. 109. i-iii. Only fragments of them survive in the quotations by Diodorus and Euse- and in an epitome by Photius. relating to the early history of Assyria. is much like the Egyptian history of mediaeval Arab writers. The books themselves have perished. and partly out of the fact that he used Persian sources for his history. Gesellschaft. For our purposes they scarcely come into the quesbius others. pp. London. Whether this was due to the fact to was unable himself to read the sources which he used.its relations to the Persians. 1892. 1857. and that many of the charges of falsehood brought against him must be His history of Assyria laid not upon him. op. acrimonious manner in which he attacked the Herodotus. passim. 289. and 1 tion at und all. Mittheilungen der Vorderasiatischen See Gilmore. In the years he had so completely absorbed the Persian point of view as to seem of his Persian residence hardly just to the Greek conception of their hisIf we subject tory in. 1883. BabeVs. and was therefore obliged to rely upon the word of others to tell him the story found in them.. clothed only " and also Paul Rost. ischen pp. Herod. modern criticism the fragments of his history that remain. otus. . Geschichle. The Ancient Empires of the East. are valueless. but upon his Eastern friends. our judgment must be that the first six books. ff. Berlin. or that he must be accused of actually inventing and setting forth as history an that he entertaining mass of empty fables. xzxiii: "It is certain that he (Ktesias) was justified in claiming for his history the authority of Persian documents.262 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYEIA. cit. will probably never be decisively determined. Untersuchungen zur altorientalin a Greek dress . p. Berlin.

He in the East. certainly attempts to leave the impression. Born in Halicarnassus. C. Ibid. There is still more doubt concerning his travels beyond the confines of Egypt. Last of all 263 among the classical writers we come Of the value to Herodotus. with much learning and great acuteness. 484. and perhaps even to Susa. even when he does not specifically so state. p. xxviii. he had associations with the greatest men of his time. From him surely much was expected. and there is that these journeys were undertaken with a view to the gathering of materials for his history. and of the causes which led to the Persian war. that " he never visited Assyria and Babylonia. in Caria. Ancient Empires of the East. on the Syrian he penetrated to Babylon and thence to Nineveh. B. and apparently planned He desired to tell his history with skill and care. that ' He that "he stands convicted of never having visited a the district he undertakes to describe. a source very diverse opinions of his works as have been and are still held. to Ecbatana. xxix. Egypt he visited. 2 . that he also visited Tyre. but there is doubt whether he traveled extensively some reason to believe traversed the whole country from the Mediterranean to Elephantine.." and asserts coast. the father of history. Professor Sayce has attempted to prove.THE SOURCES. of the famous events in the struggle between the Greek and the barbarian." and con- cludes with the statement that "the long contro1 Sayce. p.

gekommenen aus Zeit. (1899). Herodot und die Keilschriftforschung. however. Real Encyclopiidie der class.. and James Henry Stevenson. 2689. save as every single fact is checked by the explicit statements of native monumental historians. After these there remain among classical writers few who deserve to be mentioned as sources. d.D. . 2 3 The chronological materials left by some of them. remains that from Herodotus but little of historical value may be learned. p. 1896. The main fact.D." For a careful assembling of the valuable references in Herodotus and a comparison of the native sources see J. there haps no less true. Yet that in this case. n. and add also Herodotus and the Empires of the East. Nikel. for the topographical details which he gives bear frequently the stamp of an eyewitness. Dass sie im bestritten worden. " Seine Wissenschaft. the earlier parts of Berossos 1 and Ibid. Paderborn.. some travelers' tales. and has effectually disposed of his claims to rank as an independent source of ancient history there can be no doubt. col. sind die einzigen unmittelbar und vollstandig auf uns der gesamten griechischen Litteratur vorchristlicher wesentlichen auf Augenschein beruhen. for example. d." ' Sayce has proved upon Herodotus a host of inaccuracies. based on Nikel's Herodot und die Keihchriftforschung. versy which has raged over the credibility of Herodotus has thus been brought to an end by That Professor the discoveries of recent years. Baumstark in Pauly-Wissowa. for example.. as. xxxiii. Ph. There is good reason for believing that Herodotus had really visited Babylon.264 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Stuttgart. 2 See. n. ware besser niemals Angaben iiber B. as in is other similar modern an excess of skepticism is perjudgments. 3 New York. Ph. by Herbert Gushing Tolman.

Arrian.THE SOURCES. such as Kleitarchos. and not so valuable as the notices in the Old Testament or the brief words from the Egyptian hieroglyphic 19 texts. Hieronymos of Kardia. . will have to be estimated later (see Chapter XII). and an unknown writer concerning Alexander the Great (Onesikritos). From a few other less-known writers. 265 the exceedingly valuable Canon of Ptolemy. Our judgment of all the classical writers must be that their value is entirely subordinate to the native sources. certain topographical details are learned.

266 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. THE LANDS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYEIA. also. On the east the boundary between them and their next neighbors was fluctuThe natural boundary would ating and uncertain. The mountains of Armenia might be regarded as the natural border on the north. and there was no sharp line of defense to keep them from the valley." people of the valley were often filled with conquering power sufficient to extend their border far up the slopes into Elam. This clear bound- ary was the Persian Gulf upon the south. That boundary these peoples respected and never ventured out on the troubled and mysterious waters. Down these slopes poured hordes of men in all ages. and do not rise precipitously from it. seem to be the mountains of Elam. CHAPTER X. for they belong to the drainage system of the Euphrates and . while on the other hand the and no farther. On the north. but these are intimately connected with the great valley. the boundary was almost equally uncertain. but these mountains slope gradually westward to the plain. THE Babylonian and Assyrian peoples had their seat in a great valley with but one distinct and sharp natural boundary. which " Thus far shalt thou come said to all landsmen.

In the northwest the valley land swept away in a gentle rise from the Euphrates to the plateau of Aram. and the dividing between them moved up and down the valley power of either became stronger than that of the other. therefore. 267 the Tigris. Yet. the influence of which was marked in the early history of the whole as the : . and became powerful factors in the history of the Babylonians. for the whole valley lay open from north to south. from the outside. the country of the Sea Lands. the lands of Assyria and of Babylonia were open to incursion. as on the east. however. there have existed from remote times separate provinces in the valley. On the north. and over it even to the Mediterranean. Nature had set no boundary between them. the Babylonians did not readily pass the broad line of the desert. though this is true. slope more gently toward than from the valley. The western border was still more indefinite. or to raids from within outward. these separate provinces may thus be described Close to the Persian Gulf was a small country.southwest the desert formed the only barrier between the valley and Arabia or the lands of the Jordan valley. and.LANDS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. like the mountains of Elam. If we begin in the south. Within empires line this existed roughly bounded country two great for centuries. While upon the . Nomadic peoples passed over this barrier with ease. with more or less definite boundaries between them. On the other hand.

and small Through it in early times the Tigris and the Euphrates passed by separate estuaries into the Persian Gulf. the name of Chaldea was extended by Greek and Roman historians so as to include the whole of Babylonia. in its original geographical and historical sense. though at what time is unknown. the two rivers united and began sea. The country of the Sea Lands was enin extent. C. Next above the land of the Kaldi was Babylonia itself. of which it was the capital. to the Armenian mountains. Above of clear separation from the Sea Lands. the country of the Sea Lands was a very small land during the period 4000-600 B. Assyria. As kings from the Kaldi country later ruled in Babylon and had control over the whole vast empire. it geographically lay the land of the likewise alluvial. valley. and there is good about a reason for believing that its average growth in historic time has been not less than a mile in thirty If the ratio of increase has been as high years. tirely alluvial. which extended northward along the valley. Later. It has also no line nearly to the city of Babylon. as this.268 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. was the small triangular-shaped land lying between the Tigris and the Zab Rivers and the . to flow through one is channel into the This alluvial territory now growing by the river deposits at the rate of mile in seventy years. nor from Babylonia to the north. These exceptions were the original lands of Assyria and Mesopotamia. with two exceptions. and extending northward Kaldi.

5. Asien und Europa nach altiigyptischen Denkmalern. 5.) Gen. Deut. and the Mesopotamia of the Greeks and Romans.LANDS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYEIA. ought to be written Aram-Naharim. and introduces a confusion that does Gulf. Max on Judg. i. Mesopotamia was extended to cover the territory between the Tigris and Euphrates southward even to the Persian Unhappily this name of This completely destroys the historical nomenclature. Das Such der and Moore on same passage. that is. . 92. Chaldea. ii. 1. including Babylonia. used in the same manner also by Xenophon (Cyropcedeia. 2 valley. including Assyria. and with their dominion went likewise the geoin graphical name.) . and the Sea Lands. known as Nahrina. When the Assyrians gained power and numbers they soon extended their dominion beyond these very narrow boundaries. iii. For this country between the Tigris and Eu- phrates. 249-255. (See Miiller. while to the Greeks and Romans it covered the entire The other separate land or province valley. was the small country included between the Eu1 phrates and the tains of Khabur Rivers and This was the land s the moun- Armenia. and compare Budde. and iv. 10 . not appear in any of the records of either the Assyrians or Babylonians. appears regular use by Herodotus (for example. Leipzig. Babylonia. There seems good reason for the view It is it that W. xxiii. Mesopotamia. the ancient inhabitants 1 had no general geographical name. plural not dual. That rj Kaavpia means the whole of the its from 39). 269 Median mountains. the Aram-Naharaim of the Hebrews. 1893. 8. 178. xxiv. so that even in early times the name Assyria had been carried westward to the Euphrates and southward as far as Hit. pp. 185 iii.

fall of political certain clear exceptions to this general rule. the name Babylonia is carried so far north as almost to include Assyria. Tigris and the Euphrates have their sources is upon opposite is sides of the same mountain range. The geographical terminology varied with the rise and power. the name Assyria was never extended so as to cover Babylonia proper. But at Malatiyeh the course is suddenly changed to the southeast. though the small original land of Assyria appears always to be kept sharply dis- tinguished. yet it is in a real sense the product of rivers. thence forcing its way through the mountains in a tortuous course. where generally southeast it approaches to . however. There were. the highest ridge between the Black Sea and the great valley. as though to lose itself in the Mediterranean. all The general term of the Assyro- may properly be used to cover the country. On the other hand.270 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Though the word Mesopotamia was never applied by either Assyrians or Babylonians to their Babylonian valley two country. From its western side the Euphrates flows westward to Malatiyeh. though it is extended so far westward. until Thence its course is opposite Baghdad. in a sense almost as complete as that Egypt The This the product of the Nile. and the only one which has peaks bearing perpetual snow hence known to the ancient Greeks as the Niphates. For example. passing within a few miles of the source of the Tigris at Lake Goljik.

region of the Euphrates resembles that of the Rhine. received from the right. During its whole course it is an imposing river the greatest rivers of the world. 271 within twenty miles of the Tigris. The next is the Khabur. London.LANDS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. 76)." ' its lower with the The 1 Tigris is formed by the junction of two Colonel Chesney says. Like most mountain streams. while its middle course may be compared with that of the Danube. its early course is swift and its bed rocky. the Euphrates receives no tributaries whatIt has been well said that the "upper ever. and only make their final union at last after a very sharp convergence. It is navigable for a distance of twelve hundred miles above its mouth. From this point. brings the water from Mount Masius. among This is followed by the Balikh. Its first great tributary is the Kara Su that is. Its next affluent is the Sajur. however. which brings another considerable body of water also from the lower also received slopes of Mount Masius. and Nile. for eight hundred miles until the junction with the Tigris. though far exceeding the latter in " picturesque effect (Narrative of the Euphrates Expedition. 1868. from the left. the Black Water at KebanMaaden. and the rivers appear about to form a junction. a few miles west of Kharpoot. in a course of only one hundred and twenty miles. " In some respects the scenery of the Euphrates reminded me of that of parts of the Nile. again separate. The esti- mated length of the Euphrates is seventeen hundred and eighty miles. Both. which. . or west. p.

at Irzah or Werdi. after which in rapid succession follow the Upper Zab. The Euphrates continudecreases in size and flows ever in a more ally When it receives the Khabur it sluggish stream. the eastern rising near Bitlis. and the western the Diyaleh. and some lowijeh still wide. at Hit. while comes from the neighborhood of Kharpoot. seventy-five miles from Hit. fifty miles below Hadiseh. From this point the contraction is very rapid and The Sakstriking. is four hundred yards wide and eighteen feet deep . Canal is given out upon the left. the Lower Zab. and still of the same depth . at Felujiah. not far from the western bank of Lake Van. but its depth has been diminished to sixteen feet. the Tigris receives many important tributaries. the Adhem.272 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. one hundred and forty miles below Werdi. its width has increased to three hundred and fifty yards. which flow down from the Zagros and Elmatine mountains. the depth is twenty feet. This constant accession of fresh water gives the Tigris a character entirely different from the Euphrates. but the width had diminished to two hundred and fifty yards. small head streams. seventy-five miles lower down. way further down the Hindiyeh branches off upon . it is three hundred yards it same depth at Hadiseh. Unlike the Euphrates. is three hundred and fifty yards wide and of the same depth. at Hadiseh. it is three hundred yards wide. one hundred and forty miles below Werdi. The first important one of these is the Eastern Khabur. and of the .

which left it by the to recover itself. . at Diwaniyeh. The Herodotus. Soon after. however. the right. sixty yards wide. upon the one side. though Herodotus directly " asserts the contrary. as in its Egypt. is ' overflow the corn lands of own accord. the stream is no more than two hundred yards wide feet and fifteen miles further down. exactly as the Nile. when the Euphrates The consequence full. with a depth of no more than twelve feet. but still the Euphrates never recovers itself entirely. a large body of water. deep. each carrying. it begins The water. saying. sixty -five it is only one hundred and and at Lamlun. and a depth of about eighteen or nineteen feet. which implies a body of water far inferior to that carried between the junction of the Khabur and Hit. 273 is is that at Hillah. but spread over them the help of engines. 193.LANDS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. The channel from Kurnah to El Khitr was found by Colonel Chesney to have " an average width of only two hundred yards. The by 1 river does not. nor even approaches in its later course to the standard of its earlier greatness. twenty miles below Diwaniyeh." i. while the Schatt-el-Hai and numerous other branch Hindiyeh." The Tigris and the Euphrates have both flood seasons and carry their waters over a wide extent of country. it is reduced to one hundred and twenty yards wide. returns to it streams flow in upon the other. ninety miles below Felujiah. This fact is so perfectly clear that there can be no doubt con- cerning it.

and the river then declines rapits level at about the middle of June. . 1850. its On covers a wide extent of country. when the waters stand At this about thirteen feet above low water. rise in be The northern The By Tigris rises more rapidly. distinctly to the Tigris is due to the melting of the snows on the mountains. The inundation of the Euphrates is much more regular and The melting of snow on the northern extensive. and then more rapidly September. the river remains. and the Euphrates the seen. the first or second week in May the highest slopes.274 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. entire the course of the Tigris during the upper part of its course is between banks of height. rise is indeed not so prolonged as the rise of the Nile. however. don. lower course. 61). Loni. Tigris usually begins to rise early in March. nevertheless. and especially between the thirty-second and thirty-first parallels. vol. and the about the end of May. it river begins to swell very slowly about the beginning of March. but its influence is. the point is idly and reaches reached. and gradually increases until the highest point is reached slopes is slower. The Euphrates begins to overflow its banks much higher up than the Tigris. the river As considerable rarely overflows. and as it drains the southern slopes. p. and even at its junction with the Khabur is deslightly till 1 feet (Expedition for the Colonel Chesney found the increased depth to be thirteen and a half Survey of the Rivers Euphrates and Tigris. for about a month. sinks point 1 toward the middle of July.

and prevented the flow from damaging the cultivable area. and sweeping far over the western bank. turns the country into a morass. and the Babylonian people fully availed themselves of this great opportunity.LANDS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. west. positive. river rises and falls as it wills. Along its banks were constructed brick walls provided with breakwaters to divert and control the swift current at Sluice gates controlled the rise so that the eastern bank received an inundation equal to the rise. The harm of this is both negative and It makes impossible any such great inof grain as existed when this great valley gathering was the world's granary. the water was retained in sufficient quantity to supply an irrigation system far back from the river for the grain harvest. In the lower alluvial country the Tigris and Euphrates have made numerous changes in their . river The slow and regular rise of the made it exceedingly valuable for irrigation." a strong tenspreads over both banks. and it fills the land with a dangerous miasma. but with dency to flow farther and more deeply over the western bank. There are few instances in the world of a sadder waste of a beautiful and fertile country. after the fall of the This entire system is now a vast ruin. The river. which produces fevers and leaves the inhabitants weak and sickly. Further- the more. while canals almost innumerable diverted the retreating waters. 275 " scribed as spreading over the surrounding counFrom Hit downward the river try like a sea.

thus extending considerably the arable part of Chaldea and the Sea Lands. the general course of the rivers remains about the same throughout the historic period. and twenty-five or thirty miles from the river. and keeps back the encroachment of the desert. conveys a considerable body of Euphrates water. It does not appear to have been well known or for counted of importance by the ancient inhabitants. on the Arabian side of the Euphrates fifty miles south of the ruins of Babylon. and as to whether or not it was in the beginning partly or wholly artificial. the Romans as was known to Assyrium Stagnum. with the exception of the great change produced by the union of the Tigris and Euphrates at their mouths. Besides the two rivers neither Assyria nor Babylonia has any supplies of water beyond one single fresh-water lake. Yet. the whole. the spring The branch streams which are thus formed perpetually vary. and is now it .276 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. deep channel. being sometimes so large as to be navigable and again left absolutely dry. There branches off near Hit a wide. no mention of it has yet been found in any Assyrian or Babylonian texts. on river beds. There is some doubt as to its age. which skirts the Arabian rocks and passes into the PerThis sian Gulf by an entirely distinct channel. These changes have often begun in and summer floods and then continued. Of the changes in branch streams by far the most important are on the side of Arabia.

' At present this high ternup " In the Euphrates. the average daily maximum temperature at Baghdad was July. then sweet and good. ii. It has been supposed that this may be due to its connection with rocks of the gypsiferous series. 1889. On and then The Appears to be a part of the inundation. by Lady Anne Blunt. When the water it is river returns to its original level the lake re- mains with but very slight change in volume. 278.LANDS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. but the passing traveler states the simple fact that the temperature is higher than at Baghdad. the Persian Records do not exist to show the range of the thermometer. The little fitted to great valley has a climate which appears produce men of energy and force. long and from ten to twenty miles broad. inclosed on three sides to by limestone hills varying from twenty the remaining a ridge of rock which separates it from the Euphrates basin. In Baghdad the average maximum daily temperature indoors during June and July is set down as 107 Fahrenheit. and in the near-by regions. and it often goes to 120 or 122. In the far south. along Gulf. for the temperature over its entire surface is very high in the summer season. but the water becomes so disagreeable as to be unpotable. 1 The Bedouins of . 277 It lies in a basin forty miles called Bahr-i-Nedjif. the atmosphere is moist and the heat is of the same character as that of Hindustan or Ceylon. p. At the season of the inundation the Euphrates pours water into this lake side there is two hundred feet in height.

the sand enters nostrils seems to choke the very lungs." great heat was The reference here Peters. however.. . de vent.278 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. It is. free almost entirely from the incursion of yellow sand. Alexander. and Plutarch. Death itself sometimes alone terminates the suffering experienced in these terrible visitations. which arise suddenly and filled with impalpable sand drive about in eddying circles or sweep in vast clouds over a wide extent of country. experienced in the Greco-Roman period is well evidenced. a fog. During the period of the glory in the shade. from which they yearly come in increasing quantities into the plain 114 1 and valley. alto- gether probable that in the period of the ancient history neither the heat nor the sand was such a menace. Besides this these canals made the land a cultivated garden. is perature also reached in the north as far It is up at least as Mosul. These sands properly belong to the Arabian desert. now also rendered much more oppressive by hot winds. The presence of the water thus everywhere spread abroad modified the temperature. for example. ii. so that body of greatly the sudden change which now exists from the heat of the day to the cool of the night could not have been so great. This dust becomes at times so thick as to completely shut off near obThe as though by. and in 1890 we encountered the same temperature more than once in June. Theophr. 310. p.. jects from the vision. gleaming particles of sand shine beneath the swelor mouth and tering sun. That is to the period of Babylonian occupation. See. 25. Nippur. 35. 1 one vast Then the whole land in the south was network of canals.

and in rare cases ice has been known to form in the marshes. At present from May November the. or any other tree of the kind but in grain it is so fruit. expelled for state reasons from their own country. makes no ful as to yield commonly two hundredfold. and is when the production at the greatest. There is no cold weather in all the land in the sense understood in the temperate zone. fix their residence in Bassorah or Baghdad to enjoy the mild winter climate. Herodotus began the chorus of praise in the west. the olive. pretension. There is in midwinter an occasional sign of frost.LANDS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. So mild. highlands. and in cloud. indeed. are the winters that Persian kings made Babylon their winter residence to avoid the bitter cold of their In recent times native Indians. sufficient to whiten the dew upon the grass in early morning. These now rapidly off into the rivers. and it has continued with greater or less emphasis down the ages. December and January there are heavy rains. own The whole alluvial plain of Babylonia was proverbially fertile in the ancient world. indeed. even three . sky is usually without a single In November the clouds gather. and they could hardly have reached to it. for there is no canal system to retain the water for use in agriculture. the vine. 279 of Babylon these sand waves had certainly not gone beyond the Euphrates. It there is none that is so fruitful in grain. He begins his praise in the oft-quoted words " Of : all countries that we know. of growing the fig.

p. honey. the return in lands that are badly cultivated while in those that are well farmed fiftyfold . Historia Plantarum. The blade of the wheat plant and of the barley plant is often four fingers in breadth. is a hundred and fiftyfold. is it is a hundredfold. line 26. which and bread. ff. All other wants are furnishes not only " ' supplied by the palm. struck by Theophrastus in his statement In Babylon the wheat fields are regumown twice. where the land is Pliny says . 135. p.). well farmed. When this is done . ." * Strabo follows in the same strain. 742 (ed. i. I shall not say to what height they grow. vinegar. 3 xvi. In estimating these tributes to the productiveness of the land that Herodotus it is perhaps well to remember affluent had an imagination and was tus 1 inclined to exaggerate for effect.). though within my own knowledge for I am not ignorant that what I have already written concerning the fruitfulness of Babylonia must seem incredible to those who have not visited the country. As for the millet and the sesame. 632. Carolus Mlillerus.280 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA." The same note . line 2. for the return is said to be three hundredfold. ff. and then fed off with beasts to larly exactly : is " keep down the luxuriance of the leaf otherwise the plant does not run to ear. 193. 2 Herodotus. p. hundredfold. and meal that the wheat crop. Theophrastus. Fredericus Wirnmer. is Theophrasof such mat- more reliable when speaking viii. but wine. 7 (ed. saying: "The country produces barley on a scale not known elsewhere.

careful observer soil is and accurate fertile. is that of Olivier." This statement is. reporter." Loftus adds to this the comparative statement that " the soil is not less bountiful than ' that on the banks of the Egyptian Nile. . those portions of Mesopotamia which are still cultivated." Chesney. Although greatly changed by the neglect of man. especially when compared with that of Egypt. oats. who knew the land from much experience during survey work. as the country " about Hillah. "The extremely producing great quantities of kinds. for when it was written Loftus had never been in Egypt. of very slight value indeed. 281 tion of Herodotus. Rich. for the poor methods When allowance is made for now followed. but probably leaned somewhat on the tradiThe other statements must be exaggerations. Modern travelers hardly equal the ancient in changed conditions. is even more strong in the statement : and grain of different not cultivated to above half the rice. p. who was a most says. 14. and it is still unlikely that the ancient average yield greatly exceeded sixtyfold. however. though it is degree of which it is susceptible. their estimate of the fertility of the soil.LANDS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. To the modern husbandman wheat and barley all is in this valley the yield of from thirty to fortyfold. show that the region has all the fertility ascribed to it by Herodotus. Probably the soundest modern estimate who knew both Egypt and Baby1 Travels and Researches in Chaldaea. ters.

In Babylon it found a suitable It was cultivated with place for its development. pistachio. chick-peas. none was equal in utility. almond. From the most ancient of days down to the present all the Orient has rung with the praises of the palm. Even in early times the process of reproduction had been discovered. vetches. It is commonly believed that wheat and barley are indigenous to the plains of the Euphrates. p.282 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. "gombo" lentils. and was facilitated by shaking the flowers of the male palm 'Olivier. they spread westward over Syria and Egypt and on to Europe. But valuable and beautiful though they all were. in song. Above rose its the vegetables and cereals of the land trees. walnut. If this be true. more than the 1 latter. after a period of cultivation. egg plants. and acacia. among which are pumpkins. 423. The inhabitants had a wide range of vegetables for food. of which the variety was great. plane tree. ii. fig. Voyage dans P Empire Othoman. onions. extreme care. vine. cypress. apricot. and that thence. both of those that yielded fruit and of those that added merely to the beauty of the land among these . etc. . were the apple. cucumbers.. and adjudged the former to be somewhat fertile Ionia. the land might well be expected cereals. tamarisk. to yield a good harvest of native But the productivity of the land did not stop with the great cereals. or in story with the palm. kidney-beans. and beans.

But the eel. string and ropes of all kinds. The fruit was eaten both fresh and dry? forming in the latter case almost a sweetmeat. and geese. and gurnard were also of the land as its flora. ortolan. cranes. On land were found the ostrich. and sheep were domesticated at an early . ducks. The fauna The rivers used for food. was as rich and as varied swarmed with fish. thrush. the tree gave a juice which might be used as a wine. murena. partridge. the bustard. groats. goat. honey. In their slow-flowing waters the barbel and carp grew to large size and were most highly esteemed. and a mash for fattening cattle.LANDS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. vinegar. A few snakes are found. firing. turtledove. together with birds of prey like eagles and hawks." in the opinion of Xenophon. swans. The larger animals were numerous. and was " sweet and headachy. blackbird. gulls. and pigeon. ass. of which only three varieties are known to be poisonous. The Greeks even assert that the Babylonians derived from the palm bread. and found in abundance. over those of the female. among them pelicans. By the waters and amid the great reeds which almost seemed to wall in the rivers were birds in extraordinary variety. silurus. 283 From the products of this tree the peasantry were able almost to support life. storks. herons. If decapitated. wine. but of all the varieties that existed wild only the ox. but none of these are so dangerous as many found in adjoining lands.

tangled black hair. may be seen in the very act of slaying sheep. and never make a fight against one which dread. The Assyrian and Babylonian kings hunted lions in the chase. To these were added the domestic hog. St. one without a mane and the other with a mane of thick. The chase of the lion was. but it disappeared certainly before the thirteenth century. number In very early times the elephant wandered at will over the middle Euphrates country. In a later period the horse and camel were brought into use. stood the lion. however. But if the domesticated animals were comparatively few. when he will fight The natives. which seems. hold them in desperately. however. period and made useful to man. indeed. and made great boast of the that they had slain. Bernard dog. to have remained in a semi. It is the latter which excites most fear in the native breast. in the estimation of the Assyrians and Babylonians. At the head of all of them. .wild state. The modern representative in the same regions is not deemed formidable by Europeans. for he never attacks men save when brought to bay in a position from which there is absolutely no chance of escape. and fills a large share of the numerous monumental illustrations of hunting. He is not so fierce as his namesake of In size he is not much larger than a Africa. and his Assyrian name originally meant big dog. the wild animals were of extraordinary number. There are two varieties.284 HISTOEY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYEIA. the royal sport.

beaver. they are both. when wars. tempted to tame them for the drawing of charmet with poor success. and was henceforward only an object of 285 curiosity. also. lynx. and the ibex. Modern atiots. The deer. exceedingly poor is absolutely destitute of wealth. and rear docile and affectionate. They become frequently exhibited as the object of While both Babylonia and Assyria were exceedingly rich in flora and fauna. received by kings as presents in distant Like the elephant. or ceased to be objects of interest because Among these were the urus. chase. and in mineral especially the former. The alluvium . ass equally futile. which still exists in the country. porcupine. but tempts to make them serviceable have been the Tigris. and the Assyrians admired and represented them It appears that they atin their monuments. the one apparently representing the gray deer. Two varieties of deer appear in monumental representation. During at least a large part of the history the wild ass and onager roamed in small herds over much of the country and especially between the Balikh and The beauty and swiftness of the wild have long been celebrated in the Orient. leopard. and the other the fallow is now entirely unknown. hyena. but are delicate in captivity and useless for labor. other beasts of chase or of their rarity. prey early disappeared.LANDS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. wild-cat. which hare. is The natives frequently capture foals them on milk in the tent.

but they were successfully carried out on a large scale in early times. the early builders who would have it for utility or decoration sought it at great distances. As stone was not procurable close at hand. distances overland. 3000 B. There was beneath their feet an inexhaustible supply of the best qualities of clay. This was readily molded into bricks. C.286 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. But. the Babylonians did thus acquire stone. This had an important re- metals and of stone. and were . From Arabia came probably the earliest stone utilized This had to be transported long in the country. after a considerable land journey to its upper waters. Some of these were dried in the sun. though they could hardly have secured enough to house tions describing the entire population as well as for royal residences and the homes of the gods. flex influence upon the civilization of the country. stone was brought from the Lebanon and the Amanus. and hence reacted upon civilization. And herein was cause for the study of problems in river transporrafted tation down Such in the construction of navigable rafts. This was as early as But even the Euphrates. as the great buildings and the inscrip- them abundantly witness. in the The skill required for this overcoming of engineering difficulties pushed forward the development of the people in mechanical pursuits. problems as these would be insoluble by and natives in the same district at present. The need for a permanent and less costly building material was solved in another way.

More commonly they were united by bitu- men. The clay tablet has preserved through the centuries a vast literature. . and in the great size used for the manufacture of books or tablets. and were For records the ancient world knew nothing their superior and perhaps nothing equal. almost indestructible. They are found simply set together in the interior of walls. per- In the erection of buildings the joined together in three different bricks were ways. then deemed sufficient for the filling in of 287 in- the teriors of walls. and with these the walls were faced. These were made even more carefully. form. but especially at Hit. of their bricks the Babylonians have probably never been excelled.LANDS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. The papyrus of ancient Egypt was so fragile and so easily destroyed by either fire or water that it bears no comparison with the brick which resisted both almost equally well. but of Egypt. while untold portions of the literature of the more cultured Egyptians have hopelessly ished. much of it uninjured. The same material was and and in the perfection of solidity. without any substance to form a close junction. and form the subject of repeated references in the literature not only of Babylonia. Others were baked in kilns. In the excel- lence of materials used. haustible springs which have supplied the whole surrounding country for untold centuries. texture. which was found in several parts of the Here are inexcountry.

the whole forming a solid and extremely tenacious mortar. and its outer surfaces were then richly carved in bas-reliefs. easily reached the great of marble supplied many beautiful forms while Mount Masius offered a fine quality of dark-colored basalt of great fineness and hardness. also p. From the bitumen pits petroleum is now taken. A and beautiful alabaster. is found on every hand. Hist. The pits are described by Chesney (Narrative of EuStrabo. and is to be numbered among the greatest triumphs of arts won by this warlike people in the The mountains of Kurdistan. . This beautiful material was extensively used for wainscoting in Assyrian palaces. i. and sandstone. pp. These stones were indeed not used 1 152 See. superior to Babylonia. 102). p. 76) and by Rich (Narrative of of Babylon. 129. for example. 1839. phrates Expedition. But here ends the very brief catalogue of the mineral products of Babylonia. and in many varieties. Pliny. The land could hardly be poorer in this respect. . conglomerate. xvi.288 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Herodotus. In mineral wealth Assyria was incomparably Stone of excellent quality. soft while other stones were easily accessible. vi. . 179 . . readily cat into slabs.. peace. Slime and mud were also used. abounds on the eastern banks of the Tigris.. The progress thus made in the art of sculpture was noteworthy. by the rivers or water courses above cities. 101. and may have been known to the ancients. Greece. and Rome 1 as well. ff. and with these calcareous earths appear to have been mixed. London. such as limestone. 743. a Journey to the Site 280 comp. Nat.

in which the real political of the land began. and Nowawis taken its place as the present designation of the ancient ruins of Eridu. in the territory between the Lesser Zab and the Adhem. . and houses. for the walls of buildings. pp. 96. 412. xiv. largely settled in cities. and built temples. Assyria had extensive bitumen pits. "We found ." 2 See Loftus.. Nippur.. that the name Abu-Shahrein had ii. with just enough of color and descrip- tion to cal life." Peters. and palaces of brick. "Journey to Constantinople. p. 1 Salt is also obtainable in the former district." in Chesney's Narrative " There are several wells from which of Euphrates Expedition." in Journal of : the Royal Asiatic Society. The site is a now known as Abu-Shahrein. unless still indeed it had importance that more ancient than known 4 in a period to us.. 497 considerable quantities of naphtha and petroleum are obtained. located at Kerkuk. The lands which were thus rich in flora and fauna and sufficiently supplied with minerals for man's ordinary use maintained a great population. Like Babylonia. " Notes on Abu-Shahrein and Tel-el-Lahm.LANDS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. later ages con- tinued to follow their example. ff. vanished. The cities which play important parts in the later history may here be life set down. while another source is found in the bed of the Shor-Derreh torrent. their from which they had come. which played but a small part in all the history of Babylonia. syria retained the custom 289 The colonists of As- of Babylonia. From eight to ten gallons were said to be collected from each well per diem. near Nimroud. and has not See Ainsworth. p. make them real in the story of their politi- In the far south lay the city of Eridu.

p. Euphrat und Sachau believes that the mound contains not only remains of temples and palaces. but also of the dwellings of the inhabitLoftus. 1857. and Ur there- was early adorned with a large temple for the worship of Sin.. Nippur. and even there- be the most important city in the south. Am Tigris.290 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. 66-68. appear to contain a large temple. which they dug from between the bricks of Babylonian buildings. The moon god always exerted profound in- fluence over the minds of the people. and Stisiana. to a complete examination of them. The ruins of the city have been but slightly explored. of Eridu stood the great city Ur. and will almost certainly give a rich treasure. which was frequently restored down the centuries to the days of Nabonidus. pp. 196. op. pp. and Researches ii. so far as The remains of the they have been excavated. 12Y. 2 Peters. . yet been adequately studied. At 1 the modern town of Senkereh. city. in Chaldcea ff. Ziggurat). which occupied from the earliest times down to the be- West ginning of Babylon's hegemony a position of distinguished influence in the land. The chief god of the city was Sin.. the moon god. which was probably the home of the god Ea. 256. Loftus." on the left Travels ff. cit. at some fore future day. The mound is now called El-Mugheir the place of bitumen for the inhabitants have used it for 1 centuries as a place to secure bitumen. (with photograph of the See especially Sachau. pp. who here received special veneration. here worshiped under the name of Nanafter continued to nar. London.

however. .LANDS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and Nabonidus. Kojunjik und Nebi Junus. and long remained the center of a small independent kingdom. Warka scheinen Wohnungen der Burger Aehnliches gilt auch von dem Weichbild von Babylon. It was the last city to succumb to him and yield allegiance to the conquering might of of Babylon. der Mauer und den Thoren alle iibrigen Wohnungen spurlos von der Erdoberflache verschwunden sind. probably at the mound of Tell-Id. which is Uruk was a border city between northern and southern Babylonia. small in comparison with those farther south or when compared with Orchoe). and so remained a venerated spot unto the very end of Babylonian history. and retained its place at the head of a small state even down to the reign Hammurabi. in the early period. It was the of Nana the "In diesen babylonischen Stadten Senkere und ausser den Tempeln und Palasten auch noch die unter dem Schutt erhalten zu sein ahnlich wie in Pompeji. but a short distance from it. of the land. Nebuchadrezzar. bank cities 291 of the Shatt-en-Nil Canal stood the next chief city. p. This was also one of the most ancient The sun god held the chief position in Larsa. The city early played an important political part. Somewhat north of Larsa. Burnaburiash. was the city of Girsu. the city of Uruk (Erech. This temple found restorers in Hammurabi. place of worship of the goddess ants. Larsa." Ibid. wahrend in Ninive ausser den beiden Konigsburgen. and here the early kings Ur-Gur and Dungi built a temple in his honor.. 67. and was the chief city of at least one petty king (Urkagina) Its influence 'was. which is mentioned as early as the reign of Dungi.

x. 350) and by Sachau (op. Sumerians. op. The religious history of the city all make it of so great interest and importance that it is especially a matter for regret that it has never been properly and excavated. pp. restored. Strabo adds to this fact the statement that at Orchoe there was a school of " Chaldeans. Loftus.. cit. it had vanished from political. bear colophons which show that they were copied from originals at Uruk. Many books in the library of Asshurbanapal." resident in this city. It was much more than a seat of learning and must have had a library at a very early period. 61-64). On unites 1 the banks of the canal Shatt-el-Hai. is a mound i. pp. 10. though other more ancient centers. It was. 349.292 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and especially religious hymns. and is 5 coupled by Hebrew tradition with the earliest centers of the land. 159. and Babylonian records go far independence at to prove that this is correct. Nippur. * It has been visited by Ward (see Peters. that is in his use of the word astroloThis would indicate that culture was still gists. which has unhappily not been dug up. The city 1 had an early period. cated to the goddess and called The temple dediE-Anna (house of heaven) was built by Ur-Grur and Dungi and often It now forms the ruin of El-Buwarije. however.. Gen. pp. a mere center of power. . while the general mass of ruins is called Warka. f. cit. with whom the Semitic inhabitants identified their goddess Ishtar. who has well described its present appearance. literary. which the Tigris and Euphrates.

Nippur. 268. It Isin. on the other hand. greatest disbeneath the soil of the entire The center of the worship of the god Bel. ii. It marks. which had a long history as a separate state. 269 ii. very little is known. was linked in the title of the kings who made The next Nippur. in the site of the ancient city of Lagash. Peters suggests Bismya as the probable site of Isin (Nippur. passim . unhappily. its near-by neighbor. all probability. Decouvertes en Chaldee. i. 1 Heuzey-de Sarzec. Nippur was rich in build. pp. 1 i. 272). 1 293 Telloh. 337-339. . Nippur. 291. pp. city in our progress northward was of which. so their cities outranked all others in early political history. the chief city of the land. 342). from which have come vast stores of inscribed tablets of every description. and its 2 ruins have not been certainly identified. is now the best known city in all Babylonia. until dethroned by force after which they continued to be the chief places of veneration in all the empire. but its history was swallowed up in the greater history of the places about it. described in his diary (Peters. coveries yet made land were made here by the University of PennNippur was the oldest sylvania expedition.LANDS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. As Ur was the city of the moon god. so was Nippur the home of Bel. and may be the oldest city of all Babylonia of which there is any known record. Nippur. The visit by Ward is . though with many fluctuations of power. and as these three were the greatest of the gods of Babylonia. Peters. and Sippara the city of the sun god.



ings devoted to religion and to royal residence, and its great ruin mound, Niffer or Nuffar,



an extraordinary mass of ancient
as all these cities


were in age, and rich though they continued to be in religious associations, they were all surpassed in influence by the city of Babylon. They were forgotten of men when the dust and sand settled upon them, but the glory and the shame of Babylon re-

But great

Even the name of the city lived on in The chief ruins of Babythe ruin heap Babil. lon lie near the modern village of Hillah, and

cover such a great extent of country that until very recently no men have been found bold

enough to attempt the exploration of the entire mound. The city laid no claim to great age, and was probably not very ancient when Hammurabi made it the chief city over all the land and displaced the more ancient seats of power. The religious glory of the city was also in a sense fictitious. Its chief god had been Marduk (the biblical Merodach), and to him fitting worship was paid for generations. But Marduk's own position in the pantheon was not great enough to bring to




some doubt about the

identification of various


There is a learned and near Hillah with the parts of ancient Babylon. exhaustive review of the matter by Baumstarck in Pauly-Wissowa, Realenc. der class. Alterthumswissenschaft, ii (1899), and an outline of the problems by the writer in the Jewish Encyclopaedia, sub
plan of the
sites in voce.



a good

Encyclopedia Biblica (Cheyne),

facing cols. 417, 418.

The mounds are
Sachau (op

well described by Peters (Nippur,

pp. 212


53) and by

pp. 37,



the city a religious primacy, and he was therefore identified with the great god Bel, and under that

name was worshiped

in Babylon. To him was a great temple in pyramidal form rising to erected seven stories, and known as E-sagila. Kings vied

with each other to make this the largest and most
beautiful shrine in the empire, and in it all rulers must needs " take the hands of Bel " before their

So came the city to dominion over the hearts possess political power, and consciences of men, and wealth unapproachTo Babylon in the days of Nabonidus was able. joined another city, Borsippa, which may have been as old as the capital itself. In it stood the
authority was


temple of E-zida, now Birs Nimroud, dedicated to

Nebo), on which kings almost as much labor and wealth as upon The two cities were linked also in their festivals, for on the first day of Nissan
(the biblical





April), the beginning of a
left his

new year, the god Nabu

temple in solemn procession to visit his Of so great imfather, Marduk, in Babylon.
portance was this festival that the king was required to share in it, no matter where he might

be at the time, whether on business or pleasure bent, under the penalty of forfeiting for the coming year the title of king of Babylon. It is easy to see that this gave enormous power to the



was they alone who reprei,

Oppert, Expedition en Mesopotamie,

pp. 200,



Peters, op.







sented these great deities in the eyes of


Five hours (about Babylon lay Kutha,

fifteen miles) northeast of



mound and


leading city of northern Babylonia before the rise of the city of Babylon. The chief god of the city was Nergal,

whose temple was called E-shid-lam, at which passing kings were wont to pay honors and offer


Kutha a profound


passed into the world's history by the act of one of the Assyrian kings. Sargon deported thence a number of inhabitants to Samaria on the fall of
the northern


of Israel,



the worship of Nergal and then engrafted upon it features derived from the religion of Jehovah. In

with Kutha stood the near-by city of Kish, somewhat as Borsippa stood to Babylon. In the extreme northern part of Babylonia, and
close relation

nearly opposite to the present Baghdad, lies the mound Akerkuf," which marks the site of Dur-

Kurigalzu (Kurigalzuburg), a city named after a Babylonian king, but the influence of which in Much the same may be said history was slight.
of the city of Upi (Opis) during most of the period of Babylonian history, with this exception,



appears to have had some influence during



Rassam, Asshur and

Land of Nimrod. Xew York,
to the Site


897, p. 396.
p. 83,





see Chesney, Narrative

and Rich, Narrative of Journey

of Euphrates Expedition, of Babylon, pp. 2, 3.



of Assyria were not so ancient as

those of Babylonia, and their general character was commercial rather than religious, military rather than peaceful and culture-loving. Their

temples were indeed large and imposing, for the Assyrians had amassed great wealth in war, and

they believed, no


than the Babylonians, that

to victory. They also boasted great piles devoted to the residence of kings, in which, however, libraries were not so

the gods had led




as in Babylonia. city of Assyria in

age was Asshur,

now marked by the mound of Kalah on the right bank of the Tigris. It was Shergat, originally a colony and dependency of Babylonia,
site is

kings spread their power over the adjoining country, which they named Asshur, after their It was the home of the great god Asshur, city.


whose temple E-kharsag-kurkurra was erected by the earliest rulers of whom we know anything,
and frequently restored by later monarchs. When Calah became the capital of the kingdom Asshur lost its dignity and decreased in size, but retained a certain reverence as the ancient site of the most revered national god, and as the mother city of the

A little

farther north, but on the eastern


of the Tigris and at its junction with the



Rassam, Asshur and the Land of Nimrod, pp. 256, 257. pp. 91, f., and 104, with two illustrations of the mounds.
xi, p. 5.

Sachau, op.


Journal of the Geographical Society, 21



Zab, Shalmaneser I built the city of Calah, which he made the capital of Assyria. It remained the

down to the age of Sargon. The mound Nimroud marks its site, and this has been The city fairly but not completely dug over.
royal residence

was not an ancient and venerated shrine deity, but worship was paid to Asshur






up the



of the


the ruin heaps

and squalid



Kuyunjik" and Neby Yunus mark the site of Nineveh, which Sennacherib made the capital of
the empire. The city was, however, much older than this, and may almost certainly be accounted one of the most ancient cities in the kingdom. It

was the center of the worship of Ishtar, who was called Ishtar of Nineveh to distinguish her from Ishtar of Arbela. Ishtar of Nineveh was worshiped in a great temple on which generation after generation lavished extraordinary plunder.

was the dream of Sennacherib to make Nineveh surpass Babylon in size and magnificence, and, though he did not reach that ideal, he did make it a fine city, second only to the ancient mother To all the world Nineveh city by the Euphrates.

stood as the

representative city of the hated Assyrian empire, and that made its name a byword among the peoples.

Layard, Nineveh and

Sachau, op.

p. 105.

its Remains, New York, 1849, i, pp. 28, 44, etc. Rassam, op. cit., pp. 9, 225 (with plan and illustra-

tion of ruins).

Layard, op.

cit., 5,

p. 98, etc.

North of Nineveh,


at the foot of the mountains,

Sargon planted a new city, to which he gave his own name, Dur-Sharrukin (that is, Sargon'sburg),

which he probably designed not only to make a royal residence, but also the capital of the country and a rival of Nineveh. The remains of the city at Khorsabad were the first Assyrian ruins excavated, and these have shown that he made the city magnificent with a palace and other buildings, but it never became even an equal of Nine1

apparently did not long outlive its founder, but sank away into insignificance. Far more important than this creation of the


fancy of an Assyrian king was the city of Arbailu. How old this city was is not known. There is
the inscriptions any evidence that the Assyrian kings paid any attention to it. It certainly received at their hands no great palaces

not in


and no temples. It had no political weight in the development of Assyrian power, though it must have had an Assyrian populace. It lived a quiet life apart from the great tides of war or commerce during the Assyrian period, and survived the ruin which overwhelmed the empire. It was still an important city in Persian days, and continued to exist when the city of Nineveh was un1 M. Botta's letters on the discoveries at Nineveh, translated from the French by C. T[obin]. London, 1850, passim. Rassam, op. tit., p. 295.

Sachau, op.


pp. 106, 121.

was a very poor one, as has often been pointed out (see, for example, Sachau, I. c.); for it was badly supplied with water, and lay apart from the great lines of communication.





known save as a name in the memory. A great mound marks its site, and its name is retained in the modern Erbil. The mound has not yet been

excavated, and may very probably contain important memorials of the city's long career.
strict limits of Assyria lay the city It lay upon the Kharmis, a tributary of the Khabur, at the foot of the mountains. It

Outside the

of Nac.ibina.

was the center of an Assyrian province, and continued to live under the


of Nisibis after the

empire had ended.



Hadrian ceded it to the Parreturned to E-oman rule and was flour-

ishing at the time of Septimius Severus (Septimia Oolonia Nisibis). Under the Seleucids it still con-

tinued prosperous and bore the


of Antiochia




representative, a miser-

able collection of huts, has returned to the ancient

name and


called Nisibin.

Farther west, on the


of the Balikh,

Road-Town, through which passed the great highways from south and east toward the west. Harran was the center for the worship of Sin, the moon god, in the north, as Ur was in the south, and perhaps no sacred city in the land

was Harran,


ever held so tenaciously to its ancient belief. Christianity overran Mesopotamia this city

remained the

last center of

paganism, and under

Mohammedan sway

the sect of Sabeans here

continued the worship of the moon. The history of Harran runs so far back that its origin is lost

Sachau, op.


pp. 111-113 (with picture of the mound).



in the mists that surround the very beginnings of civilization. During the continuance of Assyrian



was a constant

factor in the life of the

empire, and when Nineveh had ceased to vex mankind it was still a powerful city. The Parthians made a stronghold of it, and there Crassus was defeated. It later formed part of the Christian kingdom of Abgar, and became a city of the Roman empire. The mounds which mark its site must certainly contain memorials of its long The history, but they have not been excavated. classical name was Carrhae (which evidently contains a reminiscence of the ancient name), and it has still some importance as a road town.
1 1

Ainsworth, Euphrates Expedition,


p. 203.







civilization of Assyria

and Babylonia and

sweep of history were not made by one people. Men of several different stocks contributed to the result, and here, as often aftertheir great
in the world's history, the history bears the stamp not of a unity but of a diversity of races.





our command,
influence in the
therefore, feel

times, with all the resources at is often difficult to distinguish

the different strains of races and to trace their


of history.

We need,

no surprise that there should be great
the racial
affinities of

difficulty in tracing out


who made

history in Assyria

and Baby-

the earliest period to which direct monumental records go back we find a people in
of Babylonia



are called

by us

Babylonians. Their written records are found to be in part a Semitic language, a language closely related in forms and vocabulary to the northern branch of the Semitic family, of which Hebrew and Aramaic are well-known examples. But


these earliest records are all gathered to-

side by side with the Semitic Babylonian is found another language. Paul Haupt. and the other is regarded as a In this Sumerian language. and Donner. 1 after all. ff ) The (See A. Man Past and Present. pp. gether it 303 appears that large numbers of them are bilingual. Russian Archaeological 1 Congress. proof not of race but of social contact. to show that there is a connection between Sumerian and the Ugro-Finnish member of the Ural-Altaic family. They belong distinctly." As the latter contains the older forms it is now called the Sumerian language. But the evidence is slight in itself and of doubtful weight even if it were more extensive. In recent times attempts have been made by Hermann ( Ueber die Sumerische Sprache. one called "the lan" " guage of the land of Accad and the other the language of the land of Sumer. lies the proof of the existence of a Sumerian people. 1899. in a paper which I have not seen. are unable to say who these Sumerians were. and they have been connected on linguistic grounds both with IndoEuropeans and especially with Turanians. solution of the question is not yet found. it be in though part at least by Semitic Baby- lonians. Riga. This other language appears in these inscriptions in the form of two dialects. written dialect of it. to the prehistoric period in Babylonian life.PEOPLES OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. for lannegative fact that they guage is. though we The theory that the Sumerians were Mongols has been strongly supported by Hommel. Cambridge. Of their racial connections we know only the single were not Semites. we are in a position to aver some But. H. Lenormant. Keane. and others. . as yet. 273. that is to say. and as strongly denied by Halevy. 1896). Their language is agglutinative.

This also came about. Gradually this custom ceased and the Sumerian language was no longer mentioned or used but the system of writing which the Sumerians had devised con. a custom of providing these gious texts with interlinear translations into the Semitic speech. There reli- arose. Sumerian had now come into the same position as did Latin in the religious life of the Middle Ages. and yet a wonderful advance upon the still more cumbrous picture writing out of which it was developed.304 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. It was natural that the Babylonians should desire to retain this religious material in its ancient tongue. and of incantations for delivery from disease. but also historical texts as well. facts concerning their work in the world and their It relations to the Semitic Babylonians. of prayers for forgiveness from sins. was they who invented the cuneiform system of writing. a cumbrous and artificial system indeed. tinued in full use to the fall of the Babylonian . of hymns of praise to gods. for not only were religious texts so written. was especially devoted to the setting forth of forms of worship. as it was not to be expected that if it would be so efficacious translated into their own Semitic speech. It remained only that it should advance into a position similar to that held by Latin in general life in the same period. When the Semitic Babylonians conquered the Sumerians and possessed their lands they adopted at once this system of writing and took over with This literature it the literature which it enshrined. therefore.

This view. and that Babylonia was the land in which they had their first national development and from which they spread over western Asia to make great careers as Arabians. . but in a higher sense they had been conquered by them. According to this view the so-called Sumerian language was simply a cabalistic method of sacred writing. See Chapter VII. great controversy has raged about the question of this Sumerian lanIt has been asserted by some that the view taken here is wholly we have in these bilingual texts not two languages. Canaanites. lost ground. and even lived on in the hands of the Indo-Europeans who came after them. 305 commonwealth. and 1 A guage. who had already attained a high civilization.PEOPLES OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and that for their own purposes by Semitic priests. in the beginning secured some converts. but simply two forms of writing. and their civilization in general and their religion in particular owed a 1 deep debt to ple history. first proposed in this form by Halevy. almost At about the beginning of the fourth millennium before Christ the Sumerian people. for so these must have appeared to them. invented erroneous. The Babylonians had indeed conquered the Sumerians. unknown peowho stand on the very confines of human this strange. found their land invaded by a vast horde of barbarians. closely related in blood to the Arabs who once overran Spain and the Hebrews who once Jordan into Canaan. but has latterly To the present writer the facts seem wholly opposed to it. Whence these invaders came is not certain. It has been thought by some that they came from across came pouring the the northeast through the passes of the Kurdistan mountains. These were Semites.

p. either in the home of the Semites in northeastern 2 3 or north- It were idle western part of the great continent. to deny that strong linguistic support for this view may be found in the recognized affinity between the Semitic languages and Egyptian. in the Atti del Congresso Internationale degli Orientalisti. 1 This view.D. and Morris Jastrow.. Theodor. read before the Philadelphia Oriental Club. 2d edit. Berber. second A view finds the original Africa. Leemans. Brinton. iii. 12. i. an hypothesis. who inclines to Noldeke's view rather than to Brinton's. 2 Noldeke puts forward this view very tentatively and only as 1899. IV tischen Volker und Sprachen. vol. 217-228. ff. 11. . pp. (Some additions are altorientaliscken GescJiichte. pp. Delia Sede primitiva dei Popolo Semitici. Leipzig. by Jacob Krall. G. Histoire generate des langues semitiques. N61deke. Accademia dei Lincei. and has supported it with many arguments. Somali.. 267. 1880. by Daniel G. and but few great names may be cited among its modern adherents.. Firenze. His paper. Die Semi. and admits " dass die Herkunft aller Semiten aus Arabien " sehr wohl denkbar ware (p. 3 Professor D. has suggested northwestern Africa as the primitive seat of the Semites. The Jr. Philadelphia. pp. Leipzig.) languages. 95. Coptic. 1885. but the strongest argument for it is presented by J. 59-63. Die Semitischen Sprachen. La Patrie originaire des Semites. . Die Sprach- geschicMliche Stellung des Babylonisch-assyrisclien (Etudes archeologiques linguistiques et historiques dediees 4 C. 3d series. 127-129) and Geschichte Babylonians und Assyrians. vol. But when all has been said in etc. in the Memorie della R. Galla. Leide. 1890. pp. is now almost abandoned. Die Namen der Sdugethiere. and the Kushite (Bisharee. chiefly ethnological. p. 7. ff. 13). 496. ported with surpassing learning. Brinton.306 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. p. Ph. 1899. 29.. once stated and supAramaeans. M. Berlin. 1885. Grundriss der Wien. 11. has been printed together with a criticism by Pro- fessor Jastrow. 81. favor of this view there still remain more potent 1 The northern origin of the Semites was adopted by Renan. p.. I Theil. of Philadelphia. D.) To this same view adheres Hommel. 1879. Guidi. Cradle of the Semites. 2 te Auflage. who has devoted much learning to its exposition and to the evidences of Guidi made defense for example.

' ff.PEOPLES OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. so also did it prevail over the Kassites. 1st ed. 491. Man Past and Winckler states the general Winckler. 107. and assimilated the During the long course of their history they remained as unchanged and unchangeable as the Egyptians. and even in the far western land of Canaan. 490. 1899. pp. The Babylonians conquered the Sumerians. Keane. Geschichte. Meyer. p. p. drove some of them out. the distinctive conquerors. 307 considerations in favor of a third view. This latter view seems ever to win new adherents and may be said now to be generally accepted by modern scholars. Assyrian Grammar for Comparative Purposes. pp. Mesopotamia. xxvii. Tiele. that the original home of the Semites was in Arabia. Die Abstammung der Chaldaer und die Ursitze der Semiten. pp. . They were powerful in warfare at first. 13. 207. Ed. 397. 106.. Geschichte des Altertums. destroyed others. out of 1 which they came in successive waves of migration to find larger and more bountiful lands in Babylonia. Schrader. Leipzig. Semitic type. ff. Just as their type. 10. Die Volker Vorderasiens. pp. Present. E. but gradually cast aside the warlike spirit and became so devoted to the arts of peace as to be unable to defend their country from invasion. Elamites. movements and the general relation- ships of the Semitic peoples very admirably in this brief tract. which happened again and again during their long history. and that long line of lesser peoples them in part or settled among 1 who conquered them peaceably. Yet so great was their vitality and so marked their racial individuality that they always triumphed in the end and absorbed their rest. prevailed over the Sumerian. in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. Babylonisch-Assyrische i. Sayce.

Wherever their armies marched . and their history is filled with deeds of almost unparalleled savagery.308 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. same blood. these building operations and giving glory and honor to the gods who had inspired the work. Their climate belonged to the temperate rather than to the subtropical zone. Early accustomed to blood and fire. in language. and the inclemency of winters over at least part of their little kingdom served to toughen their fiber. and a commercial people on the other. hymns. for Assyria Though ally became a very of the was colonized from Babylonia. while their early efforts at conquest gradually hardened them into the form which they bore during all their They became a military people on the history. liturgies. and in literature they continued to the end ever dependent upon the southern people. they became totally unlike the peace-loving Babylonians. they remained of much In religion. ever reerected and It was they who provided these with books. one hand. Out of the Babylonian people sprang the Assyrians. temples and heaped up thousands of tablets recording all restored them. Less exposed to invasion during a large part of their history than the Babylonians. the Assyrians gradu- different people. temples that the world has ever seen. and prayers. and as the materials used were perishable. purer Semitic blood. The Babylonians were devoted chiefly to religion and to literature. as their remains would seem to It was they who erected the largest indicate.

and sobered by its burdens. Along with this development in the arts of war and the practice of government there went a great growth in trade. Yet out of this conquest they achieved empire.PEOPLES OF BABYLONIA. ravished. and desolation and ruin were left behind. The Assyrian traders invaded the whole East and took gain both from buying and from selling. AND ASSYEIA. Others bore witness to the attractiveness of the Babylonian culture by conquering parts of that country . Yet. influenced the king to conquest in more than one instance that the field of their operations and the extent of their money getting might be They That they contributed to civilization and trade there is no doubt. from transport and from storage. though thus given over in large measure to war and commerce. learned to govern as well as to destroy. of their kings imitated the Babylonians in the founding and storing of libraries with books Some of religion and literature and not merely with boastful narratives of bloody conquest. and by this result affords a bright contrast to* the weary details of blood and fire which otherwise would fill the whole canvas. the Assyrians knew their lack and ever looked with increased. their barter envy to the superior civilization of Babylonia. men were cities mutilated or fields of grain houses and and were given to the torch. and devised methods of subjection and of rule. which were afterward applied by a people who in certain respects much resembled them. the Romans. 309 women were flayed alive.

and now one and now the other is work which they did in the But when the whole history is surveyed. and adaptation to Semitic usages all bear the 1 same stamp The origin of the Chaldeans Babylonians. bestowed by an hereditary priesthood. ShamasJishumukin. lost in the past. that they might worship at its ancient shrines and add to their names royal titles. Thus were mixed up Assyrian nature elements both of barbarism and of civilization. and were known to the Hebrews as Kasdim. but at best the opinion is merely a guess and has no direct support in the 1 . from whom we have called them Chaldeans. which had come down from in the an immemorial past. as in a panorama. 173). Jensen has suggested that they were " Semitized Sumerians. Long after the Babylonians and Assyrians had risen to power in the world the great valley came manifested in the world. for not only are their names purely Semitic. to the Greeks as Chaldaioi (XaA&wot). mann appears inscriptions. but their religion. as those of the Semitic Babylonians. to know another people who called themselves Kaldu. They were undoubtedly Semites. p. pushing gradually northward until they held the country about the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates.310 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. is." and Lehto agree with him (Lehmann. the barbarism must be admitted to prevail over the civilization and the total impression to be less favorable than that which the Babylonians make upon us. like that of the came out of the heart of They also probably Arabia and settled first along the western shore of the Persian Gulf. manner of life.

more tary similar to those of the Assyrians than to those of the Babylonians. 311 that district they begin the long series of incursions which finally won for them the control of Babylonia. but their characterization may best be left to the time of their appearance in the narrative. . In the beginning they were nomads and tillers of the soil. toward the west was marked by bloodshed and the destruction of ancient centers of civilization. as they were secondary rather than primary actors in the great drama. The lines of their development were. however. the Babylonians. but became men of the city and formed little city kingdoms similar to those which had existed in the early days of Babylonian civilization. the Assyrians. Bewrought sides these there were many other lesser peoples and the Chaldeans who be contributed to the movements which are to told. But later the objects of civilization were furthered by them and their kings became patrons of learning. The Sumerians. In this latter stage they are perhaps to be regarded as having lost their national life and character and as transformed by the Babylonian civilization which they had conquered. and From made them the heirs of the Babylonian people in civilization and in empire. these were the peoples who out the history here to be narrated. They developed miliprowess and founded a great empire by the Its extension sword.PEOPLES OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA.

but from certain of the Greek writers useful material is secured. seeking in a number of different to ways to preserve the order of events and construct a backbone for their historical recolchronological material thus promust have been very extensive. Babylonian Chronological Materials. The duced portions which have come down to us are silent witnesses of the yet unrecovered or totally de- stroyed materials of which they were but fragments. all . BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN MONUMENTS. The Babylonian priests.312 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. as sources A. Our chronology of the history of these people must be based primarily upon their own chronological materials. gave much attention to chronology. both the Assyrians and Babylonians. CHAPTER XII. historiographers and chronographers have left us an enormous mass of chrono- now in a fragmentary state. for the lections. I. accom- panied by notes upon for chronology. value and use. but showing clearly how much importance was logical materials. but especially the latter. THE CHRONOLOGY. All this material may here be grouped in its order. UNLIKE the Egyptians.

Chronological Tablet of s here as C). 1890. containing the names and years of reign of the kings of the first and second dynasties. 284. in the British Museum. 22 . pp. 8 (a) The text is catalogued in British and Museum as BU. (e) Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek. These two King Lists have been repeatedly copied. (b) Sitzwigs(c) 2 berichte der -Berl. A list of Babylonian kings. with many names 1. Leipzig 1898 (Lehmann). and veriThe chief literature upon them is as follows (a) Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. By the side of each king's name is given of years of his reign. with translation). (d) (Pinches). A brief list names of the kings of several Babylonian dynasties. I u. Arcficeology. 284. the number 1 The Babylonian King List B. A Babylonian I (cited Museum an tablet. and at the end of each dynasty also a summation of the years of reign of all the kings of that dynasty. ii and iii. 1884. 1888. 91-5-9. published in Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets. 579-607 (Schrader). London. W. Ak. January. There has recently Dynasty been discovered in the collections of the British 3. 1894 (Knudtzon). Assyrische Gebete an den Sonnengott. A. (copied by Pinches). Berlin. ff.* 2. 1899 (Sayce). 313 attached by them to the arrangement of historical These original sources facts in due order of time. 22. 91-5-9. edited by E. ii. etc. Proceedings of the Society of Biblical (c) King. collated. 1887. (Schrader). Hammurabi. pp. Part VI.THE CHRONOLOGY. Leipzig. pp. 1898 is (b) The new Babylonian Chronological Tablet (BU. ff . : fied. 286. pp. *> extremely valuable of chronological dated in the reign Ammi-sadugga.. II. vol. now badly broken. Budge. may thus be arranged : of the missing. 193-204 (Pinches). The Babylonian King List A. (f ) Zwei Hauptprobleme der altorientalischen Chronologie und Hire Losung. with the years of reign of each one. and also the summation as before. Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. der Wissenschaften.

Untersuchungen. (Pinches). The Babylonian Chronicle (JS}' . 193. 1 Lands and of Bazi. Proceedings of the Society of Bibli(b) Zeitschrift Jiir Assyriologie. for it was written while this dynasty was still on the throne. and parts of columns II and IV now remain. Previous to the discovery of this tablet and B had been followed as closely as lists A possible by all chronologists. Fragments of a Babylonian Chronicle (^4. of which only column V nearly complete. cited by some as /S). p. 153. Transactions of the The text is republished by iii. but here 14. and for Samsu-iluna 38 instead 35 years. containing originally six columns. for Hammurabi 43 instead of 55. Sumuabi reigns 15 years. A large First discovered Society of Biblical Archaeology. This procedure must now be changed and the new tablet considered. and published by George Smith. given in tablets The of years that each disturbing fact about this it king list is A do not tally with those For example. It contains in brief 1 A chronicle fashion mention of certain important events in the reigns of Babylonian kings of the dynasties of the Sea 5. cal Archaeology. At the end of each list of events giving is given the number reigned.314 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. lists of important events in the years of reign of all the kings of the first dynasty down to Ammi-sadugga. badly broken tablet. ff (a) Winckler. in A and B. pp. ff. and the summaries agree exactly with the yearly 4. 361. . vi. lists of principal events. so also for Sumu-la-ilu is here given 36 years instead of 35 r for Sin-muballit 20 instead of 30. 2 See the following publications. that the figures given in and B. pp.

ff. ii. 1893-97. ff. 115. 1894. pp. 124. and the events which preceded and led to it. 148. lon inches square. Fragments of a Babylonian Chronicle of Nabonidus (Nab. (d) (c) Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Records of the Past. 116. 155 (Winckler). 807. and 297. pp. pp. That which remains begins in the reign of Kadashman-Kharbe. (Winckler).) (b) (c) Altlestamentliche Untersuchungen. vol. pp.THE CHRONOLOGY. the tablet is preserved. ff. (b) Untersuchungen zur altoriental. vii. Fragments of a Babylonian Chronicle (cited as P}? An unbaked tablet. pp. A small broken tablet 6. xix. originally about eight T. Keilschrifttexte. (Pinches. pp. Geschichte. new series. is The style of this chronicle is so it similar to that of one of the Assyrian lists that probable the latter was copied from this. Society of Biblical Archaeology. containing accounts of expeditions made by some of the early Babylonian kings Less than one third of against external enemies. ff. banapal. 122. 139. 1881.) (Pinches. Besides these direct statements made in inscrippp. Abel-Winckler. 1 (a) On a Cuneiform Inscription relating to the capture of Babylon by Transactions of the Cyrua. *(a) Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. v. 1 containing a chronicle of events of the last years of the reign of Nabonidus and the taking of Baby- by Cyrus. 47. tablet 315 containing one hundred and seventy-six lines of writing. ff. (Pinches). (Pinches). . Lepzig. and of Assyrian kings from Tiglathpileser III to Asshurof Darius I. (Winckler). son of Karakhardash. October. Chron}. dated in the twenty-second year and containing brief chronicles of the chief events in the reigns of Babylonian kings from Nabonassar to Saosduchinos. 655. 154. 106. ff. 48.

2 footnote 3. pp. 1894). syn- The more important of chronisms. text 83. 224. 223. and in Expository Times. Rost ( Untersuchungen zur Altorientalischen Oe- schichte. i. Winckler (Altorientalische Forschungen. Old Babylonian Inscriptions.316 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. On the other hand. and Lehmann (Zwei Hauptprobleme. 267). i. pi. 8. pp. 16). p. though they are judged to mean the same person by several scholars. 20. 18) are against this view. both historical and contract. but perhaps Gulkikur (??) (op. these may here be grouped together with the necessary comments upon their meaning or bearing. that the name cit. p. also. Assyriaca (Boston. contain numerous allusions to dates. Bible Dictionary. 9. to Nebuchadrezzar I there were six hundred and This does not seem like a round and if we could bring it to bear upon number. But the only king known to us (who is known as king of the Sea Lands) is Gul-ki-shar (or kur ?) the sixth king of the second dynasty. and the like. 17. it would be exninety-six years. and also p.. 4 Where so great doubt exists it is hardly safe to lay much stress upon the chronoFuture investigalogical statement here made. In this text it is stated that from Girkishar. For example. In an inscription of Nabonidus occurs this : statement with reference to one of the early kings 1 Hilprecht. 30. part i.. in the King List is not Gul- kishar. i. p. ff. The names are not identical. . 1897. and also by Hommel in Hastings. A Boundary Stone Dated the Fourth Year of * King Bel-nadin-apli. Leh- mann is of the opinion. tions for purely chronological purposes the Baby. king of the Sea Lands. vol. pp. in Mittheilungen der Vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft. tremely valuable. some fact already known to us. 17). Ionian texts of other kinds. 130. by Hilprecht. tion will probably clear the matter of all doubt.

R. is of doubt- Two kings by the and therefore of doubtful weight.THE CHRONOLOGY. This date is. I saw therein and read. 2 Orientalistische Zeitschrlft. " 317 Hammurabi. irreconcilable with Lists. If we reckon seven hundred years backward from this date. C. 10. C. col." of The name Like the preceding ful application notice. col. 4-8 (British Museum iii. also. 85. one of the old kings. and permit this round number of seven hundred years to stand as unexplained. but if this be done. for which Rost would suggest three hundred and ninety-six. this. 4-30. we get 2100 B. . which 1 1. however. name of Burnaburiash are known to us. the choice between them makes little difference. who seven hundred years before Burnaburiash had built E-barra and the temple pyramids on the old foundations. we have simply altered our sources. ii. and are reduced to * conjecture. b. his temple in Sippar-Anunit. 69. and are to be located about 1400 B. given as five hundred and seventy-six years and nine months. C. 20-26). but as they reigned very close together. as the period of Hammurabi. seems wiser for the present to abide by King Lists. 145 (1900). No solution which meets the situation is yet proposed King for this difficulty. king of Egypt. 2. In another text of Nabonidus there occurs It the again a chronological hint " : E-DU-BAR. The most tempting way out would be to change the length of dynasty III. They were contemporaries of Amenophis III. the Babylonian according to which Hammurabi must be placed about 2300 B.

. son of KudurHis foundation inscription I sought. . if we count backward eight hundred years. JBibl. king of Babylon.200 years [this] Shamash the great Lord of E-barra : . This 64. Over It this date there rages a ceaseless controversy. 2. C. p. 2. c. 107. . we are carried back to 3750 B. for example. pp. iii. which no king before me had found for 3. ." of deciding who this clearly belong to the Kassite king dynasty (dynasty III).318 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. for his father. 52). 51. and since the name of Kudur Bel has been identified as No. .. the solution to which Rost is attached (Untersuchungen. Comp. is 2 27-30. for the date of Naram-Sin. C. 62 b. Bel. we reach for Shagarakti-Buriash the period about 1355 B. and 1 read. Sargon I. 26 on the King The difficulty is. 3 V R. found. 105. 1 by V R. showed to me. p. Comp. which approximates with sufficient closeness to the date given by Nabonidus. iii. now appears He must doubt that the king here Shagarakti-Shuriash. was at first generally accepted. built for eight no king had hundred years. In the same inscription of Nabonidus there is given still further a chronological note which List there seems little meant 2 is 3 carries us far " . In the tentative chronology here given this king is located 1298 1286. and therefore to about 3800 B. since Shagarakti-Buriash. 57-60. Keiliiischrift. ." If we accept this. C. 15. 11.. some of whose inscriptions have come down to us. Nabonidus reigned 555-539 B. back into the past the foundation stone of Naram-Sin. Keilimchrift. Bill. C..

" 319 4 Hommel. . Posion either one side or the other has not yet come to light. f. and for the present it seems best to hold the date 3800 B.THE CHRONOLOGY. p. Geschickte Bdbyloniens f. Comp. 38.' Tiele. pp. und Assyriens. ff. Zwei Hauptprob. foot of the page.. and 3 Delitzsch. ?2. George Smith. 8 III R. Asshurbanapal in his narratives of victorious campaigns in Elani has chronological note. Of these Hommel afterward became persuaded that the date was too high and proposed to reduce it to Lehmann has argued learnedly for a 3400 B. is. 89. 1 a. C.. pp. tentatively. to leave us in the dark without a single definite point for reckoning. i. It is indeed hardly probable that the historiographers of Nabonidus had before them lists which carried the dates backward to the exact number 3. 209.. ff. He provided us with a brought back to its place also of origin a statue of a goddess carried away to 8 Elam by Kudur-nankhundi that 1 is. 172. 114. 250. 9 3 4 Delitzsch-Miirdter. 166. Asshurbanipal. 1. ii.. p. s Hastings. Geschichte. and Winck5 7 ler tive proof has expressed doubt about the matter. 224. 2d ed.635 years before This appears to be a Journal Asiatique (1883). Unfersuchungen. 1 pp. number and was probably inTo cast it away altogether however. about 2285 B. C. 167. p. 'Lehmann. p. It looks like a round tended to be so taken. pending further light on the subject. 12-18. 6 reduction of Naram-Sin to 2750 B..200. i. and Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek. Bib. Diet. 12. C. pp.. 44. Ibid. C. p. Oppert.

8 3 Untersuchungen. seems to him to be the order of events demanded by other chronological facts. Sennacherib also has left a very definite : date in one of his inscriptions. It is better to accept a number like this as final. in the time of Tiglathpileser. Neither it is there any special difficulty in attaching other historical and chronological facts. been much doubted in " recent times. p." This. valuable indication of time. p. but the result of some careful calculation or to rest directly upon early docu- It has. for the numeral does not look like a round number. He says " Adad and Shala. On the other hand. Zwci Hauptprobl. 48-50. and there is no reason to doubt its substantial accuracy. Host proposes to read 478 in quite order to bring it better into relation with what ments. whom Marduk-nadin-akhe. ff. to the 13.. the gods of Ekallate. king of Asshur. . after a lapse of away four hundred and eighteen years... Keil.320 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Neither of these attempts seems to be well founded. Comp. even appears to be in conflict with the other facts in our very limited knowledge of ancient though it 1 m R. 98. Lehmann tion as proposes to read 318 instead of 418 r because that figure appears better to fit the situa- 3 demanded by the other facts. nevertheless. ii. also. appears to be not a round number. 16. p. king of Accad. Bibl. like the preceding. 119. I have taken out of Babylon and restored to Ekallate their place. had taken and brought to Babylon. 14.

and we should therefore be carried back to 1107 as a date during the reign of Marduk-nadin-akhe. On a boundary stone of Marduk-nadin-akhe there is mention of a victory over Assyria in the tenth year of his reign. i. appeared in each case that they are not always to be reconciled with each other without some sort of forcing. 700. either been proposed has Every chronological scheme that has in some way made accommodaaltering the figures or by i.200. III R. 28. : Babylon by himself. To this date may be added another fact of importance for this reign. it numbers cept this it and 3. 27. 43. 5. set aside. col. and therefore 1117 or 1116 the first year of his 4 This is a date that ought not lightly to be reign. mel p. tions. These are all the notices in Babylonian historical inscriptions which may be made directly It has applicable to the question of chronology. 224. It 321 appears on the face of the matter to be more worthy of credence than such round as 600. 43. . and Horn. It is most natural to connect this victory with the removal of the statues to which Sennacherib refers. This took place in 689. p.THE CHRONOLOGY. in Hastings. Old Babylonian Inscriptions. Babylonia. If we ac- brings out our reckoning in Sennacherib has dated the four hunway dred and eighteen years from the destruction of tentatively. 2 So Hilprecht. 800. ' This would make 1107 the tenth year of the reign. and the arguments brought against it by Rost and Lehmann do not seem to be decisive. by rejecting some of them 1 altogether. i. Bible Dictionary. part i.

but as also that drawn from palaeography. is found when they lend additional weight to direct statements in lists or in chronological If now we turn from Babylonia to Assyria. chronicles. study of the forms A of characters and the manner of their writing gives at times an indication of the period. (2) indication of age. Thus a king often gives his father's name. the position in which an inscription is found within a mound is at times an approximate also. and these may be divided into two parts: (1) The approximate date of an indynasty scription. Even more important than this are external indications of age. may sometimes be obtained from palseographical indications. and hence of a king in whose reign it was written. is be conclusive. and upon his father's inscription is found the name of the grandfather. Likewise. In addition to these King Lists. By such simple means a whole may be arranged in correct order. and references in historical inscriptions the chronologist secures some aid from genealogical details. gave great attention to chronological details. and partly because we are nearer to them and partly because their . being subject to too many possible interpretations in the hands of different persons. The greatest value of palaeography and of archae- ology texts. also. text beneath the Sometimes the finding of a pavement of known age may in general this kind of evidence. we shall find that this people.322 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. rather precarious.

used therefore for dating. especially in a colophon at their conclusion. just as they give the name of the king eponyms were These reigning. C. in which early constructed an Eponym were set down the names of the chief officers of the state in regular yearly succesIn this list the name of a new king was sion. The Assyrians Canon. 299-356. when the eponym was Asshurdan. 1. II. where the references to the original texts are given. 902. There was thus provided an admirable method of preserving order in references to the past. Schrader. consuls. 667. to be mentioned below. number of copies of the eponym canons must have existed. Giessen. 323 monumental remains have reached us in a rather better condition we are able to come to conclusions rather more satisfactory than in the case of Babylonia. ranged the parts which have come down to us extend from B. always entered in the year of his accession. pp. often mention the limmu or eponym of a certain year.THE CHRONOLOGY. exactly archons who was as in later times the Greeks used and the Romans. C. and historical inscriptions. has been possible to piece together These In the correct order largely by means of the Canon of When so arPtolemy. for numerit A ous fragments have come down to us. when the eponym was Gabbaru. to B. Assyrian Chronological Material. Keilinschriften und Geschichtsforttchwtff. . 1878. 1 1 See on the Eponym Canon in general.

. which is characterized by lists of names only. The Assyrian Eocpedition Lists. 763 B. king 1 On these Expedition Lists see again Schrader. pp. pp. with the middle of the eclipse at 10:05 A. beginning with the peace treaties between Karaindash. such as expeditions to purpose of conquest. 61-67. 204. and Asshur-bel-nisheshu.three minutes. and brief though they are. by the side of the Eponym Pur(ilu) Sa-gal-e. This astronomical calculation gave a fixed date for the year of that eponym and thereby fixed every year in the entire canon. lasting two hours and forty. . 1 Synchronistic History. In addition to these important lists we have also lists of the synchronisms between Babylonia and Assyria. In addition to the Eponym Canon. Also Schrader. "In the month of Sivan there was an eclipse of the sun. 824-812). pp. and also Winckler. ff. king of Babylon. 1892. HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. op.. 3. and by the side of each name were added short notices of important events that certain fell in his year. Keilinschriftliches Textbuch zum Alien Testament. the Assyrians drew up supplementary lists in which the names of eponyms were also given.. there is mentioned an eclipse of the sun under these words. On one of countries for the The fragments of this list these fragments. have proved of immense importance. M. C. Keilinschriftliclie Bibliothek.324 2. vol. Leipzig. ff. cit. which have come down to us begin during the reign of Shamshi-Adad IV (B. ii." Astro- nomical investigations have shown that a total eclipse of the sun occurred at Nineveh June 15. i. 1889. Cuneiform Inscriptions and the Old Testament. Berlin. C. 178.

there has come that assists in locating an early Assyrian king. From from the same period of to us a note the inscriptions of Sennacherib. after six hundred 1 The synchronistic history is first published entire by F. ff. also. pp.THE CHRONOLOGY. f. for the chronology of Assyria. I. Peiser and i.). This seal is presented. king of Asshur. 320. is useful. son of Shalmaneser. king of Asshur. also. Hugo Winckler in Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek. and his reign. there have also come down to us in historical inscriptions certain references purposes. king of the world. pp. 325 of Assyria. from which we recovered the date 1107 in the reign of Marduk- nadin-akhe. as follows 4. 13. This synchronistic history is written in the style of brief chronicles. which are valuable for chronological These may be conveniently enumerated : The statement made by Sennacherib (see under Babylonia No. .' Besides these lists and chronicles which were made for chronological purposes. conqueror of the land of Kardu. so that the whole stood as follows " : At Babylon Sennacherib found Tukulti-Ninib. for from it we obtain the date 1107 as falling in the reign of Tiglathpileser 5. a seal of Tukulti-Ninib with a brief inscription. and is. from Asshur to Accad. given. 194. Whoever alters my writing and my name. " Sennacherib. to which he added an inscription of his own. unhappily fragmentary. E. may Asshur and Adad destroy his name and land.

king of Assyria. these dates may vary a few years in either direction. Com. No. date from With 1 these dates the special allusions in As2. vii. and Records of new series. we get the date of 1289 as falling somewhere within the reign of we add Tukulti-Ninib. In the inscriptions of Tiglathpileser I appears this note concerning two of the early Assyr6." If away from to 689. p. isskdkku of Asshur. which Shamshi-Adad. p."* now determined above under No. 1. 1. Asshurdan. 43. III. for sixty years its foundations had not been If laid. 60-70. king of Assyria. R. had built. . son of IshmeDagan. isshakku of Asshur. 117. Com. it years conquered Babylon and brought the possessions of Babylon. 15. 4. col. i. sixty years to the date of Tiglathpileser is correctly 4. Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek. for six hundred and forty-one years had been falling down. 11. but had not rebuilt it . Keilinsckriftliche Bibliothek. p. son of Ninibapal-esharra. lines the Past. i.326 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. the date of the destruction of Babylon. this six hundred years. 9 R. the addition of it will give the date 1167 as fallwithin the reign of Asshurdan and 1808 as ing As the falling in the reign of Shamshi-Adad. i. in former times the great gods my lords. had torn down that temple. ian rulers : "At that time the temple of Anu and Adad. but will probably be a little higher. which Tiglathpileser reckoned backward is not certainly known.

we must now turn In this is found one of the most difficult problems with which the chronologist has to As has already been shown. which may be of importance in its bearing upon the native sources. Berossos. and that misfirst takes could easily creep in during such a process In no particular would mistakes be more likely to appear than in the lists of figures in his chronological lists. The second described the deluge and perhaps came down into the historical period. which contain chronological material. which are important for our purpose. fact the mistakes are indeed very evident. The manner in which Berossos has come down to us has been already described. I. aca of Berossos was divided into three books. for it is based upon Babylonian documents B. and the third book was devoted to the historical period.THE CHRONOLOGY. GREEK WRITERS. and ical tables. the Babylonideal. We have given attention above to his chronolog- to the use of Berossos as a source for the history. come to an end. 327 Syrian historical inscriptions. Of these the first in importance which comes to us from the Greeks is in reality simply Babylonian. originally. The book described the origin of the world and of man and continued down to the deluge. If we . It remains now only that we turn to those sources outside of the Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions. and as a matter of may easily be seen.

The sar is 3.328 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and later amplified and corrected by Alfred von 1 Eusebius. 147. Chron. Dindorf. they may be re- garded as certainly coming from Berossos. According to the Syncellus line (ed. 12) there were 86 kings who ruled 34. Neue Folge. 26) says that these 86 kings ruled 33." How are these figures to be interpreted? The most probable explanation is that first suggested. = 1 If we turn to Book II..080 years. to which is added also the explanation 9 sars at 3.000 years. There is therefore exactly eleven years difference between the Syncellus and Eusebius in this report.. p. which in all probability. 9. C.600 years As is. ed. 10 kings =120 sars 432. According to Berossos there reigned be. p. take up these books in order. ed. 2 . So Rost. 3 v. which would correspond to the difference between the death of Alexander the Great (323 B. Dindorf. of value may be found in them. fore the flood ten kings during a period of one hundred and twenty sars.) and the beginning of the Seleucid era (31 2). 2 ners at 600. Gutschmid's first paper appeared in the Rheinisches Muaeum fur It is reprinted in Philologie. if any. Untersuchungen. p. Eusebius (Chron. and 8 sos at 60 34. these kings reigned 432. 9 . = On i. Syncellus. p. i. we shall speedily see what material.080. the other hand. simply a mistake for 34. these statements have come down to us both in that Eusebius and in the Syncellus.091. Band viii (1853). ed. Book I. 252-267.091 years. Schoene. pp. we find that there is a difference between the sources in which Berossos has been preserved for us.000 years. is.600. Schoene.

and was modified later in Beitrage zur Geschichte des Allen Orients (1858). that the Babylonians had grouped their kings of the post deluge period in a cycle of 36. we have left exactly 1. Leipzig. generally. " In this manner the Chaldeans reckon the kings of their land from Aloros to Alexander. ff. Die Chronologic der Bibel des Manetho tmd Beros. 18. pp. Geschichte des semitischen Altertums in Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie." By the word Chdldaei is here meant doubtless Berossos.080 preserved by the Syncellus. but a concensus of opinion is now gradually forming as the result of 1 a suggestion first offered by Peiser. ii. 1890). Leipzig.920 years terminated. this sentence. pp. pp. pp. If we could find the point at which these 1. and from this we learn that Berossos had continued his history to Alexander. 1880.. but had escaped the attention of scholars Peiser's suggestion was independent of Floigl. 23 . 97-114. Do the 1. This suggestion had preff. 1876). ii. Tabellen. 115. 405-421 (reprinted Kleine Schriften. according to Eusebius. 1 ff. 259. 8 329 Gutschmid. Ueber den. vi. There is preserved in Abydenus. 1882. and in Neue Beitrage zur Geschichte des Alien Orients (Leipzig. ff.). viously been made by Floigl. Band Ixxiii (1856). " that is. hist. "Hocpacto Chaldaei suae regionis reges ab Aloro usque ad Alexandrum recensent . If now we take from this number the num- ber 34. Many have been the views on this subject.. pp. Much of this paper was withdrawn by von Gutschmid in a review of Brandis. we shall arrive at the point at which Babylonian history begins. son of Alexander the Great. p.920 years for the historical list of kings. 7. 264.920 years end here ? It is probable that Kleine Schriften. Inschriften in Neue JahrbUcher fitr Philologie. Gewinn aus der Entzifferung der assyr. and the king here meant is certainly Alexander. 115. von Alfred von Gutschmid. herausgegeben von Franz Riihl (Leipzig.000 years. v. p.THE CHRONOLOGY. pp.

and it is easy it may refer to some other event it It were folly to accept exclusion of the dates which have come to the down to us from original Babylonian sources. . in favor of either view. says that Callis- thenes had been asked by Aristotle to send to Greece any records of astronomical observations 1 So Rost. to one of whom he had dediIf now we date backward from cated his book. But immediately that we attempt to determine where to place this date in our Babylonian chronology difficulties begin. p. Lehmann would locate it dur- ing the reign of Hammurabi as the year when all Babylonia was united under one scepter and Belthe national deity. 4. this must be con- Simplicius in his treatise. Rost would accept it as the date of the beginning of the first dynasty. Lehmann agrees with this (Zwei Hauptbrobl. the date of Alexander's death).. and sidered.330 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. they do. p. Marquart) that the date 2232-2231 is confirmed from another Greek source. Hep* commentary upon Aristotle's ovpavov (De Caelo). we arrive at 2232 or 2231 as the year of the beginning of Babylonian history according to Berossos. 1 312 (or 311. On the other hand. It is indeed most probable that they extended down to the Seleucid era in 312. There is no decisive Marduk became argument to imagine that of consequence. It is believed by some scholars (Lehmann. 107) on slightly different grounds. for Berossos would surely be glad to pay such a compliment to these rulers. Rost. ITutersuchunyen.

Berlin.. 109.THE CHRONOLOGY. Heiberg. Upon the authority of Porphyiius. C. but independently of him. Furthermore. which would yield 2233 B. and the 8 Nachtrage on p. the it to be an error. But the from the astronomical about the text is fatal to it figure 31. 210. p. Simplicius avers that Callisthenes found such observations extending back for 31. deed is just such a number as is afforded by other of the Greek writers.000 inwhich Moerbeka used. the date of the tions. can be explained on palseographical grounds. Consilio et autoriSimplicii in Aristotdis tate Academiae Litterarum Regiae Borussicae editit J. and it cannot be proved that 1903 was actually in the codex confidence in The The numeral 31. and proposes to use it as dating back- reading 31. 3 Rost ( Untersuchttngen) has worked out the same comparison as Lehmann in practically the same way. assuming ward from 331 as B. which he might find in Babylon..000 is actually in our only original witness to the text. There is.000 years. Zwei Hauptprob." readily Lehmann therefore insists that the reading 1903 is original. side.) reads 1903.000. which is in itself more reasonable. This would beginning of the observaagree remarkably well with Berossos. after entering Babylon with Alexander the Great in the autumn of 331 B. * See the discussion in Lehmann. 1894. Latin translation by 1 A Moerbeka (about 1271 A. S. grave doubt about this figure. C. and especially the palseographical observations of Professor Diels on p. 110. p. line 14. 331 This Callisthenes did. 606. Pliny states that the num" " De 1 Caelo commentario. however. . C. and so confirm difficulty it. D.

Teubner. may be regarded II. 538-7 -323-2] Grand Total 1 s 3 vii. p.090 = . we must search still further to see if there be left anywhere else in Berossos even one single point that might be useful in connection with the native sources. p. Schwartz in Pauly-Wissowa. ii. solid chronological structure upon them. Diodorus. ii. wissenschaft. [2224-3 [1976-5 2224-3] 1976-5] 458 245 1518-7] [1518-7 [1273-2 [ -1273-2] 747-6] 538-7] 526 206 468. it is and any Having failed in this search for a starting point of Babylonian chronology by means of Berossos and Simplicius. ii. 49).000. p. Hist. Schwartz has lately subjected the whole of the fragments of Berossos to a searching examination and arrives at the conclusion that the following scheme as certain:* I.000. 314. ber of years given by Berossos was 490. Altertums- Pliny. Real-Encyclopadie der class." The numerals in all these copyists of Berossos seem in a hopeless useless to attempt to build tangle. . 57 (ed.. 34.. 181).. 31 (ed.000 86 Kings after the flood. Nat. i. C. Lips. 10 Kings before the flood 120 Sars 432. Dindorf. 224 248 [2448-7 B.000 215 468. Mayhoff.332 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Median Usurpers 11 Kings 49 Chaldean Kings 9 Arabian Kings 45 Kings 8 III. 1828.' and Diodorus makes it 473.215 From Nabonassar to Cyrus Total 747-6 = 130 Sars [ From Cyrus to Alexander's Death.

was plainly made poses.. and geographer who lived in the second century A. ble now to determine the origin of this remarkable fiaaiteuv list. and Roman kings. p. a catalogue of Babylonian. valuable in the early work of the decipherment. Chaldean. 329. Semiten. mathematician. Compare in opposition to these attempts and Winckler. We do not find the same divisions of dynasties in the latter. When tested by the native has in every case stood the test. altorientalische . Cfeschicfite. II. D. The learned and ingenious efforts made by It is utterly impossible to reconcile this scheme with that which has been preserved for us by the Hommel 1 to reconcile them are not generally re- garded been any more problems. have later attempts Like a number of other left must be unsolved. Tiele. i. nor do we understand who are meant by the Median. Geschichte.THE CHRONOLOGY. and Arabian usurpers and kings. Greek. Hommel. an eminent Egyptian astronomer. ff. for astronomical and not for historical pur- those kings 1 and therefore only contains the names of who began to reign with the begini. pp. It is impossiPersian. is a Kavwv (Canon of Kings). 333 Babylonian King Lists and Chronicles. nor fruitful. this as at all successful. The Canoti of Ptolemy. It begins monuments it and was extremely with Nabonassar and exIt tends to Alexander the Great. 109. for by its use the order of the kings was first established. Untersuchungen z. ff. Among the works left by Claudius Ptolemseus. at least for the present. 3.

ning of a year and continued to its end. at all. Kings who came to the throne after the beginning of the year and reigned but a few months are not named For purposes of comparison the Canon of Ptolemy. IN CLAUDIUS . may here be set down.334 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. THE BABYLONIAN CANON OF RULERS Length of Reign. with the Babylonian names.

The light D. The only scientific course would seem to be to decline to force these figures into agreement. Every investigator differs from every other as to the place in which he finds the errors. THE OLD TESTAMENT. yet each feels confident that he has found the correct solution. For the present it seems unwise to attempt to draw up a hard and fast list of kings in the early centuries by means of a system which rests on the acceptance of figures from some ancient documents and the rejection of figures from others. but simply to put down . Practically the same statement is true with reference to the Old Testament. the result is not encouraging. C. From the Egyptian inscriptions scarcely anything of value may be obtained for chronological purwhich the Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions has brought to the Egyptian texts is indeed far more useful than the converse. it must be admitted that with respect to the former. 335 EGYPTIAN INSCRIPTIONS.THE CHRONOLOGY. the chronological materials of which were first set in their proper light If through Assyrian and Babylonian discoveries. These facts can only be reconciled by supposing error somewhere. at least. now from all these sources we essay the makof a chronological table for Babylonia and Asing syria. poses. Every effort to make all the facts which have come down to us dovetail accurately together has failed.

C. C. 3900 B.336 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA.) Shirpurla Erech 4500 B. URUKAGINA LUGAL-SHUGGUR GURSAB I GUNIDU I UR-NINA I AKUR-GAL E-ANNA-TUM ENANNATUMA I I ENTEMENA I ENANNATUMA II UKTTSH cir. C. and with explanations of the discrepancies. C. TABLES. cir. begin here We with the earliest known period. I LUGAL-KlSALSI First Dynasty of Ur. (patesi of Gishban) 4100 B. LUGALKIGUBNIDUDU LtTGALKISALSI. indicate those places in those which seem reasonably well attested. and to which they are in conflict figures. 4000 B. with other This we proceed to do. C. I LUGAL-ZAGGISI cir. Eengi EN-SHAG-KUSH-AN-NA (before 4500 B. ac- companying the dates in some cases with references to the sources enumerated above. .

II . 3000 B. (? about 2285 B.C. . ISHBIGARRA Third Dynasty of Ur DTTNGI LIBIT-ISHTAR PUR.). C. C. EBI-AKU (Arioch). 3200 B. ISHME-DAGAN EN-AN-NA-TUM (vassal of Gungunu) GUNGUNTJ PUR-SIN II GAMIL-SIN iNE-SlN ^Kingdom of Larsa. C. 3800 B. C. C. . 3000 B. KUDUR-MABUG. NUB-ADAD. URGUR DUNGI I GUDEA I cir. 2500 B. 3750 B. I) Sargon NARAM-SIN cir. NAMMAGHANI Second Dynasty of Vr cir. URNINGIRSU (vassal of Dungi I) AKURGAL . 3800 B. BlNGANI-SHAR-ALI UR-BAU cir. LUGAL-USHUMGAL (vassal of cir. C. 3400 B.SIN I IJR-NlNIB ] ! order f J unknown n cir. Agade SHARGANI-SHAR-ALI cir. (Sargon I) 337 Shirpurla (LagasTi) C. SlN-IDDINAM. .THE CHRONOLOGY. ~\ I ? order LUKANI J GHALA-LAMA Dynasty of Isin cir. C. KUDUB-NANKHUNDI CHEDORLAOMEK.

For confirmation of this theory. A names and B.Bib. 9. 5... is taken from Baby- the numbers that in A and B allowance is made for rival princes who were deemed tioned illegitimate and hence not men- by name. while in C we have -naturally only the names and the years of legitimate rulers. 1. First Dynasty.!8). . 7. 2390-2373 2372-2343 2342-2288 SIN-MUBALLIT 30 55 HAMMURABI SAMSU-ILTTNA 2287-2253 35 25 25 21 31 8. xxi. we shall have to await the discovery of new material. Tears. 3. 35 14 18 ZABU ApiL-SiK 4.338 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. ABESHTJ' (EBISHUM).p. AMMISADUGGA SAMSUSATANA of these 2202-2182 2181-2151 The order lonian The years of reign King Lists It is possible are those given in the King List. that some of the differences between these and given in Chronological Tablet C may be explained on the basis suggested by Sayce (Proceedings Soc. Length of Reign According to King List. 11. Archaeology. Kingdom of Babylon. 2252-2228 AMMISATATSTA 2227-2203 10. SUMUABI SUMU-LA-ILU 2&&2440 2439-2405 2404-2391 15 2. 6.

and there is reason to doubt whether they are correct. Second Dynasty. . Hommel at one time attempted to prove that this second dynasty really preceded dynasty I. 1914-1865 (50) A-DARA-KALAMA A-KUR-UL-AN-KA 1864-1837 1836-1811 . 2 i. 169. and that the second dynasty. 6. for example. MELAM-KUR-KUR-RA EA-GA-MIL 1810-1803 1802-1783 (20) These names with the numerals attached are found and B. . pp. 2090-2035 2034-2009 (56) (26) DAM-KI-ILU-SHU ISH-KI-BAL 2008-1994 1993-1970 1969-1915 . (28) (26) (8) 9. p. 11. he then later took the view that the second dynasty and the first were contemporaneous. so called. Many efforts have been made to relieve these difficulties. 1897. was in Lists A . SHU-USH-SHI GUL-KI-SHAB KlR-GAL-DARA-BAE. respecting the period which has elapsed between certain kings of dynasty I and dynasty II as. 9. The length of several of the reigns seem exceedingly high. 125. 339 Length of Reign. 1 11 1 Geschichte. between Hammurabi and Burnaburiash (see above. 3. I. London. It is also impossible to reconcile the total period of three hundred and sixtyeight with the facts learned from other sources. 10. (15) (24) (55) 5. 1. p. 8.THE CHRONOLOGY. 4. 316). V. AN-MA-AN KI-AN-NI-BI 2150-2091 (60) 2. Illustrated by the Monu- ments. The Ancient Hebrew Tradition as ff. Hommel.

A B present the only safe position uncertainty. [Perhaps about six 1782-1767 B. AGUM-KAKRIME. GANDISH AGUM-SHI BIBEIASHI cir. p. may be Length of Reign. is one of doubt and We may now turn with rather more confidence to the next dynasty. 1899). C. 1. Kassites. 6. to the conclusion that the last king (Ea-gamil. for the first to a period in which native documents have time. preserved for us fractions of years. 4. 7. In it we come. just as the discovery of List C has shown that there are errors or. Dusm ADUMETASH TASHZIGURMASH. ' " He has since come entirely apocryphal. 1766-1745 1744-1723 1722-1714 1713- 16 22 22 9 (?19) unknown kings.. at least." really " the first six and possibly. p. Third Dynasty. and the seventh to the tenth wholly It does not appear that there is any rejected.] 1 Op. 2. . 211 (February." also. For this and other reasons the chances of error are reduced and a higher degree of probability in the result expected. " The True Date of Abraham and Moses. 5 good reason for rejecting all or any part of these names as apocryphal.340 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. 5. 126." The Expository Times. twenty years) should be retained. 3. but the figures which are attached to them may easily be wrong in whole or in part. 2 Hommel. x. tit. irregularities in and For the the Lists respecting dynasty I.

[SHUZIGASH or NAZIBUGASH. -. 34. son KADASHMAN-BURIASH. cir. 1209-1207 3 The names ties to in this list still offer many difficul- the historian and chronologist. 27.!. cir. BURNABURIASH II [son of Kurigalzu]. KARAINDASH. The provisional date for Gandish (1782 B. cir. cir. son Kadashman-Kharbe I. The names from No. BURNABURIASH I. cir. 29. 32. of Nazimaruttash. 35. 26. 36. cir. KURIGALZU I. KUDUR-BEL about 1304-1299 SHAGARAKTI-SHURIASH cir. 1 to No. 1340. KADASHMAN-KHARBE ADAD-SHUM-IDDIN ADAD-SHUM-USUR II j year 6 mos.C.cir. 1298-1286 [800 years before Nabonidus. 1420. KARAKHARDASH. 30. KADASHMAN-BEL [formerly called Kalimma-Sin].nhK^ 7 ear 6 mos. 6 are drawn from the Baby. BEL-SHUM-IDDIN cir. . cir. BIBEIASHU BEL-SHUM-IDDIN cir. 1274-1269 1268-1239 1238-1224 1223-1211 1210 15 13 1 cir. KADASHMAN-TURGU.THE CHRONOLOGY.) is also assigned on the basis of the same list. KURIGALZU II. Length of Reign. which assigns five hun- dred and seventy-six years and nine months as the . cir. MELISHIPAK MARDUK-APAL-IDDIN ZAMAMU-SHUM-IDDIN. 1400. as are also the years of reign assigned to the first four.. KADASHMAN KHARBE I. 1360. 341 1450. 1350./. cir. 6 (30) cir. 1370. . ) . 1430. Usurper]. 33. cir. NAZIMARUTTASH. son of Kurigalzu II. 1285-1278 1 . cir. 31. 1410.] 6 13 8 28. Ionian King List A.

1. and the reasons for the order here adopted are given for the most part in the history proper which follows. 1125 B. cir. and usually in the footnotes or in doubtful. C. is of the kings from No. (?) 2 3. the references contained in them.342 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. 7. 1206-1189 B. together with the years of reign computed in the same manner. must remain doubtful until cleared up by monumental evidence. cir. C. cir. I. If now the date of the length of this dynast}'. cir. C. 7 to in several cases extremely They rest largely upon inscriptions belonging to several of the kings found chiefly at Nippur. it follows that the dynasty must have 575 = 1782). end of the dynasty be set at 1207 B. f J Four unknown kings.. 26 to 36 are also put down as they are found in the same list. >j MAKDUK . C. and this year 1207 be the five hundred and seventysixth year. (18) 1188-1183 B. Dynasty of Isin. C. 1135 B. 25. inclusive. Fourth Dynasty. NEBUCHADREZZAR BEL-XADIX-APLI. . and in some instances the names themselves. The arrangement No. on a reck- oning of the following dynasty (see below). (6) 4 5 6. At the best the order. the first The kings from No. The dates of begun in 1782 (1207 + four kings of the dynasty are computed on the basis of the length of their reigns given in the same list.

] not mentioned in (8) King 11.THE CHRONOLOGY.) MAKDUK-SHAPIK-ZEB-MATI 1094-1083. cir. i. is it. NABU-SHUM (or-nadin). ii. of this dynasty has usually been given. (22) [MARDUK-AKHE-IBBA ?] 1095. p. and with this Knudtzon" agrees. and the years of reign. and Bel-nadinfrom a boundary stone. MAKDUK-NADIN-AKHE. as are also the numerals 12 and 8 which follow. C. . Marduk-nadin-akhe apli is known from Assyrian synchronisms. The location of Marduk-akhe-irba is exceedingly doubtful. From a monument of his own Nebuchadrezzar I is known. and suggested that it must be 132 years. on the basis of the King List. as does also 1 1 ZA vi. After an examination of the passage he became convinced that it must be 132. List. 9. as V2 years and 6 months. 268. 1082-1075 For the arrangement of the fourth dynasty our materials are exceedingly scanty. 2 Knudtzon. badly broken and but little can be The King List A made out of The first name is almost entirely destroyed. ff. 1117-1096 B. 22. Assyrische Gebete. but the number of years is certainly fixed at 18. appear upon the King List A. usurper. 343 10. but by a simple calculation Peiser The length proved that this was impossible. 8. cir. 277. but the numeral 1 year and 6 months is on the King List. p. (1 year 6 mos. The reasons for the location of the remaining kings are given below in the his- tory. The numeral 6 attached to the second king appears also to be certain. (12) [ADAD-APAL-IDDIN. 60 .

13. Dynasty of cir. Sixth Dynasty. cir. 1. be regarded only as the though the tentative. From this point onward there in our a considerable gap knowledge of the Babylonian kings. and even the length of the gap cannot be definitely ascertained. cir. EuLBAE-SHAKIISr-SHUM NlNIB-KUDUB-USTJR SlLANIM-SHTTKAMUNA (3 mOS. Lehmann. 1032-1027 (6) An Elamite [name unknown] of reign is is The length but the name given in King List A.) Both names and length of reign are taken from King List A. . 1. 14. Length of Reign. 1 by the allusion of Sennacherib (see above. Seventh Dynasty. SIBAKSHIPAK EA-MUKIN-ZER KASSHU-NADIN-AKHE 1074-1057 1057 1056-1054 (18) (5 mos. 2. 1.) (3) Both names and length of reign are taken from King List A. 15. 1. broken off. C. Zwei Hauptprobl. The Dynasty of Elam.344 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. though the latter thinks that 133 is possiThe date of Marduk-nadin-akhe is made clear ble. latter figure is to Fifth Dynasty.). and has not yet been is recovered from any other source. Sea Lands. 320). 1053-1037 1036-1034 1033 (17) (3) 2. p. and from that date it is possible to reckon downward to the end of the dynasty at 1075 and forward to its beginning (1075 + 131=1206 B. Dynasty of Bazi. 3. 3. 1 Lehmann. pp.

and these are set down. The Dynasty of Babylon.THE CHRONOLOGY. 910 SHAMASH-MUDAMMIK NABU-SHUM-ISHKUN NABU-APAL-IDDIN cir. When Nabu-nasir is reached we come to the exact chronological material of the Ptolemaic Canon. which gives us the definite dates 747 and 733. of As- j > \ nve years. 1026-991 (36) 345 NABU-KIN-ABLI 8 mos. and 10 days 990 Unknown King Several unknown kings. 24 of Assyria). possibly four or even six. PULTJ (= TlGLATH-PILESER \ Hort HnH 729-727. . . ULULAI (= SHALMANESER IV. 731-730. cir. 727-722 MARDTJK-AFAL-IDDIN (Merodach-baladan). 900 880 [at least 31 years] 812 MARDUK-XADIN-SHUM MARDUK-BALATSU-IKBI BAU-AKH-IDDIN ' cir. UKIN-ZER. cir. III. ) 800 J Probably two missing names 747-734 NABU-SHUH-ISHKUN NABU-NASIR NABU-NADIN-ZER NABU-SHUM-TTKIN 733-732 731 (1 (2) mo. cir. of the kings from Shamash-mudamposition to Bau-akh-iddin is determined by the Assyr- few ian synchronisms (see history). Ninth Dynasty. Eighth Dynasty. (5) syria). gives the length of The mik instances. 721-709 (12) . and 12 days) Our knowledge of the chronological order of is the kings of this dynasty The Babylonian King reigns in a List A exceedingly slight.

703. cir. (4. NEBGAX-SHAB-USUE. 667-647. 693-690. NABTJ-APAL-USUB (Nabopolassar). 702-700.) SIN-AKH-EBBA (Sennacherib). . 559-556. IBISHUM.) ASHUB-NADKST-SHUM. 625-605. LABASHI. Ishakkus of Asshur. KANDALANU (= ASHUR-BAN-APAL). The Chronology of Assyria. SHAMASH-SHUM-UKLN. 556. BEL-IBNI.) (6. MABDUK-APAL-IDDIN (Merodach-baladan). (5. 693. 699-694. 689-682. 647-626. 1830. 561-560. (?) (?) II. ASSHUB-AKH-IDDIX (Esarhaddon). 681-668. ISHME-DAGAST. (3.) MUSHEZIB-MABDUK. The dates may be regarded as fixed with as much definiteness as may be expected in the history of the ancient Orient. 604-562. NEEGAL-USHEZIB. SHAMSHI-ADAD Igur-kapkapu. 555-539. SHAMSHI-ADAD KHALLU. 703-702.) SIN-AKH-EBBA (Sennacherib). For tliis period the chronological material is abundant and extraordinarily accurate. I. AMEL-MAEDUK (EVIL-MEBODACH). NABU-NA'ID (Nabonidus). cir. NABU-KUDUEBI-USUB (NEBUCHADEEZZAB). (1.346 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. MABDUK-ZAKIB-SHUM. 1810. 709-705.MABDUK. SHABBUKIN. 705-703.

NABU-DAIAN. ADAD-STIRARI II. cir. BEL-NIRARI. NlNIB-APAL-ESHARRA. SHULMANTJ-ASHARID I. ASHUR-BEL-NISHESHU. cir. SHULMANU-ASHARID (SHALMANESER SHAMSHI-ADAD II. 1080. 1370. ASSHUR-DAN II. 1380 B. C. 1350. cir. TTJKULTI-APAL-ESHARRA (TIGLATHPILESER II). cir. his son. his son. cir. cir. ASSHUR-NAZIR-PAL III. cir. 1210. ASSHUR-NADIN-AKHE. PuzuR-AsHUR. cir. cir. cir. BEL-KAPKAPU. MUTAKKIL-NUSKU. 859-825. C. ASSHUR-HAZIR-PAL ASSHUR-NARARA. cir. 1420. ASSHUR-NADIN-AKHE. ASHTTR-DAN.hisson (SHALMANESER TuKTTLTi-NiisriB. 1280. his son. 1450 B. 884-860. 911-891. ADAD-NIRARI I. ASSHUR-RISH-ISHI. cir. cir. cir. his son. cir. 1050. SHAMSHI-ADAD I. cir. 1290. his son. cir. his son. 1345. II). BEL-KUDUR-USUR. ASSHUR-ERBI. his son.THE CHRONOLOGY. 890-885. TUKULTl-APAL-ESHARRA (TlGLATHPILESER ASSHUR-BEL-KALA. his son. Cll*. 930. 347 1700 B. cir. 950. I). ADAD-NIRARI III. cir. 824-812. 1330. I). C. 811-783. TuKULTi-NiNiB II. 1240. 1120. 1150. Kings of Assyria. cir. ASHUR-NAZIR-PAL II. ASSHUK-UBALLIT. C. 1235 B. . PUDI-ILU. 1090. 1140. I. ERBA-ADAD.


any picture of the beginnings of civilization in Babylonia which will satisfy the desire for a clear and vivid portrayal. society. and 349 . "Thus far shalt thou come farther. study of the origins of states is fraught with no less difficulty than the investigation of the The great wall before origins of animate nature. and transport ourselves backward until we reach the period of more than four thousand five hundred years before Christ. CHAPTER THE I. THE HISTOBY OF BABYLONIA TO THE FALL OF LAKSA. Whatever may be achieved by future investigators it is now impossible to do more than give outlines of events in the dim past of early Babylonia. its inscription. we shall be able to discern here and there signs of life.BOOK II! THE HISTORY OF BABYLONIA. If we call up before us the land of Babylonia. with every investigator of the beginnings of things." stands also before the student of and no the origins of the various early kingdoms of BabIt may always be impossible to achieve ylonia.

. In Babylonia we know of the existence of born. the strong1 whose right it is to demand worship. comprising many cities. from dwellers in other cities. in certain cities. and Over the entire land back upon it. (afterward called Lagash).350 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Kish. with their laws and customs. It 1 Winckler. as we look dissevered in government. There was the crying need for bread the most pressing need of all the ages. the cities Agade. and men are able to write down their thoughts and deeds in intelligible language and in permanent form. there are only visible. Kutha. with subject territory and tribute-paying states. If the inhabitants of Babylon could conquer the people of Kutha. This belief becomes an impulse by which the inhabitants of a city are driven out to conquer other cities and so extend the dominion of their god. and should not other peoples also worship him ? But there were other motives for conquest. the arts of life are well advanced. At this period there are no great kingdoms. Untcrsuchunffen. p. and yet Shirpurla In each of these cities worship others less famous. also. was it not proof that the stronger god was behind their armies. Gishban. government Civilization has al- ready reached a high point. Guti. All these presuppose a long period of development running back through millenniums of unrecorded time. 1889. cities perhaps in interbut yet the promise of kingdoms still uncourse. be a Baal or Lord. 65. Leipzig. Babylon. is paid to some local god who is considered by his faithful followers to est god.

op. 351 was natural that they who had the poorer parts of the country should seek to acquire the better portions either to dwell in or to exact tribute The desire impulse. a thoroughly human joined to the other two influ- ences at a very early date.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA. Old Babylonian Inscriptions. cit. 90-92. More than four thousand five hundred years before Christ there lived in this land of Kengi a man who writes his name En-shag-kush2 ana. At the very earliest period whose written records have come down to us the name of Babylonia was Kengi that " is." Even then the waters of the river were conveyed to the fields and the cities in artificially constructed canals. land of canals and reeds. part ii. Xos. by hunger. 47. . for these little kingdoms thus formed later unite under the headship of one kingdom and the empire is founded. and by ambition. i. note 2 The inscriptions of this king are published by Hilprecht. The ruler in Babylon must needs conquer his nearest neighbor that he may get himself power over men and a name among them. the peoples of Babylonia. who have dwelt apart in separate cities. begin to add city to city. We know and p. p. concentrating power in the hands of kings. life was the while the most characteristic form of vegetable reed. Herein lies the origin of the great empire which must later dominate the whole earth. growing in masses along the water courses. Impelled by religion. See further Hilprecht's notes on p. foot- Hilprecht. 1 who calls himself lord of Kengi. 38. for power. 9.. was also from. 51.

Now En-shag-kush-ana was the patesi of in his keep- We do not know of what race he was. citn p. 31. op. and especially footnote 1 . p. footnote 3 Jensen. The view set forth above owes much to Hilprecht. Naturally enough the man who held wa&pcUesi. protected if its sanctity necessary. Untersuchungen. Hilprecht. Deut. very little indeed of him. Zeilschrift d. was a god whose power had been shown in the prosperity of his worshipers in war or in trade. this chief priest. Rost. The of this ruler of the temple. morgenl. i. of which Erech was probably the capital. or he may have been of mixed race. he may have been a Semite. for that mixture of blood had already begun is shown clearly enough by contemporary monuments. 254. Altorientalisc/ie Forschungen. Gesellschaft. pp. it was natural enough that neighboring cities should come under his glorious protection. But whatever his own blood was his people were Sumeriaiis and the civilization over which he ruled was likewise 1 There has been a long dispute over the meaning of the word. En-lil. 1 and was accounted its ruler.352 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and that his patesi should stand in the relation of governor to them. 49. See esff. ff. Even at this early time there was a temple at Nippur dedicated to the great god En-lil. . xxxxviii. part iii. He may and the honor of that god was have been Sumerian. and Nippur was certainly its chief religious center.. . ing. who controlled the temple worship. pecially Winckler. vol. over which there was set a chief servant of the god. 232. title such an important religious post often gained If the god whom he represented political power. but it seems probable that his small dominion contained several cities.

They coveted the rich alluvial soil on which the Babylonians were living as well as the fine cities which already dotted it here and there. Out of this period to which En-shag-kush-ana ing when a new and more belongs lonia. which once had belonged to the Sumerians. but had been driven from it by their resistless advance. The Sumerians had probably once possessed this very land in which they were now dwelling. which became the chief city of their growing kingdom.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA. settled in the Sumerian territory in the south. but who were now for some time settled northwest of Babylonia and probably in Mesopotamia. These invaders were Semites. It seems probable that the city of Grishban was one of their earliest possessions. already and others of them already possessed the great northern domain. While En-shag-kush-ana was lord over the Sumerian kingdom in the south the kingdom of Kish was threatening to overwhelm the whole . who has been trying to reconquer part of northern Babylonia which was already in the possession of these new invaders. rian vitality 353 But even at this early time the Suine- was dying out. and the day was threatenvirile people would drive the Sumerians out of their heritage and possess it in Some individuals of this race were their room. and that to it they later added Kish. Sumerian. whose original home was probably Arabia. we hear several echoes of the conflict that for the possession of all Babythis period there belongs a little was already begun To about broken inscription written by another lord of Kengi.

who king of Kish. went down into southern Babylonia and overwhelmed it.. his " * and set them up as an offering in the property ite or perattacked Enne-Ugun. and the people who had invented a system of writing this people. the his. Victory came to the Sumerians. who had given him the victory. It was. and Nippur readily became the chief center of its religious life. when he had come to the rule over Kish and Gishban. the utensils. Lugalzaggisi the capital of the now united Babylonia. It was probably easily accomplished. his shining silver. " sanctuary of the great god En-lil. It of Babylonia. however. a new that served their conquerors for thousands of years were a people who had left a deep impress on the made Erech world's history. Yet theirs had been a noble career. bearing with him the spoil of the conquered Semhis statue. The language of the Sumerians was used by their conqueror in which to cele1 Hilprecht. C. part ii. and it was his son Lugalzaggisi who. vol. Well might the king of Kengi boast of a victory which must for a time at least stay the progress of the invading Semite. About 4000 B. Jns. i. called Ukush.354 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. only a temporary reverse for The Semites had the fresh power of and soon produced a leader able to race. and the king. p. . strike the one blow needed to destroy forever There was a patesi the Sumerian commonwealth. whose name is yet unknown. was a successor of haps a predecessor. 50. for the work of the Sumerians was done. Old Bab. of Gishban. came home.

.. The power of his name a great patesi of En-lil. though. i. king of Erech. galkurkura (that is. hero of Nidaba. plate 42. Lugal-kisalsi. Old Bab. Ins. It glow with feeling as he says " : When En-lil. p.." extended even to the shores of the Mediterranean. En-lil). and his boast- ' begins with a long list of titles Lugalzaggisi. when he filled straightened his path from the lower sea of the Tigris and Euphrates to the upper sea. . of course." Lugalzaggisi made a small empire at one stroke. and caused him the dominion the countries to dwell in peace. king of the world. and to their gods did he give was they who had called him to the rule over Kengi and appointed unto him a still greater dominion. 89. and granted of everything (?) from the rising of the sun to the setting of the sun. lord of the lands. invested Lugalzaggisi with the kingdom of the world. he did not attempt to rule over so vast a territory. His words thanks for his victories. Ibid. priest of Ana. Lugalzaggisi was succeeded on the throne by his son. p. text 3 No. ful inscription " : hero of Mdaba. and it appeared for a time as though the Sumerian kingdom was blotted out 1 3 Hieprecht . he who was looked upon by the faithful eye of Lufavorably patesi of Gishban. and granted him success before the land with his power. 53 2 Ibid. part ii. 355 brate his conquest. son of Ukush. 52.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA. (and) subdued the country from the rise of the sun to the setting of the sun at that time he the world.

We come them both in full power and dignity. There is no of his little inscriptions of war. mention in any and in his time Sungir (formerly read Gir-su) later becomes Sumer and gives its name whole of southern Babylonia. more than one effort to retain its life. for which he brought timber all the way from Magan the Sinaitic peninsula. 2 that we catch of his operations in the far dis- tant past. about upon city or 4500 B.. xi. 1 to the 2 the Past. part p. a new king in Sungir. perhaps a generation or more. and he is engaged in the building and restoration of temples and the construction of a canal to supBut it is only a glimpse ply his city with water. to be the case with the Perhaps while Lugal-kisalsi was still alive a reaction began. the kingdom of Shirpurla. Urukagiua then is king of Shirpurla. and then he disappears and for some time. 68.^). 5. KeHinschrift. The nucleus for it was found in an ancient kingdom.356 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Ur-Nina. in southern Babyhad laid the foundations of either was 1 kingdom is unknown to us. C. whose lonia. Bib. 10. It appears in Hebrew in the form Shinar (^y. he also was a builder of temples. i. and that no more than peaceful absorption it. See translations of the inscriptions of Urukagina by Amiaud. ff. pp. we hear nothThen there appears ing of his city or kingdom. into the Semitic life could await But a king- dom slowly built up during the ages often makes and this was Sumerian kingdom. Gen.. Hi. forever. . Records of new series. Like Urukagina. and Jensen. chief city Who Sungir.

with a great spear in The inscriptions of pi. note 6. pp. but Heuzey has been for the most part vindicated. i. and ComptesRendus de V Academic des Inscriptions. Ur-Nina are published in Heuzey-Sarzec. 2. 49-82. ff. 76. Most part p.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA. Upon his return. Old- Bab. Upon one of its white limestone faces stand two goddesses. 2. . ment is well described by Maspero. The whole monuxx. 606. xi. Decouvertes pi. The Sumerians won. and the bloody battle remained long famous in the annals of a dying people. 330. 357 1 uninterrupted peace seems to have prevailed. vol. before whom lies a great heap of weapons and of booty taken from the Semites. 2 the Past.. The name was Ins. i. Bibl. 3. See Heuzey. Eannatum set up in the temple 3 of his god Nin-Sungir a splendid stele in com- memoration of his victory. See now Hilprecht. On the other side of the stele is Eannatum standing upright in his 1 war chariot. originally read Edingiranagin. part pp. After him came his son. iv. Akurgal. 11-15. note 1. He was succeeded by his son. Keilinschrift. pp. Revue d Assyriologie. and by Hilprecht. who has given much time to its It has been the study. pi. No. series. i. Etudes d Archceologie 1 Orientate. 31. p. ff. 1892. none of whose inscriptions have come down to us. ii. now in the Louvre. 4. Nos. pi.. pp. iii. Thureau-Dangin. and Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie. and Decouvertes en Chaldee. Dawn of Civilization. 3 This is the well-known stele of the Vultures. 1 of our knowledge of it is due to Heuzey. subject of some controversy. Eannatum. 1. 1. 2. 42. note 2. or coat of arms of the city a double-headed eagle above two demi-lions placed back to back. 64-66) and by Jen- by Amiaud (Records of sen. vol. en Chaldee. and determined to strike a blow against Gishban and its domination of Babylonia. covered with honor. They are well translated pp. TO.. Recent Research in Bible Lands (Philadelphia. Above them is the totem." who felt sorely the increasing pressure of the Semitic hordes. vol. pp. new i. 1897). 262-274.

we other conqueror in Babylonia. Rude though it undoubtedly is. part i. C. and his hand. by his troops and charging the enemy. He was succeeded by and he by his brother. who remains up to this time but a shadowy personality before us. his son. and vultures fight with each other and devour the mangled heads. for such execution could only be the result of long practice in the plastic art. The plain is covered with the upon bodies of his enemies. With the great god En-lil at Nippur. By this one stroke Eannatum had freed Ur and Uruk from the Semitic invader and had imparted a fresh lease of life to the almost expiring Sumerian commonwealth. Jns. catch a glimpse of anAt Nippur there the expedition of the University of Pennsylvania (see Hilprecht.358 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. who has left us a beautiful silver vase with a brief inscription as well as fragments of vases which he presented to his son. En-anna. legs. The new energy of victory was shown at once. After him came En-anna-tuma II. yet the execution bears witness to high civilization. By JBab. him we lose sight of the little kingdom of Shirpurla all for a considerable period.tuma I. followed arms of the defeated enemy. Elam was invaded and Sumerian supremacy almost entirely reestablished over the whole of Babylonia and its tributary lands. 19). ' At about 3800 1 B. transferred again to Semitic and our interest is kingdoms in the north. . Old i. The simple records of his deeds makes Eannatum one of the greatest conquerors of the far distant past. Entemena.. p.

the mountain country of Kurdistan. 1 359 have been found sixty-one fragments of vases bearFrom the ing the name of the king Alusharshid. .162. p. at about the same period. which reads " Alusharshid. from which the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers came down to Assyria and Babylonia.. s Inscriptions of Alusharshid have also been found in Sippar (Academy.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LAESA. etc. had conquered part of the land of Elam and the of Bara'se (or Para'se)...161. S. and still others are in the possession of the British Museum. p. and this time it is not from Babylonia. fragments of these vases a complete inscription has been made out. Sippar. 5. presented (it) to Bel from the : spoil of Elam when he had subjugated Elam and This inscription makes known the imBara'se. from which he brought back fine marble vases and dedicated them to the gods of Babylonia. Once more. It is significant that these vases are dedicated to gods at Nippur 8 and Sippar. 1891. And with these few faint rays of light from the north and its kingdom darkness again closes in upon early Babylonia. (see Hilprecht. the reading them as Alusharshid as well as the translation of the inscription belongs to Hilprecht (op. but from Guti. cit. London. Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets. and extended its influence even over the land of Elam. 12. 199. 20). king of the world. September 12. cit. 1 899. p. living probably at Kish. part vii. Here reigned a 1 of The signs with which the name is written are URU-MU-USH. op. for in this we find indications of a unknown land kingdom which included northern Babylonia." portant fact that a king. Nos. do sight of a bright light in the gray we dawn get of his- tory. 21). in the British Hftiseum. P. Nippur.

and Sin tear up. by Travaux relatifs a de Morgan. . . and is la Phil. king whose words are thus read: "Lasirab (?) has made and prethe mighty king of Guti.) Whoever removes this inscribed stone . p. this little text introduces us to another land under Semitic influences at a very early period. 13). of which Anu-banini was king. p. 67." In itself brief and unhis foundation ' important. 22. C. 1892. 2 i. Hil- precht correctly translated and located it on palaeographical evidence Leipzig. iv. yet personality. At Ser-i-Pul. (Geschickte. has left us a mace head and a stele as memorials of his sovereignty. J. we have few clews to his Far away also from northern Babylonia. there existed at about this same period another Semitic kingdom. p. (Old Bab. Altbabylonische Keilschrifttexte. 3 The inscription published by Scheil (Recueil de was found February 28. his carved image has been found with an inscription calling down curses on whomsoever should disturb "these images and this inscribed stone.360 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. in the mountain country of the northeast. 406). 1891. but he misunderstood and wrongly dated it at about 1600 B." : 1 The credit of publishing the text of the inscription here referred to belongs to Winckler (Zdtschrift fur Assyrioloffie. 12. and writes (the mention of) his name thereupon may Guti. No. Inscrip. Manishtusu. sented (it. Ninna. part i. and may whatsoever he undertakes not prosper.. el Archeolol. 82). and he a Semitic ruler. and exterminate his seed. His was the kingdom of Lulubi. von Hugo Winckler. on the borderland between Kurdistan and Turkey." another king of the same period. . pp.

. the culminating range of Zagros. then. however. were all I think I can penetrated beyond the outer range of the Perhim plateau. the Assyrians hardly believe. and is best known to us as Sargon Most of that which is told of him comes to us I. trace all the early campaigns (and can identify Nizir being at Alwend I place it at Bend-i-Nuh. in a legendary text would commonly go for sober hardly the place to which one history. and culture 361 Here. Noah's ridge. The inscription had. I am afraid we don't take quite the same view of the Geography of the Inscriptions. My own idea is that. Old and Hommel. at any rate until the time of Sargon. Sir Henry Rawlinson knew p. but he is also called Shargina. should again attack the Sumerians in the But this was reserved for a city which had up to this time produced no great conqueror. pp. correctly understood error in reading the name. xiv. 1 & 2. vol. Archaeology. xxi. indeed. 14. explorer and decipherer is it. it.)- See also Hilprecht. been known long before it was seen by De Morgan. vol. pp. The inscription at Sir Pul belongs to Kannubanini. Insc. which I : duly entered in my notebooks. part i. liv. 116. Bab. But a little sifting of this source speedily reveals its historic Egypt. and. 100. Some one of these centers of influence might become the center of a great kingdom that south. et Ass. by Rawlinson to Professor Sayce " Many thanks for your references.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA. however.. many of the names) along Instead of the western side of the great range from Sulimanieh to Susa. are several signs of Semitic power in northern Babylonia and its neigh- boring lands. ff. i. 1880. His name is Shargani-shar-ali. thus fixing their locality and showing them to be identical with the modern Luri or Luli." 25 . Out of Semitic stock of the city of Agade came a man great enough to essay and accomplish the task of ending finally the political influence of the Sumerians. Proceedings of the Society of Bib. 115. king of the Lulubini. save only that he made a slight This anticipation of later work by the great made plain in the following words extracted from an unpublished letter written under date of September 17.

vol. pp. the irriirrigator. she placed the to the river. 7. 1. which is situated on the bank of the Euphrates.. the latter an island in the Per1 Published III R. The 1 text. for example. My who was poor. a gardener. the irrigator. she shut she abandoned me up . over- me which did not whelm me. The river bore me away and brought to Akki. the Akki. It was probably written basis. conceived me and secretly mother. ff. Transactions of the Society of Bib. and during -four years held royal sway. by Fox Talbot. . me it in a basket of mouth of with bitumen.362 HISTORY OF BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIA. 208. me gator made me . Arch. 100-103. my father I Agade am I. received me in the goodness of his heart. Delitzsch. The My knew not . and by Winckler. 209 iii. 47. I commanded the blackheaded people and ruled . by . . by George Smith. the irrigator. Bibl. and purports to be a which was found upon a story begins in this way: "Shargina. in the eighth century B. two mutilated copies of which are in existence. mountains. v. gave birth to reeds. pp. i. Paradies. the powerful king. Akki. . reared me to boyhood. Keilinschrift. belongs to a much later date than that of the king himself. the king of mother was poor." In the fragmentary lines which follow the king mentions some of the important places conquered in his reign. the brother of my father lived in the My town was Azupirani. 46. them. C. first series. pp. 1. Records of the Past. and among them names Dur-il and Dilrnun. copy of an inscription statue of the great king. 4. Akki. It has been frequently translated.. My service as a gar- dener was pleasing unto Ishtar and I became king. pp. Xo.

102-107). 47-51.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA. whom he located about 2000 B. pp.. 363 Unhappily this account does not enable and we are forced us to construct a very clear idea of his campaigns. rising of his own subjects in Agade. He has. by George Smith in Transactions of the Society of BibSee partial translations by pp. It has been maintained by some that Shargina. for example. 307. iii. or Sargon. 304-306) and Winckler (Keilinschrift. i. Hommel (Geschichte. The fact that these details occur in an astrological text makes one wary of placing much reliance upon them.. pp. the existence of another king Sargon. Geschichte Sab. C. p. or that he it is marched into the west and mastered the four quarters of the world or that he overcame an up. . note 4). Each campaign was preceded by some portent. 1885. to fall back upon a source which at first sight seems even less likely to contain veritable historical material than the legendary tab- which we have just cited. This is an astrological tablet in which the writer tries to prove let ' by historical examples that portents are valuable some campaign. edition. 38. and we should accept them at once from any other inscription. how- . Berlin. plate 34. whose conquests he believed were ascribed to So. First published lical Archaeology. Bibl. and his great deeds are purely legend9 ary. The text is republished in IV Rawlinson. 3 2 Hommel supposed the earlier king (Geschichte. p. sian Gulf. Winckler. second part i. and after as indicating the issue of told the writer explains that Sargon invaded Elam and conquered the Elamites. On the other hand. and IV R. und Assyriens. 34. they are perfectly reasonable in themselves. and by others that his deeds have been simply projected backward 1 3 from some later king.

. ." ever. and west." the bricks in this pavement are stamped. p. Hastings.. a 22. " Diet. he was a great conqueror. 599). has been brought forward. New York. the mighty king of Agade and of the . who is thus shown to have laid down this massive construction.. when these same omen tablets refer to his son and " Babylonia. Eng.). plates 1-3. p. who is projected back- ward (Dawn of Civilization. i. and a number of them contain the inscription of Sharganishar-ali. 1896. ff. Far down in the mound is found the remains of a "pavement consisting of two courses of burned bricks of uniform size and mold.. builder of Ekur. however. There is. east.. part i. Old Babyl. December. The Oldest History of the MasSemites. no valid reason for doubting the main facts concerning the king's achievements. Each brick measures about fifty centimeters Most of square and is eight centimeters thick. Altbabylonische Keilschrifttexte. p. trans. and have therefore no historical value. vol. p. by Hilprecht. found at Nippur. but also to his work as a Of that tangible evidence has been builder.364 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. 103. pp. One of these reads thus " Shargani-shar-ali.). and Hilprecht. i. vol. 3 Op. cit. south. part ii. of Bel. 19. Old Babyl. That he actually existed is placed beyond all doubt by the discovery of several of his own inscriptions. 15. 225. in which later his son also 3 No good reason for doubting that participated.. Ins. Ins. part i. son 1 : of Itti-Bel. vol. art. i. i." Expository Times." and so bears witness not only to his historical existence. of the Bible. since accepted the historical character of this king (art. vol. 1885. On the other hand. 'Published by Winckler. p. C. pero believes that it is Sargon II (722-705 B. viii. temple of Bel in 2 Nippur.

but that the securing of great cedar beams from the Lebanon was the chief object of that expedition. The great temple of Ekur to the god Bel in Nippur and the temple of Eulbar to the goddess Anunit in Agade were built by him. and making his own personality dreaded. who sought diligently to find the foundation stones which he had laid. in he was emulated by a long line of Babylonian kings even unto Nabonidus. A use for these cedar beams was soon found in buildings. 69. by In warlike prowess he was the model for an Assyr1 ian king who building skill bore his name centuries later. It is not to be supposed that he succeeded in extending his dominion over lands so distant as northern Syria. In the omen tablet there is but that is evidence of credulous faith in the signs of heaven. The allusions to these expeditions show that they were raids intended to gain plunder with which to increase the wealth and beauty of his home cities... Other allusions to buildings erected him are also to be found in later inscriptions. stalking across the scene. Sargon was succeeded by his son. is surely no reason for doubting all that told therein of Sargon. ibl. col. pp. iii. . is. in the dull gray dawn of A lonesome figure he human history. successor they can be tested to. ii.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA. tr. 2. by Peiser). and prove to be 365 by referred texts of the king worthy of credence. 84. 85. bringing other men to reverence the name of Ishtar. line 29 (Keilinschrift. Naram-Sin 1 1 R.

builder Ins. lines 57-60 (trans. ii. He is asserted to have invaded the city of Apirak. and to have carried the people into slavery after every little His chief he had killed their king. lines 12-14. for he rebuilt temples in Nippur and in Agade. C. which is about 13.366 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Upon this he "built of worked clay mixed with cut straw and laid up en masse with roughly sloping or battered sides to a total height of about 5. part p. Upon the top of this large base.5 meters. No. warlike expedition known to us was into the land of Magan. But he was still more famous as a builder. 8 This fact comes from the astrological tablet. and erected at his own 4 Becost the temple to the sun god in Sippar. of the temple of Bel. p. 4 "Naram-Sin. 3 1 sides these temples this great king laid the foundations and erected the enormous outer wall of Nippur the great wall Nimit-Marduk. Ibid. 18. who seems to have maintained in large degree the glory of his father's reign. Bib.. a wall of the same enormous 1 Sargon. . 64. 105. lines Comp. Bish-Adad. ii. p. He first dug for his foundations about five meters below the level of the ground down to the solid clay. Old Babylonia part ii." which appears to lie in Arabia. V R. but piece bears witness to its importance.75 meters wide." Hilprecht. (about B. iii. discussed above under col. 3. *7 (on an object brought from 3 Brick stamps of this king have been found at Nippur bearing the legend. 3750). I R. i.. by Peiser in Keilinschrift.. col.. i. 15-16. near the Peninsula of Sinai. The records of his reign are fragmentary.

iv.. stamped king. 20.. i. god of Agade. and p. vol. This would seem to show that Naram-Sin had been deified. xxviii). of whose extent. iii. In quality they are unsurpassed by the work of any raised. op. No. leaving not even a trace of its effects. 76). was Agade. who dug down this wall. His chief city. or at least his original home city. 3 p. part ii. 3 later Each of these bricks name and titles of the king. Jnst. vol." . p. width " ' 367 bricks were "dark gray and of regular form. London. the scribe. Sargon I had had as one of his vassals Lugalshiped as a creator. was The in color." bore' the A king who could and did construct such massive fortifi- must have possessed a kingdom of great political importance. vanishes from our view as rapidly as it came. Thureau Dangin (in Revue cFAssyriologie. in token of the worldwide dominion which he deemed himself to have It is small wonder that a king who attained. Sharru-Ishdagal. servant of the god Naram-Sin " (see Tomkins. See also M.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA. p. firm in texture. 21. had thus won honor among men as a builder of mighty works and an organizer of a great kingdom should be deified by his followers and wor3 Nothing is known of the Naram-Sin except of his son. it is now impossible to form a very clear idea. who quotes the legend.. but he calls himself King of the Four cations Quarters of the World. 189Y. thy servant. BinganiThe kingdom of Sargon and his son shar-ali. " ApalIshtar (?) son of Ilu-bana. cit. however. See Hil- precht. "The god Naram-Sin. Abraham and His Age. 2 This is the judgment of Haynes. successors of 1 Hilprecht. plate x. Cesnola found at Curium in Cyprus a seal with this inscription. Old JSab.

Whether that be the case or not. pp. which has We been wrought with considerable skill out of dark green diorite. Like other inscriptions of the same period. and Jensen. C. 1 vii. et ff. iii.) and Gudea (about 3000 possess a long inscription of the for2 mer. From 1 other sources we know well that Nebuchadet Heuzey. peace serene in these ancient texts. Revue d Assyriologie pp. Assyriologie. remembered that even unto the end the kings of Babylonia did not write accounts of their wars.). C. 2 Published by Heuzey in in Zeilschrift De Sarzec. engraved upon the back of a small statue of the king. and it seems quite of Sarprobable that after the end of the dynasty and Naram-Sin the hegemony returned to gon the famous old city which had once stood at the head in the earlier day of the entire Sumerian domination. 8. it is Shir- purla that we fiud in the chief place. fur ff. B. containing six columns. See also Y. 42-48. patesi of Shirpurla. pp. Of the patesis of Shirpurla at this early date two are known to us as men of power and distinction.368 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Comptes Rendus de V Academic des inscriptions belles-lettres (seance du 28 aout. it contains but little material for historical There is no word of battle and war purposes. 1896). copied and translated by Amiaud. when we next get a clear view of Babylonia. Ur-Bau (about 3200 B. It is not. long after the days of the kings of Agade. Chaldee.. . Decouvertes en. in the same work. plates 7. and . pp. Bib. 125. d? Archeologie Orientate.. however. 19. ii. iii. 1 ushumgal. 124-135. to be supposed that the lot of these all is It must always be kingdoms was thus happy. Le Gac Keil. part i.

The goddess Nina appeared him in a dream and showed him the complete model of a building which he should erect in her honor. Like Ur-Bau. iv. but they give us incia glimpse into a wider field. his of Ur-Bau son-in-law. Decouvertes. gal. . and of his wonderful work his inscriptions are full. Leipzig. followed by Ur-ninthen comes a break in the list to be filled who by one or more kings yet unknown to us. The inscriptions of Gudea are similar to those in their subjects. p. iii. In the building of his temples Gudea was directed by a divine vision. and page 134. his fair share of the tumults of a very disturbed age. The Great Cylinder Inscriptions of Gudea. he was a great builder. Ur-Bau had. From the land of Melukhkha (northwestern Arabia and the Peninsula of Sinai) were brought gold and to 1 Gudea A.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA. The credit of first explaining the exceedingly difficult expressions in this text which refer to the dream belongs to Zimmern (Traurngesicht Gudea's. in Zeitschrift fur Assyri&logle. part 1 plates 20 and 13. published by Amiaud in De Sarzec. See now Price. 1899. etc. perhaps. a king great enough to prove that even yet the Sumerian factor could not be eliminated from the world's history. After this lacuna comes the mighty Gudea. Ur-Bau dentally was succeeded on the throne by Nammaghani. i. and was.. pp. doutless. 232-235). rezzar of his 369 but in only a single one lie speak of aught else but building of palaces and temples and dedica- was a great soldier. In the execution of this plan he brought from Magan (northeastern Arabia) the beautiful hard dolerite out of which his statues were carved. own inscriptions does tions to the gods.

But it is also to be observed that the securing of these ma- must have involved the use of armed force. Keilinschrift. in northwestern Syrprecious stones. is instructive. One little indication there is of Gudea's prowess in arms. iii. A ment must be assumed. in Elam.370 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. of progress in civilization. As a warrior he is not to be com- pared with Sargon of Agade 1 . col. great beams of cedar. That was no ordinary civilizacould achieve work requiring such skill tion which ia. for he conquered the district of This single allusion to conquest Anshan. and of the progress of the art of writing. and in other neighboring mountains quarried massive stones for his temples. Comp. 64-66. of splendid ceremonial in the worship of the gods. But in spite of this inference the general impression made by his reign is one of peace. Gudea B. part 1. 38. for it was probably only representative of other conquests by the same builder and 1 warrior. merely decades would long period for its developCenturies only and not suffice as the period of preparation for such accomplishments. these materials and power as the quarrying or the cutting of and the transportation of them over such distances. but it is more surprising to read that he brought from Mount Amanus. Jensen. as an exponent of ibl. These lands were not far from his own. The sturdy inhabitants of the Amanus would not terials probably yield up their timber without a struggle. vi. p.. note 9. . All these facts throw a bright light upon the civilization of his day.

and Geschichte. possess at present it of Shirpurla was. as we have From the indications which we would seem a far higher civilization than that of Agade. iii. But it was not a Semitic civilizaAll these inscriptions of the kings and of tion. pp. They were first explored by Taylor and Loftus. pp. the pate-sis of Shirpurla are written in the Sumerian and not in a Semitic language. pi. 21. JBibl. himself followed after Akurgal II. The civilization seen. have long been known. No. a high one.. rich in cedars. 325-329). Revue Archeologique. pi. 70. The river Euphrates flowed just past tation for stone and wood from affording easy transporits upper waters. No. civilization 371 he far surpasses him. and the Amanus were readily accessible. Kdlinschrift. . 1886. to which the Lebanon. and also in De Sarzec. . The early references to TJr and its commerce have been collected by Hommel (Die Semitischen Volker u. vii. With him Urningirsu. Decouvertes. which had overcome it for a time.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA. The successor of Gudea was 1 an interval by But these later patesis were no longer free ma. a city admirably situated to achieve commercial From Shirpurla and historical importance. 212-218. See Heuzey. Lukani. 1 ter Jensen. to do their own will as Gudea had been. its gates. part 1. 1. The wady Rummein Lukani and Ghalalama are known to us from an inscription of the latupon a fragment of a statue now in the Louvre. 4 s The Sprachen. 204-211. now called Mugheir. pp. s the power passed to Ur. ruins of Ur. This also would seem to point to the conclusion that the Semites entered Babylonia from the north and not from the south. 71.. and Ghalala- had again passed away the independence of the ancient kingdom of Shirpurla.

part No. /s. conducted trade to southern Syria. Here. and Eridu was no competitor in the world of commerce. Even before the days of Sargon the city of Ur had an existence and a government of its own. posite the city the Shatt-el-Hai emptied into the Euphrates. and along that road came gold and precious stones.). the Peninsula of Sinai. and commerce between Ur and Egypt passed over its more difficult but much shorter route than the one by way of Haran and Palestine. and gums and perfumes Another road went to be converted into incense for temple worship. across the very desert itself. B. came close to the city and linked it with central and southern Arabia. provided with wells of water. In a city so favorably located as Ur the devel- opment ority of political as well as commercial superiseems perfectly natural. To that early period belong the rudely written vases of serpentine and of stalagmite which bear the name and titles of Lugal-kigub-nidudu 1 l (about 3900 i. No city lay south of Ur on that river except Eridu. and. 86. . for it was devoted only to temples and gods a city given up to religion.372 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Nearly opinto Africa. vol.. C. Old Bab. and west. but there was also a great outlet to the southward. king Published by Hilprecht. ii. then. and so afforded a passage for boats into the Tigris. were roads and rivers leading to the north. east. The Euphrates made access to the Persian Grulf easy. and across This was the shortest road to Africa. thus opening to the commerce of Ur the vast country tributary to that river.

and translated by Winckler. ff. pp. stood for the ancient Sumerian civilization. Orkham. He calls himself king of Sumer and In that title he joined together two words each of which contained a history extendThe word Sumer. Urbabi. 373 of Erech. the city that was once the Accad. 77. They are but empty names until further discovery shall add to his son the store of their inscribed remains. 1. based on the finding of : The . Recently the form Ur-Gur has seemed likely to prevail. both small and great. as we have already seen. Amilapsi. know nothing of his work in the upbuilding of the city. p. About a thousand years after this period the city of Ur again seized a commanding position through the efforts especially of two kings. Keilinschrift. king of Ur. etc. 4 rived from Sungir. Urbau. Lugal-kisalsi. See above. Urea. 225). and assumed a title never borne before his day. Likbagas. part i. Urkham. 3 this king has long been a bone of contenhas been read Urukh. which held sway over south- work was done ern Babylonia. while Accad had come from Agade.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA. The former has left many evidences of his 1 as well in inscriptions as in buildings. After their the city of Ur was absorbed now into one and now into another of the kingdoms. 2 3 ibl. p.. deing far back into the past. Likbabi. Most welded into one politprobably by conquest Ur-Gur ical whole the entire land of northern and southern power Babylonia. 205. 1 The reading of the name of It tion. nor of that of We and successor. Urbagas. Ur-Grur and Dungi. iii. Inscriptions of this king are published I R. Smith identification rests in the beginning upon a statement of George " I have only recently discovered the identity of Akkad with the " capital of Sargon (Assyrian Discoveries.

When these cities are dug up in a systematic fashion we shall be able to obtain some conception of his activity in this matter.374 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA.kin the other hand. In his own or for the worship of the chief city of Ur he built the great temple to the moon god . in the city of Erech he erected a temple to the goddess Nina. 73) argue against the view. At present we are able to form a more complete picture of his works in Nippur than in Ur. 198. The lowest story was about six and a third meters high. It is scarcely possible that formerly other stages existed above. ii. or " pyramidal tower. (Geschichte. in a Sumerian text with the part 58. Three of these stages have been traced and exposed. Old Babylonian Imcrip. interjineal transcription Comp. first clear move made toward the formation of the the great empire that was to come later. p. gods. p. 76). In Nippur he built a great ziggurat. Delitzsch. and the four corners pointed approximately to the four cardinal points. while the second (receding a little over four meters Agade syrian. At Larsa also there are found unmistakable evidences that it was he who built there the shrine of the sun god. p. movement which was In this new kingdom we may see to supersede it. whose base was a right-angled parallelogram nearly fifty-nine meters long and thirty-nine meters wide. t . leader in the new Semitic kingdom which he had thus formed did Ur-Gur build great structures for proAll over this tection. Parodies. i. for civil use. Accad in Asand Hilprecht. p. Tiele. Its two longest sides faced northwest and southeast respectively.. On and Lehmann (Shamashshurmt.

. Of his wars and conquests we hear no word. that they were contented with the regular receipt of tribute. as has been said before in ' a similar instance. and Kutha. who was also indefatigable in building operations. part ii. He completed the temple of the moon god in Ur. and to the sword must be the appeal per- haps in frequent instances. 17. but on the least who submitted king." were also built by Ur-Gur. in Erech. . who seemed to be building for all time. by Winckler.. Their buildings and their titles would seem to indicate that they held at least nominal sway over a considerable part of Babylonia. 8 however. and. ff. if he were strong 1 2 Hilprecht. vol. Old Bab.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA. 375 from the edge of the former) and the third are so utterly ruined that the original dimensions can no more be given. Shirpurla. who was to show of weakness any one of these rulers was ready to set up his own independence. Each of these cities had its own to the superior force of a great him a sort of suzerain. local ruler. it is not probable that his reign It was probably built by the sword. but. The inscriptions of Dungi are published I R. The whole ziggurat appears like The defensive walls of Ur an immense altar. was thus peaceful. Kesilinschrift. 18. It is probable. Ins. part i. Eibl. Dungi. pp. pp. i. 81. two names of Ur-Gur and Dungi are all that remain of what was perhaps a considerable dynasty in Ur. and These built. and did not attempt to control all the life of the cities subject to them. also. Ur-Gur was succeeded by his son. and translated iii. 2.

p. 1 R. his son. No. 6. Bur Sin I. 5. op.376 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. 4 5 6 also I R. p. part p. R. Ins.. acknowledges his dependence upon a 1 IV i. All of them use the names of other addition to that of Isin. Their inscriptions give no hint of the life of these cities or of the never-endcities in ing struggles for supremacy that must have been going on. Hilprecht. Ur. . ibl. 27. to see the poof Babylonia we find that the supremacy has passed into the hands of the city of Isin. i. such as Nippur. 87). p..Anunit (Hilprecht. tit.. p. also his neighbors to accept enough compel as suzerain. 5 (Keilinschrift. En- annatuma. IshmeDagan is the last man of this dynasty to bear the title of king of 6 Sumer and Accad . sub. king of Sumer and Accad. part i. Old Bab. The chief title used by them is king of Isin. 27. The litical life kings of Isin whose names have 1 comedown to 8 us are 4 Ur-Ninib/ Libit Ishtar. some of them use the greater title. Old Sab. by the means of monumental material. The name Comp. 2. Ins. and Erech. 27) . 85). and Ishme-Dagan. 35. part i. After some time. 2 The name used p. To their titles they add only an occasional allusion to building or to restoration. 1 and 2 (Keilinschrift. part 3 to be read Gamil-Ninib (Hilprecht. part i. No.. for his inscriptions comp. part i. him When the dynasty of Ur-Gur and was no longer able to maintain its position Dungi in Babylonia there were not wanting men strong enough to seize it. iii. xviii (Keilinschrift. is also read Libit. No. 87). C. 5 who ruled about 2500 B. Bibl. ibl. 35. line 9. p. but Ishbigarra. also IV R. Eridu. iii. . 3. 1 and 2 (Keilinschrift. 87).. 7. Bibl. i.. when we again are able. i. iii. 1 R. iii.

while an inscription of Dungi bears the same curious legend. iii. i. Bab. see Hilprecht. 2 On this title. Again and again in later centuries is the title borne by kings of Babylonia and Assyria. p. Revue Semitique. ff. 19. Arch. The title is satisfactory reason. 377 king of Ur who begins a new dynasty in that famous old city. vol. rather the claim to a sort of world-wide dominion. xxi. The use of the title by these kings may also imply some successful raids in the far west. Gungunu. Ur consists of Dungi II. They began to reign about 2400 B. 87-91. pp. but without Well indeed might Sargon use it after he had made expeditions into the west and laid the whole civilized world tributary at his feet. Ins. has been graphical location and a capital city. 26 . pp." Where was the Kingdom of the Four Quarters of the World. 72. p. See also F. pp. and compare Keilinschrift. Thureau-Dangin. the inscriptions of these kings p. and Ine-Sin. earlier in much located at several places in northern Babylonia. any such. see especially Lehmann. I. Old Bab. C. 1897. It has been thought to be the name of some kingdom with a definite geoIt. Ins.. as kings of Ur. and is applied also to Sargon after his three campaigns in the west. ii. Beitrage zu Assyriologie. 618 Hilprecht.. Bibl. ff. and to that add the curious title "King of the Four Quarters (of the world). 25.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA. vol." If there were us. Sayce. Bur Sin II. King of the Four Quarters (shar kibrat irbitti). Old. part i. part . no account of them has come down to 1 On i. The third dynasty of 1 and why do the kings use such a pears title ? It ap- an inscription of Naram-Sin. part i. Proceedings of the Society of Bib... Gamil Sin. 27.

. Theil. uninteresting in them- selves. *75. 181. 1 Comp. 231. Lehmann. These tablets. are yet the witnesses of an extraordinary development Babylonia was foundations trade in commercial lines. i. copied by Peiser.. dt. 35. viii. 1 R. Mus. Keilinschrift.). line 2. No. pp. ibl. All these are translated by Winckler. of three of its sovereigns have come down to us this At about 1 istence a small upon brief inscriptions. The names Amnanu. of the dynasty. Tafel 4 and ii. and rather as a reminiscence of ancient days. part i. The end past. Winckler. 3 3 IV V R. pp. is attached to no later king until it is suddenly 3 used again by Shamashshumukin (667-647 B. Besides the usual records of their building we this dynasty only hundreds of contract now scattered in museums nearly all over the world. i Comp. 4 but apparently without any special significance. have from tablets. iii. R. 3. 232. this kingdom of Amnanu seems to have exerted but small influ- ence upon the historical development of the counThe name of the kingdom disappears. op. 2. C. 82. 7-14. i ii Theil.378 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Shamasshshumukin. and try. and with it the end of the dominion of Ur. The land of waxing great rich and in for power laying the the world of when its political supremacy was ended. Altorientalwche Forschungen. 2. See Winckler as above and comp.. 2. Brit. No. 62. 1. is clouded in the mists of the same period there was also in exkingdom called the kingdom of with its chief city Erech. founded in Ur and in other Unlike the kingdoms cities. Lehmann. p. . 82-85. 8 the chiefest of them be- ing apparently Sin-gashid.

iii.. pp. 93). ibl. but the order also in which they built stand in Ur. p. iii. in the progress of the development of empire in Babylonia. canals saved the land from flood in the spring and from drought in the summer and was a real The names of the other kings public benefactor. pp. and translated by Winckler. Both of these kings founded a temple to the sun god in Larsa. part i. At this time a new history was making itself had long been the battle ground Babylonia between the ancient Sumerians and the Semites. (see also Keilinschrift. on the canal Shatt-en-Nil. ibl. 92. and by Delitzsch in Beitrdge zur Assyriologie.. iv. No. I R. . who ruled in Larsa and had dominion in Babylonia at this time are either wholly unknown to us or are exceedingly difficult to place in correct order. No.. 90. begins thereThe king who built fore at this early period. 2. xx (Keilinschrijt. part i. and dug a new canal between the Tigris and the Shatt-en-Nil. ibl. This work of canal building. the modern Senkereh. Inscriptions of this are published. 91). I R. ff. is still uncertain. to understand the exact order of events. 5. part i. The names of chief kings of this a bank of the two of the dynasty are Nur-Adad and 1 his son.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA. came the dominion unto Larsa. 91. which became so important and and Sin-iddin so highly prized in the later history. Keilinschrift. The to understand times were sorely disturbed and it is easy why the Babylonian records are in it difficult such disorder as to make factor in Babylonian felt. 9 iii. Sin-iddin. 301. The day had now come when a new people the i His inscriptions are published. pp. 379 After Ur.

no documents king's 1 name who swept down into the valley Society For business documents in his reign comp. Elamites must enter the lists for the possesThe rulers of sion of the deeply coveted valley. 207. 65. One of them was actually did get control at about this time of some parts of the country. reached Erech and plunthis To dered its temples.. 64. Egypt et Ass. But his failure would not daunt other princes the prize was great and men would not fail in its winning for want of a trial. 319. xix. 3 et archeol. and Scheil inJtecueil de Travaux xx. Lehmann. C. p. Comp. See above. Elam appear to have made many attempts to get a hold upon parts of Babylonia. p.380 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. pp. Proceedings of the of Biblical Archceology. Sayce. 1 a. relatifd la Phil. carrying away into captivity a statue of the goddess Nana. and was referred to in business documents as Bim-Anum the Bim-Anum. 38. who 1 As no historical texts have come down to king. Probably soon after Kudur-Nankhundi the successful raid was made. His influence upon the land was apparently very slight. 73. it is impossible to say how long he ruled or what influence he had upon the country. 12-18. further in the III R. It is probable that he was not successful in establishing any dominion over the country at all. Zwei Hauptprobleme. . The Babylonian inscriptions have preserved for us no mention of the exist . who made a raid into Babylonia 2285 B. p.. us from his reign. for apparently which are dated in his period. same period of Elamite invasions be2 longs Kudur-Nankhundi. The name appears form Kudur-Nakhkhunte in old Susian.

part i. 93. and are translated by Winckler. A very similar view of the is now taken by Winckler (in Helmolt's Weltgeschichte. Eri-Aku are found I R. Under the rule of these Elamite conquerors Kudur-Marbuk was prince of E-mutbal. though he still calls himself king events See further on Chedorlaomer below. 24 Oct. Their success reminds one of the career of the Persians in a later day.Vereins zu Berlin. xli. tended the city of Ur. Classe. He was succeeded by his son. He built in Ur a temple to the moon god as a thank offering for his success. and perhaps even farther ern Elam. 390. traditions preserved 1 the as The Hebrews among name of Chedorthe Elamite laomer (Kudur-Lagamar) who To him or to other invaded the far west. reading of the name as Eri-Aku see Schrader in Sitzungsberichte K. JSibl.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA. 3 who was He exstill more Babylonian than his father. east to west. 96). . Keilinschrift. west. 2. destroying kingdoms whose foundations extended into the distant past. No. 3 iii. and carried their all 381 before him. Preuss. 8 An inscription of Kudur-Marbuk is published I R. On the ibl. p. 95. No. Mittheilungen des Akad. iii. Inscriptions of Rim Sin that is. pp. Keilin1 schrift.Orient. Eri-Aku. The Elamites in a few short years had swept from. 1895. iii. 16. xvi. in west9 His authority and influence were extended into Babylonia. rebuilding its great city walls " like unto a mountain.. No. p.. part i. and apparently became a patron of that city rather than of Larsa. i.-hist. p. iii. Phil. and the kings of Larsa were quickly dispossessed. 5. pp. 94. x. 92.. 3. Ak." restored its temples. Elamite invaders the weak kingdom of S timer and Accad was able to offer no effectual resistance.

though we have only names of kings of various cities and faint indications of their deeds. of Larsa. nevertheless." and so claims all the honors which had belonged to the kings of native stock who had preceded him. king of Sumer and Accad." But. devout formulas. dedications stem of a dypompous preamof objects or buildings. to vanish tempt to lay hold of him . of Larsa. in the record of his name. we are able.382 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. With Larsa ends the series of small states. king lonia. here or there the account of some battle or the indication of some foreign country with which relations of friendship or commerce were maintained these are the scanty materials out of which to construct a connected narrative. during a period of more than two thousand years. The Elamite people were now become in the fullest sense masters of all southern BabyEri-Aku calls himself " exalter of Ur. out of these materials to secure in some measure an idea of the development of political life and of civilization in the land. As Maspero has well said " We have here the mere dust of history rather than history itself here an isolated individual makes his appearance : . . there the when we at- nasty which breaks abruptly off. bles. of whose existence we have caught mere glimpses. This invasion and occupation of southern Babylonia by the Elamites prepared the way for the conquest of southern Babylonia by the north and the establishment of a permanent order of things in the land so long disturbed.

383 As has been already said. the civilization of southern Babylonia. was at the foundation Sumerian. It remained until the very end of Babylon itself. now become sacred. was free and widely extended. it is a word borrowed from the Semitic it is neighbors. and the seeds of death were old. C. was instinct with life and vigor. C. was Semitic. But during a a large part of this time by Semitic civilization. and political contest would bring about the triumph of Semitism. It was natural that his vigorous civilization first should permeate at slowly and then rapidly into the senile culture of the Sumerians. on the other hand. The Semite had come out of the free airs of the desert of Arabia and had in his veins a bounding life. though not the extermination of Sumerian influence. The Sumerian inscriptions Here early begin to give evidence of Semitic influence. in the period 4000-2300 B. a new life. the Semitic civilization. in it. it was Sumerian influenced The northern kingdom Intercourse even about 3800 B. there a influence increased. the Semitic idiom is in a fair way to a complete peaceful conquest. name of man or god. and the rise of the Indo-European world powers. The conservatism of religious customs gave to the old language and the old literature. The temples still bore Sumerian names when Babyfinal . as the inscriptions of Sargon and Naram-Sin and the operations of Gudea have civilization was The Sumerian conclusively shown.. This Toward the end of the period the Semitic words are frequent.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA.

but fluctuating. The chief man in the city its king.384 HISTOEY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Sumerian seemed to have reached the end of its . This old title lives on through the centuries. The capital is Isin. the surrounding country is annexed his title remains the same . he is still When king of the city. The kingdom has its governmental center in Ur. Ur-Ba'u is king of Ur. but a united country. The whole may be summed up in the following manner The earliest indications show us the city as the : is center of government. but he is more. if there be no title of king. This union of all Babylonia under one king was not the means of creating a national unity strong enough to civilization resist the outside invader. was indeed The Ur permanent capital. and later kings in other cities are proud to carry it on is not its later found in their inscriptions. or. But after a time a new custom comes into vogue. last Ion's conqueror entered the magnificent gates. northern and southern Babylonia. Concerning the political development we know altogether too little for dogmatic conclusions. By that expression we are introduced to the conception of a government which controlled not only segre- gated cities. he is also king of Sumer and Accad. The position of the capital capital depends altogether on the king and his place of origin. and the kings of Isin are then kings of Sumer and Accad when they have conquered and bear rule in the north and south. he is called patesi.

its 385 The raids of the Elamites scattered and broke time was ready for a power. . development as a political factor. take the title of quer king of Sumer and Accad and make a strong kingdom.BABYLONIAN HISTORY TO FALL OF LARSA. and the man strong enough to conthe petty kings of Larsa.

.386 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. is given IV R. and. 34. pp. C. wealth. No capital in the world has ever been the center of so much power. C. first king of Babylon iii. obverse 8. Keiluuschrift. CHAPTER II. It is deed a brilliant cycle of centuries upon which enter. in- we The name 1 of the 1. During the long period of the rise of the kingdom of Sumer and Accad no king in the south finds Babylon worthy of mention. Eibl. and culture for a period so vast. 103. THE FIEST AND SECOND DYNASTIES OF BABYLON.. been a city of importance. The 1 city is named in the Omen tablet of Sargon. though this is no proof that the city was actually in existence about 3800 B. part i. 102. it At seems not to have this early date. and it may have been much earlier. however. though Babylon must have been developing into a city of influence during the later centuries of the dominion of Isin and From about 2300 B. this city extends almost without a break to the period of the Seleucides. THE origin of the city of Babylon is veiled in impenetrable obscurity. the influence of Larsa.. The first city built upon the site must have been founded fully four thousand years before Christ. it does prove that a later tradition assigned to it this great antiquity.

but these to attempt to sources contain numerous contradictions and discrepancies. 10 and 38 . Israel and the Surround- . of whom we know nothing. London. says he was a contemporary of Sumu-la-ilu. of some building operations we get hints that a cerImmera attempted to ascend the throne. Events are. p. and our only knowledge of their reigns is to be obtained from the fragmentary notes of contract tablets. Siblica. dated by his name. for tain 2 it is probable that he was not able to gain a secure position in the kingdom. 2 See above. and perhaps . His name does not appear on the King List. and King. who erected in Sippar of Anunit the temple of Edubar to the After Zabu there was apparently an city's deity.. Nos. which sometimes give indications of the life of the people. 8. and this has found considerable acceptance (so Lehmann. who built six strong fortresses in Babylon. Privatrecht. 4). a vassal king of Larsa (Early ing Nations.FIRST in the AND SECOND DYNASTIES. 31. (See Meissner. We have likewise no historical inscriptions of his immediate successors. 1899. p. pp. p. exact position (op. Zwei Hauplprob.. 1893. C. From the inscriptions of later kings we also get word of two of them. 281). 9. however. Sayce. C. Beitrage zum alibab. and attempted revolution..) His He is located after Zabu by Meissner cit.. Peiser. is difficult to fix.). p.).. and Zabu (about 2404-2391 B. 338. Leipzig. "Babylonia" in Cheyne & Black. just as though he were king. These kings are Sumu-la-ilu (about 2439-2405 B. Enc.). however. C. art. but without being called king.). The name Immeru occurs on a number of contract tablets. Keilinschrift. They rest in all cases upon the original sources. and it is idle make from them a chronology that may lay any claim to ac- curacy. The next rulers are Apil-Sin (about 2390-2373 1 The dates which are set down with the names of the kings of this dynasty must in all cases be taken as approximate only and as subject to the greatest doubt. iv. Eibl. 1 387 Babylonian King Lists as Sumu-abi (about 2454-2440 B.

gins a C.) and Sin-muballit (about 2372-2343 B. The struggle was probably brief and without distinction. none of these rulers down to Apil-Sin called king and Sin-muballit only in the form of a passing allusion in one single tablet. The activity displayed by these Elamite princes in building was an indication of how much they valued their new possessions. whose reigns are likewise unknown to us. It is difficult to explain this fact unless we accept the view that the real until kingdom of Babylon did not begin so Hammurabi had driven out the Elamites and won for himself the title borne by the old kings was Ham- of Ur. and that the union which he cemented remained until the scepthat ter passed from Semitic hands to another race. The son and successor of Sin-muballit murabi (about 2342-2288 B. Yet he had even greater difficulties to meet than they. and Larsa. with whom be- united Babylonia. Ism. he made a It is the chief glory of his name Lugalzaggisi. The Elamites were firmly fas- tened in the country. whose empires were of but short duration. C.). C. .). B.388 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and would hardly give it up without a struggle. are not yet in possession of facts enough We to enable us to follow the movements of Hammurabi in his conquest of the country. In this he far exceeded the success of Sargon and new era. It is a noteworthy fact that in the large numbers of business documents which have come down is to us out of the period of this first dynasty of Babylon.

king of Babylon. That he had petty princes or viceroys under him is made clear by sundry letters and dispatches to such officials which have come down to us. by L. of the people in the new rule of Hamquiescence murabi and the new leadership of the city of Babylon is king of Sumer and Accad. no divine When one king passed they cared patriotism. But it is still 1 impossible so to order these little fragments as to gain complete or satisfying pictures of his relation Hammurabi be the same person as Amraphel. three volumes.. The manner of the conquest is unknown to us. as well shown conclusively by the entire absence of any uprising or of any attempt to throw off the yoke.A. xiv). if only he made them no heavier. and in the knowledge of the fact we must rest content. and Hammurabi assumed the as the old titles of king of the Four The ready actitle. If tions (Gen. and as willingly paid taxes to another. King. with W. who is mentioned in the Hebrew tradito them. 389 The people of the kingdom of Sumer and Accad had no genuine national life. We know very little about the government of the country which Hammurabi had thus organized into a consolidated kingdom or empire. ff. and in Hammurabi was found the man for the new era. M. The time was ripe for the overturning of the old Sumerian state. The Elamites were soon driven out of Babylonia. consid- See The Letters and Inscriptions of Hammurabi. . not. London. Quarters of the World. 1898.FIRST AND SECOND DYNASTIES. 1 and many suppose.

1896. vi. though the name may well correspond with a form Kudur-lagamar." by Thiele and Kosters. xxix) has shown conclusively that the text was misread by Scheil and that the name Chedorlaomer does not occur on it. 732-734. London. for example. doubtful. 33). and elsewhere). 1891). Lagamar occurs as an Assyrian text (V R.. 1898. d. Zimmern. a corrupt representation of Khammurabi. Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute.. ff. aische xiv. Comp. and Father Scheil thought that he also had found the name in early tablets (Revue Biblique. . Hommel (The Ancient Hebrew Tradition. der k. He has further demonstrated that the reading of Mr. 193.). Wissenschaften. 4. whether 1 be read Kudur-nuchgamar. In the latter case King (Letters and Inscriptions of Hammuxix. for example. H. almost certainly it See. pp. we have there evidence that he was deemed in a later period to have had a considerable body of allies with whom he was who Of these associated in campaigns in the west. Cheyne Rundschau. 125. . Recueil de Travaux relatif Egypt. p. cols. Keen and denied that beneath all successful though his criticism is. names. 1897. Such. October. phil. i.390 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. 6. the article " Chedorlaomer. 1 erable reason. it can hardly be the obscurity there lies a real reference to the Che- dorlaomer of Gen. p. hist. Abh. Weissbach. Driver (Author1897. and also in the inscriptions of Anzan-Shushinak (F. tion of late date (about 300 B." for both parts On an inscripof which there is ample support. i. Sachs. & Black). pp. . in Encyclopedia Biblica (ed. or Kudur-lugkgamar. p. Leipzig. Pinches is very rabi. 56. Anzanische Inschriften.) a name has been found which. Sayce (Early Israel. 321. xxix. 321) and Driver (Authority and Archaeology. col. London. Ges. " There is little doubt " that Amraphel " is ity and Archaeology. f. 39) says. i. 213). 42. 43). . is the view of Zimmern ( Theolo- pp. 600. or what not. ff. 320.). v. Theologische Rundschau. that he is. Unfortunately a sharp controversy has ocxii. the in 2 Kudur appears frequently name of an Elamite deity in these Elamite curred over the name Chedorlaomer which was thought to appear in some texts of the period of the Arsacidae (see Pinches. Classe. p. for a learned discussion of the whole matter. p. p. pp. are thus mentioned Chedorlaomer has not yet been identified on any Babylonian inscription of an early date." But the name can scarcely be " " called corrupt in view of the form Ammu-rabi. d. See. et Ass. C.

. king of Ellapossibly represents Tidal. the powerstatesman. on Chedorlaomer.FIRST AND SECOND DYNASTIES. when Aim and Bel gave unto me to rule the land of Sumer and Accad. and cannot now be satisfactorily related to ation. As soon as the conquest of Sumer and Accad was completed Hammurabi showed himself the statesman even more than the soldier. The land of Sumer and Acit. 1 sar. as above cited. King. the Blessing-of-Men. son of Gazza. chiefest of his great The works is best described in his own ringing words the words of a conqueror. the well-known king of Larsa. and Driver. I : . and in thus increasing the wealth and comfort of the inhabitants. and with their scepter filled my hands. . and a patriot ful king. who Arioch. has not yet been certainly identiking fied but in this same inscription a certain " Tud. chula. 1 See Pinches. a " Hammurabi. upon Lasting water I provided for the land of Sumer and Accad. the general movements of the time. represents Chedorlaomer. dug the canal Hammurabi. Its banks upon both sides I made arable land much seed I scattered . The narrative of their campaigns in the west accords well with what we know of the general situ- but forms only an episode in Babylonian history. 391 The name of Tidal. He dis- played extraordinary care in the development of the resources of the land." appears to be mentioned. which bringeth the water of the overflow unto the land of Sumer and Accad. king of Babylon. son of Kudur-Mabuk. of Goiim. is certainly to be identified with Eri-Aku. .

is a world of wisdom in the deeds of this old king. which would find prompt recognition among oriental peoples then as now. its separated peoples I united. On all sides we find evidences of his efforts in this work. lowed the example of his predecessors in Babylonia and carried out extensive building operations in various parts of the land. 123. and comp. In Babylon itself he erected a great granary for the storing of wheat against times of famine a work of mercy as well as of necessity. for full references to the iii. Jensen in Keilimchrift. p. 64). p. with blessings and abundance I endowed them.. See. No work could possibly have been per- formed by him which would bring greater blessing than the building of a canal by which a nearly rainless land could be supplied with abundant After making the canal. . original texts. also translation by Wiuckler (Geschichte. mountain " to use his own phrase and the city was enriched by the construction of a new canal.392 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. I l-II 10. cad." promise made to the people before the union of Sumer and Accad under the hegemony of Babyings I lon. 1 but the actual accomplishment of a to knit to himself man who house knew how There and his royal the hearts of the people of a conquered land. Bibl. The great temples of E-sagila in Babylon and E-zida in the neighwere reconstructed " like a great 1 The Louvre Inscription Col. Hammurabi folwater. The temples to the sun god in Larsa and in Sippar were rebuilt by him the walls of the latter city . part i. in peaceful dwell- This was no idle made them to live.

its glories. content with Nineveh and these great though his greatest glory were in later days came when he could call himself king of Babylon. the centuries that came after into Babylon. and. also. But if the kings of Assyria looked to Babylon with longing eyes.FIEST AND SECOND DYNASTIES. and What this meant to is shown the later inscriptions. and perform the symbolic act of taking hold of the hands of Bel-Marduk. for they imitated in their inscriptions the very words and phrases in which he had described his building. kingdom of warriors. But these buildings are only external evidences of the great work wrought in this long reign for The best of the culture of the ancivilization. To Babylon clearly in the later kings of Assyria look constantly as to the real center of No Assyrian king is culture and civilization. even copied the exact 27 . not satisfied with this. size 393 boring Borsippa showed in increased and in beauty the influence of his labors. Babylon the abode of scholars and the wellspring of all this is to be found in the work of Hammurabi. yet more did later kings in center . near Baghdad. There is evidence. of a the city of Babylon itself look back to the days of Hammurabi as the golden age of their history. that he built for himself a palace at the site now marked by the ruin of Kalwadha. cient Sumerians was brought there carefully conserved. Nabopolassar and Nebuchadrezzar acknowledged his position in the most flattering way. Nineveh was the .

. ff. 4 From them we learn of the high civilization of the counits try and of continued prosperity. 1 the long reign was ended the son of Hammurabi entered into his father's labors. murabi achieved by arms continues through his We reign and into the reigns of his successors. for the records which have come down from their reigns are the socalled contract or business tablets. his tablets and the style of their writing.394 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. text of Samsu-iluna here referred to pp. tersuchungen. w5th their approximate dates. and of continuing the works The profound peace which Hamupon canals. In building his plans were followed. can only be set down until some future discovery re- veals records with a historical meaning. iii. have no historical inscriptions. 64. 2 The See Winckler.. Samsu-iluna (about 2287-2253) seems to have followed He tells closely in the footsteps of Hammurabi. Hammurabi reigned fifty-five years according to the King Lists. 63. and in rule and administration his methods were imitated. 1 is published by Winckler ( Uhibl. 140) and translated by him. pp. Keilinschrift. 131. from which no connected story has yet been made out. When us of building in Nippur and in other cities some of them still unknown to us of increasing the size of Babylon itself. The names of these kings. part i. p. Geschichte. His works and his words entitle him to rank as form of the real founder of Babylon. but forty-three years according to a native document which comes to us from his own dynasty.

and it seems probable that they owe their origin to an invasion of Babylonia by the same race that and when peopled the highlands of Canaan. 2252-2228 B. about The names of the kings of this dynasty are very peculiar when one thinks that they are set down The as native rulers over the city of Babylon. Apil-Sin and Sin-muballit are good Babylonian names. Azag. about Samsusatana. The names would seem to suggest that the men who bore them were not Babylonian. about Ammisadugga. about Ammisatana. 2227-2203 B. See on this Hilprecht's criticism (Assyriaca. C.FIRST AND SECOND DYNASTIES. C. must have been very like its It is called the dynasty of Urupredecessor. pp. but the other eight are most certainly not Babylonian at all. 67. origin of Zabu and its meaning are very doubtful. 2202-2182 B. This Winckler reads Uru-azagga and supposes this to be a part of the city of Babylon (Geschichte. but had come from some other branch of the great Semitic This seems now to be quite probable. 103). To this Winckler replies in AXoricn- . 395 Abeslm* (Ebishum). C. family. and it has been conjectured that this re- second which in all things 1 fers to a district of the city of 1 Babylon. Their names are for the most part to be connected with the Canaanite branch of the Semitic family. 68. This at once raises the ques- tion as to the nationality or race of these kings. pp. who reads simply Shish-khu and believes in the non-Semitic origin of the dynasty. 328). According to the King Lists this dynasty followed the was immediately by dynasty. How they settled in Babylon remains obscure. 25-27. 2181-2115 B. C.

to be represented by vol. p. by which they are named. we may feel a reasonable doubt as to the accuracy of these long reigns. 2034-2009 2008-1994 6. Gul-ki-shar (? kur) 1993-1970 1969-1915 1914-1865 1864-1837 1836-1811 1810-1803 1802-1783 (24) (55) (50) Kir-gal-dara-bar 8. 5. 275-277. who had originated in a separate part of the city. i. a surprising list of years of reign.-shi 4. reads Sisku first king of his dynasty with Prince An-a-an of Erech (Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. talische Forschungen. 9. pp. 339. in which Hammurabi receives forty-three years instead of fifty-five years. p. Sayce has supposed Uruazagga " a part of the mounds of Tello or its immediate vicin- " ity (Records of the Past.). p. . pp. 13). 101. 281. would make this dynasty consist of native princes.u-usb.396 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. but without success (see Hilprecht. 2150-2091 2090-2035 (60) (56) (26) (15) 3. Dam-ki-ilu-shu Ish-ki-bal Sb.) (Early new series. 1 See further above on the Chronology. pp. Assyriaca. The names of these kings and the length of their reigns are here given 1. It is certainly As our confi- dence in the length of reigns given to kings in the first dynasty has been somewhat shaken by the discovery of the Babylonian Chronicle. Israel. We owe this list of kings and the length of each 1 reign to the Babylonian historians. ff. A-dara-kalama A-kur-ul-an-na (28) (26) (8) 10. 7. 13-15). Me-lam-kur-kur-ra Ea-ga-mil (20) 368 years. but later Hommel has attempted to connect the i. xvi. about Ki-an-ni-bi 2. 11. : An-ma-an. No inscriptions of any of these kings have yet been found.

which is evidenced by the works no less than the words of the following centuries. It was only the constant effort of men to possess it and all that its traditions covered and contained. 397 and no business documents dated in their reigns have come to light. gives the necessary time for the progress in all these things.FIEST AND SECOND DYNASTIES. a long period elapsed from the days of Hammurabi until the passing of power into the hands of foreigners. . so continued. perhaps. and science. North and south together acknowledged the minion of his Peace at home do- and abroad gave leisure for the pursuit of literaThis great silent period ture. It is not therefore to be argued that the kings had no existence. the latter part of this term the disturbances and ords. which he had made great. or reasons may easily be found for supposing that a systematic effort had been made to destroy all their rec- been supposed that during. Yet it was overcome in part only. art. From the peace and stability which his genius achieved we must now turn to the turmoil which ensued when his influence was finally overcome. However that may be. It has movements began which resulted in the removal of all rule from the hands of the Babylonians and the transfer of it to invaders from the Kassite country. Hammurabi had indeed builded successors. Inscriptions of theirs may readily be supposed to be still in existence in the vast stores yet unearthed. well. the city of Babylon. Its supremacy there was none to question.

398 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. during which Babylonia was ruled by kings of native blood. even as in later centuries the taineers of fair plains of northern Italy were coveted by the Teutons. who surveyed them from the mountains above. merchants were always willing to pay tribute to a foreign foe rather than run the risk of a of the arts. As long as the influence of Hammurabi and the other founders of the united kingdom of Babylonia remained the country was able to defy any invader. indeed unlikely that the conquest of Babylon was achieved by a definitely organized It is army. At however. this time. and trade and commerce had weakened the military arm. This land of great fertility had tempted often enough the hardy mounElam. led by a commander who purposed making . whose. But the development the progress of civilization. AT about the year 1783 ends the long period of stable peace. Babylon still possessed patriotism and national pride. and there is no reason to believe that the foreigner seated himself upon the proud throne of the Babylonians without difficulty. THE KASSITE DYNASTY. Babylon was becoming like Tyre of later days. the increase of war which might injure their trade. CHAPTER III.

Comp.. note 7). are not justified in identifying them positively 8 1 Delitzsch believes that these are all one people (Die Sprache der Kos- sder. p. pp. but It seems probathat they stood in some relation to the people ble dwelling along the banks of the Zagros. while still 399 continuing to It is rather the migrareign in his own country. quoted by Rost. iii. 211. . Oeographica. nevertheless. pp. but he. pp. 2 (ed. i. Geschichte..) and also Lehmann (ibid. i. 2 p. is colorless and leaves the question undecided until more light has been obtained. (Cassite). Zwei Hauptprobl. part i. Zeitschrift der Deutsche Morgenldndisclie Gesell. 6. Billerbeck. line 64. pp. 28 . Lehmann identifies the Kasshu with the Kissians. in Elam. c5e (ibid. Untersuchungen. pp. and the Monuments. 306 . 86) found the Kashshi in the Kossaean mountains. History. 1014). Ti&yovrai KOI Kiaaioi ol Sovaioi. 212). . himself king of Babylon. 126. 43. This people is called the Kasshu. 1895. new series i. iii.. Sennacherib (Taylor Cylinder. by Rogers in Records of the Past. to be connected (Kiaoioi). 421. 78. who be- came famous Kossaeans ' in later times under the name of the ed that they (Kooaaiofy are. and it is difficult their previous seat was to localize them more perfectly." 3 Ptolemaeus. ff. p. 1898. The name Kassite.. tr. vol. Untersuchungen. p. if. 16). which we have here adopted. f. 143). new series. by Winckler. fresh people which here con- fronts us. pp." but are also believed to be mentioned in CappadoIn the present state of our knowledge we cia. p. p. in and it has even been suggestsome way. col. Prophecy. Das Sandschak Suleimania. McCurdy (Kasshites). vii. Strabo. i. with another people. identifies them with the Kossaeans Old Bab. p.. 44. Augustus Meineke. 44. tion of a strong. 106. v. But see for reasons to the contrary Oppert (Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie. and Hilprecht Ins.. p. vol. xv. Kassite is now in gen- eral use (for example.THE KASSITE DYNASTY. 328. and v. 6. 79. p. the Kissians who were at one time settled in the country of Susiana. 4). and against this view may be quoted Rost. who locates them in the " Luti* Bagtache Bergland. vi. It was proposed by Sayce (Records of the Past. Leipzig.

They entered Babylon probably as roving bands. to about 1207 B. but were settled first in the far south. so that they set up a foreign dynasty in place of the previous native Babylonian rule. Certain in- dications there are which seem to show that they did not come direct from their ancient home into Babylonia. The list assigns to this dynasty five hundred and seventy-six years and nine months. but were rapidly assimilated to Babylonian culture as well as to Babylonian usages. near the Persian Gulf. they Babylonian gods. be safer simply to call them Kassites. C.400 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. During this long period the Kassites naturally did not remain foreigners. and the their But rule records that have come down to us are in much this more fragmentary. 1 Of only one king See above pp. C. They naturally wrote inscriptions. It will with either or both of these peoples. 340-342. but unhappily this list. The Babylonian Lists the historians all preserved in their King names of these kings. in the form in which we possess it. as their predecessors had built buildings and worshiped the done. is badly broken and many of the names are lost. and thus leave their racial affinity an open question. then in increased numbers overran the land and gained control. did not bring forth so rich a fruit as Hammurabi's had done. . Concerning this Kassite dynasty our knowledge is very unsatisfactory. 1 On this representation the Kassites must have ruled from about 1782 B.

The inscription is in the British Museum (84-2-11. p. " " 1722-1714B. 1893. Gande (Hilprecht. 221). Ins. i.. Gandisb. possess only contract tablets of other kings. 4. Rost (Untersuchnngen.. Old and even into Gan (ibid. p 309. 3. 178). Sachs Gesell.. The correspondence of some of the kings with kings of Egypt has been preserved. 54.. 60) reads Du Lehmann. It is sometimes read Ush-shi. p. p. 22 C. is i. of the first The names 1. pp. 22 C. Dushi 3 Adumetash 1 4 . and avers Sitzung vom 8 Juli.. 2 This name is written Guyashi by Pinches and Winckler. " " 17135 C. 401 dynasty do we possess any long historical inscription. Delitzsch discovered another sign before the GU (Assyriologische Miscellen. by Winckler (Untersuchungen. and by it a most welcome light is shed upon the obscure period. p. Zeltschnft fur Assyriologie. and is published this king is also abbreviated into ff. while Delitzsch suggests that it may be AD. 5. 78. Perhaps about 1782-1767 B. note 4. 28. " " 1744-1723 B. because in the text of Agumkakrime the latter . doubtful. The name of Ins. though the signs are reasonably clear. p. 5 Rost is doubtful and suggests a comparison with Attametu. 16 C. 24) reads Abu (?) makhru. p. i. Reading doubtful. 6). Bab. It also appears in the form Gaddash on an inscription published by Pinches (Babylonian and Oriental Record. 1 2. classe der K. and Old Bab. 30. the number of which will be largely increased by the publication of tablets that We have been found at Nippur. 30). Also Hilprecht. kings in the list are : Length of Reign. No.. 184). n.THE KASSITE DYNASTY. vii. (9)(19?) 6. 19). and his name does not appear upon the King List. pp. part i. Agum-shi Bibeiashi 3 3. der Wiss. Delitzsch and Winckler read Adumetash. and so also . parti. " 1766-1745 B.). 3 The reading of the name Knudtzon (Assyrische Gebete. p. i. Academy. Tashzigurumash. 4 Reading doubtful. but stood where the list is broken be- yond hope of restoration. Zioei Hauptprob.. 1891. p. Sonderabdruck aus den Berichten der phil-his. comp. that the reading is certain after a new collation (see Lehmann. Knudtzon reads Bibeiashi. 156. Winckler reads Tash-shi-gurumash.

After the sixth name the Babylonian King List is hopelessly broken. He gives honor to the great god Bel. 2. Xo. But. name is not written in the same skillful manner The rude workmanship as of former worthies. There belonged to the library of Asshurbanapal a long inscription calls himself ' in a son of Tash-shi-gurumash. translated by Jensen (Keilinschrift. ff.). though we know so little about this king Gandish. pp. and wrote his name and titles on the door sockets But his set up by former Babylonian kings. be thought the same (Delitzsch. we may have found by this means the name of the next king on the list. is eloquent of the change which had come through a ruder race.. a name so like this that they may. These six kings fill a blank space in the history which had been all aglow with life and color in the days of the first dynasty. 57). To They are only shadows of men. 1 This text was first published II R. 38. and repeated in more perwas collated by Delitzsch and then translated in It was again collated by Bezold and. Hibl. 185). iii. p. Assyriologische Miscellen. 55. without violence. It seems probable that Tashzi-gurumash may be the same as the king from whom Agum-kakrime claims descent. For further literature see Bezold ( Ueberblick. The name of the first king also appears in a votive tablet under the form Gande. The world's progress was put back when the Kassites come to rule in Babylon. we know even less about his followers for a long time. p. If this be true. 134. us these names convey no real meaning. upon his contriKossaer. and no names can be read for a considerable space. pp.402 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. 33. butions. and in still another little fragment as Gaddash. feet form V R. It . ff. part i.

natural to suppose that with his father's name in his inscription would stand the title of king. 79). which is not the case.THE KASSITE DYNASTY. it list. If Agum-kakrime it is were really the son of King Tashshigurumash. The entire inscription sounds rather like the text of an usurper who is attempting to bolster up his claims to the throne by sound- ing titles and genealogical connections. 1 The king whose deeds In this text it recounts was Agum-kakrime. p. after giving all his con- to the gods. king of the broad land of Babylon who caused much people to settle in the land of Ashnunnak. .' Whether Agum-kakrime was the next name the list seems almost certain that he must have belonged to this same period and his name must have followed very shortly upon the or not. and this is now generally done. It is very tempting to connect this Tashshigurumash with the sixth name in the list of kings. for example. . he calls himself the son of Tashshigurumash. 403 Assyrian characters which purports to be a copy of an inscription of an early king of Babylon. It is probably right. by Sargon II and Tiglathpileser HI. Certain peculiarities of the Assyrian text make it much more probable that it is a translation from Sumerian. he sets forth the lands of his rule in these words nections of blood " and all his ties : King of Kasshu and Accad . In his inscription. So. king of Padan and 1 2 Winckler (Geschichte. as was done in in certain cases in later times. yet it must be admitted that it is still somewhat doubtful.

" The titles "king of Padan and Alvan. etc. 80. and Guti. in a time before the Kassites had accommodated themselves to the customs of their conquered land.. wide extended rules the Four Quarters of the peoples a king who World am I. 81). king of the land Guti. ." form feel at all. 1 These distinctions are due to the keenness of Winckler ( Geschichte. pp." This is a remarkable list of titles. Rather would such a king have called himself " King of the kings of Padan. But the titles of Agum-kakrime serve another and larger purpose for us than the furnishing of a confirmation of the position we have assigned him in the dynasty they furnish us with a view of the extent of territory governed from Babylon . That Agum-kakrime violated it 1 is another proof that he belongs to the earlier kings of the dynasty. king of Guti. the usual Babylonian order. Usually a Babylonian king would write the title in this fashion "King of : Babylon." which lands he would thus rule through a deputy appointed by himself. would hardly have been used in this The Babylonian kings would seem to that they could not bear direct rule over a land lying outside of the rule of the Babylonian gods who alone could give the title to a king in Babylon. It is to be observed that later Kassite kings conformed very carefully to this custom. . king of Kasshu. Alvan. king of Sumer and Accad. It is at once noteworthy that the titles do not follow Alvan.404 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. king of the Four Quarters of the World.

and the land of AshnunGuti also. chen diesem und dem Hamrin." See further. His kingdom covers all Babylonia. i. i. which belonged to the ancient empire of Hammurabi but it far exceeded these bounds. which was contiguous to Guti and lay in the mountains of Kurdistan. Sayce. Asshurnazirpal " (I R.. nothing since the days of Lasirab. ff. Agum-kakrime says that he sent an embassy to the far away land of Khani. and Alvan (modern Holwan). 13. sites we are shut up to the view that the Kasit. Agum-kakrime still continued to . Arch. 1899. Proceedings Soc. Bib... The major part of this inscription of Agum-kakrime deals with the restoration to Babylon of had themselves achieved make them some gods which had been carried away in a previous raid upon the country. Keilinschrift.THE KASSITE DYNASTY. Bibl." and Billerbeck (Sanschak Sul. rule the land of Kasshu. was also subject to him. comp. 405 during his reign. Khani is now fairly well settled. pp. who locates "the country of Khana on the eastern side of the Babylonian frontier. 8) would identify this mountain with the "Karadagh oder das Bergland zwis28.." . as well as Padan. January. the land of Mesopotamia between the Euphrates and the Balikh. and south of the 1 1 The location of 18. Mount Khana on 124) alludes to the side of the lands of the Lullumi. As there is no indication in the inscriptions of the previous dynasties that so large a territory had been added to Babylonia since the days of Hammurabi. This would than even the greater conquerors mighty founder of Babylon's greatness. col. which was probably located in the mountain country east of the Tigris. a land of which we have heard nak. p. both north and south.

at least. It was all imried away by the people of Khani. had be restored before it was fit for his occupancy. This ruinous state of Babylon's great to state temple points backward to a period of . be immediately restored. Perhaps we shall not go far astray if we locate this event in the later reigns of the kings of the second dynasty. When these gods were taken away we may see an euphemism for the purchase we do not know. therefore. E-sagila. Babylon the statues of that. Marduk and this move on In order to understand must be remembered from the Babylonian point of view. patron god and But Marduk had been carreal ruler of the city. at which time we have also placed the beginnings of the Kassite influence. for Agum-kakrime follows the story of their restoration with the statement that he placed them in the temple of Shamash." He did In this ex- pression or ransom of the gods by actual payment of gold or silver. because Marduk's own temple. but sent an in " later times.406 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. there could be no legitimate king in Babylon unless he had been appointed to his rule by Marduk. and provided them with all the necessities for their worship. and Asshurbanapal did not do this. embassy. to bring back to Zarpanit. The gods must have been removed by a destructive invasion. portant. his part it Lower Zab. he would probably have taken the god by force from this captors as Nebuchadrezzar I If . for the stability of the throne that this god. Agum-kakrime had had sufficient troops at his command.

In giving the names of the kings of this dynasty from Gandish to Agum-kakrime we have simply followed the lists made by the Babylonian scholIf the list were perfectly conars in ancient times. It will be necessary to make clear the reason for this break. remain would seem to reigned long and peacefully. The indications which show that he must have After the reign of Agum-kakrime there is a sharp break in the chain of our information concerning the history of this dynasty. The list is then resumed after some distance by the name Kudur-Bel. out the kings of the dynasty. to the period when Babylon was tottering from the prond position to which Ham- murabi had brought it.THE KASSITE DYNASTY. who have No is its already passed in review before other events in his reign are known to us. list is Unhappily the off just after tablet con- taining the broken the name of Tashshigurumash. and to set forth briefly the means adopted for the partial repair of the breach. and in setting forth something of their activity by means of other historical material. 407 great weakness. alongside of whose name stands the numeral VI as the number of years of his reign. nor length preserved. we should have an easy task in following tinued. The remaining lines of this important inscrip- tion deal with temple restorations. Following the name Kudur- . and was already an easy prey for the foreigner. and thus add the name of Agum-kakrime to the list of great builders us.

408 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. sum and of the years of their reigns was five seventy-six years and nine months. How many of these names can be obtained ? In the present state of investigation it is safe to say that of these nineteen missing names twelve have been secured with reasonable certainty. Assyria. More than one hundred years before the be^in*/ . in order to the better understanding of the facts which we possess with reference to these reigns. to which we may add that of Agum-kakrime. Bel there are found the names of ten kings of There are thus preserved the Kassite dynasty. from contract tablets dated in their reigns in others from their own inscriptions in others from the so-called Synchronistic History an original Assyrian document giving very briefly the early relations between Babylonia and Asin others from letters and dispatches which syria passed between the courts of Babylonia. to say something by way of preface of the conditions of political life prevailing elsewhere. and Egypt. of completion the list and that the hundred For the we therefore need the names of nineteen kings. At the bottom of the list it is stated that there were thirty-six kings in the dynasty. and for the most part they can be arranged accurately in order in the dyThese names have been secured in some nasty. making seventeen in all. the names of sixteen kings. Before proceeding with the history of the remaining kings of this dynasty it will be necessary instances . .

Semitic Ishaklcus. and apparently of much purer blood than their relatives the Babylonians. was a small land inclosed within the natural boundaries of the Tigris. nished by nature. who were the beginners of a long and distinguished line. the Upper and the Lower Zab.THE KASSITE DYNASTY. of their . It is for these reasons that we have here touched lightly upon the beginnings national 28 life. Their land was admirably fur- In it lived a people who were not enervated by luxury nor prostrated in energy by excessive and long-continued heat. and the Median mountain Its inhabitants at this time were Semites. in which were ruling. In a short time we shall find them able to negotiate treaties with the kings of Babylonia. was showing the beginnings of its original limits ern bank of the Tigris. destined to a splendid career of dominion among men. who had intermarried with the Sumerians a custom afterward continued with the Kassites and with many other peo- along the eastThe land of Assyria in its life range. was chief city of this small Assyrian state Asshur. at the period The of the beginning of the Kassite dynasty. ples. but accus- tomed to battle with snowdrifts in the mountains and to conserve their physical force by its constant It is no wonder that under such favorable use. conditions this people should have risen rapidly to power. and soon thereafter the main stream of his- tory flows through the channels they were now digging. 409 ning of the Kassite dynasty a new state.

among ratta. the Egyptian inscriptions of the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties it is called Naharina that is. Between the kings of Mitanni and the kings of Egypt there known . Egypt who had diplomatic intercourse with From these letters and dispatches we have learned the names of several of the kings of Mitanni. At the time when these kings were writing dispatches to the kings of Egypt their land was in some sort of union with Khanigalbat. Artashuma. but what their racial ties may be we do not know. and DushTheir chief god was Tishup.410 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. whose name as well as the names of his worshipers is not Semitic. the kings of it. No inscripthe river country but it tions of the people of Mitanni. other lands require brief mention before can properly understand the movement of we races during the period of the Kassite dynasty. save letters written to kings of Egypt. was called Mitanni by its own kings. Sutarna. them Artatama. should We indeed hardly know of the land at all but for the discovery of the royal archives of the kings Amenophis III and Amenophis IV. a land later farther north as Melitene and situated much and west in the mountains. have been found. Two In the northwestern part of the great valley between the Tigris and Euphrates lay a small country whose two chief limits were set by the In river Euphrates and its tributary the Balikh. How long a people had lived within its borders with kings of their own and a separate national existence remains an enigma.

v. The kingdom of Mitanni must take its place among the small states which have had their influencing the progress of the world. for its method of writing was borrowed from The last its powerful neighbors. For . 1890. however. though we cannot do this. by Jensen (Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie. and in the cuneiform characters. Th. 135. 209-259). before proceeding with the main story is the land of Kardunyash. 86. vi. Attempts to decipher this language have been made by Sayce (Academy. The letters of Mitanni were written chiefly in the Semitic language of Babylonia. 3 Winckler ( Untersuchungen. share in But. 34-72). and 2 by Brunnow (ibid.. pp. land to which our attention must be diverted.THE KASSITE DYNASTY. pp. references to the El-Amarna letters from Kardunyash see below. Originally the word 3 1 VA. xxxvii. 260-274). 422. 166-208. is written in the language of Mitanni. pp. p. pp. Zeitschrift filr Assyriologie. 136. the kings of Egypt hav" ing married princesses from the far distant river land. Geschichte. with which we are familiar in the native in- One of these letters. vol. pp. we may at least observe that it seems to have been largely under Semitic influences. v. prescriptions. 411 were bonds of marriage. pp. but whose own history we are unable to trace. which has thus far not yielded to the numerous efforts made to decipher a it. v. 94. 1 served in the Royal Museum in Berlin." The fact that the proud kings of Egypt were anxious to ally themselves to the kings of Mitanni would seem to indicate that the land was sufficiently wealthy or influential to make it worthy of the attention of Egypt. 87).

After him there lived six kings whose names.412 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. king of Sumer and Accad. it is at least certain that the Whether this be true or name Kardunythe Kassite kings as a ash comes to be used sort of official by name We are now for the land of Babylonia. king of Kasshu. List is As we have so are lost. king of Kardunyash. not. the better prepared to gather together such little threads of information as link them with their neighbors. a temple in E-Anna. king of Babylon. able to return to the Kassite dy- nasty after a long excursus . The next king of the Kassite dynasty of whom we have knowledge is Karaindash (about 1450 B. and the . seen above. the Babylonian King broken after the name Tashshigurumash that some names are lost. C. his mistress. Karaindash. to be applied to a small terriBabylonia close to the Persian Gulf. Of these missing names we have already secured the name of Agurnkakrime. Like his predecessors and successors. and used it as a base from which to overrun Kardunyash seems tory in southern and conquer Babylonia. The termination." In this brief inscription the king built "To Nana. as his was a plain: own brief words make goddess of E-Anna. that the Kassites first settled in this land by the Persian Gulf. he builder. together with all their words and works. the places Babylon first in his list of titles. with good reason. and it has been supposed.). " ash " is Kassite. the powerful king.

1 though it is not a history in 6. though badly broken. 66.. already has Babylonian culture conquered the Kassites and assimilated them to itself. This copy 1 is now in the British Museum. In the reign of Karaindash we meet for the first time evidence of contact between the still youthful and the empire of Babylonia even then hoary with age. ment original of this precious docuhas perished. p. conquered Babylonia by force of arms. C. 3. and III R. 324. ff. which is based on a new collation by Winckler. This can only be due to a following of The old land the immemorial Babylonian usage. to whom our knowledge of the ancient Orient owes so much. Published II R. Our knowledge of these relations between the two kingdoms comes from the Assyrians. it and. See also above.. and by the potency of its own civilization and the power of its religion compelled adherence The Kassites had to ancient law and custom. 194. soon absorbed the peoples who came to it as conquerors. pp.THE KASSITE DYNASTY. two Kassite titles. pp. . fully half of be read. See also Delitzsch.). Kassaer. ff.) a list of the various friendly and hostile relations between Babylonia and Assyria from the earliest times down to this reign. and the valuable translation by Peiser and Winckler (Keilinschrift. but a copy of it was made for The the library of Asshurbanapal by some of his scholars. It has been named the Synmay chronistic History. 413 Kasshu and Kardunyash. and. who made during the reign kingdom of Assyria of Adad-nirari III (811-783 B. ibl. 4. at the very last. i.

2. pp. strict sense. till which never cease power and possessed his inheritance. settled the boundary line by treaty. have now This shows that Assyria was already sufficiently may be powerful to claim a legitimate title to a portion of the great valley. king of Assyria. are unhappily not in a position to be very certain as to the order of succession of the follow- We but his immediate successor was No historical inscripKadashman-Bel.414 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. It is not long before this small kingdom of Assyria begins to dispute with Babylonia for the control even of the soil of Babylonia itself. but see for the correction Knudtzon. concerning which The two kings there had been previous difficulty. probably tion of this king and no business documents dated ers of Karaindash. 1 The name was formerly read Kallima-Sin (Winckler. king of Kardunyash and Asshurbelnishishu.269. i. Zeitschrift 1 fiir Assyriologie. With this first notice of relations between the two kingdoms begins the long series of struggles. 270.). . ff. and are as follows " Karaindash. and swore an oath concerning this territory with one another. xii. whether peaceful or warthe bloodthirsty Assyrian has driven the Babylonian from the seat of like. TJie Tell-el-Amarna Letters." This first entry evidently refers to some debatable land between the two countries. it is any convenient to retain this apfirst pellation. and it was acknowledged by Babylon as an independent kingdom. The very : words upon it which read with certainty relate to Karaindash. made a treaty with one another. pp.

with thy horses and with thy chariots. so also here are we in possession should be at a loss to locate him at of some portions of a correspondence with Amenophis III. The letters pre- . with thy house. May it be well with thee. the : great king. with my troops. in his reign have yet 415 come to light in Babylonia. with thy wives. and the Berlin Museum has three letters from Kadashman-Bel to phis III. be well with me may it be well. thus saith Amenophis. king of Karstately fashion dunyash. The British Museum possesses a letter written in Egypt by Amenophis III to Kadashman-Bel. 1 then discusses the proposed matrimonial alliance between Egypt and Babylonia and urges that Kadashman-Bel should give to him his daughter to wife. may it be very well. with my wives. the king of Egypt. and with my land. The letter further announces the sending to Kadashman-Bel of an ambassador to negotiate a commercial treaty between the two states. with my horses. thy brother with me it is well. with thy nobles." The letter and with thy land may it . It begins in this " To Kadashman-Bel.THE KASSITE DYNASTY. with my nobles. king of Egypt. with my house. Ameno- The : first letter is probably a copy of the original sent to Babylonia. by which certain imports from Babylonia into Egypt were to pay a customs duty. with thy children. with my chariots. all We were it not for the assistance to be obtained from the archives of the Egyptians. my brother . with my children. As in the case of the land of Mitanni.

with whom he seems to have had a hostile demonstration concerning the boundaries between the two lands. ' The Synchronistic History sets down this king as contemporary with Puzur-Asshur. C. To find letters passing between Babylon and Egypt about 1400 B.. Kadashman-Bel had a long reign and was sucpolitical history of Babylonia. of Kadashman-Bel were thus Both the daughter and the sister numbered among the full wives of Amenophis III intimate relation which now proof of the very subsisted between the two great culture lands of antiquity. no light upon the to which is the object of our present search. give us a wonderful view into the light of the distant past. and we must pass from it. indeed. . Babylonia and Egypt. to which friendly consent was finally given. it is safe perhaps to conclude that Burnaburiash was successful. though he Col. and says nothing of an Assyrian victory. king of Assyria. lines 5-7. roads toms. i. This all witnesses to a high state of civilization. . As the Assyrian writer alludes only euphemistically to their relation as unfriendly. Little else of his reign 1 is known.416 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and ambassadors endeavoring to negotiate commercial treaties. ready intercourse over good to firmly fixed laws and stable national cusIt gives us. served in Berlin seem to relate to the same correspondence and deal chiefly with the proposed marriage of the daughter of Kadashman-Bel to Amenophis III. does. ceeded by Burnaburiash I. however.

but it does not appear whether he was its founder or only a benefactor and re- builder. about 1410 B. king of the Four Quarters of the World.." and in another case uses this latter title The title of king of Babylon. I R. 153. 1 I R. our knowledge is also very unsatisfactory. governor) of Bel. 4. part pi. xiii. "King of Sumer and Accad. p. Keilinschrift. i. and it probable that his relations with the Assyrians 2 were friendly. king of Egypt. C. Asshur-nadin-akhe. of Dur-Kurigalzu (Kurigalzuburg) derived its name from him. v. i. The few inscriptions of his which remain record simply the usual building operaThe titles which he uses in his texts are tions. for a brick brought from the temple ruins at Larsa shows that he had erected there a temple to the sun god. 2 Lehmann i. Of the next king. son of Burnaburiash I.THE KASSITE DYNASTY. was also in a 417 measure a builder of temples. Sibl. might have expected. . This maybe because he was not officially made king by the use of all the solemn ceremonies The city which the priesthood had devised. and Hilprecht. 20. etc. The compiler of the Synchronistic History found no events in his reign in connection with the contemporary Assyrian king. 417. Kurigalzu I.. Ins. Old Bab. Hi. which we only. is not used by him at all. It is known from the letters of Burnaburiash II that he stood in friendly relations is 1 with Amenophis III.. 4." to which in one instance he adds the title " shakkanak (that is. in Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie.

p. 152. 150. Four IV king to Amenophis (Napkhuriya. and two more 3 No historical mateare in the British Museum. about the year probably short. 1400. AlcJi-en-Aton\ king of Egypt. It is. Heft 8 i. who had for his chief wife Muballitat-Sherua.). and 3 could only excuse themselves for failing to observe them on the ground of their ignorance of the illness and the great distance to be covered on the journey. Th. and he is thereHis reign was fore passed by without a word. daughter of . curious to find the Babylonian king reproving the king of Egypt for not having sent an ambassador to inquire for him when he was ill. and deal. When kings had time for such courtesies. are letters written by this preserved in the Berlin Museum. in considerable measure. though no Babylonian memorials of it have been preserved. there must have been freedom from war and from all distress at home and abroad.. 149. Der Thontafelfund von El-Amarna. with the rial of little 1 courtesies and amenities of life. and 81. Zeitschnft fur Assyriolv. 139. Th. translated by Zimmern. VA. Burnaburiash II. 151. 150. They reveal a period of relative peace and prosperity.418 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. and at its conclusion. Nos. 88-10-13. for example. C. The successor of Burnaburiash II appears to have been Karakhardash (about 1370 B. 46. 21. 3 Bu. he was succeeded by his son. ff. whose reign was long and prosperous. which were worthy of narration. offie. . 10. great moment is offered in these letters.

pp. . marched against Babylonia. new series. 419 Asshur-uballit. desiring to avenge his grandson. Records of the Past. about 1360 B.THE KASSITE DYNASTY. ibid. With this chronicle is to be compared the Synchronistic History in which there appear to be some errors. killed Nazibugash. and also Rost. This king conducted a campaign against the Sutu. f. Comp. C. another of his grandsons. ff. pp. came to the throne. and placed upon the throne Kurigalzu II. p. KadashmanKharbe I. 115. 106. This alliance made for peace between the two royal houses. a man of humble line. His mother was Muballitat-Sherua.. whom he conquered and among whom Upon he settled some of his own loyal subjects. rebellion of the Kassites. his return from this expedition he found himself confronted by a who were probably syrian inuflence.). 1 1 Kurigalzu II (about first These facts are found in the Babylonian Chronicle P. but did not establish peace between the peoples of the two countries. and not a descendant of the royal As soon as the news of this rebellion reached origin Assyria Asshuruballit. and so it happened that an Assyrian king had his grandson upon the throne of Babylon. UntersuchungeH. jealous of the growth of Askilled. so that the custom of intermarriage which prevailed between the royal houses of Egypt and Babylon at this period had also its illustration between the houses of Assyria and Babylonia. Winckler. king of Assyria. v. etc.. published in translation by Pinches. 54. and retranslated more accurately by Winckler. When Karakhardash died his son. and he was The rebels then placed upon the throne Nazibugash (also called Shuzigash. Altorientalische forschunyen.

and his reign was long. for his life. i.. about 1350 B. iii. The little agate tablet is recovered. and worsted him. and now. Old Bab. pp. p. part i. son of Kurigalzu 1 II. quered the palace of Susa in Elam and presented ' (this tablet) to Belit. P. This happened about 2285 B. C. also fought with the Asand 2 Hilprecht." is It campaign that the Babylonian Chronicle probably refers in its allusion to the campaign of Kurigalzu against Khurbatila. con. i. ff. vol. . 31. 54. C. king of Karadunyash..) was probably made king while still young. as the king of Assyria. see Winckler. and Rost. C. Imcrip. Altorientalische p. Comp. Chronicle P has here read Adad-nirari incorrectly for Bel-nirari. his mistress. the next king. 122.). king of Elam. 18. though the Assyrian Synchronistic History claims 2 the victory in the same conflict for the Assyrians. Forschungen. Untersuchungen. Babylonian Chronicle narrates the story. Babylonia. 123. 1350 B. Kurigalzu II invades Elam and conquers even the city of Susa itself. with his own brief inscription engraved on its back: "Kurigalzu. Nazi-Maruttash (about 1340 B. but may get a slight view of some of its glories. Chron.420 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYEIA. note 1. C. Many centuries before his when Kudur-nakhundi of Elam ravaged in day. and the victorious Kurigalzu II places it in the temple of E-kur at Nippur... After the invasion to this of Elam the victorious Kurigalzu II also fought with Bel-nirari. he carried away a small agate tablet. 20-22. which resulted so victoriously. i. with Synchronistic History. We cannot follow its events in detail. which was carefully preserved in the land of Elam.

feated signally. 4. They point toward the day of destruction for Babylon. This is the Assyrian account. again comes to intelligence. and of his successor. 81. i.) and Shagarakti-Shuriash (about 1298-1286 B. what the Babylonian story may have been we do not know. led 421 by their king. without being able to learn the outcome. king of Assyria. of the kings 1304-1299 B. and in1 dicate the rapid increase of Assyrian power. and of glory for the military people who were be- ginning to press upon the great city. These constantly recurring wars with Assyria are ominous. .THE KASSITE DYNASTY. Delitzsch. him Of the son of Nazi-Maruttash who succeeded him under the name of Kadashman-Turgu we know nothing. we only know that he was at war with Shalmaneser I. and we can only set them down as empty words they are Kudur-Bel (about to us. has invaded Baby1 III R. The Babylonian Chronicle now our aid. vol. Adad-nirari I. and we know definitely and certainly their order in the dynasty.). The following reigns are almost entirely un- awaken no response in our minds. Babylonian Inscriptions. part i. for the Babylonian Chronicle is broken at this point. C.). p. 1. king of Assyria. Comp. and with rather startling Tukulti-Ninib. 10. Old p. Kadashman-Buriash (about 1330 B. KossZer. though in their cases the Babylonian King List has supplied us with the length of their reigns. known The names . No. Syrians. who de- and gained some Babylonian territory by pushing the boundary farther south. C. and Hilprecht. C.

). perhaps it Avas only the growing Assyrian lust for power and territory. and worst of all. See Hommel's acute suggestions for removing the chronological ties in Winckler. of Babylonian independThe line of kings is continued during the ence. and Adad-shum-iddin (about 1274-1269 B. and Kadashman-Kharbe II. i. for the time at least. and after seven years of this domination the Babylonians rose in rebellion. pp. king enters Babylon. at least partially. who together reigned but three years (about 1277-1275). even though he was rep8 resented by these as his deputies. and. iv. C. away the great god Marduk to AsHere was a sore defeat indeed. We vasion intended chiefly as a threat. during whose reign the invasion probably occurred Bel-shum. drove 1 Chronicle P. ancient in its days. But the last three of these kings must have been only vasiddin. kills some of The Assyrian its inhabitants. Here is the city of Hammurabi. do not know what steps led to this attack. 139. last destroys the city wall. But the old spirit was not quite dead. Perhaps the old boundary disputes had once more caused difficulty. period of war and invasion with the names of Bibeiashu (about 1285-1278 B. . 3-6. But whatever the cause this was no ordinary inIon. Altorientalische Forschungen. and the carries end. C. who was the real king of Babylon for seven years. removes the treasures of the temple. sals of Tukulti-Ninib. 138.). glorious in its history.422 HISTOEY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. col. and 1 syria. ruled by a king of the small and rela- tively modern state of Assyria. 9 difficul- .

saw the Assyrians once more confined to their narrow territory. was slain in battle. Their king. VIR. and made Adadshum-usur (about 1268-1239 B. In his reign the power of Babylon again He attacked Assyria itself. 1238-1224 B. 7-11." in token of the extension once more of Babylonian dominion over nearly the whole of the valley. iv. and was able to add to his own name the " proud titles king of Kishshati. On the other 1 hand. C.). began to increase. ii. and he went down with the decline of his once brilliant fortunes. * Synchronistic History. 423 the Assyrians from Babylon. and in the overturning Babylonia made gains of AssyrThe reign of Meli-Shipak (about ian territory. Bel-kudur-usur. 3 88. 20. the reign of Adad-shum-usur was at once the token and result of better fortunes in Babylonia. while Tukulti-Ninib returned to Assyria only to find a In rebellion against him headed by his own son. Marduk-apal-iddin (about 12231211 B. this his life was lost. C.) king. stripped of all their conquests. i. change was too great and too sudden and the power of Assyria must soon re1 Chronicle P.) was also a period of Babylonian aggression against the Assyrian king Ninib-apalesharra. and the Assyrians were scarce able to keep the victorious Babylonians out of their country." and to such good purpose that the next Babylonian king. king of Sumer and 3 Accad. 41. But this to last. C.THE KASSITE DYNASTY. .

and this was probably while Marduk-apal-iddin was still reigning. C. indicate that the period was filled with strife. there was another reversal of fortunes. iii. C. 1 Synchronistic History. as often.). and succeeded in winning back some of the cities in land between Assyria and and thus gave proof that the Assyrian Babylonia. and the very brevity the ever-debatable 1 of these reigns may. site king. reigned also but a short time. The failure of the Kassites to hold inviolate the territory of Babylonia resulted in a Semitic revolution in which the dynasty that had ruled so long in the queenly city ended. 9-12.424 HISTOEY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Its advent was heralded by war and by internal dissensions in the last preceding dynasty . perhaps. . though time the change was neither so sudden nor so Asshur-dan fought with the next Babylogreat. this nian king. Zamamashumiddin (about 1210 B. Assyria was certainly threatening the Babylonian empire. and its approaching end was indicated in like manner. Bel-shum-iddin (about 1209-1207 B. The next Kaspower was again waxing strong.). Asshur-dan became king of Assyria. for the long reign of Asshur-dan gave time for the carrying out of extensive plans. and the power to realize them was plainly not wanting. When turn and then again continue to develop.

c. s So. There were eleven kings in this dynasty who were regarded by the Baby1 Jensen reads Isin (Zdtschrift fur Assyriologie. 29 . whose influence had been marked at an earlier period of the history. ISDf." a cry which in various languages has often resounded among men and won many a national triumph. Rost. note 2). p. as Isin. and Craig (American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures. for example. gan in Babylon and city is named after a section of the possible that it originated in the city of Isin. p. with the war cry of " Babylonia for the Babylonians . xiii. Comp. the dynasty of Isin. The list is so badly broken that but few of the names have been retained. 90). 425 CHAPTER IV. but its origin is It has been suggested that it bestill doubtful. THE DYNASTY OF THE cause of the downfall of the great Kassite dynasty is unknown to us. it is still known 2 but This dynasty reigned in Babylon a period of one hundred and thirty-two years. and we are once more forced to seek the means of restoring the names from notices in other documents. It may have been due to an uprising of the Semites against foreign domination. The Babylonian King List 1 names the new dynasty.THE DYNASTY OF ISIN. /. pp. 10. 220. 221). also Rost (Untersuchungen. supports him. xi.

chadrezzar I (about 1135 B. who had once more carried the Assyrian arms to Assyria was preparing to contest with Babylonia the possession of the whole of the valvictory. pp. and his defeats rabi. defeated and forced Hilprecht has tried. . ley.). Ionian historians as legitimate. C. and Winckler has proved that this view cannot be reconciled with Assyrian chronology (Untersuchungen. are lost and cannot yet be restored. with great learning and acuteness. two kings of the dynasty. and of these four or five are entirely unknown to us. p. This king exhibits once more the spirit almost of a HammuHis victories are brilliant. 131). When he began to reign Mutakkil-Nusku was probably king of Assyria.426 HISTOKY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. 186). the beginning of the struggle for supremacy between the two great nations. 28. but was met by Asshur-rish-ishi. C. p. by name Asshur-rish-ishi. pp. 38-44). Nebuchad- rezzar took the initiative and entered Assyria. to prove that I was the first king of this dynasty (Old Babylonian InDelitzsch has shown scriptions. i.). and A Uorientalische Forschungen. king. and six years respectively reigned eighteen (about 1206-1189 B. part i. are the names and the regnal years of the next three The sixth king of the dynasty was Nebukings. so. 29. C. came the first great and contest. also. and the older land had need of a man of force In the reign of the next Assyrian character. and in him lived the traditions of the glorious reign of Asshur-dan. The names of the first who 1 only evidence the hopelessness of the cause of Babylonia and the vigor of his efforts to save the state. and 1188-1183 B. 1 Nebuchadrezzar that the name of Nebuchadrezzar could not have stood in the first place on the King List (Assyriologische Miscellen. but without success. i.

Nebuchadrezzar I was succeeded by Bel-nadinapli (about 1125 B." Well might he make the boast. the protector of boundaries. 8 that goal of such mighty endeavor In one of his inscriptions in the distant past. but was met by superior forces.). even into Syria. having burned even his baggage to lighten his return to Babylonia. and. part i. iv. p. whose reign furnishes no event of importance known to us.C. A. though unsuccessful against the Assyrians. Old Babylonian Inscriptions. pp. who makes his people prosperous. again defeated and forced to retreat. The 1 throne of Assyria was now occupied by V Smith. 427 to retreat in a veritable rout.THE DYNASTY OF ISIN. iv. 55-57. This terrible reverse found a coun1 terbalancing success elsewhere. C. . 259. Hilprecht. In the reign of his successor. he had maintained a kingdom. for Nebuchadrezzar conquered the Lulubi. 1882. and Meissner in Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologiz. he returned to the contest. Freibrief Nebuchadrezzar's. Marduk-nadin-akhe (about 11171096 B. Having collected reinforcements. and comp. i. most important of all. swung fearlessly and successfully his flying columns into the far west. the Assyrians displayed in a still clearer light the power which was finally to put the destinies of all western Asia in their hands. 41. Assyrian Letters. See also S. Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. punished Elam on the east. p. having lost forty of his chariots. * R. for. Nebuchadrezzar calls himself "sun of his land. 10.). (by latter mistakenly ascribed to Nebuchadrezzar II). ff. which without him had probably fallen before the new and already almost invincible Assyrian power. and Hilprecht.

Herein is the first great blow against Babylonian independence. The next Babylonian king was probably Mardukakhe-irba. tured a number of cjties in its northern half and even took Babylon itself. for he carried away I. But such successes only nerved Tiglathpileser to He invaded Babylonia and capgreater efforts. one of the greatest warriors of Against his kingdom Marduk-nadinhad some success. Tiglathpileser antiquity. but Tiglathpileser I was the grand monarch of western Asia.428 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. Adad-apal-iddin. who ruled only one year and six months and then gave place to Marduk-shapik-zer-mati (about 1094-1083 B. a man of un- known origin. After the death of Marduk-shapik-zer-mati.. came to the throne. akhe at first from Ekallati the images of the gods Adad and These remained away for centuries. The Assyrians under king Asshur-bel-kala had given over for the present the policy of crushing Babylonia. and Sala. C. The Assyrians did not hold the captured city. C.). Usurper though he was. of whose reign no tidings have yet come down to us. with whom there began again a brief period of stable peace. The last king of this dynasty was Nabu-shum (or -nadin). and the Babylonian king ruled only by sufferance. and had adopted rather the plan of making an ally and friend of the ancient commonwealth. and even gave him a daughter in marriage. . Asshur-bel-kala continued the same friendship to him. about 10821075 B. were only restored to their place by Sennacherib.

The Babylonian state had lost the key to western Asia and the Assyrians had found Neither state was for the moment making any it. We have followed its adzenith and have seen its decline vance to the very into subjection.THE DYNASTY OF During the syrians were ISIN. while the Babylonians were unable to undertake any extensive campaigns. great efforts. From now onward we must turn away from Babylon to see the main stream of history flowing through minions. through good report and evil We have watched the cities grow into report. and the sun of Babylonia had suffered a long eclipse. and even in lonian We enough of the rich color of the Orient to make a glowing picture for the mind. its rival's do- have followed the fortunes of the Babycities from the gray dawn of antiquity down the centuries. It is a noble history. but the future belonged to Assyria for centuries at least. . and even in some cases of doubtful meaning. After this period our direct Babylonian information becomes more and more fragmentary. 429 latter part of this dynasty the Asin chiefly occupied the internal strengthening and solidifying of their kingdom. From its contemplation we must now turn to look upon the development and progress of the kingdom of outline has Assyria. kingdoms and have seen the kingdoms welded into a mighty empire.

1083 4 .



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