r .... n TO r ....

(E
FACE TO FACE
Ponraits of the in Early Chri>t;;,nity
Copyright C 200S AUg,burg !'ortre .. , All rights r...,rved. for brief quotat ion.
in critiocal or reviews, no part of this book m.ay b< reproduced in any
without prior written ptrmission from the publi.hu. Writt: Pcrmi .. ion., Augsburg
Fort""' .. Box 1109, Minnrapoii>, MN 55440.
Scripture quotations, unlen otherwi'e noted,.re frum the New Revised StandarJ
VeT$ion lIible, copyright 0 1989 by the Divi,ion of Chri,tian Education of the
N.tional Com",il of the ChurchC$ of Chri,t in the USA and used by permi»ion.
Cowr and book de,ign: Zan Ceder
About the ,over a n: Lef\: Det,il "f J ..... emhroned, ca. 400 C.E. Church of Sant,
Puden,i'n', Rome. Middle: Detail of Dome m.,.,.ie. early 6th cen. C.E., Arian
ilaptistery. R,a",nna. Right: Delail of MedaUion portrait of Chris! from "",h of
presbyter;um. San Vit.le. Ravenn. , All photoo; are by Robin Margaret I<n,en.
ubrary of Congre .. Cataloging-in-Pl>blication Dat.
J.., .. n, Robin Margare!
F.ce to : portraits d ivine in early Chrisl;;,nity I Robin Margaret [en .. n,
p. em.
Includ ... bibli"Sraphic.1 referene ... and inda.
ISBN 0· 8006· 367S· } {pbk. : alk. paptrJ-1SBN 0· 8006·6092·7 (alk. paj>Cr)
l. Jesus Christ_ Art. 1. God_ Art. 3, Saints i n art. 4, Art, Early Chri'ti.n,
5. Purtr.tit" Roman. J. Title,
N8050,j431004
704.9·4SS·09011-dc21
2004012360
The paper u .. d in this publ i,,"tion med, the minimum of American
Nat ional Standard for Information S<ien"es-Permanen<e of paper for Printed
Library Material .. ANSI Z329A8--1984.
Manuf",tured in Canada.
"'
, , , ,
;
,
Preface ix
Abbr ... viations xv
Contents
I. Visual Art, Portraits, and Idolatry I
Early Christ ian Views of Visual Art: Historical Analyses 4
Art and Idolatry in the Early Third-Century Christian Wri tings 9
Jewish Background for Christian Rejection of Visual Art 15
The Earliest bam pies and Type:; of Christ ian Visual Art:
Church Regulation 19
Portraits: A Particular Kind of J>roblematic Image 23
The First Portrai ts 30
2. Image and Portrait in Roman Culture and Religion 3S
Idealization versus Realism in Roman Portraiture 37
The Savior-Type and the I'hilosopher 42
Funerary Portra;h 44
Portraits and PrfSt'na--The Image of the Emperor 51
The Images of the Gods 59
3.The Invisible God and the Visible Image 69
Justin Martyr: Refutation ofJdols and Di vine Theophanies 71
lrenaeus: The Unity of God against the Gnostics 74
Tertullian: The Dignity of the Incamation and the
Distinction of the Persons of the Trinity 77
Clement of Alexandria:
Philosophical Aniconism and the Futility of Idols 81
Andent Roman Precedents for Christian Aniconism 83
The Philosophical Argument in the First Four Cent uries C.E. 86
First-Century and Early Rabbinic Teachings on the God 89
Thwphilus, and Origen: Vision
n;eeingGod and 91
VII
V III <ONTENTI
4. Seeing the Divine in the Fourth and Early Fifth Centuries 101
The Invisible God in the Fourth Century 103
The Anthropomorphite Controversy 108
Augustine and the Problem of the Invisible God 109
Portrayals of God and the Trinity in Visual Art of the Third and Fourth
Centuries liS
5. Portraits of the Incarnate One I] I
Traditions and Legends regarding Jesus' Appearance 134
Jesus'Variant and Changing Appearances in literary Sources 139
Jesus' Variant and Changing Appearances in Art 142
Jesus as Savior and Healer: The Beautiful Youth 146
Jesus as Teacher, Philosopher, and Ruler: The Bearded lYpe 154
Christology and the Image of Christ in Ravenna 159
The Transfigured Christ and the Two Natures Controversy 165
Christoiogy, Salvation, and the Role of the Image 170
6. Early Portraits of the Saints and the Question of Likeness 171
Descriptions of Saints' Portraits in literary Documents 179
Specific Examples of Holy Portraits 186
The Question of Conclusion 196
Notes 201
223
Select Bibliography 225
Index 231
I N TH E EA R L Y autumn of 1888, two years before his death and,
despite the ravages of his final illness, experiencing one of his most pro-
ductive periods, Vincent van Gogh WToh' a few lines about the nature of
portrait painting 10 his broth<.'f, TlIeo:
Ah my <kaT "",""Iim« J know so well what J ... .tnt. J can well do
without God in boih my life .nd al"" in my paiming, but , uffering" I am, r
Cannot do without som<1hing greate, than myself, "'rn'-"hing which i. my
l ifo>--th' POWeT 10 cre.t". And if, deprivN of dl< phy,;'::!1 power, Ont tries 10
creale thoughu ins\""d of one is .>IiU very much l>an of humanity.
And in my pielu,,,,, I wan' to say s"mething a, rno,i, doe. _ I want
10 paint nlen and women with" touch of the "" .... nal, wh.,... .ymbol " .. IS
the halo, which we t ry to '<>"'-ey by the '''ry radia nc. and vibran,y of our
colouring .... Ah portraiture. portraiture. with the mind. ti>c soul of tht
modtl_ that i. what .-tally must come, it <ttm.to mt.'
Vincent's insistence that a true portrait captures far more than a physi -
cal likeness by also portraying the mind and the soul of the model, is
well illustrated by the work he produced around that time. Departing
ff<)m a concentration on landscapes and stilllifes, or anonymous scenes
of workers and cafo! sitters, he produced a series of memorable images
incl uding the portrait of the postman Joseph Roul in (Arles, August,
1888), the Arlesienne (ArIes, November, 1888), the Woman Rocking a
Cradle (Arles, D«ember, 1888), the Head Warder at the Asylum of
(St.-IUmy, 1889), and finally h is own self-portrait , painted
two months hefore his suicide (Am'ers-sur-Oise, 1890). Through color,
composition, and technique, Vincent here captured the distinct person-
ality of each model , and time's passing has borne this out as a "touch of
Preface
I X
x PREFACE
the These portraits say as much about the painter's skill and
insight as they do about the model's pt'rsonality or aspirations, and the
faces of these ordinary persons indeed have boxome eternal in their way.
Van Gogh's models appear on postcuds sold in nearly every art book-
shop in the world, their faces as familiar to us as certain celebrities or
pop stars.
The fascination with trying to "capture the of an individual by
making a physical likeness coexists wilh art itself. From Egyptian mum-
mies to Byzantine icons to the work of such twentieth-century photog-
raphers as Alfred Steigleitz, Richard Avedon, and Diane Arbus, portraits
have been private and intimate, pub Ii, and monumental, huge and tiny,
religious and s<'Cular. They might show the whole human form or
merely a disembodied face. Sometimes portraits had utilitarian pur-
poses such rewrding the appearance of prince&>
for dynastic marriage; others guarded the family as tutelary spirits or
mediated the divine presence of a deity. Essentially, they portrayed the
appearance of an individual (human, divine, Or imagined) produced
from life or from memory, so as to allow identification, aid the memory,
reveal key aspects of the subject's character or personality, or invite
devotion.
Portraits are potent and can be dangerous. Persons who have be.:ome
ostracized or unpopular may have their images cut out, painted over, or
digitally removed. Portrait statues of former rulers and dictators have
been toppled or decapitated as a means of erasing their memory and
indicating their impotence. In some cultures, taking a photograph of an
unsuspect ing stranger is not only rude but equivalent to stealing. To
own an image is to rob identity or to gain access to the inner being, pos-
sibly for evil purpose. Portraits alSQ present a moment of a li fe from a
c ... rlain vi ... wpoint, which may be rewa ling, manipulative, truthful, ide-
aliting, or distorting. Portraits honor, expose, examine, or the
reality of a human, physical existence. They can describe, eult, or
ridicule; th ... y may inspire wntemplation, derision, imitation, or d ... vo-
tion. They may be brutally honest or deeply sympathetic, their subjects
shown as heroic, noble, saintly, stupid, weak, or evil. Likeness is not an
easy thing to define, and its measure lies in the response of a viewer as
much as in the skill or intentions of the artist. Whereas caricature cap-
tures certain id ... ntifiable features and exaggerates them into humorous
or mocking portrayals, idealizing images work in the opposite direction,
but bot h can he Picasso's portrait of Dora Mar in the cubist
style is also a likeness on its own terms.
The matter of identification is key since the original and image are
related but very different things. One is not wntained within the other:
the latter only refers to the former, or merely even to some aspect of that
other's existence-merely a single moment in time, an episode of a life,
but not the whole. Thus, the capturing of the soul is only for a specific
PREFA(E
fixed time and place and only according to the eye of a particular
beholder (the artist and the viewer). Even so, some portraits have come
to be indelibly awxiated with their model, like Gilbert Stuart's George
Washingtoo, or Hans Hollx>in's portrait of Henry VIII.
Portraits are relational, since the viewer meets the model face to face.
And the face above all (in particular, the eyes) serves as the vulnerable
conduit to the soul. Although portraits may include the rest of the body,
the face also is the basis of the likeness. Eyes don't always meet the gaze
of the viewer,since some portraits are in profile, but a faceless portrait is
almost incomprehensible. Without the face, the portrait is incomplete,
but a superficial facial image itself is not noxessarily a portrait. The dri.
ver's license or identity card only roughly matches an external appear-
ance and has a single function. A true portrait conveys something
e>sential about its subject that t ranscends mere surface likene>s. This is
achieved through the use of color, composition, technique, or style,
which includes such secondary details as costume, props, or setting thaI
add important identifying as well as descriptive elements.
For some religious persons, Ihe idea of making a portrait of God is
utterly blasphemous. God is asserted 10 be invisible and beyond human
comprehension. Nevertheless, Scriptures are fiiled with anthropomor-
phic descriplions of God and slories of God's appearance to humans in
one form or another (a burning bush, an angelic visitor, the Ancient of
Days on a throne). Moses is told that he cannot see God's face, but the
Apostle Paul assures his readers that one day we will see God "face to
face" (1 Cor 13:12). Jesus tells his disciples that if they have Seen him
they have seen the Father (John 14:9), even though the fourth evangel -
ist still claims that uno one has ever seen GQd" (John I: 18). The Epistle
to the Colossians calls Chri st the "image of the invisible God" ( 1: 15).
And, even though it avoids any representation of the First Person of the
Trinity, the Orthodox Church defends the importance of portrait icons
on the basis that the i'Karnation of Christ gave God a "human face."
These statements of faith all claim that verbal expression is not God's
only means of self-revelation and that Christians might well claim that
there is also a visual means of knowing and comprehending the
Divine- having both ears to hear and eyes tos« of the Lord"
in and through the testimony of nature, history, and everyday human
living.
Not only whether but how the image of God or Christ should be
portrayed is a different problem, which has been deeply controversial
and divisive in the history of Christianity. The problem of representing
a divine nature, or even upturing a physkal human likeness of that
One who left no certain record of appearance or eyewitness descrip-
tion, might be insurmountable apart from an act offaith, a belief in the
gift of a miraculous image, or the acceptance thaI a true likeness is nOI
based on mundane historical data but can emerge out of tradition,
XI
XII PREFACE
personal religious experience, Or eVen particular visionary experiences.
And, if the record shows us anything, it is that a wide variety of differ-
ent representat ions does not imply that all (but perhaps one) are
wrong. It may be that all are right. The nearly infinite variety of por-
traits of Christ that have been created by Christians in all places and
times may lead us \0 one almost paradoxical conclusion-that no one
image can tell the whole story and that all can show us some aspect of
the truth. In a sense, more is better. The existence of four separate
canonical Gospels perhaps demonstrates this. But the same might be
said of any human portrait as well. No one image can capture the whole
of an individual's life and character. Every image leads us to the model,
while at the same lime it shows only an aspect or even a tiny glimpse of
the reality of the individual.
Thus, the term here has a very meaning-i t
like van Gogh's paintings, to capture not only the external appearance
but also the whole person, including the mind and soul, and to portray
that of eternit Thus, the picture a far more expansil'e
and profound than it might seem on the surface. The beauty and the
truth of these images have less to do with verisimilitude or even aes-
thetic judgments than with the way they affect their viewers. Such
images lead viewers to a different kind of understanding of the subjoxt,
and perhaps even to the story arousing affoxtion or devotion, and finally
allow th ... observ ... r both to sense th ... presenC<.' of the model and to be
inspired to imitation of the virtues conveyed through the image. In this
way, the faculty of sight is a potent means by which humans may come
to encounter th ... holy and to be transformed by that encount ... r.
This book examines the power of images, especially in the early
Christian tradition in th ... C<.'n turies just prior to the establishment of
and controversies surrounding the place of th ... icon in liturgy and
devotion. I contend that the seeds of what later would become the
Orthodox defense of the icon already existed in early Christian teach-
ing and that actual visual images W<.'fe both used and appreciated,
almost as soon as Christians had any distinct material culture of their
own . The later rejection of visual images by the church at various times
and places (in both East and West), even when prompted by legitimate
fear of idolatry, usually misund ... rstood the natuT<.' of most of these
images and fa iled to attend to the esS<.'ntial ro] ... of seeing in the Chris-
tian teaching about salvation.
I began this work three years ago a luce Fellow in Theology,
funded by th ... Henry Luee Foundation through the Association of
Theological Schools. In addit ion to the Foundation and the ATS,] wish
to thank my teachers, Richard Brilli ant, for stirring my interest in
andent portraiture, and Richard Norris, for his wiS<.' commentary on
the problem of God's invisibility. Mary Charles Murray, Elsner, Tom
Mathews, Corby Finney, and Graydon Snyder have also been important
PREFA(E
influences nn me as well. The International Catacomb Society. Amy
Hirschfeld. and my other colleagues on that Boord have ~ e n immensely
generous with their images and their time; Kale Layter read and ably
edited some of my first drafts; and Lee lefferson proofread and indexed
the final version. I am especially grateful to Zan Cedey of Fortress Press
for her work on the design ofthis book-an essential aspect of any book
on the visual arts. I also want to thank Andover Newton Theological
School for providing a sabbatical leave; Vanderbilt Divinity School for
allowing me an ini tial lea,'e from teaching after I joined its faculty; and
my colleagues both in Boston and Nashville for stimulating conwrsa-
tions and support over the past deude. Finally. I want to thank my
husband, I'atout Burns, for being my conwrsation partner, trawl com-
panion, generous and patient editor. and handy reference service. He
also should get the credit for many of the photographs in this book, but
we usually cannot tell which one of us took which pictures, slides, or
digital images in our collection.
X III
AaM.c.....
Adv. Elm,
IIJv. I:'>on. Ub. 2
II ..... "",.
Ilk ..
11",,,,,,,, m .
.,
&11./"1-
C""
ell,.


Cam. elu.

Ca,«/t. ,Uu",.
co.
C Eu"-
C ("ot",.
.4 hltt.
0 •.
GJd<x Thtoo.

Comm. Om'.
C"",,,,, f:u<h.
(;.,"'"" 1",-
Comm . .'.1.".
Front." AdM. c.""""", (To M"' ..... Aureliu.)
B.,il of CKsarea, ildvm-u, Eo""""",,, IAgai"" Eunomiu.)
Gt"ll"'Y of Nys.oa, IIdwr,,,, t'"""",;",,, /i"" 2 IAg>ilUt EuJ'lOmiu,'
5«<Joo 1l<><>I:;)
Arr><>l>ius, ,u",,,", "',,",,'" (Agoi",' tho Nations)
Plutarm. Ah.M"
Gregory of N)U>.lk an,,,,,," "'""«IWn' (On the Soul.t>d the
Rosurl'Ktionl
Toe;''''' A"n.1n (Annab)
1<»<)'11 us, An ;'.'" "'di. ..... (j,,,,i,h A<1t iquit in)
101m of Apolog;", (On tho Divin< 1"",3"" Th, «
ApoIogi .. >&>inst ' I""" \\'ho Attock tt.< l)i.;n< Im.s",)
l .. ([Jof,n .. )
' I<"ulli,n. Itpoia;:<' ",um (Apology)
Th<Ophilu>.Ad Au,o/)"",,, (To AUtolycu»
l"""J'hus, &lIu ... Judo""", (lrwi>b \" .. )
Salhut, &Ilum '"lImnm"m ITh< lugurthi .. W,,)
1<>O<»h us, Con,,,, Apw ... .., (Ag.i "" Ap "'")
Abbreviations
Anci ent
"''',usi ... , Om, ...... 'on'''' MO."", (Di""",,,,, 'Vim' tho Ar"n')
F<>r1um'", 00,." ... ("""m.)
f\oulinu>. C.,,,,in" (I'o<ms)
T<rtuli;'n. Or "''''' Chri!lj (On tho F\eo.h of o.,istl
Cyril of !<ru .. I<"., C.",,,,,,, (Ca' «h<tkal 1.«'0",.)
loon Chrpootrom. Car", .. ", .J i/lu"""""",,, (&1"<,,,,,, 1
[rulru"ion.)
Oris'''' Gem,,,, Quu", (Agoi"" Cob •• )
r.. .. il, Coo,,,, f;'""",;u", (N;. ; .... ' ';ut>(Jmru.)
A,n,n .. i,.., Co",,,, tt"'" (Ap;n" ,n, Pa&'"')
.... p< ,,,,,1,,,1 hi<",,,-j,'. (On ,t... Ctbh,l
Hi.mchy)
Augustine, 0. Nvi,." 0.; (Ci'yo{ God)
Cod£x Thro./o,;'n", (Th«>oJo.i, n Cod<)
John eo .. "", CoIJ4licr<<> (Conf"",<,,)
Oris'''' Co,","""."", ;" c.",","", (C<>mm,n'ory on ,t... 500g of

I""""", C-",""""", rio""" ;" f:UChiNm libri X VI
(Co)mm<n", yon 1I0oI: (6)
c-""''''''' w,,,, itt I",",,,, (C.()"''''''''''ry on '",iah)
Oris'''' Com,"""",,um ," '''''"8</'""' .'.1"""""
(C<>mm<n" ry on lh. Goo",,1 of Mo"hew)
0. rortJW;o",. h"l"""'"' (On , h. Confwion of
Tungues)
.... uS"" 'n<, 0. """""'" ,"'ngt!"""",n (H. ml<>ny 0{
Go>pd.)
0. .ita "","mpJo'i.a (On ,o. ConltmpLui .... lift)
0. CH.:alofo (On ,II< CH.:.!ogut)
xv
XVI
D<m. E.
U;'1
Do •. """'.
hin.
Enol"" , PI.
W.



"
"
"
"
Ep. ",V.";'"",
Ep.
Epid.
txp. "'-
/4>1 IM. _
Fid. 'rmb.
Fid,onh.
-.
" F"'g. <p.

Gion"
/I ....
1/",
IImld
I/i".
lIu,_
I/u,.
I/u,_
1/;',.
11m.
iii",
I/i". A."K' 5< •. AIt ...
/10m,
/fom,
110m,
/10m,
I/om. I Cot.
Hom. 56 Mon.
/10m . ....-c ... i. M,k<
/10m, ExOO.
110m, C .....
110m, 11<0.
/10m. "'urn.
Ido/.
''''''t_
,.
A BBREVIATI ONS
Dio Chrj'1OOlom, Dt Dri rot"j,,,,,, (On ,bo Know\<dg< of God)
Gr<gory of NY"", D< J<;,o" Filii" Spin'", S,ma; (On the Divini'r
of 'he Son • ..J ,he Holy Spirit)
Ewcbi .... D<""""".'" ""'"sdi<- (D<momt, ,,io<J of lb< Goopdl
jU<lin, 1'"'/0;('" rom l"ryph.m< ([""log". wi.h Trypho)
p...ooo..U.,ny<i"", lJ< divini, """"nib", (On In. [:>;.it>< 1\>.m.<)
PO<U<!o_U""ysi.,., 1)< "",it,",,,ita h""","" (On lh. F,«I ..... """i
IH".rchy)
Aug"";"', E .. "",.,.",., in Pial",,,, (F.xpo>ition of tho hoInuJ
E"",.d"
IwgUOlin<, Ep;,,"lat (L<lte,,)
l\;4i1, Eri"u;', (le" e,,)
C)'p.-i'n, .. (kl len)
Gr<gory l. lip;"""" (I .. ",rs)
P,ul "'.., fpi"""" (1.<"".)
Piiny. Fl'i,,"/a, (un ... )
Scrrnu. £p,""/"" (leu'r»
jrromr, Epi"I'!. ad A,i",,,, (Lrltll to Avitu.)
Fulgcntiu>of Rusp<, fr'""''' ad """""du,,, (Lrtt<T to ""'"ndu»
Ir"""", Epilkixi, 10" aposrolihJ" Iirr.!' ... ros (Drmon>t,,,ion of
th. Ap<»1<'hc Pr<ochiog)
101>0 Otry",,,lom, li>:poririlmtt in /'JoJ""" (E:<poo;h"o of tho 1'0>1,,,.)
J'mn", 14',,"al", i. l)oni.!.", (Corn"""''' y 00 [bni.iJ
Aug""i"" Dr fik" 'Y"'OO/o (00 Fa;th li nd tho S)TIlOOl)
Joon of [brnaKtl5, Dt M< 0"""""'. (On th, Ortl>orlOJl F. ;th)
Cyprian. Ad ""rI",,"'"," (To l'a"turuotur: E.xhorution 10 MlIrI)Tdom)
Euripide>, Fmg"'''''. (Fr.rsm,n")
luli.n (Emprro,), mrg"",",um Epi,,,,/M (F,.gmrnt of. Lrttll
kr.Pri",)
1J< " ;",..",",,,, (00 Hight .nd
0. G",""
i r<". ...... Ad"",", ha""" (Again" If"",i .. )
H""i/k!
Lu";"", Hrnuks
1-;"5<biU>, H i,,,,,i. «ooim ri<:. (11 [,,0<)' of tl>< aru"h)
N' «r/I<Jr"" 0,,"""'" II,,,,,",,,, (Br;lf If ist"ry)
mktimri<a of II><: Church)
(l lillor,«)
Soc .. I.., m".,;. «<ks;'"i<a (H"tO<)' of Ih, Otu«h)
lacit"" l/isroriM (1I"lO<i",)
Th«><loru. l.«1Or, I/irr,m., m:w''''rrit:. (lIi>toryof tho OlUr<h)
Urmp<id;"" /li"ori. A"S',,'" 5<""", AIaornd<r (lif, of th,
[m prro< So""IU' Ala, ndrr)
&siL /lomil"" IHomili<.)
Gt<g<>ry tho Gr ... , /1001,1;"" (lI"mil,,,,)
Gr<gory N»,;'ouo, Ilomili., (Homi];«)
R .. il, 1/0",;1;'" (1100'1 ,1,«)
lobn Otryoool0rn. HomU"" in 'l'i"u1.m i ad GJrimhio, (Ilomily
on til< Fir>t Epi>tlf to 'h, CorinthiMu)
Jolm Otry>oo10rn. l-iomUiM in Man,""",,, (Homili", on M.tth,w)
Jobn aITY_om, Ho",i/", ,"",miu", in ,-/di,ium (Homily in
P"i>< of Mridiu.)
Orig,n. Ho""li.,;" EMd"", (Homilie> "" hodu.)
Orig.", lIorni/"";,, (llom;li« on G,,,,,i.)
10100 Cry>oolOm, lIomilia<;n '1';",,1001 oJ 11<1",,,,,, (Homili", 00
Ih. Epi"", to ' h, H«>r,w.)
Orig"" Ho","i.,;n N"m"", (Homili<> on ... )
Trrtullian. fX Ula/olorrio (On Idoiatry)
Luc;"', Imagi"" (b>ay> on I\rn .. i,u«)
IIth.n .. ' '''' Dt i_null;"", (00 tl1< I,.:omotion)
lui.
Lap,.
Loud. Throd.
'"
M"t<.
M"rt ,
M.
MN. «<l
M."
MY'" ,Mc.
NlJr,
NlJr, d.
/Ii","
fu.
Opi!



Obi, &11_




P"n,

Po,,_
I'n><p_ f._
-.
-fum

fu,
'"'
,
&f
'if
•.


"'"
Spi,. ",.",.
5,.,-
Stoic, "p.

'"'
Tib.
T,""" Eo, /0.
r •• .tAp.
r.",_
r.",_
1-..... ,tI.
V,< !!poll.
V,< c.,.,,,.
Vi,_ Piot.
ABBREVIATIONI
Su<tO<lh ... Ojy", 1"1i", (Divi"" lulius)
Cw'.n, De "'P'" (On the LoPS«!)
G«go'y of N»SO. La"iJolic So Throdo., (In Pr.i", ofSt. Th«xlo«)
A'h'""g<> ... L<:gt<'io "'" 0.,;";""" (Sul'I'lic>tion for ,h.
ct.",,,t.,,,)
lih<. Rm'jfo:o>li, ( Ilook of ,h. I'op<')
Po'p nyry, Ad Mo""U"", (10 M.r«Uus)
Tmullt.n. Adwr>u, Marne.."" (Agoin>' Marcion)
Tmullt.n. Ad Ma,,,,,o, (To the M." y ... )
PIu .. ,ch. Mo,a/,a (Morab)
De >m'T;b", ""It>",. ,,,, .. /ita< (MQlo. ], of ' i>< C.tooli<
Chur<h)
Loct-onti"', De ..,.rt'''"' P<"<"'''''"''' (On tho D<>'hs of 1'm«uIon)
I-'>rndo. UiollJ"hu, V. "'Y'oo. ''''''''11''' (On My>,kallb<olo!ly)
Pliny, /Ii" ,u",li, ";,IIl '''' (Na, ural f[;',o.-y)
Cic.ro, V. .,,"'''' drot"", (On ,h. Natu« of ,h. God.)
PIu .. ,,;h. /Ii""", (Numo)
Min",;' .. klix. Or,,,";u,
Philo, v.:Df'ifo;io ,""lUi, (On 'll< Crr.otion ofth. World )
hagr"" D< """';."" (a..p'''' on P" Y''' )
!-i"'oiu .. Om ,imo .. (0, .. "'"")
Gtegrn-y <of Na';.n' .... Otoli<mt, (0.-.'''' .... )
Gtego'y <of Na';.n' .... IJ< chi ,,, /ja, i/H (fu ....... l 0",' ;0., (Of 1:1>. ,.1)
a.m<n' of AI« . oort.. fu<Jogogu' (Chri" ,n. T .. ,hr, )
krome. Ad fu",m.uh'u", (To P.m"", hi.,. . goinst lOOn of
kn=l<m)
fu .. ,,,,,, (M<di<in< Che.I)
Eg<Tix. (Pilgr'rnoS" '" I'lnmry)
P<ri.t<pIw""" lib<. (n.: IlooI: of ,h. M.f1rrf Crow",)
Ati"OIi<. _.." ( Portia)
Philo, 1>< po""';'." Coin; (On ,h. Po"eri' yof C.in)
""'"",,",,'''' f ",.g<lk. (Pr'para ,,,,,, 10, the ,,,,,,.,..t)
Evag'iw I'ooti(\IJI. Pmrtico, (Fnctiros)
Tmullt.n. Aliwr>u,l'mxfiI, (Agoi"'t Pru ... )
O'is<n. D< Pt',.,-;p'" (On Fi ,,, Priocipl .. )
!.u<" n, "'" I""'gi.ib", (E-Io>Y' On l'oI1 .. itu« D<1.od<d)
Ckmrn' , ""',"","'" (f..<h<xI.o' i<>n to tl>< Gr«ko)
T«'ulli.", D< (On Mod""y)
Kabbi
Ui ppotytus. JUfu"""' omnium """"';u", (R.futotioo of Mill ....... )
Theodor. ' h< Studi ... RLfu,,,,Iotu-, (Refutation. of the Iconocla,U)
Tmullia .. Scorp;"" (Amidot, JO, th, Xorp""'" St ing)
Augu" in<, Srrmo"<I (x",»",)
Lro, 5<,,,,,,,,,, ( SrrfOOn»
lhtulli.n, fi< ' F«'","Ji, (On ,h. Silowsl
Basi l of eae.. ... , Spi,;'", ",""'"' (Th. Itoiy Spiti')
Ch,-yoost",n, Ad p"p"lum ,I",,,,,,ht><"'" de ,,",u;, (On ,I>< S"' u .. )
PIu .. ,ch. 0. StoirofUm "Pug",,"li,, (Slo;' Srlf. Co"' fild;'tioiu)
Clem<"' . 5,,,,,,.,t';, (Misc,llani .. )
r",,,,,,,,,IU,,, (T .... ""'"t)
Su<toni"", TiOO-i.,
Aug«ilin<, I" E .. 10"""";' , ,,,,,",,,, (T,,,,,,.t<> 0<1 th,
Gooprl of Johnl
u, p I"'iyt .... T,.d;,"' "1"" ' 01"" ("""",toIi< T t<kIi' "",)
Augustin<. 1>< 1,;n;",,, (On , h. Trini' y)
,i:tll. I>< T,ini ,.,. (On ,I>< ' Iiini, y)
Augu"ir.<, o. vrm "I,! ;'", (On TN< Religion)
Viroltpol"",ii (Life of Apo lloni", ofl}-llna)
Vi ,,, Comlllnlini (Li«of Cons" n' i",)
Porpnyry, Vi,. Ploli"i (Lif. of Plolin",)
XVII
XVI II
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ABBREVIATI ONS
Art Bullnin
Andtn, CI",,,;,o I"" , ...
Art 1/;',"'1
Jou,",,1 of A'charo/ov
An, .. Nk:rn, Falhnr
Aufi'irg "nd Nirolrrgo"g drr r/i",j""," Wr/l
Art. /It/ig;'''' • • ...J S,"d'"
Bibl",,1 Arch<><vlOV II,,.; .....

Bulk,i" NodI",;' Royok d, 8<lj;iq"'
Cah,«, AKMoIogiqu ..
Corpu. Ch, ,,, ;,norum: .. ,io. Iat;"",
Cis,...,.;,," Studies
a.»ic> ofW.,t<m
Oak, Pap<rr
1'>,I><'H'[ 'ht 0""'"
Pit g";«hi><htn .><h,;f"tI,,,
[Ji ... " .,jo".;n Rol ;gK>n
lI""",rd Thr%tuol /Ir,;""
1",,,1 ExpJam,"," ",,,mal
Jou "",f of Bibl"al L ,rna'""
"'u"",) of Ea.lyo,,.,.,,,," S,ud",
"'U "",) of /Ir/ig;""
"'U "",) for ,o. s,udy of 1#0;' '"
Survltmtnts to ,I>< Jou,,,,,) fo' 'he S,udy of judo;,,,,
Jou"",) S,ud;"
l.otb <:l .. ,;ca l Uhmy
Mirrril,,"K'" d" Dtu",,,," 1m",""
!.Itkin!!" d'hi,w''''' de fkoJr fro","" d, """'"
Nianr and fu,,·N""", "',,""" Stri .. l
""P<" of ,lot B.i"", Schoola, Rom<
p"",i<rg,>< <unu' Stli .. gr...,., «lit""! b,- 1. ·P MiSt',
/I..,JIuiw.. for An,;1:< ""J o. .i""",,,,,,
/1;';"0 d; ",,"""""t"' «;"",no
S;tzungsbt,kllt< d .. Il.idtlbtrgtr AIoIdtm;t d .. W .... ..m..ft.
1(1 ....
lI",!iia< o.';""m ..
ONE
Visual Art, Portraits, and Idolatry
FOR TH E MOST PART, existillg examples of Christian visual
art come from Rome and date to the beginning of the third century C. E.,
a time when Roman Christians were enjoying a brief respite from the
widespread but sporadic perst'cutions they had suffert'd during the
reign of Marcus Aurelius (160-180). During the relatively tolerant reign
of Emperor Commoous ( 180--192). the church acquired land outside
the city walls,on the Via Appia Antica, for usc as a burial ground. allow-
ing them 10 inter Christ ian dead in cemeteries separated from their
non-Christian neighbors. This cemetery, unlike most n .. cropoli or mau-
solea from earlier times that were either just at the surface or above-
ground, waS constructed as an underground network of branching and
connecting tunnels on four different levels, containing tiers of narrow
horiwnlal nkhes for individual bodies (Iowli) and openings into larger
rooms (,,,bie,,I,, ), which may have held several burials from a single
family. The loa.li were doSl'd with slabs of stone or terra cotta on which
were inscribed simple epi taphs and often a figure or a symbol (such as a
dove, praying figure, anchor, or fish). The walls and ceilings of the wb;c-
ula (3 word that means "sleeping chambers") were often adorned with
traditional decorative motifs as well as some narrative images based on
biblical themes.
According to his later rival Hippolytus, the oldest section of the first
known Christian cemetery was placed under the supervision of CaliistU5,
a former slave who had been condemned to hard labor in the Sardinian
mines as a Christian. After he was released (through an intervent ion on
his behalf by the emperor's mistress Marcia, who seems to have had
Christian sympathies), Callistus returned to Rome, where he received a
pension as reward for his suffering from Bishop Vktor J (189- 198 C.E. ).
Under Victor's successor Zephyrinus, Callistus Was put in charge of the
1
2
r" I. w., fn:om a
., c.t..:oni>
d s.... SebostI....,. """""
(Qn" 1""""...".,,1
C"'...-cmbSOOety._
Estok
r" 2 Good Sh<;>he>d.
C ..... QmbofC r "t<.
R<>mo (Cl TO. lr'!tem. tlOnaI
Catocorrb Society. 1'Iloto:
Estek
FACE TO FACE
Christian cemetery, and when Zephyrinus died, he became Bishop him-
self, dying as a martyr in 222. ' In time, the cemett'ry Callistus had super-
vised (although not whert' he himself was buried) came to Ix called the
Catacomb of Saint Callistus.' Inscriptional evidence in its oldest area,
containing lhe so-called Crypt of the Popes, was found to indicate the
burials of a number of third-century bishops of Rome.
Hi storians regard this site as especialJy important because of its many
wall paintings, most of which are assumed to be oon!emporaut'ous with
the first years of its use, making them among the earliest examples of
Christian figuratiw art. No similar body of art works is known from the
preceding two centuries of the Christian era. Moreover, given these
paintings' location in a site owned and supervised by church officials, we
can assume that Calli st us and other subsequent ecclesial aut horities
allowed the production, style, and content of the frescoes. In other
wnrds, the images that decorate these burial spaces were officially per-
mitted, even though they appeared in quasi -private space (family
tombs) and were presumably wmmissioned by ordinary individuals to
enl iven the crypts of their deceased relatives. In time, the de.:;oration
became even more as frescoes came to adorn the more public
burial chambers of clergy and martyred saints.'
These early images are fairly simple, and many were clearly modified
from conventional Roman funerary art and traditional wall painting.
They include the purely dewrative, customary, and religiously generic
iwnography of garlands, fruit, flowers, and birds that appears in neigh-
boring pagan burial chambers as well as domestic settings (fig. I ).
Some common figures borrowed classical motifs and adapted them to
convey specific Christian meanings such as the fish, dove, anchor, shep-
herd, praying figure (oram), ooat, and funeral banquet (figs. 2- 4),
However, we also find a number of distinct, recognizable Christian
motifs in the oldest chambers of Callistus's catacomb including the so-
called cubicula of the sacraments, where, alongside the figures of the
shepherd and the orant, we also see the figures of Jonah, Moses striking
VIIVAL ART, PORTRAITI, AND IDOLATRY
the rock, Abraham and isaac, and some early scenes from the New Tes-
tament, including the baptism of Christ and the healing of the paralytic
(figs. 5-7). In time, as this and
other Christian catacombs contin-
ued to be enhanced with frescoes,
the iconographic catalog grew
even more complex, adding such
figu res as Noah, Daniel, and Jesus
performing vari ous healings and
working wonders. By the late third
and into the fourth century, these
same images began to appear
carved in relief on the front and
ends of the large stone coffi ns (sar-
cophagi ), discovered within the
larger chambers of the catacombs or sometimes in above-ground mau-
solea or nearby basilicas (figs. S-9).
These various Christian motifs and symbols referred to ideas, stories,
or events that encapsulated an aspe\:t of the beliefs or hopes of the fa it h-
ful, in th is context particularly referring to the expectations for a blessed
afterlife promised by the sacraments of the church, or to the character of
the de\:eased as a person whQ lived a life of steadfast piety, fidelity to the
community, familial affection, and high moral character. Most of the
early paintings were of relatively low quality and style when compared
to much more beautiful enmples of Roman wall painting, although
they strike the viewer as expressive and vigorous in their own right. The
relief carvings, on the other hand, often were beautifully crafted and
well composed. Whether highly crafted or not, these paintings and Carv-
ings are necessarily exceptional and ground breaking as some of the very
first examples of Christian art. The visual image was allowed to carry the
weight of message and meaning, in the context of the most significant of
all life's moments--death and the burial of the body by the
rciatives and friends of the de\:eased. Perhaps more generally, these art -
works demonstrate that Christians valued and used visual art, at least
from the time that we may identify obj«ts and spaces that were openly
Christ ian-owned.
3
F;g. 3. P...,;ng f'i'-'""'.
Catacomb of c:.Ii<tu5.
Rome (Q ~ Int=>...".. ..
Catacomb Soaot): Photoc
--,
F'i ". F., r>efoI b¥>qo.>et.
Crucomb of CoIOst ...
Rome (0 TO. Int=>.ltioo ..
4
FACE TO FACE
Early Christian Views orVisual Art: Historical Analyses
I •
••
. '--
Fog S. """" .. no<\; Scene
from Jonah q<1e. u t.xe<rb
(CThe
"temotoonaI
Soc>et1 PI>oto: Estelle
"""'"'
Fog. 6. _ stri'-"g the nod<
" the ut.><omb
of CaiO;'ll>, Rome
(C n" IrIt<rn>lion.>.l

Est.,..,
The very fact that we may study Christian art from the turn of the third
century is likely due to the fortuitous survival of certain sites, in partic-
ular those that were underground (catacombs) and safe from future
urban renewal or deliberate
d .. struct ion during earlier eras of
persecution or later periods of
Christian iconoclasm (especially in
the eastern part of the Empire).
Because of such vicissitudes of sur-
vival, whether the corpus of alia·
comb art points to a significant
'hange or development in Chris-
tian tradition and practice around
the turn of the third century may
be a debatable point. However, the
absence of any significant and
definitively Christian artworks
prior to this time has often been
taken as evi dence that, for a century and a half, the church had no large
body of dearly roxogniubk visual art of its own. If t his is 50, the paint-
ing of these catacombs signaled a watershed moment, when the church
changed its habits, tradi t ions, convictions, or values and created a dis-
tinct form of art where there once was none-a form based on a combi -
nation of familiar and newly invented motifs.
The positing of such a radical shift suggests a possible theological or
social transformation within the community-a change of perspoxtive
that allowed something to exist that would have been seen as problem-
atic in the previous era. Alternatively, this shift may merely imply a
change in the communi t y's social
or economic circumstances. His-
torium have offered different the-
ories to account for this change of
pattern. To some interpreters, ear-
lier generations of Christians con-
sciousl y decided that visual art
was to be rejected because it
amounted to idolatry and was
tainted with the vanity of pagan
decadence. For these interpreters,
Christians were act ing like Jaw-
abiding lews, taking the prohibi-
tion of graven images to heart,
thus neither making nor using fig-
VIIVAL ART, PORTRAITI, AND IDOLATRY
uralive artworks (despite evidence thaI actually demonstrates a wide-
spread use of figurative art among jews-see below). The production
of visual art at the beginning of the Ihird century consequently indi -
cates a change in altitude loward that proh ibi t ion, perhaps capitulating
to popular culture, or extending a grudging tolerance tn new converts
who were less zealous or theologically conscious and wished 10 con-
tinue their traditional pagan practice of embellishing their family
lombs (at least) with images.'
A different theory takes a more progressive and positive view of the
development of recognizably Christian examples of visual art. Instead
of seeing the advent of visual art in Christianity as a signal of the loos-
ening of discipline or a mark of decadence, this view argues that the
appearance of 3rt waS a natural development of an evolving faith, as it
came to have its own modes of expression and communication. If one
assumes that such new modes require a period of gestation before they
emerge on the ><;ene, then it stands to reason that Christians first used
those symbols and motifs that were available and generally understood,
having come from the iconographic vocabulary of the common culture.
Of course, although these images were adapted for Chris-
t ian use and endowed wilh meanings that conveyed key aspects of the
new religion, t hey might not be obviously "Christian" to the majority of
viewers then or now. Eventually these symbols and motifs would be
entirely transformed, and new ones would emerge, about the same time
as adherents as well as new converts achieved the necessary 5O<:ial, eco-
nomic, and intellt'dual stability necessary to generate a religious mate-
rial culture of their own'
Both points of view assume that the apparent emergenct' of Christian
art at the turn of the third ct'ntury indicates that at that time Christian-
ity became engaged with its surrounding culture in a different way than
it had bet'n previously. Either Christian pract itioners cea.sed to be so
5
Fig. 7. Baptism of O<ist.
Cot . :o,,-t> of Calistu<,
(eThe lotemat>onol
Cot . :o.tt>
&t<k
6
Fog. a joooh ~ ...
late 3rd <en = MoJ>eo Pio
en......" V.b<aO City
(PI>oto:Author}
FACE TO FACE
distinct from certain aspects of pagan sO(iety and religion (in particular
from its rich artistic tradition), or they beg.m 10 produce a distinctive
iconography that would dearly identify them, instead of adapting reli·
giously generic images. The main difference betwet'o the two perspt'c-
lives is whether such cul tural engagement and/or artistic development
is understood as signi fying the erosion or the elaboration of a distinct
theological identi ty. [n the first view, Christians became more like their
pagan neighbors, and in the second, they became more markedly Chris-
tian (at least in their visual art). Both views accept that Christian
iconography in the early third century marks a cultural evoJulioJl-
whether that evolution was a good thing for the religion itself is also the
subject of some disagreement.
Other explanations have been offered for the lack of Christian visual
art from the first and second centuries. One argument, that the first gen-
erations were expecting an immediate end to the world as they knew it,
presumes that believers saw no value in (or had no time for) making
visual expressions offaith. Only when the parol/sia (Christ's return) was
seen to be indefinitely del ayed was there widespread effort to establish
the kind of cultural permanence that would include tombs, churches,
and colle<:tions of sacred texts. Another t heory, that almost all older arti -
fa cts were lost or destroyed owing either 10 the vicissitudes of persecu-
tion (the destruction of Christian objects and buildings) or the
consequence of urban renewal (when older and less opulent churches
were torn down to make way for new building in the fourth century), is
supported by archaeological finds. The Christian building at Dura
Europos, for instance, survived because it was deliberately covered over
as a defensive move by a Roman garrison. Burial places likewise survived
because they Were left intact, perhaps out of respe<:t, bUI also because
they were underground and therefore not as subject to destruction. In
fact. this latter argument also serves to e;.;plain the very limited conte;.;!
and geography of those artifacts that can be dated prior to the Omstan-
tinian era, which brought an t'nd to persecution but also marked tht'
begin ll ing of monumental, large-scale, and signifi cantly permanent
building projects, many of them adjacent to or incorporating these I'ery
burial grounds.
VIIVAL ART, PORTRAITI, AND IDOLATRY
these various theories, many historians still assume that the
first- and second-ct'ntury church consistently repudiated the creation of
figurative art for theologi<;cal reasons. As Mary Charles Murray SO clearly
showed nearly a quarter-ct'ntury ago, leading historians of Christianily
as well as many important art historians often assumed that the religion
was, from its origins, characteristically hostile to all kinds of pictorial
art. She cites articles and books published from the 19505 to the date of
Iler own article in Ille lale 19705 by sucll prominent academics as Jolln
Beckwith, James Breckenridge, Ernst Kit7.inger, and Henry Clladwick,
scholars whose work is still very influential. ' For example, in his now
classic study. Byzam;tlf Art itl the Mukiflg. first published in 1977,
Kitzinger wrote at the end of his first chapter:
Th"", i , no evid"""e or any art with. Chri'tian WIItc"t earlier th. n the )'<'3r
200. In . 11 likelihood this is not merely du. to accident.l lo ..... The ,ur·
vivins monument, of Cllr;'tian pictorial art whi.ch GIn "" a{{,ibuted to the
fi rst half of the third century bear the m.rk> of a lme ""Sinning. Moreover.
One ''''n f,nd in eh,i"ian litffature of the pe,ioJ ",n""tion. of a changing
a{{ilude loward imag ... nd Ihei, role in 'eligious life. Th.1 altitude W"
undoubtedly negal"·' prior to this period.'
As evidence of this negative attitude, many of these historians of the past
century, like tile iconoclash of the eighth, collected ancient written tes-
timonies that could be interpreted to suggest that the early church was
offidally anti- image. This historical persp«:l ive was examined and
refuted by Charles Murray, followed in detail two decades later by Paul
Corby Finn .. y. Bri .. ny, however, the sources that historians most oft .. n
cite as evidence of early opposition to pictorial art are short excerpts
from the writings of Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria. For instance,
Henry Chadwick, in his widely read The furly Chtlrch (first published in
1967), second of the Ten Commandments forbade the mak-
ing of any graven image. Both Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria
7
Fis- 9. J=' Oe.Iinj MId

• ...ty -4th , on u .
r-\J5eo Pic Cnst"'""'-
ViJIign City (Photo<
8
FACE TO FACE
re-garded this prohibition as absolute and binding On Christians. I magt"S
and statues belonged to the demonic world of paganism.
H
Actually in
reference to a rather polemical aside by Irenaeus, although ident ifyi ng
his informant by name, Chadwick continues, "In fact, the only second·
",'otury Christians known to have had images of Christ were radical
Gnostics, the followers of the licentious Carpocrates.»'
In this short quotation, Chadwick claims that the so-caJl .. d Second
Commandment {Exnd 20:4-53; DellI 4: 16-19; 5:8-9} was normative for
the early church in respe(l 10 visual images. Here Chadwick repeats the
predilections of earlier scholars and takes early Christian anioonism for
granted. Chadwick further cites the writings of Tertullian and Clement
to imply that Christian teaching at the time generally forbade Uimages
and statues" of any kind as belonging to the demonic pagan world.
However, the actual sources themselves are far leos clear about the mat-
ter of visual art in general than they were about idolatry, specifically.
For example, an often-d ted excerpt from 'lhtuUian's treatise 011 Mod-
esty has been judged to condemn any use of religious pictures (in this
case, of a shepherd) on chalices used during the eucharistic meal.' The
text, however, actually denounces those who favored a laxist approach to
forgiveness after bapt ism, in particular the author of the treatise The
Shepherd of HenllIlS. Since Tertullian associated such t'Ucharistic cups
with this treatise (because of the shepherd image), he 35Sumes that those
who had such implements believed that they could be forgiven trans-
gressions such as drunkenness and adultery. Tertullian's obje<:tion to the
image on these cups was an objection to what it signified (a lack of moral
rigor), not to its mere existence as a pie<:e of art.
Furthermore, Chadwick suggests that the production of visual art
occurred first within heretical sects, specifically among Gnostics. Hi s
evidence for this association of art and heresy comes mainly from Ire-
naeus's treatise Agaimt Heres;es, written in the late seo;cond century.
listed among the many undesirable praCl;'es and traits of the Car-
pocratians, such as practicing sorcery and astrology, Irenaeus also
accuses them of making and honoring images- according to him, a
practice peculiar to this sect. I renaeus even notes that they had a portrait
of Jesus, fashioned by none other than Pilate and honored with garlands
and other unnamed tradi tional pagan offerings (probabl y lit candles
and incense):
'they al.., poose>. image>,.!Orne of them painted, and othe" formed from dif.
ferent kind. of material; while Ihey maintain Ihat . liken .. , of Christ
madt by Pilat" at that Ii"", li,"ed . mong 11,'1' crown th....,
images, and M them up along wilh Ihe image, of the philo'ophe" of the
world; th.t i. I<> "'y, with th< im.ages "f Pyth.SO,.. .... and Pial", and Ar;'loli"
and the resl. They al", h",'e other modes of honoring lhe .. im.ges, .fler the
.lame man ner of the Gentile>."
VllVAl ART, PORTRAITI, AND IDOLATRY
While this short excerpt demonstrates Jrenaeus's assumption that hon-
oring portrait images was a reprehensible characteristic of certain
heretks, he offers no general condemnation of visual art, whet her St'(u·
lar or religious, narrative or iconic. What he apparently objects to is the
inclusion of Jesus with the other phi losophers, and the crowning and
honoring of their images.
9
Art and Idolatry in the EarlyThird-Century Christian Writings
Because Tertullian (ca. 200 was deeply concerned about the prob·
lem of Christians being ensnared in a polytheistic culture, his treatise
011 Idolatry extends the definition of idolatry far beyond a nything to do
specifkally with pktorial ar t, For Tertullian, idolat rous practices
include preoccupation with the way one dresses, the foods one eats, or
the pursuit of sexual pleasures or material wealth- all things that
humans mistakenly take for hal'ing intrinsic value and that they honor
more than God. In regard to visual art, for example, Tertullian worries
about the temptalions that artisans must face and the fact that bOlh
Iheir skills and their lools could be misused: are al>o ot her
species of very many arts which, although they extend not to the mak·
ing of idols, ye t with the same criminality, furnish the ingredients,
without which idols have no power, ... No art exists Ihat is not mother
or kinswoman to some allied arl; nothing is independent of its neigh·
bor,"" Tertullian even urges those in his audience who make their living
by craft to use Iheir skills to make useful objecls that could nOI possibly
serve the purpose of polytheistic worsh ip. Rather than S(;ulptors, these
folks should be plasterers, roof menders, Or marble masons in the
building trades.
However, recogniting that some fine artisans earn their living by
making ostentatious and luxurious objects, he allows that it is better to
gild slippers than to fashion a statue of Mercury or Serapis. TertuJlian
may have had Acts 19:23-41 in mind as he wrote this, comparing the
predicament of Demetrius and the other Ephesians whose income
depended on making and selling images of the goddess Diana. Tertul ·
lian, wishing 10 support artisans in Ihei r work and nOllo reduce them to
poverty, suggests that t hey find olher al'enues for Iheir crafl and merely
avoid making images of the pagan gods.
Clement of Alexandria (ca. 160--215 c.ti. ) approached the problem of
figurative art from an angle more characteristically his. less concerned
about Christian engagement with the habits and pleasures of Roman
culture than Tertullian was, and not as fundamentally disturbed by the
construction of images of the gods as a profession, Clement adapts PIa·
tonic teachings to offer a more complex discussion of the inferiority of
10 FACE TO FACE
an image to its likeness, and the potential for the confusion of likeness
and prototype on the part of t hose who view ar t. Attending to the
de{eptive p<Jwer of imitation as weU 3, the allTac! ion of both material
and natural objects, Clemt'nt S<.'es danger in the human tendency to mis-
understand the image-and to fail to distinguish between representa-
tion and reality- between t he sensible and transcendent realms. And
b.-.:ause objects of worship are not always only human-made idols, he
extends his concern to include even the mistaken veneration of things
found in the natural world. It was in this respect that he reminds his
audience of the biblical prohibition:
What is more, we are .. ly fo,bidd..., to a dectitful .rt. For
prophet >OJ'S "Thou "'.It not make a likene .. of .nything th.t i. in heaven
abo", orthe tanh .. , But a. for you. while you taR pain. to
disco,'u how a m.1y be .haped to th. highest po .. ible pitch of beauty.
you never give a thought to prevent yourse" ... turning out like .tatues owing
to w.nt of sen<e .... Here the ho,t of philosophe" turn aside, th")'
admit that human. are beautifully made for the of he,,·.n.
and yet WOrShip the thin!;' which appear in he""en and are apprehended by
.ight .... Lot no"" of you WOrShip the .un; ... ther 1<1 him yearn for the maker
ofth •• un."
Clement 's objection to images is dearly different from lertullian's. His
wncern is not so much the adoption of polytheistic practices or being
captive to the alluring aspects of popular culture, but misunderstand-
ing what it is that deserves honor- what the image" is. He follows
a well - known Platonic axiom t hat images made by artists (or even
things of the natural world) are only reflect ions of reality and should
not be w nfused with the eternal and ideal For m (or in Clement's case,
the Maker) that transcends any earthly creation. However, he also
argues that, properly understood, images can serve the useful function
of reminding the viewer of a higher truth- which is why. although he
generally disapproves of jewelry. he lish the appropriate images for
Christian signet rings (a dove, a fish, a ship. a lyre, or an anchor) and
urges the faithful to avoid seals wit h images of the gods, weapons,
drinking cups, or scenes of sexual intercourse. The fnrmer symbols
draw the eye and the mind away from themselves and toward the real-
ity they represent, while the latter indicate a life of idolatry, indulgence,
and even licentiousness. On the other hand, modest Christian symbols
on everyday objects of some practical necessity did not constitute a
form of idolatry. "
In the Stromateis (or Miscellanies), the last of his treatises and the
most esoteric of them all. he cont inues with that same theme and this
time credits Moses with the original formulation, later taken up by
Pythagoras:
VIIVAL ART, PORTRAITI, AND IDOLATRY
"Don'l wear a ring, nor engra>,<, on il Ihe image. of the god.,· enjoins
f'ylhagora,; as MosO$ as .. b<fore <nacled •. 'pres<ly, Ihat neither a graven,
nor molten, nor molded, nor painted liken"," .hould be made; so that we
may nol deave 10 Ihings of $en$e,l:ml pass to intellectually known obj"'u:
for familiarity with lhe sight disparage. the revoren« of wh.t i. divine;
and to ""o,,hip Ih.1 whioh i, immaterial by mattcr, i, to dishonor it by
sense."
Clement's problem wilh visual art poses a distinct set of issues. In
another place in the Stroma/tis, Clement claims that the injunction an
artist breaks is nol only that against making idols but also that against
robbing the divine prerogative in the act of neation." In these passages
we see how Clemenl develops his own version of the doctrine of imita-
tion, asserting that a work of art is deceptive, intended to fool the viewer
into mistaking a mere wrY for its model, into wnfusing the imi tation
with the reality. Perhaps Clement was cognizant of Pliny's critique of
artists of old, who prided themselves on work SO convincingly lifelike
that viewers mistook the image for something real. Zeuxis, for instance,
is said to have painted a child carrying grapes that caused birds to fly
down to pick at the fruit. "
After Tertullian and Clement, the matter of early Christ ian atti -
tudes toward pictorial or figurative art be.:omes more complex, per-
haps in part because the art itself has begun to be made and owned by
the Christian wmmunity. Probably the most vehement wndemnation
of figura tive art prior to the iconoclastic period comes from Origen's
argument about Christianity with the polytheist Celsus in the early
third century. Origen's argument is similar in certain respects to
Clement's objections to visual art as setting up false objects of
worship, although at first it appears to draw a paraUel between fai t h-
ful lews and Christians regarding the biblical injunction. In his
long and complicated defeme of Christianity, Origen argues that
Christians are at least as enlightened on the matter of the vanity of
images as the philosophers were. He also defends the lews against what
was apparently a fairly vidous attack by Gelsus on their culture and
religion, which he saw as an earlier form of Christianity.lews, accord-
ing to Gelsus, were "fugitives from Egypt, who never performed any-
thing worthy of note and neVer were held in any reputation or
accounc""
Taking exception to this unfair characterization and turning the
tables on Celsus by pointing out that he represents a religion that wor-
shiped images ofucorruptible human beings, and birds, and four-footed
beasts," Origen offers an example of a particularly praiseworthy accom-
plishment of the lews, citing their observance of the prohibition as
found in Deuteronomy (4: 16-18):
11
FA<E TO FA«(
_1 ........ 1C<KI .. "'"'I·; ...... _; ....... ...., ... O"'....., .. .....
oil dlinp., ..... "'" '"""" ""'" "" ...... -... .... ponWtl«I .... ioJ
"" riWt, hlp Fut -.; .... pU .... _ .................... in""'"
.............. ..,..tIiat.u -" ""'" it, ............... II< 001"""" io< ""
.............. "' ....... ,.-"" ......... .
.... ,t..! d •• """ .... .,.. 01 II ...... &om Gn<I '" ....... ..,..,., _-...
W" f'&fr. _ ""'" .Tow., .... -.._".0. ... ".. .• '. Ii><
........ _,.,,......- • ...- ....... ...,._01 ....... _
"""' . _ 01-,.-","" mol ........ , ... ..-... _""1ok-
... "'...,. ........ .". ..... ft;., __ ... '*-01...,. (lW, h,.
""0\8 ,"" """" .,.,. .......... '" • ""-"' ..,. .... """" _ ... in
II>< "' .... __ tho...,.,
Orill'"" ..... ,II< kw1 1m t"" ...-iotto.! in;""",,,,,, (a • ....... abk
Uld gnnd prohibit;""') avin,t \oolI',....p to ' ht
....... __ ..... nd ... " 0 .... ohoold b< kd ..... y to W<H"1hip Ill ..... (D<-ut
4:1'). C1nrly. Orig<n won .......... abo., ,II< W<H"1hi ping of idoll than
abou' th . .... king of Un,¥, bu,. n<'WIti'l<k<o. tl>ou5h' th.t til< !<w.
otIooid II< p'oi><d for th<ir in' oknnu<Jl ... .w . n ..... kst wet. "",kb<
• 1'''''%1 (Or or t<mptalion kI idol,atry.
I" hi< I>omiliet un F-.! .... 0,;8'""' ,.rn, >pin t. th< bibli<o1rnd>il»·
tion. but ht off .... on ;"'pon.n, dioti",,' ion betw«n til< 'emu "idol'
ond 'Iil:<n<u" (,."".,;,; .... ). A<ro,din5 to hio .... din5 of ,II<
Cr«k "0"""'."'. P.t4>d 2(t4 p,,,rubiu !he ..... of boih ( .... .,., .r..u
"'" "",u fot idtd nor 'Il)' liu,- of ,..."" 'hinp which . '"
in .... ..., or which.", in ttI ... rth or 0 .. in 'h< ""'kTf 1IIHIn ....
.. " h"). To j ... 'i/y 'hi> d;o.i,.., ;..n. or..n 'un" '" I'.ul", fin' Lrtt.,. to
til< c...tinlh"''''' Ht noIeS lI'\;It Ih. >j>OSIit lOY' I""t·"" idol in Ih.1o'OI'Id
..... Uy .. ;""" ..... il< .. . h< 10m. , ..... "";"11 ,ho, "th<r< may "" ""'''l' .,..
alkd god> in .......... or on .. m.- in fxI ....... 0 .. m. ny sodo .nd
""'''l' lords" (I 0.- 8:4·S). l'ltul-.... to Iuvt <idibtro\tlr omilled
.nyd.oim dt.o, lib"" .... idol<. -.. nonaiotrnt. 0, ..... ofJll<O ,ha,
i, .. On< ,hi,... to nub: "UI iduI on<! ..,mcohin8 doc w m.x., • lix.:.-.
Th ..... n'i.1 cl iff ... n« bol __ n .... 'wo;' ,ho, 'ht 1iX<n .... MOW<
.. "",hin8 ''''-t ...... IIT ¢On be -.. (fo' "".mp) ••• bi..!. t;,h, ' 0", or
moon). wh ... ,t.. idol <OO>t> mlitdy from th< hUllWl inugi ... tion ond
....... <>c<ur> in ... t ...... (m. i""._,. rom', bood on 0 humoR body).
Thi> io ..... Y Paul <.an all idob n<>rtaist<nL Bu, ... OriFt> poinu OUI.
bo,h Ii"" ........ . nd idol, W<f< prohibi,ed try ,II< &<.000 Comtmnd·
"'«II, j"" .. boih .,<t. Iorbidd<n ";,h<t wot$hip or adora,ion ( t>:od
» .5) . • nd ,h. pooo ... a<UO< that no I""m <om« from """,in! "non·
... tlti"" ;, ,h ... ;"",);d .. "",."
In flK'. Paul d •• rIy diu;"guiolt« "'_,." ... rnll idoIo .nd )ikm ........ II<
t><V<:t uleO th< wo..! ';dol" (<>JOlon ) ,n ony _", in "'n ...... to
.... '<t'" .lik<n<>t." (/Icmoiii .... ). wltidt onm hao. poo.niv< ..... In
addi'ion ' 0 'ht .1>0 .. ·,i,«I , ... , from I COrinlh ...... l'lIul.p<.ko of
idol,. ido/"ry (.<dOlo!.., .... ). on<! 'dola' .... . ' d«<iv<,J .i"o .... 1«1
VIWAl ART. PORTRAIT!, AND IDOLATRY
.. ""!' by ,t.. mul< """. ( ' Co, J2:2) .nd V'<n up by GOO '0 lu"....J
d",m,;.,,,, <>f ....nou. ",no (Rom I:Z4-Z7). P.ul do<$ 00' •• rl"....,' I)'.
di"ingui,b 1><!WN<1 ;dol •• nd I,k." ..... ><co,ding'o 'hri' mod.r.
occurmlC< 0' no"","",,,,<>« '" .... 'u"'. Thq limply 1..". II<> Iif<.oo
....... 0' iptU I",ml"'" I Co,
O';l'"·' " sum.n, PO'"" '0' probltm. how""". in r<prd '0 ,h.
d,f(<f('{I' "")11 ,h. Now T<>I&m.n, G, .. p'," .nJ Epi"l<s ul< ,be '«m,
... " ( h"",. "'"", ) .nd -, .... (,,;:.;" ). Fo, <nmpl<. io ,b ... ory
,,(,h. m,n wi,h the po"', i' of'be em""o' (M>tk 12:16). ,h. word
u!Cd (0' ,h.I, r<p""" ... i<KI is · 'm'g<" (,;to,, ). "bi!< ,n ...". 14: II . 'he
<'o",d, m;". k. R"n, b •• and r,ul fo, SOd. io bum. " liken",
(h. ""',6'ht""' ). In Rom 8:3. P, ul ... ,..,ha, Co<><! .. n' hi< ""·0 Son '"
,h. liken ... of human n .. h (1''''''''''''''0'; ""'oo, .• hhough he I .. "
"Y' ''''' 'hoo. who I"", God ",ill b< "",fo,med '0 '" im,s< (";I"n, of
hi, 5<>". In I Cot 11:7. rom ar. ,be image (.;.run) and &lorynl God.
ju," .. hU,,"n, \H:" ,h. imag< (NJ") of ,h. rna" of du" ( I Cor n:49)
and ,,·ill ",m<daY bt:.t ,he ,mag.- (tiM' ) <>f ,h. m." of be, .. " ( I Co,
15:49,. I" I Co, 4:4. Cluj" i, 'he imol' (';M" ) of G04 , "'b,,,,., ,n
Phil 2:7. Ch,;" """ .h. f"u" (...".ph6,,) of. ,I .. , •• nd', born i"
huoun lik."", (h • ...,;,;"""; ".,h,';pOn ). In C.,k" ,I.n, he " the im.g.
(,;"'") of the in.i,ible God M",rillDI '0 '" 3:9. human" "
m" l< in the lilo ..... of God I""""';';';" ,,,,,"w). ,od in 2 Co, J: '$. Poul
"'.; ... ,h •• hu ..... n'. y "" II I>< , ... rulonocd in'o ,b. (ril'ow) of 'h,
vo' y of ,he 1'>Icl_,>.p'" ItO"' .h, 6 .... , .. mpl< l'lt< ",in po""itl. 'h,
s<n.,,1 rule t«m, '0 I>< ''''' .. "hly ''I',-""hon, h • .., ' lilo", .. '
"hilt d"',n, .imili.ud< .nd fu,u" 'nm,fon""ion' . r< . polon of in
It,,,,, ,,r·I,, .. ,"
Impil< l'auJ". dolm ,bo, iclolo ... none';""" objt<ts. , ..... I", ""_
nnd- 0' ... .-11 ,hird-<m'ury Uri""n -.."1<,, ....,nicd . bou, ,I>< l"S'n
"""OU of Uio>lo''l' .• nd 10 "''''' <><"n' tbr-,o """" , .cd ,h. roakin& and
.... of mu,l . " i" srnaoI ... ith ,bo, p""k<. Thq ,h., <.",.in
kind! of .""""k< could I>< m;",,,dm1<>Od . nd . bwcd or <Irow """,..
,io" 0' ....,,,hip. . nd. in 1",,1<111 ... ,hey W' .. n<d 'goln" m.king i",,8<'
of,,,,= p.go" god< '" "'hn 'mpi<m<"1> of 1"&"" 00' Fur,bet·
..or<. 'h<y """ied ,bou, ,he l<ml".ho n, IIr ,h. ,utn:>undi"8 l"3"n
",I. Ur< . od ,I> .UUMS "trlKl ions. M"" Ch,;",," ",n.,,", ""'" fo'n'<I"
polyth,ist>. . nd <>f ilia. polytl><i'm wtT< ub;qu"ou,. Ch,;""o!
<ould "'" '"'" ,bel>ome of, non· Ch,;',i," n<igl'lb<.ot ",;',,"u' <n<»un-
"ring 'he """"',1< >hri", <0 'h, family'. ,u,<l .. y j!O<Io .nd ."",,<Oro.
nor ",uld tbr-,o flO .. '0 'he put.il< 1>.0,,,,, or '''''''<t, "'md ,I>. .,m<l. 0'
.. .nl," ordinary put.il< buildi"" wi,oou, ",ofro", jng .... u .. of ,he
sod' &nd pot( ... ,.. .. of,,,,,. "')"lit> "" oo"fp<»t" 110",,, ..... .od «iJ-
Inp.· lltnUI< <>f .heir high rio!> of CO"tomi",,;""" pai",m; . nd sculp.
10" • • "';,h octo" , nd ... " l<.<h", of d, .. iallil,tO'ur<. " 'rr.
f,,,m ""I"i,m "",il 'h<y ",wd d.mon""'t< (h.I, 'h<y h.Id I<f'
"
14 FACE TO FACE
professions that produced, used, Or even brought them into the proxim-
ity of these kinds of images."
Resisting idolatry was not easy for Christians who lived in urban M'I.
tings at that time. Their surroundings were filled with the temptations
of luxuries as well as with signs and tokens of polytheistic religions.
Greco-Roman cults d .. pended on images, rituals, and public spectacles;
they did nOl draw upon texts of sacred scriptures (apart from those
myths found in the writings of Homer and Hesiod) or dogmatic state-
ments of faith. The traditional gods had shrines that were open and
reflected civic pride and ident ity. Almost any aspect of daily life, even
just through certain neighborhoods, brought early Christian>
into contact with of traditional and Roman gods.
earliest Christian writers who have been presented as
objoxting to pktorial art were actually p<.Iinting out inherent dangers
that attached tn the making nr even admiration of things that were
made for polytheistic cult. Given the wide distribution of such objoxts in
the world. the most stalwart Christians might be impli-
cated in a kind of accidental idolatry, ewn if they tried to steer clear of
anythi ng that might tempt or unwittingly taint them."
That Christians were unable always to avoid the images is apparent
from the instruction about what they might do if they came into contact
with the idols. Apparently some Christians practked explicitly disre-
spectful behavior toward images or their altars. Tertullian rders to
Christians spitting or blowing on smoking altars as they passed by. and
according to the Oaaviu> of Minucius Felix, Christians offended pagans
by spitting on statues of the gods. perhaps as a way of protecting them-
selves against inherent and ever-present danger. 1> TertuUian assures
martyrs that One of the advantages to their imprisonment is the fact that
they no longer have occasion to see strange gods or bump into their
images and no longer can be even accidentally involved in some pagan
feast or sacrifice.'" Cyprian also urges Christians to avoid looking at the
idols, even declaring that Christians who did not awn their eyes from
the images were guilty of a form of ap<.lstasy, and their subsequent tears
of penitence (a literal cleansing of the eyes) were a way to make satisfac-
tion to God for their sins."
Thus, the typical early Christian theological position on visual art
was less an objection to art as sllch than an attack on non-Cllris/jml
images that invi ted worship and activities that drew the faithful into the
values and practices (both religious and soxular) of the surrounding wi-
ture. Significant ly, these first- and second-century writers said almost
nothing about Chri5tian art, either because there was very little (or
none) in their purview nr because if there was, they did not see it as
problematic. Clement's recommended motifs for Christian signet rings
offer sllch an example. Furthermore, these writers said very little about
art that was basically secular or neutral and without obvious pagan reli -
VI!VAl AH, POHItAITI, AND I DOlATlty
Siou ... >o<;",ioo>. .uch .. imag<> of fish, hi,d" >h<phnds, 0'
r,r'p<Vinn. Su<h . n m.y hn< b<m Ii« ,i>< gikli", of oIipp<r>. '0 bo,-
row, ph,,, .. (TOm T .. "uW,n, ,od n,,' e,p«i,lIy 'rooblinA by i'><lf.
N<>I.l:>iy, r.o.. ... ,hest .. ..,.. ,i>< ...". ""'" of i",,1I<' first "bp,«I (<>r
o.ri>li,o uw.nd p"'.' I"""" >p«itK Ch';"W1 m<.nins.
C.o' u,.,. or '" 1.0"", ,ha ... u, "n>!' • 're";'" .pi"" ,i>< -.,-n". <>f
,II< p.opn.- ,n" "'ock<! idol",.,. in I.ngu.g< '0 ,hest .. riin
..-,i'm. while hin'in5"' hi •• .. "' <on",,,,,,ioo of.n inam.-
,ion, 1 tho, would <kv.1< """..,,,1 oi" .. "", by ;" iIKorpo<"
'"'" ,n'o Jivin"y. for 1h< Jdini,ion ofido!.o',.,. ;, I>o><d I<»
on ",,"01 ""'>r>h ip of ..... , erial obj«u ,Iu" un ,"" di ",,,,,ed ." .. 01
'"'ning 1<>W:O,J ",'1IIy pI< .. u,....nd "'"ay from di" .. ,.inllS- Hunun.
wOo ,nduls< '00, lu." <om< ", find '00, 50'" in mo1<"riol ,hinV'nd, ..
,hey f.1I1Iow<,.nd lowe!-.com< "''''' up Kk>I. """" of ",Ji"",.,..nd lif .. _
I<» nu, ... ili. do:-ifyi"5 ,"" ..... 1'<' of .ni""," .. wdl .. ordi ... " mor"l •
• nd m""I<i"5 11 .. i""«l' f<>< iu mod<-I. ,...., • ..., fu""", in,o
,I>t mud of ,OOr viI< pouion. Icf. Rbm I
n.. 'N< God. on Il>tod .... bond. io inco,flIpt ibk.nd an_ b< rep.
"""o''''! ,h",uw. ", in oln""C1ibk m",,"Io. no, C.n C".J 'PP"" in
o.och """ic di...,.';,y offornu. inl<,""ing!y, abo cl.oim. tho,
,nug< lo'Oo">hip i, cond<mn<d by Script"'" bu, "" omi1> > "","lion of
''''' I> .. c>., 1U,"in8 i"" .. <1 10 ... 115;4_8 ("Thei, idol, .00
gold. ,I>< wor\ of."""n !u.ndo") .nd h. ":9·10 ("AlJ who mol« idol>
,re no,hing. . .. Who """id f.shion • god Of "'" .n i""«l' ,Iu, <an do
00 >J,ji,K.>. ..... ,.;'" rn.kn . n ''P'm<n. ,n" "" .... il'<"'1
of idol> ><,ually d ishonor 1h< <kill of ,ni.ts, ... 1>0 >houid to. mor< hishlr
hono..,J ,lun ,"" prod""" <>f lhri, c<>ft. Howc ... ,. I>t """,Id cl.ol'" ,n.
rno« iliUfnl.1>t . rt;",1h< more IiUIr ,I>t i ..... will n. S«n 10 ... m·
moo .h .. d .. i,y, ,,,h ... ,h.n !<n .... '< .om'8" fo, ,h .. morn of Ih ..

Jewis h Christian Rejection ofVilualAI"t
w ...... nol«l Ih .. ><>m< hi"ori.", of (h,;'''.ni'y (. nd of o.,;";.n
.n1 cil< Chri"i.oni'y', In<UIt .-. .. , "''''''' for iu .w."n' rfli<nK<
,,,,",,.Ii"8 ,i>uai .".Such ...... umV''''' .om ,nronol.ogially <on'..,, _
po,,,y,....ioIt .nicon''''' for ".",ed .• s wrlI., .l<"If·«Kt><"lO\l' Ch,;'·
,i. n ><<<p"""" of Ihi. h ... i"8 .... ,h. bo,i, fu" ,;mil .. ,"iCMOe
rosi,.,n. Aj,hoow. 1h< prcudinJ rni<w of ,n. docwnmtary <Vklmu
_ !h" >orr>< ..-cond- ,nd ,hird-c.n,u,y o.ri,,;.n cnn<.km ... ,ion,
of i.lol."y ",ed .h. rep"di .. i<>n of 8" ... n im.!!", in ,I>< 1<" Com_
m. oom<n" I ... hien .her diJ _ ....... p«ifKolir ""'ioIt). 'p.o" from
(".ill<"" ' 'I!umen' ",i,h Cthu .. ""ual "",.;.1\ prI.1a 0C>'t' fi8u,ed 1"<'
domin."'Iy'n 'I><i, .<gumm ... • In f.e!, KI>oI. n • .,.. "gu.-.! ,Iu, ,II<
16 FACE TO FACE
Decalogue itself generally played a minor role in Christian theological
reflo.><:!;Oll before the mid-second century and moreover was often mis-
understood, abbreviated, or quietly sidelined.'"
Added 10 that, the ways Ihat Jews themselves understood the injunc-
tion against graven images at this time (or any time) are nei ther dear
nor consistent. The Hebrew Scriptures themselves offer some internal
contradictions, i f we note that Ih .. apparent condemnation of figurative
art is shortly followed by vivid descriptions of the cherubim set up in
the tabernacle over the mercy seal 25:17-22). A bronze serpent
healed the Israeli tes in the wilderness from snakebite (Num 21 :8-9),
and the figurative de<:oral;ons of Solomon's temple induded lions and
oxen as well as cherubim (1 Kings 6-8). Enacting the Decalogue's pro-
hibition of graven images may date no earlier than to the religious
reforms of images of King Josiah in the seventh century
reforms that may have had political motivations as much as religious
purity at heart (2 Kings 23)." The iconoclastic destruction of the high
places coincided with a centralized juridical and religious power in
Jerusalem and its temple. Thus the prohibition came to be understood
as prohibiting any sculpted figure that might be taken as an image of a
god or otherwise draw t he people of Israel into polytheism (the WOr_
ship of foreign or multiple gods) and idolatry (the worship of divine
images) and away from the exclusive worship of their one, invisible
God. No one is allowed to paint or sculpt an image of God according to
the book of Deuteronomy, because no one actually knows what God
looks like (Deut 4: 15-18)."
Jews in the Greco-Roman period, like Christians, consistently con-
demned images associated with other religious cults, especially when
they were required 10 tolerate Or even worship those images by foreign
occupiers or Roman governors. Such repudiation is evident in the
polemic againsl worshiping Baals and Aslarles in Judges 2, the humor-
ous description of Bel and Nebo hanging off pack animals in Isaiah 46,
or the I Maccabees account of Jewish resistance to the desecrations and
anti -Jewish practices instituted by Antiochus IV Epiphanes.ln the first
century C.F.., Josephus criticized Solomon for allowing images in the
temple, and he records Jewish repudiation of certain kinds of figurat ive
art (including images of living creatures and God), especially thei r
refusal to set up images of the Roman emperor, which, he explains, was
an allowance made by the Romans themselves to the Jews." In his his-
tory of the jewish war, Josephus teUs about Jewish riots in Opposilion 10
Roman imposition of images of the gods or the effigies of the emperor
(busts or portraits attached to the standards). Not only did Jewish law
generally forbid figurative images, but these portraits were particularly
offensive b-ecause the Romans wanted to S<'t them up at particular Jew-
ish holy places. Moreover, he insists, the Romans themselves had
granted Jews the right to abide by their ancient religious laws. Like the
V!lVAl AIJ.T. POIJ.TlJ.A IT! , A!'ID IDOLATlJ.Y
LI t'" '.bri,t"" .... ",""""u • ......, e..1> lewoo roovicliom ..
al l(1 to $QUnd philooophi<all<o<hingo, Iha! imlg<> wm u ....... hiop.
"""hr no" .... t>f hum, ,,, !>Of of.1x d;.i ..... "
Pbil .... til< I<wish AI< .. "d.;'n pIodQO<Iph«. obi«u ", fog"r" i"" , It
"" ""'r< '<If-<<mICio .. philosophic" Philo', ,,<&,il< On ,II<
D«. log •• "',," . h .. ,,,- whQ _«h,p ,h •• un. moon. or oth<r
h." .... bod ... . '" I ... gr;"'""sIy Ut "'to< ,h, n ",i .. o' " 'ho f. ,hion
i""s<> out of wood. .. "" ... o. p<e(i<>us ·Ih. W<lrkm. ",hip of
.. hich, ti, II<r by " .,"" 'Y. or poi",,,,, or • It, .. ", "" <l<,..< '''',' ,n i"'Y
'0 .h. lift of mIn: by und<"utting ,h. 1<1"'" ..... in"' y_ n.m. ly,
,h. prop<1" ffin«pUO" of .h .... God." Th< pOQ' ...,W, ,b..rl ,II<
u,i •• o' b.v< d«<i. «I ",i,h '''''ir work miwnd.,,,. nd no, only
,"" nll.r< "fGod, bu, also ,h. dil'fn-<IK< tho ,,'''tor .nd ,II<
""i«' t>f cr.. lioo. FuTtIxnno«, 'h"y . " ribu" 10m. kind olli/< or IOui
'0 d<ad Ind lif.l.., m. "., '0 "-hi<h ''''' .ni" sJvd sh'r<, ''''ling ,Ix
mn"nin! m,,«i. 1 for . I .... r pu.po«.M I, ""uld l>< II<
'" deify ,I>< OCui ptoN .... 'II<o-'h. n lh<ir "",u ... or for ,Ix arti .. n.
'0 _"hlp '00. ,,,,,I> or 'heir h. nd, in .... d of th<i. p"", .
"cu. In l DOth« pl>«. Phil., d<tcribeo "''''" ... -m. n .. fOf mno>'«I
ai t><»,ibl. from . "y of who thint.. fi, only",
wl lk in tho p>th'of'rutb iudf:Th< OUle""" of mel> «,i"' n« '0 pu.·
.ui" of 'h" im'p,in"ion ",hit II< -b.ni.h«I fro m ''''' ,oolt i,",ion.
which II< "" <Stabli""". ''''''' ,,1<bra,«I . nd i:><.ou,iful.,,, of .I"'u-
"Y •• p. i"'i"" t.<a"""h<y. f.l>dy imi.ating tb. ",tUf< of'lI< 'ruth.
con"i-. J«<i" I nd .n . ..... in ord<r, through 'h' .,«Ii"", <>f .ho ."....
'0 .. il. ,h. 10"" whi,b or. Ii . bl. '0 II< ... won fl, ..
Phi.,', n.goti, .. vi.w of ort i, .. <h«I from ,II< pmhibi'ioo of ""
Command"""" I nd i, buN! OD its .bili,y '0 <k«i", 'nd "",," n,l",
"'""
l>..pit< /Ilkphus'. h;'totiul m:ord ,nd Philo', phil_pIoic. 1 "S'"
m<""'''''' .• di>«>V<'<i<> t>f.1I< «n,ury h . ... d.<mon
" .. ,«I 'hor ...... t>f ''''' r, .... ......,." """uri« of th< Common E,. h<ld
... ying . nd sometim .. <v<n "",i';', vi,,,., of fi g"' ,t ;' •• tt. <v<o '"
mad. tor r<lip,ioll> ron" .... Th ... di,",,,,,,,,, r...v< includ«l • '.'''"y <>f
m«l;,. motif .. , nd ''''' .... ' fr<s<o<t of . " "'''' .. 'nimals. Or doI -
pt.in. found in ,b. !CW"" .... ..,omb> 0( Romr and on .. rwphagi; figu .
",i, .. mo,ift (including zodiac fi 8"'" .n.! 'ep"""""''''nI <>f tho god
flclioJ) f""ndon mooaic !Ioonof 'Y">s<>s"'" in til< Gam« '''''
r,,"rth . Dd " d h , ,,,,u.i .. , .nd. mot< " V" fieon" tho mid-,bi.d-
"""ulf mon"",,,,"" fr<OCt>rt fill«I...uh fit!"""iv< p>in'ing in ,h. 1Ju ...
'}"'8"8"<.- ).xu.,<"!> ",,«I .0 It.... "m< «n',,"" '"SIl'''
,ho.IlI ... , >on,. I<wUh k.doTs ... '" (h" ,1..;. 0>'-;";'. """n, .. p>''' )
morr {on« rn«l wi.h ,h. p"nk" of idol.,ry ,b. n wi,b til< .... king
0( p,,,,,.,.1 It, .. '"'h. Whil< urging , .... '0 . Y<>id <On'''' ,,·i,h.n
idolo.",,,! Gotn.il. <ul,u,., 'h<y ""'k ..... i<ty of 0" vi"", Itt.
FA(E TO FA(E
onm petmining ,......, I" nuke >nd .,...n i_ '" Ions" tl><y did _
"",ohip It...n,H For .... ..,pI •• ocrording '0 ,iI< 1 ...... 1<'" rolmud. til<
Ihird. «otury Robbi 101un'D "t'I"rcnliy ".I,,,,,ed inu&<> on
... 11 .... nJ R.h),i Ahu" I"',",illed Ih. ""'king of im.&<> in
Oth .. robb" cI<.dy 6SUnr'iv< intOV' J.ng<roIU . od u,..:l
lew> '0 ""un fnn whrn "'" fiod • C.htiol ..... ,-"f""",,,, 10 J<wi>h
.nironi.",. wch • • Origon. ciled . """,. "'. m ... d«idt whcthn .....
wo, I>a>«I <>II ...... 1 oIn<mrlion or only. proj<aioo uf • uo<fui
..... mption.
Tb ..... )<wi"" ..,iconiom in II>< _d ."d ,bird UII, ur;" c. .. m'r
hoV< brtn n ... iroy Jim:lal.goino' !<ww. wonl>ipuffor<igr> irmg<>. no'
.gai"" , ,, .... 1 1If' On II'DC'fIll. or rv<O ,h. in"";'". "f
. )'n,gogu" wilh ftguro'i ... J«o,.,;"n. It i. unlik<ly, Ihm,{o .... ,1>0,
Chri" i&n. <n1uLatal .hrir l..ruh n<ishb<>'" .niconi.nt. In<t<od. <..ty
a.ri";. n ,""" ... i,m. rll' mi",05 fisu ,,"v< "I ""' .... lik< Philo' ...
oNpcd try phil4oophic.>l OT'm"'!> 01;., ... ,I .. .. ,J d..".rn"ll
q .... \i'i'" in 11<=, in orl Of W<r< bu«I "n oon«rru t1u. making or <I.i"ll
.ft ....... Id rvrn .... U, d"w .be f.i.hful inlt> .1>< id<>b"y .....,.;,1<'<1 wi.h
,lit w"""nding ",,"u .... 11>< <orly .poIogi>'> P' III Ou-i,,;'ni'y •• n
.. ,tll<e, .... Ur on.! ,piri .... Uy mLiah .... ed ioitlt. .od 'h<y d ... rly ""pod
t1u. Ihrir ..-gurn<D" wt>Irid "1'1"'111 to .... >mS.ibilil'" u( • ph""""",,i·
ally oophi""".",!.,,,,'-<n«.11'rq rould .. lily ""'" b<li<....! 'I><modwo
on f.irly .. f. grouoo . "",king imag<> .. iU..-,. .r.d....,n dong<ro""
I.i""" ,I>< ",.p<a«l f.t<d< "V' ....... , .. Uy with
'n onr <0>< • ...,i.k" <Oft'O." ... r.,. ""o<."ing'''' '''''hal <omrnand·
ID<nt ogain" intOV' DOl OW>ICDGI of ,I>< ph_phial ",i';quo: of (mi·
""w< , n """ .. d ,,, hoI'< dou"l«I .... iodivHl ....... OO Ii ... <Ir<:or. 1«I
......... lhof'l>< a,,;"ion <.raoomM in 'I><cotty ,bird «0,.". Tho: .ni·
...,. .nd .hoi, <Iiom .. did nO< undmt. nd ..bo, d<oi"ll" iJoI·
• IIy. 1:>«0 .... ,I>< ...,rk .... "'" irrt¢nd<d. <hip>«I. or
00 .. '" "". ," lind u( _il' I' ...... DOl Ii ... ,I>< foolr;"ni"ll of
i"'"8<" of ,I>< ""gan ijOd>. 11>< im., ,h<y <t<.,,,,!..-er< _ " ally . Y"'.
""lie. """ .. i .... '" dHloctk . oJ "'" lik<ly '" I>< m ... .u.. r." Woh "'"
imit< wormil'
Th¢r<fo .... il...".., "",,,,nobl. 10 rondruk .ha, uOu-is1ia .. 1>ogan to
m.k< .nd uo< . iIDi f".nl . nd <I>o,o<".-;IIi ........ 1.11 of th.i. awn
_"",oJ ,I>< btJinni"8 "f.1>< ... itd ","IUry. il W. f not boa .... most fi ... •
. nd >«:ond·«ntu .... Chris';.n ....... c &<=0«011, iro"""",*,ic or .""ni·
mou< in , htir .i ..... "n 'he ",,11« 0_ ,his." b<pn.o
'PI""', it boa_ ",,,,,,,,,,Iy popular and iDft"""'ioI. u i ...... wid<ly
<llip<n«I.nd «>pi«! by 0,1><n. fi .. , "oar and then for, M .... _ lim< •
... know Ih" church , .,h,,, i,i,,, hod . """,inui", con""", "ilk ,h.
pO)bkm of idoLalry. DOl id<nlified with II>< making of i ..... b ... pet.
ho", ,.1,1«1 '0 it. An. in """icuLB • ., .... t<iip.>", """'''' ........
"-,,,, .. hinS ,11>1, wbil< I""'mWibl<, "","iraJ .... " • .,tln.", .r.d control It>
VIIVAL ART, PORTRAI TI, AND IDOLATRY
ensure that it was understood in its proper sense. In other words, it
should include only (excluding certain forbidden
ones) and be as different from a pagan idol as possible.
19
The Earliest Examples and Types
of Christian Visual Art: Church Regulation
Obviously, such definitions and regulations only make St'nse for a time
when Christian images were being produced in enough quantity to
make these p<Jlides ne<:essary. As we have seen, Christian writers of the
second and early third centur ies seem unaware of any significant
amount or type of Christian an worthy of condemnation. Their objec-
tions were aimed at the art of ot hers, pagall S or perhaps Christian
heretics, and not 3ttheir own corel igionists. The warnings against idol-
Mry were warnings agaillst the cul t images of other religions, not against
Christian artworks. Based on this lack of awareness, we might reaSOn-
ably conclude that Christians produced very linle religious art , or that
what they did produce was so innocuous that it nei ther a11raCled atten-
tion oor raised concerns.
In the third century, however, the material situation began to change.
In addition to the modest domestic objects that may have seemed
uncontroversial (small ponery lamps with images of the Good Shep-
herd, for example), the catacomb frescoes in Rome, relief carvings on
sarcophagi and tomb epitaphs, and early evidence for wall paintings in
churches demonstrate that change.
Of these, the most imp<Jrtant exist-
ing example is the decorated bap-
tistery found in a Christian house
church at Dura Europos, with its
frescoes depicting biblical scenes
(ca. 249 C.E. ; fig. 10). Above t he
font, an image of the Good Shep-
herd and his flock stand over t he
smaller figures of Adam and Eve.
The side walls contain painted
scenes particularly apprnpriate for
a baptismal space: the healing of
the paralyti<;, the stilling of the
storm, the walking on the water,
and the woman at t he well, as well
as a somewhat enigmatic painting
of three women carrying lamps
approaching a tent-like structure
(variously identified as the three
Fig. 10. f\e<:onruuaion of the
interior of the Chrnt>on t>op-
tiste<)c DIn. Europo<. mid- Jrd
<:etI. c ... (I'hoto; FI.jgI>to ¥ld
R 'F":.o\!Cl¢."!s
Y ...
20 FACE TO FACE
WOmen arriving at the empty tomb; three of the five wise brides carry-
ing their lamps to the tent of the bridegroom; or virgins escorting Mary
10 the temple, an illustrat ion of a passage in the ProtQevu"ge/;,,", of
James)."
Based on the example from Dura, it seems likely that other early
Christian buildings were similarly adorned. We do know that Christian
buildings were demolished during th .. great persecution of the early
fourth century, and their walls may well have been enhanced with
paintings." Despite certain di stinctions in slyle, the similarity between
some of the themes found on the Dura baptistery walls and motifs
from the Roman cata(Combs also suggests some common intluem'c and
perhaps {'ven some shared models. Although we have no extant exam-
ples, it seems possible that certain influential prototypes (illuminated
biblkal manusnipts, provided patterns or cartoons con-
tained in cir.::ulating books of artisans' motifs that could account for
some level of consistency." In any case, given the certain fact of an
emerging and distinctive Christian iconography, church authorities
may well have tried to regulate the trend, especially if they continued to
be concerned about the snares of the surrounding pagan religious or
even secular culture.
Surprisingly, however, we do not have much evidence of such reac-
tion. The earliest known regulation of Christian visual or figurative art
comes from a canon of a local church council held in Elvira, Spain,
about 305 C.H. Curiously, the canon's meaning is a bit ambiguous. Two
different translations of a key Latin clause in t hat canon are possible,
resulting in two rather different meanings. The Latin reads: Plaw;1 pic-
wras itl ecdesia eJ5e non debere, lIe quod co/jwr et adorawr i" parie/iblls
drpj"garur. One possible translation is: "There shall be no pictures in
chur.::hes, lest what is reverenced and adored be depicted on the walls,M
while a s«ond reverses the verbs and of the second clause,
that is, "lest what is depicted on the be reverenced and adored.""
The first translation, which seems the more grammatically straightfor-
ward, prohibits pictures b«ause of t he danger that certain sacred or
holy things or persons might be inappropriately portrayed (or even
exhibi ted to view).
If one accepts this as a limited prohibition, then perhaps other
images might be permissible (perhaps in other places than the walls of a
chur.::h ), or at least not as problematic. The second translation demon-
a concern that viewers might confuse the image with its model
and mistakenly offer the image some kind of adoration or worship,
thereby falling into idolatry, in which case the prohibi tion primarily
attends to the poteotial for misuse, not exactly on the images them-
selves. Nevertheless, both translations appear to prohibit art 00 the walls
of the church, albeit for somewhat different reasons. Furthermore, the
VI!VAL PORTRAIT). AND (DOLATIW
....... otm-. d......"," .. bI .... *"<. w, P"""'" hod . ... ..,,! in , ...
d>ooKh bofot< tho: tun< rJ c-ur.'ID<.
S<± .. q ....... doao""" .. COIIlin ... "" ..... IIw Ih< '" ,..,;.
"""'..., WOO In< <OIl,.."..... ... lIwo _ it w .. w«I ... yndrntood bJ
,ho>< who _ k ,...,hon'''' f.h ,Iw "'" , .. «I.d '0 ...... ' "' .....
itdmJ"p at """"" ...... po&<tI';.iy ptOOitauti< . .... ' ..... potn'I.
'iolly -tW. fnOUf«. P.oIinon, Ih< 10 ... fowth"""'"rr Bi>hop '" Solo.
.. w "' ..... Ot' ' 0 • way "" ... Iivm , ... N>i!;';' ... r-n<Iod in -. rJ
s."" F<!;". ElcpLolt,i"l hi> """i .... 1<>, odotrung. ,h"",h .... ildm. with
.'1',....", .. 00... oIlivinJ !ndi>id ...... which II< ><Imit> WI>.n "" ....... 1
, ... tom. II< ,Ioi"" thot he d id i, l.ofJ<1y '0 . It ,oct the ' ru"",' ,..hI> _,,'d
olh.,wi .. 'p'nd th." 'i .... f ... 'ing . nd .. tho 'Om" of ,h.
••• atho. ,tun ''''''in! in ...... ,ho ," .. "h.o Th .... in Ii ..... r"""'"
.... w ..... t<> h.ve ben«" .. csp<ci.>Uy ... did><t" Or ,nil" ·
.. tIOn.oI ,,,,-
Sud> w ..... itt .....w.I. 'wo «1>1.., .. 10 .... in ,..., w<II.
knI>wn opillitt "' C, .... r Iht Grn, 10 IIilIt.or s.,..., ... of MI ..... lel.l"
Ih<K "' .. " . C....,.y od ..... n ....... bi> _ .... Itt""", r... bon"",,,",
;......,. from d .... d .... in hio d;",. ... (on< "'11M" 6 ... L--to """'''''''' '"
i<oo""IOIrIl d,..aed.ll 0_ ....... J.,.. 1" ...... btm tOr hl. ftmt
".net ..-.n .. idol .. C<qorJ that""" ,hou", i ........
...... Ihtt. cIoftpn. "'" ohouId ..... _ '-n <In<.."...t. b- Of< .bo ....
n, "'""
.... pitOonoI ""', ... "_ io ...& _ of io _ ... oItio _ ...
..... ..... _ '" Im<n ","," """ .... .......... tilt _ ..... '
,hty '"""'" ....... -.. r .... fr""""r"""'" _ t.... IrooIr ,.. •
.... w.l tilt ........... ".,..,.. .... tho p«tpk _ odot ...... 01 t ...... "'tN.
P<"t"''' " ..... , 01",,,,, Il10)"''' .. .."...,Iri"!l'" ,''', 'tr.r m.,. pll><,
kouw\odfI< of ,I>< ""'Y .... tilt p«tpk """" _ ... """"'" oJor .. _ "'.
- -
It,.... Of" 10 ...... , ... , s.......... hod
o.hor1.,"", ("""II """ __ tIut I>< G,<!I'" ,., ........ hod .....,
"" .... ) . ........ ro .... off In ...... '''''''F' ............. it ... , boon
t<p<>tttd '" ......... itt"'-'l wi.h ..... ,.... Uw
........ '" _ .. ''''''''' tuod<r """ pIn!h.o! ""'" """*' _ I><.odortd.
""" " ....... in ..... ,.... ........ ",I>< ...... d _ 1" .... ,.,.., but _
bWnt,.... '" """,,,bn*n them. - Mol. ..... pouM ..... """
yai .. '" ,,",",In rotlht i1t ......... ("1*' .,Iy '" Ih< ...... u: tb,o, ... Iht
local ...... . 1.0. ;" •• ode" 0< "'ttbto ....... nott.I tho,
oudo ·"'_· ........ ·Iud I VCD<TabIr ..... _,
H. """"ud« hit ............. by lIut imol!'"' abo ....... tl><
..;,....,-.... n.iN1itr i><y<>nd tho ..... ibIc objKt. Ind low .. d tl>< OWl ....
,hro"", ," ..... ltn'"! of Love fr:,r 'hOi whi<h thtr p<>t, .. !-..t. u-.>i",
22 FACE TO FACE
aside the problem of what image Gregory might have meant when he
referred to reading the walls; it is clear that he considered
certain images of things deserving of devotion when he
made his case for the value of visual images. Since Gregory speaks of
saints' stories, we may assume that what he refers to are representations
of biblical stories or episodes from the lives of saints.
The issu .. , then, was about how images were actually regarded, not
aoout their existence per se or even their placement in churches. Given
that the ecclesial authorities (at least initially) supervised the construc-
tion and de.:oration of the earliest Christian catacombs in Rome- it
seems logkal to assume that someone offidally approved the doxorat ion
of the Christian building at Dura- we may conclude that the kinds of
images produced for and placed in these spaces were jndged acceptable
by local church authorities at the t ime, The elaboration of Chri stian
buildings gained enormous momentum in the fourth century, initially
fueled by the patronage of Emperor Constanti ne. By Gregory's time, the
view that the images had no place in the church would likely have been
regarded as out of step as well as unpopular, which is perhaps why a sig-
nificant part of Serenus's congregation went into schism against their
bishop.
In the mid-fourth century, however, the motifs and themes of Chris-
tian art had jus! begun to change, deemphasizing the symbolic and nar-
rat ive art of the third and early fourth centuries in favor of the more
dogmatically derived representations of Christ's passion, enthrone-
ment, and triumph. The visual art was still edifying, but t hose previ -
ously popular biblical narl"3tives that showed the Old Testament heroes
or the works of Jesus (for example, his healing or wonderworking) were
gradually supplanted by images of lesus handing over the law to his
apostles or being judged by Pilate. The depiction of Jesus' mission or
divinity was thereby changed from an emphasis on the deeds of his
earthly ministry to an emphasis on the events of his passion, ascension,
and judgment. By the end of the fourth century, this development went
another stcp further, when explici t ly devotional images of Christ and
portraits of the saints also began to appear. These images had a role in
the developing cult of martyrs and saints, not only by honoring a holy
person with a portrait, but also by playing a part in the cult itself, in par-
allel development with the cult of relics, which started to appear at the
shrines of martyrs.
As we have noted, the earlier symbolic and narrative images, perhaps
even the dogmatic images of the later fourth century, were not intended
to attract prayer or veneration, Their purpose was to symbolize or iIIus-
tl"3te a key aspect of Christian belief (such as the of God or Christ
for the individual believer, the resurrection of the dead to Paradise) or to
offer a visual reference to a bibl ical story that might convey central
Christian beliefs or values, or to serve as christological or sacramental
')'I'<>. [ ... n tho .. ,'" vi."01 ,<p""",u'»n' of O,i,,', p'''''''' f<Su,t« ·
Iion,Of rnlhror'l<Dlrnl W<1< """" llun i«mic. They \WI< ""'.",
.......... rr<"'n"l;"o. of Chri"i ... exhiJlf;<. ..... rh<y p •• oI ... «I "".
IOU, "<rhol mo&s indudin:g homm ... h)1ll">' , nd c"",,1I<1ic.1 in"ruc-
lion. Thry -., "",.n,'" Ln"""" vi......,,, Ln 'lK fundamrn .. l. of 'he
f.i,h (}, k> ""pi« ,""" '" off« .. i'" .nd ,1"nk>iPv"'g, Th< im'g'"
n ..... '«1 ",,,,i .. ><I"'" ,n IlK I'UI ,Iu, on< «)\IIr!. in ....... , -"""h"
,,,10,,, ,Ir,n m«l,.r"'g' living holy prt>rn« ,Iu, One rould <IlJ!oII!""
."" p<<><"' . n.... ",,,,,Ii,,, in,.. "<t< 5<';1""" in picru'C>
ra'''''. 'IYn """do; rbry poio'«I '0 Goo's .. T-ilic .. 1< Df hi""'Y'" .is''
of hop< .nd promi .. for ,I>< fU'"I<.·
By c,",'ra<I, ,I>< n.w im.og<o .ho, bop" 'n 'PP''' in .1>< Lot< fo""h
«mu'f <>Iftr<d .. """n' •• mOl< ,10 .. «Iifi..,ion. n.... ....... the po._
I ... i" "f Ch.i" Of ,h ... i"" .ho. "",i.1«I n .. <On''''' or
. nd inil=! p.....,1«l • Irk""".. Dflh,;, ,""j«' for it> ",,' n
...... Po""Y''' .n.,N of "'" d<c<.otd, mod< for 'hri. 0"" IOmb. . oo
.,,""'i ......... in'" "'''lop rJrdbo, m<doI!"' .... bu. Ih"" """" n<r' -holy
inr __ '" "nd .I,hough ... 'q>rdrn'''ion of 0 .. (".
,h. fiK"" or.1>< Good Sh<ph •• d "',, M' • po,,., i, of o"i" bu, •
....... ph" ... p, ...... g ,ho q .... liI;",. of kw ... ' <>«1. 1:.-, of ",010.
s.:..... of I<>u. o. ,I>< . post!<> rJrow ,hom " cho. ",'<n on ,,"';..
0' ... ' iog> porf",m,ng 0' lo'i ....... n8 wuin "'IS ", .. ",ks. r ...... ". "'"
PO"''''''' .och.
Thi. 4ck of ""y CIrri""n po""i'"1< <>nn01 ho .. pt.in«l ••• n
orxide",. h", ",1><, .. ,I>< .... ,,1. of . """",iou, .8-"" '" t<>i<I ...,..'''! by
produ.:in8 ' " t/u, prinurily sorvod • didactic fWK1ion. E.lrlyCh,i,,;." •
..,...... '0 kno",,, llu •• "I"...,n'''ion of Clr'i .. •• 0"
.. in ... foc< • .. i,hou, '"y no",,;'" con,,,', Iud 'he po"n'iaI ,,, "tr""
0' "",""'ip. In tho thl« 0, wu. «n'u,i .... 'hi. _ d.,, ·
';",il.o, to ,h. "")'> IhOl in,,8'" Qf ,t.. ,t>tlih"n.lll<rn ....
on;"" lK , .... ,«1. Thus. by Iimi'in8 ,Ir, kind, ,,{.i ..... ' or! "'.m, .Iu,
roukll>< d<fttl«l ocup"I>I<. idoLo'''! ..... ,,<>id<d .... ..., wlti!. .y"""'li<
(}r n.,,,'i ... " .... , p<noi1l«l. Ch,;',i. rur d,ff,,«1 from their P' SO"
neighbor> by O'QiJing. ttI •• iD bnd of ''''OJ!<. no. by avoiding imagn in
F ...... I. A, • 1.0". ,im •• whon • d,/kr.n' kind of rhog<r or n«<l ...... ret·
c<iv«l •• ,..,.. kind of inus< rout.! """"t' .nJ find it< plac. in Of;',i. n
1'fXI" •• n<! holy P<><1"iI.
Portraito:A Particular Kind of Problematic 1ma&'"
Po,h'po.1>< ..... ,or oh",,-dlod "., ..... '" r:r:ntJo"' .... ''''n DfOOIr po""i" ..
fr)Uoo in • f.mou. I<t'" pu,pon<d 10 I>< from f.uo<"l>i ... Df c..... .... "
F.mr<"" o.n".n.i,..', ,i.",. ,he "usu", Con'''n';' (m"ri«! '0 hi'
FA{[ TO FA(£
,;m in , .... n>!. Uciniu.). in whi<h .... m..... h .. for. poin'td
pan .. i, of Chris! .nd l'<JIroachn bet for b.. rhroIosi<aI'-
SiD« ......... writtm "*'""II oioo .. . «rUin ...... I_ I '" 0Iri0r "'"
......... «I .. to..".j ..... _ ....... olnt ... <10 .... -.0' ... ,t...
_ , .... aDd .......... "' aDd wID<!. boan "" <W"""""" of U
....... '" thor """" I>< ..... =, r.. ....... ,..,...tbot io. ..... I>< _ .. ....
"'m of . ......... ' ... &.t """iDIJ' ............. to. .. """ " .......... "
Ow ......... aod .... of .... of-' """" 1><1""'" "' .... ... .... 'ho>-.14.
.................... wrth -'...d ;" " ;m'" 0>10<>.", '" -....."" ....
....... OM -""" __ ....... .,. .,...., 1'""'0"' .....
n.._ .......... "" .... ___ ..... .. _
aDd Ih<y 1dI"" _ r.... .......... "'" ""r-_ ................
In • 1008<' .....oon of , .... 1«"" (foWld in • difl< ..... ' <locum ..... roUte_
lion). fW<biu. ad<k -"'" if)'Otl ...... n to uk of .... tht i"",II" no< ofhis
fonn u.""form«l in.o ,Iu, of God. "", tha, ol .... IIH>rtaI ft .... !><for.
i" uan,form. 'ioft. atD i. b< d"" you h.w forson ... ,ha, .,..,.,11< in
wt.O:h God loy> "","n ..... t.... th.., no likn<oo d>ooId b< .....:k <i.b.. of
who, is in haven. Of wha, is in thor earth bc" ""hl'""" _ i "l\ to . his
1<11<" , .... bishup', uio;«ti"" to 'h< .... '. '«I""" ......-gtd ou, of.
dual "''''''''''. On "'" lur.d. h< btl;.... ,ha. i, WOI to pruont
• , .... imag< of .... ir.ca,,,,,'. Divjn< Son .,.i.""". dmyi,. ..... ,.,.ail)' of
both his hu .... n md d"'1>< ... ,,, .... linc< caclt iI "" inc1lriably bound
ur "';,h , .... oth<r- ,ho, i, " ;0'Ip',..a,1o . " "po''''''' ,lit un"", nodf in •
visual f ... m. On 'M ", ... , ..... I"'i" " , .. rh. Se<ond eom",.nd""".,
"hid! he in,"l'fdtod '0 b< ' SO' .... jiktn ..... in gen.trol. Signif>Ctn11r.
bot!t .. summa .ntic"", .. . n. obj<o;tiono of t .... !IJzart'in. Konocluta.
Fin. lly, Eu!<'birn ....... u tha,. boa .... w<h imogn .imply did nnt
.... ,. n. rould no< honor , .... (1tlpr<tO', "'l"'" in ..". cooc: - H ..... you
no<r- ",.,J of ,h. kind ."h .. l"""kJf in d,ur<h '" frnm
.no.h .. P<...,n' At< not .r><h ,hinl' b>.nUhal ond " "ud<d f",",
dr"tdr.a all ",.... tit< world, and .. it no< rommon ,hat • ..m
p<><b«s ' ''' "'" porrnitt...! U) ... ..., ...... aT "'-r.,{ ;U ...... 'ion .... off ...
• _no! .t>«oiot •• !<Iling of • tim. wh<rt """ .... womon brouglt' to
bim a pia"", of twa mm in , .... 1"0.. ol philoooph .... doimi", ,hat
,hty '"<I< Paul ond Oris<. 1Icc._ tit< "";.co r>Irmdo..l him, Euoebi",
ronfion ..... it. [.....,iUl obo m.n '" m..,.. of Simon Moguo..,d MoIti
to _"', .. ,he ·wn ...... of I"in'«\ """",iu with, in b .. opinion,
,he ....... <0" her<tic.
Dnwinl! ",,,duoi,,,,, frwn 'hM <locum",,, ot.o", on .arly OIr""","
""",di,,;"n of ,i.".1 a" (.p.dfiarlly port"i" of Ch'ist) i .
b<c."" , .... t<n <on .. i ......... 1 'rout.Li,. inroMist<nci<o _ rom-
I"r<d to "' .... , ""j'mp of E<rod>i .... Th< Iu •• ""m..,. dil'«t/y "'", ...
dim ...... tioru .... """'" Nc-...... '" of ,;,un' ... ; ...... for iNI' n« of
• ( now lost) bron« ''''uc !"'"P in Canor,,, Phili!,!,i ,hot <how<d.
VI!VAl POHMITI , AND IDOlATRY
"Qonon with h" 11m, ou",mcb«l ,0 '.pplk .. i<>o 'o'h"
uprogh, ligu ... of . ".,11-<1.....,.. ""n_ 11>< I<>cab held 'his '0 1><, "'P"'.
_ u ,"'" of (hri>, h<.aIing ,I>< woman IUltt,ing from In
.. "n' reported '0 hav< .. ken pi"" ., 'hi' _y ,i,,,, f.ul<biu, n";,h",
, ..... ic< it> idtnh,y 1H)' ,,, ""t<t>e<. He <"V<1t rommtnd. ,he
G<nril .. "ito S<1 ur ,he ru,,,,, .. , .ign of rh<i, thonk{ulnoo ond ""''''
,Iu, ,he 1<>caI. ,Itt ".'n< bot< ,he I,kt-nm of )<>"'. wbkh ... ..
..... ty .-.wgnit.lblt from ",her pa,n,ed ,mos<> th .. he h.ad hiJm<1{ .... n.
'nd h" ili<> .. o,h .. pot'",i,1"""""", of Pfler . <><1 !'lui;
""'" ... "'" on- of do< G<o.a.. """of old. -. b<neti1<4 by "'"
"',..,., ........ h_ "'"" """ """" ......................... .... , ,", ""'_
"""" of ... . poRI<> "' .. ond P>:t<r,.,.j ofOlrist hitr.<dI. "" 1""' , "d "'
pouo.;"I' ....... I. tht _".,.... O<nt>tom<d. .. " to
><<t>t<!ioI '" ...... of .... r""ik>. '" kiod of """'" in<I",rimi-
- tr .. ,,,.,.. by"""' ..... _ .
Eu><biu" comll1<1l' her< h .. IlronSI'''.lJds ",i'h .h" muclt ""Ii .. « i·
,;que ,h .. brn ....... lounchd ""in" ,he C.tpO<, .. who
I"'''"i" of k< ... with sarlo<><l. , nd probAbly with pr'y<B, .nd. Ln pa,.
' icub" <»t" ,,,,,,,,led '0 Iuvt tK'<t1 ""de b)' I'on,iu. l'ili,,_ 1 ... -... fu, ·
,he, d';m; 'har ,btl< ofeb,;'" wet< '" up Oft • PO' with i ___
of Pyth.ago, ... P",o • • od A,i"o,I". whi,h.o him w" 'ypical of 'he
heb • .;", "f. "" .... in kind of If..,. ,.k< , ...... "'" , ... imoni«
'OIl<'Ite,. r«n ,houiJr wid<1y _,,,«I in chronolop:;tl .ill><. "'" might
{ondud< ,h.a, 'he mwop<><l honoriog of ",lis'''''' potl,,;,. W<re I)'P-
i' olly .. _ .. ,«I wi,h hemi,, 1 g'oup'. p.gaos. or .... U. m .. nins bu,
m"suld«l r=' "", ... n. w"" roo,inued.o prlKfi« "it .. ,1Ide Otri>·
,ian ltatkr< roruitkml to be -old idol'''0\11 ",.ro,,,.:
The ,u' hrn'i<itr of EUo<I»",', I .. , .. h .. N-rn rhon<nsed on <>tlte,
g'ound> .. -u. Orr. l.wllll '!reory '''111\<>1, ,h., i, .....,. be , rorvrr
If"m •• ,uch .. ,,' p<riod. in<orpo,.red in. o tlr< f!oriltr;. of 'he Leono·
d , ,,, in ,he miol_";gh'h .nd .. fu,«I in 'n< act< of 'h, s.v.,,,,h
trum'Di,,1 CoulXil (131 c .• . ).- A, .... h . .. noled. Eul<biu,'s 'h<doti.
".J ''t""'''ntO......, 'i) be ""'It rh ... ""i"k of 'he di'l'u,,, from ,he
... of i<onod .. m ,Iton f,om ,h. 'h«>I"IIi,,1 poI,mi<o of ,he mid·
f""'lh <m'"'1. Th< difficul,)' of ,howing ,h. d",,1 n"u," of C!trn. in
• • inf!!. pon,." im08< could "g""bly h . ... N-rn un<J""oo<! only . fl<.
'he Irrm. bad N-rn'" in ,he <on'.."..""". of,he n,,'
"'"''''1·
\\"h"h", 0' ""' .... '''<r' F.<t.«biu,', Let,« .. , ",!reo,,,. o.d.ti.ion.J
.n<J ..,m<wh .. mo,. ,<li.bly "",h.n'i< ,,,.'imony I<> ,he .... i."nC< '0
Ch,i,,;'n pot".; ,u", in ,he lot< w"rth ""n'"'y c.n I>< <i,ed ;n ,hi,
"<1I'-"l . Scv<nl f"pnen" of tlr< ,,'i'inp of Epiptwri .. of oth·
.,..;,. k"""'D fo, hi! rond<mn .. ion of, variely of hms .... ,n.d lhe
pr. <1Keof m. klng , .-.:I """"';"!! imog<sof'h" "in'" pot1icuJ.rl'i ,boo<
f..,U TO f ..,U
he ..... __ l'Iin'<ol "" WId .. "r WOW1l in.., Hi> writing> obo
......,.., indica'e tlu •• in hio .i<w ........ . ..""..,...,., ...... pratti«. and
h, "'VI hi' ... d,,, (in on. c ... tho Th<Odooi .... nd in
.""'''''' IIi>Itop Iohn of Inwo ..... ) ,,, ""P tho ptocti« outrip\. 1Im>I .
'''II 'he dd'rn.. of 'tnaS'" ,Iu, m"" .Irndy Iu .. ....", cirnrl.ltin50 ho
declord;
l'<!<....,. ... "" ..... tht F ....... ...,.. ........... icIoIooftht "' ...
_ ""'"' ...... 01 ........ . _ "' ..... and -.hlp "-.. "'"'
""""". t!Uo __ ohaI _01,... ..... _ to pIooo<o
.... _ ........ _ ... c.,.r ..... '" _ ... "'$ '0" ...... ., """'"
__ p;n-.of"""'''''' """' .... fuI, .. ........... b·
__ ............................. "" .. ....... po;a...""'O<rot<!_
'. LO ""....., ....
Epipiunius ""'" on to point out .Iu,. pOflf.i, of . n ""<Tior .ppnr_
" mndy 0 I<p<OI<n"',on or oom<Tru", thot ;. <l<ad ond ... .i ,
np«iolIy sin« th<t< .. in" 01< now d«ui<d Whm w< "n' ... <hom,
he "Y". ,he .... inu wiU II< ron'-"",,«I ,,, 'he im .. of Chru' ."d
' odomod with
\" ...... PO"";'" .. "" Iu .. <Idi""'! ,1>< ... ,.1< d,(fc=>, (tom "",...
,iY< OJ symbol;' ;r\'U5"'- in ,..., 0..;, pri""",}, Pu,p<>ft "'0 p ........ , .n
ir><!ivid ... 1 human (or di.in<) COun'man« ' o v"-n {Of ""n'<mpl.l •
• ion. nor u ..... IIy . « p ........ ,«1 frontally. _im<'< oJ full ..... ,
only .... b"" 0' i.«. C-""'""pIa' ;",,, o{ co ..... <0" Itod ' 0 "I>'
." .. "10,, . nd ,hn>.tI "'" to ..".,..,'on . .... "h i. ,II< poin,.t
.... ich til< po" .. i' '" <Sptci>lIy ",I_obi< t" m",""d,u,ondi"! ur m"·
o", .• r><! why moot .hird· .nd {o.n,h.un,. " Oui" i.n. m'r h . ..
dclil)mo,cIy...,Jokd ''''''''_ A,,_,'" ...t.Qk pti ..... , pU'P<>« .. u, ""'_
"OJ ,1Ir {a« .nd "".:ICt<'t '" "", .... ,oIity of • ouIri«' cJ.im to
"hi.o< ",m. kir><! of ·Iiken ... • .-i, h" .... Ii"i< or .. p .... i,.., •• nd
i",trNI oJ well .. ,hon pm<'n'i", .Iu, 'ubj«, .. . n
.<tor ( .. h<thrr incidrnt.1 Or """It.1) in . l.tV' «rmp<r<ition. AJ ...
...,.. _n. r:.....d on ... ilobl< ..... idrnu • • urn carly Chru,ion ....... "'"
,,, pot. ,.i" implitd no ....... ...,. to fisu ... ,m." .Iu, o<curMl
"i,hin, Iorgtt no .... ,i,.. front(.nd nude "" claim '0 pr ..... '.·.-.01
likrn .... •
The oborna of .. riy Ott"'"n pot""" ;. ............... >trikinS "I>m
,on,id" 'bot ,ho ." of FO""' i' "I< .... , _ II .... 1>1;>11«1 in ,h.
Ro",.n ...,.Id.nd woO, in f.a . .. , ..... <1, pOf>ul.l. "00"1 ,I>< Upp<l'
d ....... . ho ,im< """'" ct.ri,,"""..a.: !>orsinoi", to prod""" pia .. ;.;
.1><1 ,,"phi< .rr. M <>nnot <mIit • la<k '" ruhunol 'bm,
for ,tI<._ '" pon .. in ariyOltilt;"ni,y. An .h"""marlo-
not .......... "" 'h'" 1'I"iaol.tr l:.iDd <If .... "",,'V'orll, in otgm<n" .... . ho
populo.;.", (tho ,...hhy uppor d ..... l .. ho ,tI< .....,.,""" to rom·
mi...,.. ... ,h ,hi"p-f.a. ,,, """ .Iu. "'''''' ."",,,t.. """h.! .1.., .......
VUVAL A"T, POH"'AITI, AND IDOlAT"'(
dtrtlldtd on ,h" l.iBd "",,,,,,,,,,,,. An""",k i. mo .. '" In. ,,",Iy
.""0.1""",,,he qllOblyol'ht -k. ""''''' ito""",,, ... , ..... "'" milt!
'N' U. PO""'" """'" ron"'" mo6r._ olf
hm". for .. IyChn>tiut """'" ott.....t .. _ ........... w .. "'" ,""
oIl'iJ1o ......... , I"" ... \\'bo' ""'" ron''''' diflt" '" in
•• rly CIt" ..... ,hootJlt, ,,"» u.n. ..... iLarity '0 .... idol. 0I,1It pol,..
,hn .. l'urtl>mno« .... <p<.......w.. . .......... " pot . . .......... .s.M,.
M. n..r (.1..-1, p .. "nd<d,o Ioc """"It'n, ,I>q ..... ""'" To "'M<
,.1<n'. ,II< .upf'<"tJ kn .. of Eu>ebi". '0 Conn.n,i, Of ,II< ",U'
.>t." uf l:p;pit.oniu. motlt I poin' ..... '_lIy 0"' of 'm< WI,h ..... 1·
"' .. " "p, .. 1«I1>y ,II< philo"'phcn. Th. im, ... of ,he: •• ,n, .... ..
'fIU.toty "inwn,«l" I»' lh< .<1;,,, PU' .,r .!>cit ,"»gin" ion. Th. ,"1111"
«.ouhl "'" ""n"in ,t.. ,o\.aI ,.oI ,' y.,(,.ho CIt,i" ....... in h .. hum,.
ine" .... , •.
Th1.t .. ,he ..t>jt<, ..... Lo pori""' inug<>. .. ",tit .. ,h .. <obit<' '''''' '"
...... 1 ... ill ..... 'oI . .it ..... ",..cit "I"'" lh< d"1inl philooophini ,n·
dition .. _ • ..,. .... "'" Irwioh ",.«do .... In ",hot.- wont .. _ "''''''
.. , th..t. lOt" ..,.... ,.rI, 0 ....... 0 1<ocIwu .. 1'1.0'0 W» .. 'ian"i"n, •
1<Nt« .. Moo ... for .... a" ......... '«"' ..... ,N, .al ron ...... on.! npt.
<..Jlyd,., ... 'm ............. br...,.,Jt,d It'"ftO ,houp tIwr m.oy ......
'N' ""' .... oriptol..,..«< ro. welt ococt.. ... ). from.
1""'" 01 ...... . J'Of'taio', duo&<-< ........ ""'" ....... ..". ...
0' m"uk. do.m. '0 p ........ , _h.", t:oq.:md ... .nd
I""" 'b I""ro.oaI for 'OlIN"", ........,. _.IK ....... ol ,II< .. ,rm.oI
.nd nn," ...,tIt ,he ""riluol ond ;"fini". In CIo' ...................... <Oftfu·
skon 10uld only INd 10 '" -"1}' .• nd .... "d .. il ...... >w<i·
,,«I .. ,he .... i.h ,>Oiy,h ...... I'f ........ or ... .. h .... ...,.!. .. • lrot
''''' rn pit. ,he Ca, 1"><'
Ito", ... , ....... I ",.«1'1' (",m >«on<! .• ,..J 'hinl-a"'ul}' ""'''.5'
, .... 1. .. «><, ... ,i"n .oou' potl,,""'wn ..... in
F,"" , . ........ >«tion In .... ..rond. '" lIUrd.c .. uu'1 Ir1Ob>blr
.. n) """ II{ /DIo" .... , .. . h. ""'1 of ... ".,n .... Ithy ..... n.
L,.""k ok;, ....... '" old •• f""","",, wi"'. a..p.o ......... "", "".
w.,."J, hc:aI<d by 1oItn. Th< p.1<NI L,.._ ....... wi",,", to ....... po<
,,," uI ""'" ... . Ioa. "" ""P' ....." ... h .. i"" ... <"",mi.........d •
ro,m •• ' 0 .... It: ,lit ...... in I«,n. widoou. kttOwIod ...
L,....". h ... it", ,d '" "'" put ;, ;" .... bod"""" .. ""'"
l1'rIor>oh .... i •. ond _1ampI_.n oltor b<for< W""" 10M (\;..". •
.. «I ""'" I.y< .... woo II..! ......... II< woo ... ",<Iy ''',ical.-.. ..... htm '"
<Oft,;...,; ... ,,, I, ..... f'qIn. Lf«*><dn fftJ>Ond<d; "H • ...,... t. "'Y
(".oJ who .. , ........ "I' (""" ",,"h wit.ll ....,.wifo.lIo>, 1ft , , In 'N'
_ moy .. 11 "", oatlh/y bom<!"><ton tpk. i, is )'0'1. my (II bn. ,,1100< 1"""'
'"'' I ........... wt..>m I . toW1I and lov<.ntI _ .. n« ... h..>"inS 10«0 ....
, ,1>0<1 ",oJ< ", ......... John ,<>Ok • look .\ ,1>< imoll" ."d \I'" 'I, rtlnl
""",", hi. ""''' r",. r." .h. fi .. , tim, ( .. ""U •• ft.o'1<ml by;u bo'"'rl.
"
f AU TO f,o,.n
Nevrnhd .... 1'1< r<pU<i."cd Lycom<dcf" "".1Iy >urnm,,,!! up .1>< prob-
lem of i""If<.nd " .. ,...., ,,.; •• ,at«l .h. d • ..oc.1 onJ, in
.......ts thai Epipl>anius"",,'d t.ttf «ho, dtd.1rt<1:
"" .... l.o<d ...... 0."" --. .... p<>n<';' ... _,.. ""' ........ ..,_
bo, Ii« ." .... ;" .... 1IctII; fo, if .... poial« wbollu "'I"i<d..,'"'" bet<
....... '" pot ...... <-1m. ..... to. ......... <oIoro tho< ..... ti- .....
..... _.mol .... ohap< of.., .... , ........... ,.,..... ....... _ ....
bit .......... oIo)<Nbo.tpOdpoirll<tlo< .... L, .... w· Y .. __
_ ht p.n,.... ......... _ <hal .. I<-. ""'" polan .. all from .... lot
himad( ..... _tbt ............. _ .... """'" _,id,... .. poim
"";,hc I.itII .. God. b_I'. "'d ....... ; ......... kl, ,tip. 1biId-.
...... ,y, ,; "".,." ........... kwh' dooorlW·
..... ,j;";'y. And .11< _ hood of color> _ pOn"'1'''''''' .....
.......,., .... "Vpowg ... ' , .... ,-...... ..... __
.... _ up, _ ""'" """ _ ond ..... ,.,... .......... . . II> brid.
'""'" . lull"' ..... """"",of """_ Il00_". .... ,.,... ...... k
will p ...... i' ............ d lnu>CbrioI .... ;,m , ........ ond,m S d .....
....-.. """'-""' ...... "", ..... __ .................
...... dt .... . _ ·lnGOof_ .. -.·
111 .. bnd """",nl ... rall'" ."""""""" unmWII • ....",rd r<gardins tho
(poIythNtk) Empt1'Or Altnn<lor Se><ru. (ea. 266-2l) C.L), wbo is
.. jd ' 0 ........ up. pan"""" of. godt. h.....,.., .O>d phOOoopi><n in hi<
prM1< ch.p<!, ind udi."lI en f ...... ApoIIosIig, of Ab .. ·
hom, A1oun"" ,h. ern' .• oJ Orp ....... 'Tht =.,....,,', """he<, ' uiio
M. rnm •• , hod IUmmoN'<l the for. """"",' Km. 10
.1\< "0')' .... y ha¥t '-" _ on ....... f'('I ual Ap' n. _ . ..
...... indtd of I .......... •• claim ,ba, 'M Ca"""ra.w.. ... up i!>UFO of
philoooph.<n (lU<h .. Plow. i'ythofr>ru. and Arisootlt) ..... U .. of I<sw
and <>ffom:l th<m crow",.nd "' ..... of vn><ntion (' Iii< .... Gm·
.il .. "). Of _ 'It. 'n .om """. """"". irruvo of 0,.., .tt olSt<>ci.ott<l
wi,h ,I>< oppositlon--l><mia Of pasana.
In .. m .... IJ" ..... po"" I" ll of pon .. i" ..... at I .... twofold: th<y 10ft"<
likely '0'" up ..,d (O . .. ...t with sarUnds, scmted wim
NnOkins i.n<cnIc. illumined wi,h _;.. .... ndIoo,""" otf..r-td wonItip 0'
P' OlW like ,I>< idolo of tM poIyt ...... o-.nd ,bey WCI< fol .. """
,;.., «>pi .. of .. ",,,,mi,,, ,h.a, ,... a\>oo>Iutdy bt-,o>nd d"';, abilfly." r<"P"
r<>Cft t. "Tho: dil. .. """ bc!W<CD modd .nd lmap: .... , unbrid5<abi<, in ' M
.-....ilins W<>IkIvi<w. which ttpf<i<d 'M IllAkinl of imol<' .. 0 ... of
'M Iowrt, I .. d. of ""nici",,'ion in 'nlity or 'ru.h. Th< .ru.h wao
unde.-.. ood tu'" beyond o>n .. inmrnt In physiQI 0' antion,
. od .ho ....,..k of human h.andl ........ "i.«I .. Imit";" ., best. "Tht
U><fu ...... of.n w;u in .h. ttalmo of 'M oymboli< """ dida<tic, wbrr<
it m.R'td to .... in.dlta ... 1 """ oogroi';'" .. aim of idtu .nd
'",""""10, sto";" ond I<iooou. ... nd ,.;,..,,01 "'" ... " .. lio .. of sto";" .nd
1_ ... art unli"'ly to ",,"'. of 0"""1>, in«n><. or .......

VIIVAL ART, PORTRAITI, AND IDOLATRY
AS we the criticism of portraits as essentially fTaudulent
did not emerge first within Christian thwlogy but was a standard philo-
sophical truism that can be traced all the way back to Plato's doctrine of
mimesis, in which the earthly «COpyM is many steps removed from the
reality of the eternal This standard philosophical adage was
carried forward into the Ch ristian period in the thin king of the middle
and neo-Platonists, but most notably Plotinus (ca. C.E. ), who
was said to refuse any attempt to have his por trai t made. His rebuff
incorporated the standard Platonic objection: "Is it not enough to carry
about this image in which nature has enclosed us? I){) you really think
that I must also consent to leave, as a desirable spectacle to posterity, an
image of the image?"" His disciple and biographer, Porphyry (ca.
232- 305 C.E. ), began his Ufeof Plotir1ll5 by recounting how the foremost
portrait artist of the day, a certain Carterius, attended Plotinus's public
lectures so that he could obs<>rve the philosopher and catch his
telling personal trai ts" in order to produce from memory (and clandes-
t inely) a sketch that could then be circulated among friends for their cri -
tique and suggestions until a lifelike portrait had emerged. Such a
portrait would have been a sort of hybrid Iife
M
and "from mem-
ory"- an attempt not simply to capture an but also to
represent the character of the model."
Sin<;e the Christian chuKh emerged in this cultural milieu, we must
assume that converts not only were fami liar with t he practice of making
and using port raits but were possibly also aware of the criticism of that
practice. If so, they may have adapted this criticism to reflect their own
theological issues a<serting, with Plotinus, that portraits mistook the
external world for the true ( invisible and ideal) one or that they were
products of a materialistic and idolatrous culture that adherents to the
new faith ought to reject on general principle. If such objections were
taken from the philosophical sphere into the Christian theological one,
we may also assume that wncern with the dishonesty and even danger
of portraits wuld run deep within the intellectual tradition, affecting
the everyday practice of Christians, including the art they created to
express their faith.
Evidence for Christian adoption of Platonist objections to art may be
found within the wider Christian intellectual circles including the writ -
ings of Valentin uS (ca. 120-160 who offers a criticism very similar
to Plotinus's, but from a century earlier:
Howew, m""h • is inferior to . n aclu.al ju" so is the world wors.-
lhan the living ,eal m. Now, what is the ,"use of lhe [df""'iven= of 'he] 1'0'-
trait11t i. lhe maje"Y of the faooe Ih.l has furnished 10 Ihe painter. prct01ype
00 (hat the port .... i{ mighl bt honoml by hi. name leilh« of Ihe model Or the
paimer l. F<:>r Ihe form was n01 rel'rodu<ed with pe rfect fidelily. )'e{ the name
compktN Ihe lack within 'h" act of modeling. And aloo God', invi , ibk
[nalure) cooperale, with whal " .. been modelN IAdam] to lend it credenooe."
29
fAU TO f A(E
In ,hi. "'or' rragm ... ' of V.JmtiDW', .... d1ins, Ii r<p<>rt«I by d<m<n'
of ""<:I .. odrio, the GnM,i. Chrittion phih"op ..... r.ik> h;' <on<onn.
,boon 'he pr<>bkm of .i.1Ui """:xr,, .. ,;"n b<1we<n "',em<Jlts
.""u, ...... '" ""'''imili'wl< .. ul ,be of pro<!uci"I! 0 'm<
rompaling ,be in.ad«j....o.. of human ,n with God', "", .. ,ion
of ...... m in ,be imag< and IikDao. '"'" making 0 ",m:libk pOnr. i,· of
• =toin kind
In ronely';"n, ....... ,ho, ,be ... rty roy",h .trug:kd ,t.. p""'-
l<m of rtpmrn"'ion.'.u kind. of Ic<d .. a ""'ale lho, nu
dout.! .... It.. :uti .... nd wo"W ,t.. .... Th< M_i<
prohibition of i ..... ,"" .,.,. .... 1'" only <>JO. of thrir Tho<
....... '0 b<d",ioct from ,I>< ,u"""nding<ukur<, wi. h iu olmost inll,,_
ro' idot.'ry, 10 ovoid my .isu&1 "",'I<ntoh"". of ,t.. [)i.in< ... ,y .. ,
.nd IOcn<OY<age image< tho, ""'" ....."iollydid.o<h, is bot" in
It.. Ulerary "'.= .nd in the .. "n' ..... terial V., the pO",. i,
;""'S' did finally "P"'''' 'o ..... d ,he end of 'he fourth «n,u'r .nd
'hroughou' the fifth .nd ,;',b, rap;dly bro>ming.n dSrn,iol form of
Ooi""" ....... 1 "', " ko" <>II • pa' .. ;,11 """"i"" im>g«y, We m""
"" wt>., 'hroIo«i<al, cul'ural ..... rtiotH: f<>tccs were w.. '"u
im ..... "n' u"",il;"n in the <omf'O'ilion of Christi,n iconography,
in . W ,.,..,.."
Of ""ur.." much of 'h" ... n";,;"n ,,,,,1 pi"", in tondtm "';,h """"'"
dunges in 'hc ""urclt'.I1 .... and ouppon . ... ft.,. o.n.tantiD<'. ""' .....
oioo to Otri!t .. " i'y in ) 14 <;. L, ,he cirru""'. nc<> of the ch. rclt chans«!
obruptly from J><1><Cllt<d cui, to """"",pport«l r<lision, Tho< p","i«
of ""''''''ing bu,'" chambers .. "II bib/inl JWnOh"" oar>eo "' .. ..,.",
«pandnj to i"dude portr.i" of 'he .. i" .. , Ch""h ........ built and
decor .. 'od ...... lL .. imut.,«1 " 6", br imp<Ti.II"'''' ' ' ''' j!< _ moD<)',
bur ...., by . V>d1Ui1y rn><<p"I'<gU"""" fo, ,he ....... of ........ an for
, he cburd .. M In oddi,;"" 10 the " 01", of ChI'''' _ ,t.. _>m,n in c....
.. mo Philipp; (which cau'" hi", ,,, ""'c,ha, t.. hal abo ,.." ".,..rai ..
of the .. ints I ...... nd hul), Eu!<b;", «port> lha, Co","n,in • .:om·
mimor>«! KUlplym 61P'''' of the Good SI"p/K, d and Doni<! for pul>-
I H: fuu "" in' in Coo .. ,,,, i""" ..... .>.=nling '0 Ihe l.ib<tr """'ifiaJU. ,ha,
....,., ""'I"""'" do",t<;( .... ,Iy Uf<·.;.<d of John ,t.. 1IapIi>t ",d
Ch,i" in <os, .lilvn lu ,t.. lalcrait l!.tplislcty wildt: ,t.. la,,,,,,, \I .. ilin
..-.. , ul'plied wi,h . .. , .... of /<0 ... and hia ",'<IV< .p<»tI<o (none of
.r< k""",,, '" <Jiot
By ,II< Ioi< founh (""U'l', 1'0' ...... of","« P • • I t>q;on ' ... b<
includ«l in the ironogr .. phi< P'''II'''"'' of ,he cat.acombo """ 'PI""'rN
on OIbcr m«li>. ruch .. goId-9-.nd S'mL In ,he . nd >inh <m.
,", ..... p..,,, ... , of ,be .. in" ."d Christ .. " h"""" (0"""'''' manyn.
VIIVAL ART, PORTRAITI, AND IDOLATRY
and bishops) Were added to the frescoes of the Roman catacombs long
after burials ceased in these places, particularly at the sites where their
remains were interred. The emerging cult of the saints in the fourth and
fifth centuries brought pilgrims to these places, where they might share
a commemorative banquet to honor the holy persons near their mortal
remains. Jerome, for example, menlions regular Sunday visits 10 the cal -
acombs when he was a boy in Rome "to pay homage to the sepulchers of
the apostles and The art of the catacombs changed from
symbolic and narrative images to representations of the saints buried
therein, or portraits of the martyrs, apostles, or Mary in company with
the deceased."
Just prior to the emergence of saints' portraits, however, the first
examples of portraits of Christ appear, including one in the vault of a
burial chamber in the Catacomb of Com mod ill a, showing the head and
shoulders of Jesus featuring a fuJI dark beard and long wavy hair (fig.
11 ). Dated to the late fourth century, his head is framed by a halo and on
either side we see the letters alplla and omega. Christ's face seems to float
on a patterned background of squares and rosettes, perhaps meant to
represent a coffered ceiling. Elsewhere in this catacomb are images of
the denial of Peler and of Christ shown between two martyrs (or
31
Fig. II. Bust of am".
C".,-omb of Coo, . , oi ....
I\omo. mid- to tote 'Ith ""'.
c!. (PI>oto; ItoIyIHeId Coile<-
lion, llr>dg=>on -"rt I..mry).
,-


-
32
r .. 12 M=1Ic f\or!r.n 0(
CIwist from
H;"too St toto'"" o.:.-.et late
W1 <en.C!.. London.
Museo..o"n (f>t>o\o;Au\ho<)'
FACE TO FACE
between Peter and Paul }. Anot her such image,
also dated to the latt' fourth century, was
found a\ Ostia Antka, made of opus sectiJe
(colored marble). Like the Commodilla
image, Christ's head, here framed by a
simple nimbus, also has a dark beard
(but in this image with a pronounced
fork) and long dark curly hair. The
face of Christ alone, without any
background or context, had become a
subj«t of art and perhaps an object
of devotion."
A third famous late fourth-century
portrait of /esuscomes not from Rome at
all but from a mosaic pavem{'nt in the
Roman villa (or perhaps small house church)
discovered in the 19605 at Hinton St. Mary in
Dorset, England, and now in the British Museum
(fig. 12). A medallion in the center of this large mosaic
shows Je,us with quite a different facialtyp.: than that of the Commod-
ilia or Ostia This portrait of Jesus. which may have been
originally in the domed ceiling, shows him beardless and wearing a
rather mild His hair is light in color and pullo.><! back from his
face. Instead of a nimbus, he has only a chi-rho monogram behind his
head; on either side are pomegranates, the symbolism of which is some-
what unclear-perhaps of his passion or of abundance in the resurrec-
tion. At the corners of the mosaic are personifications of the four
Sfasons-a popular secular theme in Roman art, especially pavement
mosaics. to thi s composition is another, smaller mosaic por-
traying the mythological figure Bellerophon slaying the Chi mera (or per-
haps a Christianized version-Christ slaying the Chimera}."
A statuelle, now assumed to be a portrait of Christ and hold-
ing a scroll, was discovered in Asia Minor and is now housed in Rome's
Museo Nazionale (fig. 13). work generally has been dated to the late
fourth century, although both its date and its identification as an image
of Christ have been questioned." The beardless, youthful, and almost
feminine appearance of the figure has recently been discussed in some
detail and certainly offers contrast with the images from CommodiUa
and Ost ia in particular." The figure in this case bears more resemblance
to the figure of Christ on mid-fourth century sarcophagi, including the
tomb oflunius Bassus, now in the Vatican (fig. 14). Although the origi-
nal context of this statuette is unknown, it appears to have been
designed to be an independent work of art, not a part of a group or
larger composition.
VIIVAL ART, PORTRAITI, AND IDOLATRY
Concurrent with the development of visual art for the church, along
with t'Xplanations of its potential value, was a fading concern about idol -
atry in the late third and early fourth centuries. This may have been
becauS<.' the surrounding culture was gradually becoming Christian (and
thus less threatening), or because
the traditional gods were steadily
disappearing from the sc .. ne, or
perhaps, even more significant,
because t he focus of theological
condemnation moved from the
of idolatry to the (Contr(>-
versies about the person and
namrds) of the savior. Th ..
demons that entrapped the people
into worshiping t he vain and
empty creations of human hands
now had another way to drag the
unwary into perdition, through
false teachings rather than through
the worship of false gods or the
veneration of idols. Pagan gods
were no longer the compet ition
and threat that they were in the first
centuries, and the secular world
was somet hing to be accommo-
dated rather than avoided . Unt il
the beginning of the eighlh century
and the outbreak of iconoclasm,
portrails of Ihe sainls, Mary, and
even were hardly a matter
for concern.
Instead, images of saints as well
as scenes taken from the Bible
became more and more popular
for church decoration. Intended 10
inspire awe as well as to teach, th ..
artwork in church was as much a
mode of theology as th .. writing of
treatises or delivering of homi lies,
and il was as effectiv .. a means of
nurturing devotion or pious emo-
tion as any of the rhetorical arts.
However, even though the material
evidence certainly demonstrates
33
Fe. I J. StMett<: <If oe.>ted
ctn<t '"' ' ood.,.,-; oatiy ' 0 <rid_
4th cen. c-'< M.J>eO NiIl>Of\O/e
(P>I>=> Mo"'rY<> ""
""""" (Photo;
34
r" 14. San::op/1'1!U' of;....,.

P<t ..... s.sac...
FACE TO FACE
that portraiu of the saints, Io.lary, Or Christ had arrived, at leas! one
provincial but famous bishop at th ... turn of Ihe fifth century was wor-
r ied 300ul how the uistence and popularity of su.h images still might
lead his congregation astray. Noting that some of the better educated
pagans in his ci ty had turned the tables and actually were chiding Chris-
tians for being "ador .. rs of columns, and sometimes .. ven of
Augustine grants that such things are taking place ("would to God that
we didn't have them") and notes that the practice is defended by what
will become the standard Christian 3gum ... n!: they say, 'don't
adore images, but what is signified by the Augustine obj&ts 10
such an argument by pointing out that it would be wiser to pray directly
to the saint rather than to the image of that saint, an argument that
might seem eminently sensible if posed to a congregation that was unat -
tached to such visual and material aids to prayer. Whether his congrega-
tion was persuaded or not (we hal'e no surviving icons from Hi ppo) is
ultimately less interesting. however, than the fact that, according to
Augustine. Christians are being accused of the very acts their authorities
had formerly ridiculed in others.
1WO
Image and Portrait in Roman Culture and Religion
P t.OTI N v 5 objected 10 having his portrait painted because he dis-
tinguished between an individual's character and mere external appear-
ance. 'Ine outward form and, even more, the representation oftha! form
made by an artist using pigments on wood was, to his mind, an illusion.
A paillled portrait had no life, depth, or meaning beyond recording the
transitory and superfidal aspoxt of the model, and, if it pretended to
show any more than that, it was a fraud. P]otinus, like Plato, not only
regarded artistic images as inferior wpies bUI also as deceptive snares
that would lure the eye and turn the mind away from contemplation of
r .. alily. Plotinus was wary of the material world and of seductive physi-
cal delights that entrapped the soul in base pursuits and pleasures, keep-
ing it from ascending to more lofty truth.
Whether or not this philosophical critique was heeded, the ancient
monuments that till today's museums show that the production of por-
trait images was widespread in the ancient world and no less in the
Roman Empire in late Antiquity. The disapproval of intellectuals does
not appear to have affected the PQl'ulation's desire for artistic represen-
tations of family members, great heroes, rulers, statesmen, and the gods.
However, the question of what consti tuted a worthy PQrtrait-or like-
ness-is complex. Although the ancient Egyptians may have been the
tirst to have fashioned PQrtrait-like art works, art historians (l ike many
ancient philosophers) generally cred it Greek sculptors with the tirst rec-
ognizable artistic likene:SSl:s, a development that characterized the tran_
.ition from the archaic to the classical period, reflecting an increased
emphasis on individuality and naturalism over standardized types or
forms. From that time on, classical portrait images ranged back and
forth on a spectrum between realistic and idealized representation- the
matter of what constituted a PQrtrai t dependent on how the concept
itself was understood.
35
FA{[ TO FA([
"". <U/Tlpk. Pliny ,h. F:Jd,:, ("" H .. c. .. ) n .. .Iy on ""tit<
voI" m. of hi, .'1.,"",( H;',,,,,. '0 ,I>< pain'ins 0( """ ... ito. 11= I><
lamrnto "'" lo<k '" tut< """i .... 'ed by ,I>< ",,'lIIobk r.... ... tI ... ymboIo
""""'8 ,ho: """"rdly mobtl< .... iddle do .... of hi> 'imo. In hi> .;.... ••
po ..... i,.. mooI ""po"'. ' funru..n -. ' 0 fool« m<m<>ry .n.:! 1ftP"<'
1'0. f,mily.nd "oJit"",- Plinya.mploi"" Iho<kfi.ill3 ,ho .. e-
1<Ti>,ioc of. po .... ;, ( it< physi<oIliUnda rnoddl_ ksa val....:!
,hon ,ho: «><tlin .... '" "'" obi«'. ,ho quo.li,y of iI.",. in , coll«''''''
dtft'lled mo .. ""porto"' ..... ,h<ir q ... li,y. and ,I>< quali'y wed on ,I><
of ,ho W<>fkm.n$hip. Sou..nnsl'nJ m ..... 1;I><.n old·
f..tUoncd m<rnl><t ()( ,h. okItr !""<t"jo. t..mtniill3 ,he cr ... ..tuo 0{
,ho )'!>Unge1, ho .;.., . ... ,ho d<t<h.,""ion of " odil"", .nd ... ,.... tht kJOt
o£ ... p«t ro. tilnC'hooo<Oil <UllOnu.. .nd II>< dcpIo • .bIc t..bit of pop.
pi,,!' ..... 1'<'" .. ,' htad "pon ,n cdd<T..,..., iu" '" .... """"'I' 01 ii ......
Filally .... _,roJ, ,h., .... """ ,Itt i .... ;.;,( .... 1". mind annot '" .;w.lly
ponrayt'd. .. k..c , deem, liknno >hould bt ....
n.. poiDt .... ., , ......... ....,.,... ........ ..........,. "".
f«I _ 01",.....,..., .... "'to--rir ......... -... _ ... _ ... up
.. """"' .... .. _. _....,.. _« .. ,_ ......... ""
Iifw<o; ....... ",""""'" 6x ........ __ -..-
", .. .,. ........... loom <UHftK: ... ...u......»r • dioM 01"
.... <riaI ._...! .. . ...-"$"i, ..... hh-o .... 01"_ ....... . <If ...... ;. ....
...... 01"111 ...... """"" _ .... wallo of ...... willi old
................................ __ .01 ... _ ............... ,,, .......
;-'a' " .... , ""......" """"" (m ;'1b<1"ic<. ... eon..q.o,n..,.. to' .,..
1W"'._ .......... I«-r .............. _ ..... ""'''1'' ...... <tom
.......,. 0« _'- ••• Tho, io • ..ru,- to:- ....... t<'. 1"01 ..... ,,. 10.0.
_ro,od .............. """'....- ....... .,..,..... '" 1"""""1."", h ·
......... abo ,."" ....... "" hoIIo <if .... _ • _ H ' .... _ .
" ........... oI.,.:a .. ,I.,.d","'""*,, .. ... .... __ ... ......
... _ "'" boot4. ., """"" " ....... ., '" <miod in """ 7 ";M
... """' .. ;" .... """- ""' ....... __ •• I PI-" ..... ""
.. , .. _oyol .... _thot ...... __ .... ro-<tL·
How<"" . 'h< of ..... ' <»fU';'U,td. 'rut .. on .
rhrsiaIlikotd/.. ..... det...,.lok. DtsP"o Pliny', ...... ion ,ho, "mi"",·
could "'" to< po .. royod. h< .00 .... , the dtmmto ,ho, mad<
an <" .. n.1 po""i' 'rue 01 f. I« ...... dffl"" ,h.n m .... ou'wan:!
.Pl"' ...... « · 'Th< "P"""""' ""'" """"'8' of "" ,", .. I. '" .. bot 'ht
<hor"" .... of ,I>< modd ..... nK ..... 1. Fliny ,riti<i=l tll. c ... tom ol
JPlo<ine po .... bult. o£ gon' potU ... d .u,tIn .. ;n wht .. thti,
WOfIu ...... lq>t •• od It< romm<nt<d ,ho. many of ...... i_ ......,
.....t>oIIy inv<n,ed. <in<-< no on< b.t'« ..... , « .... in "'dividuoJ. \ooI;od lib:
(ouch .. Ho"",' or Soc .. , .. ). Fot Pliny. tho e .... 'on of to .. < ponr.ib
-.. ",,'WIlly "'" biognoph<n .. ho ..coun'''' the q.w;,;., ol ... ; .... ivid·
IMAC( fOHMIT IN (V,TVM ... ND
u,l ,h""""" 01 ... ·'n (I,k, hino"U) .. ho and
«I i,«I 'h, """bot: OIbcn---<".,i"l! hoo>< 'IK thougt", .nd
.. ,,'inti' of S"OI 'hin ........ ,h" thon n><"'1y show<>.in& ,I><;, i, .... gi.
nory and <pl><m<nI .. t<riol liMn....,..'
Ely Pliny'. «i,,,i • • Plu"",h (01. SO-IW C. L). ,II< w,i", of biogro.
ph ... , .... . 'm< P<",rajl p.;n .... .... Piu!>n:h hin"'!l g<nui""
boogr. ph", "' .... k>s .""'" 'h, gr<" d«<b of ,1><;, ,ubj<ru ,h.n th<r do
.bou, ,II< "",Iro' of ,I><i, <honc", 01 !h< "at. of tlKir ",ul. liow<v<,.
h. '00 1><1;"«1 ,h.i, , vi>uoI .ni" ,hoilld I>< 1m """""'n<oJ "';,h
<>1<mal 'p!",,,n« and mOl< with Ih, in .. ngibl< "poe" of
Ih. ptr>ouoli'y. ptrhap$ ,hrough ,I>< .. p,.,.;"n of tho t"" . nd '''' <}'<O.
In hi' lif.', "",l. wri'ing ,I>< l;.es of f.mou, mrn. Plu,uch
. .... ". ,n" .n individ ... r, gl<" <J<,ed. 01 oct .... far I"" ... lin8 ,If
<h.i .. "" ,h.io tIK .ubi'" wor> ,h.i,. pt""o·. ">tu", ..-..y b< ddin.at<oJ,
... ;, ;, ... "'-';" .... ' I .......... ; ... bo, l""",.,.j '" "" _ iIJ.M""""
d«d! """ i. "",.,...,.. of"""'",.-'.or. ,,",.
• "", ... of.)<or ofI<" ....... .,.....- ...n" .... 01 m.rKttr tho, bo, ·
, .. , ,..""....;, 1>11. 0' ,h ..... .,n' ......... , .. '" ""'" of , it"'"
.. painvn", .... !;k'w"";. ...... ,.,.",i" _ .... r.or
.00 .......... ' • .., of , ... .,...."........ .... o;b.,...., '-;"ott: bo, .....
... y I .... *""""' of ... """, ".. .. of ... '-'y . ., 1 ..... '" ...... , ,,j 10
""- ..,'!df f(O 10. ... of ............ mm, ond by- ....... 01 ...... to po<--
...-, ... 101< 01 ,"". l<I';,. ., "'""" ... of ""i, """ (t>,,, .... :
Plu"rch'. pro"'" only higJilighl> on< of '''' .... ,n function. of vim'"
<ommemowi,'r I">nr. its. ho .... "',. Vi .... ) im'8 ... 1i ... ,h<to,ic.1 Ot
do<um.nla'Y ponl,i,., """ inlrnd<oJ to hODOI ,n individuol b<ca ....
of hi. 01 bOT d«d. 01 o<,ion'. Al,houslr countl .... I">",. i" of now
rwnrt... indivi<!uoI, 1m .. born found wt.o.. an-
"'" k"",,", IICV<1'th.l<». h.vi"l! Oa:n ,h. ,ubi<" ot a I">",.i' ,ugo'"
o<hi......-.eo ..... n p<J1>afI$ f ..... , A, In .. i, wa,<kd off oblivion and fo. .
",me poothumQu, rrip<C' . S"."lIy. 1""""" Ih .. m«,,<01
"..,mineo' . nd pob!i< Ioa,ion< .. "hin th< <i'y,or Ii"" W<f. ot ,n. hish·
", qu,li'y work. oignaled '''' p<>Ii'iea! ""u" ..... llh •• """'- Ot e,.."
ot th< 'hm .. ...u .. now,
I""'alindon ...., .. us R"alism In Roman Portn.it" ,..,
"'hen Pliny '<mOn.",,<d ' ''''u,!h< 10>' ",I"" of <adi .. g<n''''ioru,
h< ""y h ... h'd in mind'''' I,frl,!u: Ito",," P""";" ",.de f,om living
mod<l. (n<i,h<r po<Ihumou> imag« nol death m .. b ) ,ha, w.", pop.
ular du,ing Ih. l\<-p-ublian era. parhcul .. lr .round '''' mid_fi'" , .. _
'UIY • . c...' Art hi>toria ... ha .. found , bal ,hi, p<riod provided ""'" of
'''' "'" "''''1'1 .. of"".Ii<1ic" I">rt .. ""'''1' of thom .:opKd in .. ,Iy
38
r" 15. Bust of L.uOu$ Ctcli",
-.
l it , ..... C,L""" fI:" ope;;"

Upodimoote, NopIos (P\>ru>:
AIiNrililrt Rooource, NY).
r .. I6.Augustu, from
Primoporta. 1+-29 CL.V-.n
"'""" """ "'"'"

FACE TO FACE
imperial limes. Although this era was known for its emphasis on real -
ism, there was also a continued tradition of idealized heroic represen-
tations based on earl ier Hellenistk models. Scholars have noled that
late Republican-era realistic portraits focused more on the expression
of individual persona lily through certain unique facial features , depict -
ing their subjects Uwarts and aiL" Possibly bas...:! on the practice of mak-
ing death masks for funerary purposes (se .. discussion below), this shift
also seemed to capture the Republican values of practicalily, frankness,
and unsentimentality. One particularly vivid example of this. now in
the National Museum of Naples but originally from Pompeii, is the
bust of the August an-era banker and businessman Lu<;ius Cedl iu.
locundus (fig. \5).' lbe literalism of this portrayal, wi th its wart and
protruding ears, suggests that the aim was to create a particularly
detailed and recognizable (and not noticeably beautified) likeness of its
model.
During the early imperial era, the classical heroic or idealized por-
trayal became more popular, although somewhat infl uenced by the ear-
lier tendency toward realism.' The tendency to vacillate between the
classicist or idealizing mode and the realistic one sometimes produced
odd combinations of realistically
executed heads on heroically posed
bodies (see fig. 18). Good enm-
pIes of idealized portraits are the
representations of Augustus, who
is usually shown as a youthful and
heroic figure (fig. 16). The next
generations of the Julio-Claudian
family generally kept up the ideal -
izing tradition, especially 111
posthumous portrait s of the dei-
fied ruler, al t hough occasional
reappearances of older Roman
realism sometimes reappear in cer-
tain instances, such as the almost
comical portrait of Claudius in the
guise of Jupiter, now in the Vatican
Museum (fig. 17). At the end of the
first century, the portraits of Ves-
pasian (69- 79 are also quite
realistic, perhaps meant to associ-
ate this middle-class emperor with
old Republican values. But even
Vespasian could be represented as
having a realistic visage on an ide-
alized body (fig. (8). Although we
IMAGE AND PORTRAIT IN ROMAN <VLTVRE AND RELIGION
cannot make dear judgments about uact likeness, the works suggest an
apparent effort on the part of artisans to achieve realism while still flat-
tering their subjects and showing them at their best. The women of the
Flavian court, for example, affected elaborate hairstyles on their official
portraits and sometimes had themselves appear with the figure and pos-
ture of Venus, At the same time, women of this and the next dyna5ty
were also shown as aging, with wrinkled foreheads, bags under their
eyes, and sagging cheeks (fig. 19).'
Ar t historiam note a pronounced return to ideal types during the
era of Emperor Hadrian, when urtain facial features clearly were
intended to suggest aspects of the mode!", character or virtues.
Hadrian, however, was the first emperor to show himself with a full
beard, in the style of the Greek philosophers, a trend that caught on for
male portraiture, since it seemed to emphasize the gravitas of the
model. Hadrian's lover Antinous, on the other hand, was shown in the
form of a young Greek god, with a beardless face, curling hair, and a
sensuous, even feminine body type, The bearded emperor t ypes (with
luxuriant and curly hair ) were still in vogue toward the end of the sec-
ond century, especially for the portraits of Antoninus Pius and his suc-
cessors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, who wished to be regarded
as intellectual rulers (fig. 20). Marcus Aurelius's portraits are especially
39
Fig. 17 a..rl", )J,-..
<0. 50 Cl .. Vatican Mu>eu:n.
I\omo (f'Wo; ","thoc)
Fig. 18 \lespa>ian. rrod
111. cen G. from tho SIlnne
clthe ""'S",toIes,
Castelo (!; s... (Photo
-,
Fig. 19 (beb.wP'C<tr.>/t of .
"""""" Impenol IWmon
Penod, T,,,!,,-,,:
100-125 c.r. Pla.:e 0( """",
fa.:tu"" Gr=<: "Ny).
r-Meum 0( fine 8o<too
(P\>ctogr,,*, ClOO4 MJ",um

40
'OS 10. Bust of AnIInorIinu<
PM, GO. 138--40 CEo. t1u>oo
PaIot.OO, Rome (POOle;



Museum. P ...... (Photo:

r" 22. Bust of Ca....:ola,
c.o. 214 c.E.Museo ...
Rcmr>o (Palau<> MM", o¢ ..
Rome (!'hot'"

FACE TO FACE
interest ing. however, they show a progression from attractive
youth (beardless), through vigorous middle age (bearded), and finally
to a wise and ,omewhat world-weary old man . The same pa!lern
describes the portraits of his wife, Faustina, who also moved from
youthful beauty 10 middle-aged matron and finally showed the dignity
and wisdom of age.'
At the b.>ginning of the third century, the St>1'eran .. mperors were like-
wise portrayed with long curly hair and forked beards (fig. 21). CaracaUa
however, favored a more clipped beard and hairstyle (fi g. 22).' Verisimili-
tude came back into style beginning in the nos for portraits of the sol-
dier·emperors Thra:o; and Balbinus.ln order to express the
personality of the model and to achieve a realistic Ekeness, artists
employed rough and even impressionistic modeling. The results pro-
duced an appearance of severity and implied strength of character. H. P.
L'Orange has analrt.ed this shift in style as the attain ment
cal" imagery. Musing on one example of this type, the bust of Emperor
Philip the Arab (244--249 C.F. . j, L'Orange writes:
With. great simplifying 10IKh the anisl has managed to concentrate ph)"·
iognom;'; life in one characteri!t;'; ' '''''''P. 'Ihe central motif is the th""'lening
lo"'<ring of Ihe brow .. corresponding to coMulsion, of the forehead mu!.des
and resl'onding to nerma. contraction. oflhe m",de> of the mouth. The
picture "h;"",s .n . 1 ,,"",st utIC.n ny intrn'ity. Behind the nerv·
ou, quivering featnr.,. the eXl'r.,.,ion itself .... ms to change and move. nosh·
ing like a glimml."ring name "''CT Ihe
The "man of action" type disappeared again as portraits of Gallien us
(253--268) returned to t he idealized types. Shown wi t h a Short beard,
this ruler's smoothly modeled and almost delicately rendered portraits
present him as a sensitive person, and his upturned give him the
look of spiritual or inteUe<:tual aspirations, even though he was an active
soldier-emperor in the style of his father, Valerian. Possibly intended to
remind the viewer of youthful depictions of Augustus, Gallienus's image
also bears some resemblance to a contemporary portrait found in Ostia
and identified by some art historians as a portrai t (finally achieved) of
the ph ilosopher Plotinus. "
The intell&tual image was dislodged again, however, at the end of the
third century, as the Tetrarchs (Diodetian, /I.1a:o;imian, Constantius, and
Ga1erius) wished to have themselves portrayed as strong and de<:isive
types, like the soldier-emperors of t he mid-third century. The style was
more abstract than realistic, however, and appean to have been
less important than a kind of conventional frontality and symmetry. In
place of smooth modeling, sharp lines and geometric shapes predomi-
nate. Facial features are stylized, with the wide-open and staring eyes
that make these subj&ts look, in Diana Kleiner's phrase, like " bearded
IMAGE AND PORTRAIT I N ROMAN <VLTVRE AND RELIGION
(fi g. 23). "
However, they also lend
the portraits a kind of
hieratic quality that fore-
shadows the portrai ts of
the earl y Byzantine
period, especially their
emphasis on the eyes as
the most striking facial
feature (fi g. 24). "
These styli led or
abstract types were
adapted onet' again with
the portrai ts of Const an-
tine. Earlier images of
Constantine followed
those of the tetrarchs,
showing him with a short
bea rd and sold ier haircut.
A fter the bailie of the
Milvian Bridge, however,
Constantine's port raiture
underwent a dramati c
reinvention. He began to
be shown as beardless
and youthful, with longer
hair in curls over his
forehead, somewhat like the portrai ts of t he first August us, or possi -
bly Trajan. " One of the best -known portraits of Constantine, the
head from the colossal statue from the Basilica Nova (now in the
Museo del Palazzo dei Conservatori; fig. 25). shows some si milar ities
to the ea rlier tetrarch portraits, with its wide-staring eyes, geometric
shapes, and sharp angles. But it also shows the emperor as beardless,
looking slightly npward-giving him a kind of spiritualized appear -
ance possibly intended to associate him with his patron gods (Sol
and/or the Chr ist ian God). Port raits of the S{)ns of Constantine are
often difficult to distinguish from those of Constantine himself, as
once more the portrait type became convent ionalized, now having a
more idealized appearance and what Kleiner calls "t he bland dassi-
dsm of Augustan times which also subsumed
All these changes in the way that imperial portrai ts were produced
show the difficulty in trying to establish the parameters of a "likeness."
Roman portraits, especially portraits of rulers, were carefully con·
structed images, revealing more than the mere physkal appearance of
the model. Character and particular virt ues were prnjected through
Fig. 21 Potp/»<"y

<0. 300 c..o.. ongj r..tr from
Conrt..rt.nopIe, now ..,
St I"W'<".
(Pt>ot<x
Fig. TheodoW. ,
41
<0. 380-90 c .... u.".,.,.,
Mvoeum. Pn (PnoIo:A..ttt>o<).
Fig. 2\. Const.wttine t, from
the Ba.ia NcMo. a. 3 t 30.
Mu=:o del P.>azro de<
eo-r.aton.
(Pt>oto: "'-'tI><>-").
fA{[ TO FA«(
'*'i«h, 000, po"";( ..... "f(en in.<nded to impo" 0 poi;,;uI
", .... 8<_ An <mp<ml' '" "' ...... nobI. who .... Itd I<> tmp"" .... t.;. mil·
;lOry m;5h( . nd...-_ fo, ... mplt ( •• mon of octMon"). might I>t
oMwn • i.>nd <If rua<d mo.:n. $ho".(HJpp«i lui,·
.. yI •• nd trimmod !>to"" "IWI ..... ;-, knitttd brow,'OO p<1!d .. t i"ll
If, on ,he "' ...... hood. tht " .", .. WOO i.'<tId«! to '"811"'" an indi·
v1du.ol'. P;<'-f''' ....... i.on 'v ,I>< plo. f<>,uon«>uld lot Mlnli.o<d . nd , n
",hc.worIdIy 5'''' odIi<v«l by ohowi"ll <ya upraio<d .00 th< .. pru-
lion of the (0<. mort .. nlili ... ,h. n <kttl1Oin«i. An individ ... 1 ",1>0
"","ed.o bt p«e<ivtd ., on ;",dk< .... 1 might bt rq>,Cktlt«i in ' he
g"il< of. philo",pl><' ",ith un.rimm«i bnrd .nd.n intf'<l$.-i ..
sou. - Y<t, wIu", ... th< , ...... g< _' by th< imagt. oornt <ltv<'< of ftC·
<>p>iub;!i.y _ auc1al. or , he p'If".i, _uld ..... to fun<1ion at th<
""'" '-ic Inrl .... "'" ";U J«, .. m. COI>«m. ond 1"'l<Iru Of<
01 .. "' ...... n' to ,I>< "",,,ruction of....,. Qlluwn port .. i .. of Chri"
..,.J ' .....
Thi"<f><d ol f«I>8"iubil;,y, "yli<ed ,h. po"n;'." 'he
"'I'*'rty.nd ,I>< .-<I .. ;"-"m A fll« mar 01'1"01 in ,II ... dif·
r.-, ......oon... <>,11 quit< d ... inn &.,m Of>< 0"",1><,. )'<I .u til .... m.y
Innl <n<><>gh <=>gniuble " .. ract¢rillk> in comnwn '0 bt odnowl·
«lg<d .. Iikn<w:oolon idrnhliablt indi.id ... L bm if. "",,,'ii, .. id<-
oIiud. " ........... y "ill """'S";'" ,I>< m<>dd, if <>nlr b«.>Uk of omain
."riOO .... or kI'u .... Th< i .... ,WOr\J. 10 100« ..
,I>< viewe, u..,..., who ito modd .. ODd 50 Ions .. it wp<>. ";Morus, or
tv<n .n ............ , ... '"1'""''''" ol ,.,., mo<l<1 '0 ,I>< in, .... •
';on,ol ,lit ,!;m,. ,honk< (0 ,II< obilitr of the .n ...... In 10"'" a..., ,II<
1">"''';' ...,' .... 0 well 'hOI ''''' fDOd<l mu .. ,hen 'ry torontorm to h .. or
btt PO"";'_ lbi>" ";,h 'l'i"',itioru or .. in" in 1."",Ot, .......
, .. di,;on. who .f< "'fF17 b«.>Uk "><,. ·Iook lik" ,hti, ' n'
di'.:n,.1 Th .. ,II< q .... ,;g., of mol;,.", .00 vcrioimilitutk of.
JIO<, .. it h«om. complint«lby ,I>< .nd di...,minotwn ol
the i""'S< , .. elf
The Savior-Type ""d the Philosopher
A· t"O MH' ,_< _ ....,
re&c,",," On the .... d "thcr ..... " the d<td. <>f ill ....
tnow pttton.o !!trough h" ",ririn, of 'hoi, · Ii ... • """',. ., ' .... lqin·
"'''8 of hi> """v.p"" of Ak .. odcr. Th .. co",<'" 0«"" p",,",uLuty apt.
fo, Aknnd<, _ ,t.. proto,ypiaI ...... ,·"' ..... boIh i" t.;. kt<OO.o4
in h .. ", ... 1 po",of"IL Hi> po",.i". _U· known <Vm '0 I:qinn;"8
.!Iutkn!$ of", hiotooy ........ him ... (I ... ;cd ly bnutilul ond hCToic
you'h. hi, fo« poO>ioftal<ly • .".... .... on<! h" <ya '",n'" up...-",! '"
h<o ...... if.rn.in@ t!iri,.. in'!'i,otion. tl E¥tntllOOy. KIm< ,iff>< .Iin t.;.
<It.th, po""i"ol Mtund<r """' fro", ,II< h ... """,-.. d,.bn& '0 o<'u.
IMAGE AND PORTRAIT I N ROMAN <VLTVRE AND RELIGION
ally heaven-bound or apotheosized,as he was transformed into a special
kind of transitional deity, a god-man-hero savior figure along the lines
of Dionysus, Orpheus, or Hercules."
As art historians have noted, the pallern of Alexander's elevation was
borrowed for subsequent rulers, in particular certain Roman emperors
who, like the heroes of mythology, were seen as acting with divine guid-
ance in life and undergoing apotheosis or deification after death (Julius
Caesar or Domitian, forexample}.And as these mortals were elevated to
the level of the semidivine Or divine, they acquired a particular type of
portrait image that transfigured even the plainest visage into one of
stri king beauty. The coin portraits of Julius Caesar before and after his
death are a case in point. While the realism of the Republican style
guided his portraits in ljfe, after death he was granted a youthful beard-
less face and an abundance of long, curling hair, often held back with a
fillet or a diadem surmounted by a comet-the sign of his elevation to
the rank of a god." This affiliation with a Hellenistic prototype (Alexan-
der) alS{) drew upon an actual divine image, the portrayal of Apollo
or the sun god, Sol, who served as a model for many of the coin por-
traits of la ter emperors, including
Constantine I (see fig. 41, p. 6t\).
The heavenward turn of the eyes
suggested both pious affiliation
with the upper world and ITan-
s<:endcnce of mundane or eart hly
matters.
As discussed above, emperors
such as Anti noninus Pius and
Marcus Aurelius, however,
dropped Apollo in favor of a dif-
ferent model - the facial features
of Jupiter or Serapis with full beard
and abundant hair (fig. 26}."
According to scholars, these
emperors chose to project the
maturity of age and to appear
mOre majestic and wise than beau-
tiful and heroic. In his book The
Mask of Socrnles, Paul Zanker
wri tes that the male population of
the Empire adopted a new style
during the second century (a
sical and that it was
Hadrian's appearance with a beard
that marked the turning point."
Imperial portraits that reflect this

-
4 3

2nd """ C.l. Bn"'"

(Phot"Autho<).
44
Fig 27. RMro Head s.rcop'la-
\no 3rd c .... , CL I'1u>eo
Pio Crist;."", VatjCi!rI City
(Photo; ""-'tho<).
Fune rary Portraits
FACE TO FACE
type include the busts of Lucius Vern. and Septimius Severns (compare
fig. 21). " Facial features associated with the gods (especially
Jupiter) emphasize the d'3raCleristics these emperors valued-sagadty,
gravitas, and ruling authority.
In Zan ker's view, tit is shift of portrait Iype WaS driven by a «profound
transformation
H
of Roman society and signal .. d an emerging of
Jearning.H Prior 10 this time Roman men had been depicted as clean-
shaven. This transition to the bearded type reflected an interest in being
portrayed as intellectuals. even in the guise of philosophers or poets,
with longer beards and hair. They carried scrolls in their hands or had
them in baskets at their feet. One p<Jpular figure in Roman art was a
readn shown ;n profile, holding a partially unrolled scroll and wearing
the traditional philosopher's garb of the pallillm (an outer mantle
wrapped like the larger and more formal toga, and mu<;h like
the Greek himMiOlI), often without the undertunic, thus leaving a par-
tially bare chest (fig. 27). Such 3 physical presentation suggested indif-
ference to worldly beauty and a preference to cultivate the mind and to
develop a disciplined or spiritual outlook on li fe. " Many such (XIrtraits,
in half or three-quarter profile, appear on and third_
century sarcophagi, all with the apparent aim of (XIrtraying the deceased
as a learned and reflective man.
As we have seen, portraits of living people, from Roman emperors to
more ordinary persons, usually had a practical as well as an aesthetic
function. They honored, enhanced, and even shaped the character and
reputations of their while preserving evidence of their existence.
The funerary portrait, by contrast, was a sp&ial kind of image, usually
produced after death but also occasionally made while the subject was
still alive, meant only as a re<:ord of the deceased's physical appearance
for posterity. These funerar y (XIrtraits had a particular ceremonial func-
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FAtE TO FA {E
cupboof'i<, Iil.< ,h,;ne>. u • ...tly n ... ,t..: "",,,. 1 .. rium. ond "<IleT.t«i
"" oll rntmbm oJ tilt howthold. ;""1"";,,, dimll ond lhey ......
",,,;«1 "u' or .. ',n ,,,,.n >. ( p<.hapo by oc'''''' hi.ed for TIIi,
function ) du,ine Ih. funmol of ",<=<:dins m<ruMn of Ih.
elm. Unfurl.n.,dy, gj ... ,t..: fragility of ,h. wu, 00 oumpla of ""'"
fun .... .,. n\Uk> haw 'U,,';vN. AldwotoloJi>o. dilCOY<1'<d. nomb<r of
' .... ·col .. hud, in IOUth ond <<ntfilitaly. wbich m.y Iu .. Krvod •
• imiL" funnwy POfJXl"'. Mud> fin ..... mpl .. 0( po"";1 bu.lS Ita ..
• 100 b«n found. for ... mpl. in tilt wlumb.rium of \'w.. Cod;.i ;n
Rom., in ..,n,. of.,.. nkh .. o. ;gin.olly in,,"ded kI. ,in .... .,. om"
...ttich _To ,ha, .... .". "odi,io ... 1 bwt po""'i" .... .l< from lif. ""'Y
ha", .. rwd Ihi> I<'<Onda.,. (fun .... 1) At.o COmmon ......
""n'td or pon",i, "'i.1eI> dipdttdtl, wbidt wer< '" up in ,om,
1'1<00< public pla«$.·
Mo" fU"<Tory pon"i" howcV<r. we« .....,.,;.1«1 dim:dy wilh ,h.
mnairu <>f ,'" rith<T .. pan .,r TIl. roffin or .. "'PM"" ...
><011"«1 0' /,.;.,«1 .nd pIaeod ....... ,'" "" ...... id<nlifyine ...... ket.
TIl< po"";'" p<OJIimily to I'" <koraO<d', .. "",in> .. tv«l,h. ,i,,,,,I •
....,. .. t<d "iOn ,'" ""","",_ro'.,,,, of ineluding "'" <><Io:bro·
''''., of birthdaY" '" &<" .... 1 f .. ,i •• 1& of ,I>< d .. d, wh"" ramily and
fr;'Dd. _uW •• II>< lomb for > h.onqu<l. Th< . pirill <>f tho
.lr<.toO«i we ... ...,mat.o 1', .. ,,1>< of.1>< meoi; , hrir "F"''''.'''''' p .....
,,>1,' ..... g"'''"'«<i "" ,'" "",.n ... <>f ,h<j. phyaical ..... ins-• Som.
S' ..... \OYf< "Iuipp«l with hoi .. or pip'" for pouring food. nd d. rnk
duwn ,),,;. 1><, ..... '" ...t.... 011 ...... bd .. bb ..,;TII d ...... . nd
",n'td in", '""'" "'" food <>I!fflnp. n..... ".di,io", Wft< carri<od in,,>
Chm,ion .!though oom< churd! officio!> 00j«t<d . ..... g .... i8., "'"
""",pl., nu'.., ,h., 10_ .;g<>o,,",. Ch,;"i.". ""n.ip ",,,,1>0 . nd
h<>no. pon"i" of ,I>< ,hat -... pla«d n ... <by. hIIId;ng fnot •
• nd drilll;ing to <"""'" <>YU dead bod;." "<Yn1hd .... in tim<. i'""8'"
.,f ,I>< .. ;"" "' ..... '0 be ..... ,.,;.,«1 I>'''ieuI.<iy w;,h .. in,,' th<y
... " carried in promoiono; Ih<y W<'f< <Vidml in ,I>< Iokr UIo<Ulion of
,I>< ...m.ri>Tie .. bk wi'. ,I>< "\iQ;.,,J tl><n, ,..,. """"",,, ,I><
ven<ro!«! icon of • wnt or ..... nyr.
T1><>< funerary ,nd;,iooo. OOfI,inuod "'" ,h. fim four hundred )'CI"
<>f ' 1>< Common ErL .... Riclunl BrillUn' has .... ,«1; "$I.ndin,
lhe "ill · living .nd tl>< 01 ... dy. <I<ad, Ilomon ,,,mb monu""",,, .... ify '0
TIl. ""at dfon .nd aprndi'u" <>f I""UK d«ii<ll«l to "'" f"Tpn ...
,i". "f "'" d«<U<d', m .. """, in ,he ("'" af ""lth', ,*,Iivion ___ . Fo.
Roman .. in p"ni",I ... who", cui," ••• h .. dy acknow!<dg«lll>< di",
penaI'y of non·"m.mbran« in TIl. dom .. ," on"",,,",,,, ,h.
""';on of ",n>ivaI ;n wb .... ·'" fonn ... ......t ,,, Iu", • op«:Ul .'!"ncr,
si ... n ,he oxtriOO,dinuy I bun<WIC< of monument> dediutcd to ,h.
p_ ... ,i". <>f ,h • • "u., of rho, ...... """_ •• The i",pom""" af
funer, .,. po"'"i" for ""riol pr..,'i« .. ......,. I<WI of Homon ooci<ty is
IMAGE AND PORTRAIT IN ROMAN <VLTVRE AND RELIGION
evident by the thousands of surviving tomb monuments,grave markers
(stelail, private altars, and imposing stone sarcophagi that can be found
from the soxond century onward, in which distinctive portraits of the
deceased were carved into an owrall iconographic program."
These stone sarwphagi probably were usually purchased partially fin-
ished, then were customized with likenesses of the doxeased, either on the
front of the sarwphagus or on the top of the lid, which would be turned
into a kind of funeral couch with deceased (often both husband and
wife) portra)'ed as if alive. " Modeled on earlier Greek and Roman (as
well as Etruscan) monuments, these sarcophagi might display certain
standard funerary motifs such as the doxeased reclining and sharing a
funeral banquet wi th family and
friends often shown in the dress
and posture of mourning." Some
particularly affoxting wmpositions
emphasize the happiness of a mar-
riage by portrayi ng both spouses,
sometimes in the guise of Admetus
and Alcestis (t he quintessential
de,·oted wife), sometimes showing
the traditional gesture of marriage
(right hands clasped-fig. 28), or a
gesture offarewelL'"
xcnes from daily life also
appear. Women may be shown
with servants and children, even
pets; men and sometimes women
are depicted with the symbols of
their profession or as being philo-
sophkally inclined----&:ated with a
scroll on the lap. Not all the funeral
iconography is affectingly per-
sonal. however. Some sarcophagi
have monumental narrative
images drawn from mythology or
from famous battles, often with
the faces of the deceased imposed
on those of particular characters-
transporting them to the realm of
heroes and thus according them
both status and honor. Some overt ly religious references to certain cults
(such as that of Dionysus) may haw expressed special beliefs or expec-
tations about the afterlife and triumph over death."
Christian sarcophagi dated to the lale third and fourth century also
often feature likenesses of their occupants in sculpt ural relief, some-
47
F;g. 28 Mar<uee SW'>t fnom

probobIy eorly to mod-
(mid-2rd cen.
!!ntM MoJ=.m, London
{Pt>oto; ......
4 8
Fo&. 29_ s;on:<:>pI1'f:UO Itom
O>.r<h 0( SMrt.o. H.n..
Antoqu.o. loto 3rd Cl.


FACE TO FACE
times as part of the general composition in which women, veiled, may
be represt'llted as praying (hands eXlt'nded from their sides) or seated
with attendants, while the men are shown in philosophical guise, with
the scroll, tunic, and mantle (and solll<.'t imes bare chest) of the intel·
lectual type (fig. 29; but note the unfinished portrait faces on the fig-
ures on this sarcophagus). Some of these images were biographical,
intended to rdleet a particular aspect of the deceased's life or profes-
sion. Beginning in the third century, portraits of the deceased were
often set into a medallion Or scallop shell recalling t he military shield
portrait (C/ipellla imngo, mentioned above), placed in the center of a
double-registered sarwphagus amid a complex composition of bibli-
(ai s(enes. In many cases we see a husband and wife, but, in one
famous example, we see two men within the prominent central por-
trait (fig. 30). We may assume that in at least some cases the choice of
iconography elsewhere on t he sarcophagus renected upon the piety,
faith, and hopes of the now deceased. Rare examples of funerary busts
have also b«n found, like the set of six (three pairs of the same hus-
band and wife) now in t he Cleveland Museum of Ar t, whkh were
found along with small -scale scul ptures of Jonah and the Good Shep-
herd and which are usually assumed to be from a tomb somewhere in
Asia Minor.
Third- and fourth -century Christian funerary frescoes in the
Roman catacombs include a numlxr of praying (orant) figures with
such individual facial expression and features as to be identified as
actual port raits of the deceased- usually women (fig. 31 }.'" Here the
emphasis is on t he religious devotion (pietas ) of the person portrayed.
Occasionally a family group appears (fig. 31 ), which was sometimes
mistaken by early viewers as an image of t he Holy Family (Mary,
Joseph, and the child Jesus). Some of these funerary portraits are strik-
ingly realistic, showing particular facial characteristics and expressions
that suggest a great degr« of likeness to the modeL The portraits that
IMAGE AND PORTRAIT I N ROMAN <VLTVRE AND RELIGION
appear on stnne sarcophagi could have !leen inserted
at a late stage of thei r completion, the personal -
ized details added after the client had sel«eted
from among a number of partially finished
monuments.
The funerary pavement mosaics typical of
Roman Africa were placed direct ly over the
tomb of the de<:eased and, in the case of the
Christian examples, into church floors, either
in the nave or in the aisles (although we also
have examples of mosaics from open-air ceme-
teries). These highly stylized mosaic portraits are
usually full length and appear to make only a passing
attempt at actual likeness. Still, the indusion of the
name (and sometimes e<:c1esialtitle) of the deceased, the years
of life or date of burial, and simple epithets such as ;ml0Cell5 or /lmmll1>
de; assist identification. Like t he catacomb frescoes and sarcophagus
reliefs of praying figures, these individuals also are shown with their
hands stretched out from their sides and their eyes often upraised . Fig-
ures are SUTTounded by the birds, flowers (roses), and candles I ypical of
funerary iconography elsewhere (fig. 32).
As the burial sites of special individuals became pilgrimage sites,
portraits of those saints were often added, either in or near the
49
Fig. JQ. s..-oopnoguo of the
' 'T"", ~ •. mi<Hth cen
Cl.. Muse<> P>o crntj""",
YaWn City (f'hoto: Aud>or).
Fig. 31. F..,.;oy ~ Mom
the Cm<otrI> ofP..-.o,
Pane (Cl The ~ a I
C".,.omb Soc.oty.
Photo: &t<k Brettmon).
50
Ff&. 32 c:tn<tJ.., tuner"}'
""""" from T.ro..1<.o. 4th <<n
CE.. B.rdo Mu,am'l, TUM

r" 33_ St (""th
cNCJfocion halo) from to.
c:.tacorrb 01 s.... Gennaro,

c.. ... orrb
&tole
FACE TO FACE
supp<lsed lomb Or elsewhere in the
church." Th ... emergence and
development of the cult of sainI>
In Christianity spurred this
increase in funerary portraiture,
including detailed frescoes of the
saints shown in heaven with Mary
or Christ, or more simple objects
such as the gold-glass portraits,
probably brought from a collec-
tion of small domestk objects and
left behind as graY<.' gifts or taken
home as pilgrimage souY ... nirs.'"
The importance of t hese portraih
lay partly in t heir proximity \0 the
relics of the saints. In a real sense,
the image participated in the actu-
ality of the physical presence of
the saint's mortal remains and
drew some of its significance from
it. Just as on the African lomb
names of the departed were often added to their
both as a means of ideotification (lest someone forget who was buried
within) and as a means of associat ing external appearance wi th per-
sonal character. Placing the name together with the face signaled a
certain quality of presence, allowing the image itself to become a vir-
tual relic in the absence of actual remains. Candles could be lit and
IMAC( AND PORTAAIT Ir-I ROMAr-I (VnVM ANP RE liCION
pl. «J vn ,i,h" "d. of ,h. im.g< wh,n pro)·.,. WC" vf( .. «I '0 .... '
dtpiclN .. ;nl . 0 ... ""h 5< ..... i< in ,t.. 6hh.«nlu'}" fmoo
f,om • " ,n,b in '0, Cot.comh"f $,on G<nn.ro in 11,1"" lfig. Bl.
A.",h« fI<",,, in ,hi, "'''<omb .<how_ ,h. b"n "f. mon in P"r<'.
R...ktd 1». rwo Ii, ",n,Jko .nd , .. nding "Ddt" g>,l.1nd. On <i"1<1 ski<
of oi , b .. d i. ,II< l<g<n& -H.", Ii •• ""><,,1,, •. " Thi. p.>rli<ul" irn'"8<
.1<"",.,,,,, .. tt.: • fun ..... '}" "..,"",it co"'J "k< on th ... pc<1 of.
1>011 (m ,·"'i .. ) imag<o "n« in ,hi. <as< i, .It<aJ)· ""i,,«1 on • 1<ind of
.1",. hy .h. 1,,' in,«I 1 o<<<,.."i., n.«I,d '" 'ign, ' ,h.
>ac"," ",'u,. of . 1>< '<pt<S<11t .. .,n.·
ilnd Image of the Emperor
Ao ..... ju,., ,«n. 'h, ",nn«''''n b.ct,,«n ph)">iul 'pr""n«
.nd pr<>rn« It...t ""'n , «n,r&I .. p«1 of ,II< Rorn.ln lmp<rw ".I(
h<fI.,I< Ch,i"i,,,. ".r!«l ""kjng PO""'" <>f IIxi, .. in". Th< srn<r"
p.>tt<rn,,,f (h< .mp<ro, ,ult in Rom< W,"", .imil.>., '0 • .,1 .... m<>dd.
f,,,", ''''' H,II,,,b,o.: .",pil< .nd '" "=' I""""'I.rly ... 11 "Iobh>h«l in
("" <a>t<m ' 'lion, of tl>< ID AI;' Minor. in 1""""'1." .• " . nd
."hi"·""rt of(rus.cuh W<T' .. '<rui"«. rommrn<ing • in (II< mgn "f
Augu"u, . 0J ,,"'pl ... ,h." .• n<! """""r. I'>"",,,;"n,.
IPm<>, , nd public ""rilK<> (ofr,n for ,h. <mp<rot. ra,"" (10.0. 10 bim)
""'" .mong rho ",,,.1, • ...".;.1«1 "I!h (h< cuh. D<p<ndmg upon ,I><
do,<. ''1Iion •• nd rul<, (th. W .. t ..... ,.", .han the (0 uk< up tt..
cul'l. (h< <ml"""'r"-" p<rcciV<d 1D()f< Of """ as <qu.1 k> tho gods. "p<.
<;.lIy ..... il .. ,illl ;,.;ng. 0<1.,.; ••. for in, .. """. initi. Ur kpt ur (h< ,radi-
,., .... R.)""n in,i""""" "n b<ir>g >e"«T«I nO! .. 0 god himsdfbu, '-'Ih,
>on of. god (dj,.j /II,",). (h" io. of (II< myin, lul,,, .. whol< .po!h<o,"
..... ¥,,,r&lly odnowl<dg<d .Ir .... hi' ,k-oth."' l1U> 'Un« ch. ng«I 0"'<
(Xu.i. n ""'.om< Aug""u, (or s.m.""" in (II< w( I. p<,mi ««I
• cult k> hi, ''';ri' lUni",l, .nd ,).., p""',nci ........ _
"'1« '" A1i.o Mir.or to off .. him ""rm,p in ronjunctioo ",i,h ,i>< gOO.
dd. Rom • . h<TI "" J<prnding On ,h. 1" " < .nd ,im<. 'h< .mp<ror
miJ!h. Ii"';' hi, ,,,It 0' .",,, "fuse '" b< .. . god ,,·hil, II< .....
" ;11 111,,,,,. <>p«i.uy in "aly .n<! >om,,,f ,i>< W<>t .... n p...,...in<n.
Hi>(or;'o.lo.o ... diop<J . ",,", ,h, ...... ,,( '<huJ J<w:".,n 10 ,)..,
imp<r;. 1 cull. Th< cult "-'<If h., I<T1d<d k> II< vi<w<d .. ""'!r politic"
.n<! • " m< ,.ligion' ,han. way of hQldi"!1 poW<1.
m.nipul,,>ng layahy and I""rioti,m. .n<! .dvan<ing CNo.: rrid<. Oc. ny.
(h< rul<r cul,. d<fon«l. "-,, »1 i"'po,!>n( (001 fu, «>noolidoling
and rnforciog R.)nun rul<.<V<1I in ...... ,ha, "",. ... s< ond dJI·
IX"I( (0 fO'"<tTI. a", d,....;"S dn, boun<bn.. I>ct ....... {ul,UI"< ' OO poIi.
(i<> ", ".. ..... " pol;'i<> and reliv>'" .ml;'(i,," .... n hi>1on.:..!
di".n".11>< l'Ouray" of Aug"""''' lupit" or tl>< "" ........ Iion ofb"
52
FACE TO FACE
descendent Claudius in that same guise (fig. 17) should probably not be
taken as an assertion that Augustus or Claudius was transformed into a
Supreme Dei ty, but rathcrthal 1hc (lQsilion and authority of the emperor
"0lS parallel to lhal of the chief of the gods. Howe"cr later historians pcr-
Ccil'C political function, the honor or worship gil'Cll \0 the Roman
emperor, his ancestors, his wife, and his children was a signifiulfl\ aspect
of ('\'<'fyday life in the first four centuries of the Common Era,"
As a key material aspect of this cult, The emperor's portrait played a
spedal role in addition \0 establishing his personal character and gen-
eral appearance. It CQuld represent the a b ~ n t ruler and receive the
honor and respect due him. The system worked emi rely through the
connection of image and presence, the actual likeness of the imperial
visage being enough to est ablish a kind of proxy prescnce. That pres-
ence was not, of course, actually of the li"ing emperor himsclf, because
he was bodily elsewhere. What was present was the emperor'sgenills or
nllmen, his sacred and guiding spirit that was attached to any image of
him. This genius could be simultaneously in several places at once and
could be the focus of a cult without a too owrt or unseemly show of
imperial hubris. Naturally, this spirit became more powerful and
omnipresent as the emperor himself was elevated to the nmk of divin-
ity while yet living, as in the case of Nero, Caligula, or Domitian. But
sum a claim, if overstated (at least in Rome), could lead to the downfall
of the daimant. The di!;tinClion between divus (as in Diyus Julius) and
dell$ (generally reseryed to the gods themsclvn) was important and
politically sensitive, and titles or honors bestowed in Asia Minor or
Egypt were often not acceptable in more t raditionally minded Rome
itself. "
Whatever the divine status granted to the emperor as mediator or
,·icar between the Romans and their gods, his image mediated presence
and allowed access to power- mostly for the purpose of receiving
honor, homage, or adoration, but also to establish his authority o,'er
poli t ical and legal matters. The imperial image was a vital presence that
commanded fear and obedience, receiving and dispensing all that was
due the emperor himself. [t witnessed official acts, presided o,'er judicial
hearings, enforced laws, guaranteed oaths, dispensed clemency, and
accepted giflS and sacrifice$.. An illustrat ion of just such a tribunal can
be found as [atc as the sixth century in an iUumination from the
Rossano Gospels depict ing the t rial of Jesus before Pilate. Given the
image's role as proxy for the emperor, disrespcc{ shown to it was C{juiv-
alent to treason and was met with the harshest possible consequences.'"'
One well- known description of how the emperor's image functioned
(and how it might have been both similar to and different from those of
the gods) is included in the correspondence between Pliny the Younger,
th<.'n GOI'ernor of Bithynia, and Emperor Trajall. Pliny had rec<.'ivcd
anonymous accusations concerning certain «Christians," whom he ~ u b -
'''''''C£ "'Nt> fOHMIT IN "'Nt>
k<lu,o.ly .r<e>led. H, ",1 .. 1«1 .h,m, t.: "."", in bi, kit" '" 'h,
,ml'<'''''''' Io"l\ ... hoy ok.ied ,t.: '''''eg<, ...cttftl. p"ytr '" ,t.: god>
die",,,,, by him,,'f .• nJ m..:lt on .,(f",inS "f win, 00(1 ''''',." '" rllt
.. at"" of ,I>< .... p«<><. whkb Pliny had I>roush' in,,, ,I>< coun I", lhi.
1"''''''''' "Ofi<lh<r with irnos<' "f tt.: SOd •. -lltok . rrt:<t«l ,100 tt.d I"
<.n. Christ, "'m<thing tho ""","0' h.d diooovw<d 'bat 'ho>< who
'<ally _'" Cbri>li,,,, ro.1d no' I>< mod< to do. may ""'" <klil>-
<",,01, d .. 'insui,h<d I><t ..... n "at .... h;"",(' •• ) of 'he gOO>.n<! '"
in"'8< of.", <mp«<><,oI,I>ctush "',Jc,.. ;ndia" '''''' both 'ype>
of imag<> W<T< ""r>lUp«! ( .......... "1 on 'hi>
1""'"'" by th< proxy of im'W' ,,,,,,inod ",.",ndt<d w.,u into tbt
<t. of Ch,iu;"n <mp"''''. "'hen 'b< d.im. of di.;n, ".'u, "' ...
(und<1">l.ndr.blyl mod< .. ,<d, M So ..... ; •• of GaLob> "rot, "",und ,t.<
,..>f 400:
"0« .. ""r<"" ,,"""' ... p"""" to ... ,.."...... .. '" or tho
"""".,r tho ,m""",, in low ""' ...... m,,'" pb.; .... p"bli< .... mbIi<t. 4NI
IhM<n. .. ....,. "'""'. io 10<,," _ .. oIftcioI "" ........ ioI tffity
"' ... ... p ........ , ...... , .... """""'.,.,. ...... """"" ""'" to"" pIoco. I;"
' .. ""I'<"'" ""'r • "-b<ons. ....... ""'''''' bt P""''' <w'}"Wbtrf_-
Th ... ""<m.nt >110 ... thot <v<n ",b<n 'he <mp<ror. di.iDi,y wa, no
lung<r .. "',<d, 'h, inug ..... >!ill "n<l<,,,nod to ",,,,muni,,,,, hi,
p,..:t;w ,<><I pOt<", p'<><n«. Ind«<l, ,he .. ,rf"«<I for 'he im'l!< i.
"'>W upL. in<d by "f ,h. <mpn-ot', h ..... n;'y, nor hi> divini'y.
Im>g<o of ,he ,mp6Q' ...... of ........ 1 lrom tl>< mon"m'.tol
'0 ,0. min;"' .... P<fm.or><'" "at"" up in ,h. <<n",J forum
.nd 'mphi'h ..... of <i,its "',..,.. to. ,"'pi",. A I""'tabk p.aintins on •
lo'()Oo,j.n pan.J or. port .. i, OI ... b<d to iml'<'iaI ;",i8"i. 0" mili',,}"
,hidd r'/j ..... ') could II .... fu"" any ordi"",y.pa« in'o On< 0VC"f1«n by
,he .mp6Q'" prffidinS ..,i,it .... miJi"ry to.. 01 to. imp<,;'1 ,,,.<brd>
....." t<rribl< di>V'« ,nd wo> ... p<r«ived 0> , lUnd of
'ilCl!'". " M"" ..-ideop",.d ,<><I .'''''''blt .,r oil , "I 'u",... , ....", images
'tamp«! onl<>","no (oct figs. iO--4l , PI' 67---611), 11>< r<p"""""lin: 1'fU-
,,"'" of ,1>< ..--01"''''' "' .. 011"" wHkIy 'nJ <owy "" ..... "" '0 ,II ,ubi«<.
in ,0. =pir<. It may, in f,<t, "',n bard '0 .void," Lawb" . ... ,.
m'g'" <V<"" SO'"" , .. " '''"I''''''Y . ' rlom by gr .. ping '" im!'<n. 1
110. pOpu;"d,y of iml"'",1 portr,i, w .. on< of to.
",bj«u or. in'<r "n' $Om< ,im< bn....-rn oh<},,,,,, , .. 5 ,nJ 1 .. 7 c. .. to
,0. )0<'"8 heir '" ,0. imp<t"i.ll throne, 011, c. ... , M",,,, lrom
hi, '"tor M,,<u, Co",,"" Fron'",
v"" ...... _ ... oil th< """"Y-< ........ ' ........... _"'-bnol .. ·I1.,..,....,
..... , .... , w'"""""- ,o,...nrt, .od ,,,",,,,,, .. 'hn' , .. of "'"
....-l 00.;.,.,......,. ................... ""'" 0(""," K>b. ........ ".; "" j I,d
"
f,o,U TO fAtE
'" , ..."j in • pIoio. ..,. "' .... -'f 01\.,., " ......... 0;.,. ,.,... IiU-
"""110 .. ,,, • ....dIof .<MOo ....... , ...... ..t.no ,.,_ .-t. "'1''7'> wido_
"'" noWoo(",,""" "'I' Iipo io •• _ ............. of 1""-'
"' ..... 00 .... u or badly <'UCU1<d, .... had to 1< a ... " ... " • <oro-
wntion.o.l rt'OOgIOiubili'y. n.. "'hi ........ n' of on id<n,i!Ubl.
w-A$ ""''''I!cd Iry the tr.rupot".,r rn<><kI<. probably o'igi ... 'in! in Rom<
.M ",,,i«l '0 ""' .... MP'< . .... u"d ,h •• mpi"'_ Whil. "," ,iOlen,,!, in
appar>n< ..... n<e...-ry in oroor '" allow .... inuse '" be
,-..",ion. ohm • ."..or<d, <i<p<ndi", on ,h. p ..... m'" lIyI<, ..pon...1
' ..... '" d .. i", '" <mp ........ . ","i<lll., " p«' of ch • • an.r weh u
piny, PO"", Of intorllis<nc<, 1""11" also di$app<'O.-int<nt;"n.
ally. Im.g<> of .mpom>D who """' _ .. ;"",«1 o. di>gnc«l, u ... U os
in""ripbo"' 'h,' .<form! to ,h.m, '«'I, d .. ,roy«! o. obli' or.,«1
(""mOd"" """""'''').''
au", .. " otti' ....... 'oward im.,.rial imogrs varied. '" .'" .... <ltv«
""""rdinS '0 'h< ""Y' diff<I<"' w.i,on o. church otrod.1> .<,uolly
'-;.-.1 ,h...., A Vtl1 01 .. 1 .,r m ..... """ .... nding ..... "'"nd. ,I><
roI< ....... i!IUp plo)'<d.np«" llyin ,I>< p<r>t<:Ution Tho
.poIogrti< literotul< of Ih< .. rty period plOrid .. ",m. in ...... i"8 vo.i·
.Ii"",,," h_ 'he impcri>.1 i.,.... __ uru;lcntoo.l to fuJKIm""" ,I><
d.""", 'h<y poo<d '0 Christ ..... who wi.nrd "' ...... idola",. ' ''''in
M",yt """r<d I" imperial imoge< indim:,1y Iry .:itinS ,I>< Goo.,.)...".,.
in whid; Jaw""," ,I>< figul< of Ca«a. OIl • «>in to r.q>loin ...... , .....
dut '0 ,I>< .mr<"".nd ..... , '0 God (M.ot. II: Ij . ,7). )",rin W<d .h ..
<l'i><><l. ,,, "''''u''' ,h. kIyltt Rormra in hi •• ...tim« ,Ilal Cit, ;";.",,
..... , • • .,.' ........ 0« 'hoy had b«n ""@h,Iry,oo.LoN to·..-n<krtrib-
"I< to Ca«ar." Bul h. lru", p<>inlod '" ...... ' oe>I li...-· .-.....I<r "",,"' hip
10 God . 10",," -in oroor '" def<1td ChrUlian willi"go ... '0 (my "" b.ot
not 1>0,"" <mp<rot: ·lltw \0 God dono ... m>dn,..,..rup. hot in oth<r
. hins> w< gIodiy ....... )<>U. acknowlodg;n8 you .. lin&" . rul tuI<rs, .m!
P"yi"8 ..... , with)'<KI' lingly 1"""")'0" b< found 10 ___ also_rul
i"""" ... '· ...
T<T1uJli. n ...... rrH>1< dir«t .bou, tho distinc,;"n r."
.h. <of" , . h •• llh, ... If,,<. and wiodom of ",k" ond ."", •• i"8 by tho
.uldol)' 'pi.i, of ,I>< c.n." (prnumobly ind...till8 ,boo< "'och«l ' Q
'hoi, 1"""0;"). ( hri"ian" all ... 1< mjoir>«l to P"l' for .. nhly
"' ..... () Tim l;l ) but not ro,,,, ,.., d<rooru. which ,hoy ...... m,,,.1i\;dy
'0 no"i .. ,h.n .>« .. 1»', DO •• h. 1OJ"..r< (hr;'.ulU obi. '" ",,"for
di.in. bono. "" ,II< of.1I< .... T<T1uU"n . h<m>y Iriod ' 0
pon .. y Ch';'Iian ... I",,;...i< in 'hrir ""'" ....,. ond. in foct. C>ttI pro.
'<cti ... of tho .mp<ror by .. f.,ing '0 grant him di.; •• ""w 0' hi'
i ma8'" ,I>< lind of honor only dut God. .. alL II< IOJ". if ,II< ""p<nl •
... '" nQt . hu""n b<ing. I>< <nuld "'" b< "".,.,.,..." In. o.imilit, woy,
MinlK; .. Foli • • rgU<d tho, king> and ""'pom>D ' " "'" .... v<d bt' hoi",
lMAC£ AND POH ...... ,T IN kOMA" AND MU"ON
/b"<rto!.<>.1 f."nto! upon .. f!O<l,Q< by ..... ;"I!_1t, ,..."" b<f<>« tt..;,
.ffigi ... but tl>ty <" honom! in ,,".m! u;but. OS 0<1",1 !TInt
or o"'"o"din& I\<t1h th .... ",i"" p ..... n'«I Ch,i"i.n."
"'1'«'101 of ... d ...... <On«<nrd f", ,t.. w.:!f.,. <>f It.. ",1m, 1><"" 1'1
"""" oid· f. >IIio"«IIl<>nw1. ,h." d.'W,ou, in ,...."
.""ud .. 'oward tho d .. fo""ion of hum. " rul .... To tho ..... nt tlt.1,
p.tl",,;'m u.mandto!. ,h<y rouId tq>"""'t th ........... .. qui ..
ful of "'" offic. or a.......n"" .,r,b< <DIp«<><. Th .. -. ,I>< 01M>< pool,.,n
",ko by kws. .. """rib«! by who W<I'< qu.it< waling ""
oom.og< "" th< rntp«<><. indudin! off<ring victimlm ..rnJie<>-;!
-Sp«w ""nor" "",,«Ito! 10 no mha p<n< ....
Hu, ",hil. >«ond.«n,my Chr"';'" "',.;,'" kp1 • J;",'<d ,il.",,<
.1>0", th< problem oftl>< cui, ...,.j ,,,hie im.g<'<<>ftll<<m"""r. tit. firSt ·
«0,"'1' In<;$b """,mun ify did ,"", t)n« 'h<y f<I' ,""-,,h< Roman> h.,d
«">li«J '" .... 1'«' tIt<ir und<T". no:!;n! abou1 .." r«JuOrlng tb<m to < .....
"",,,,,,, of "'" "'>p<ro<> or of "'" pqao f!O<l< in th<ir ... ';on. R<pon. of
d."", 0 ..... ,u,h inus<> provOd<." iml"","n' ",ute< of infortJWion
.bout ,t.. ' 0k of imperial p,,,,,,i,, in tho ,"igion . <>.1 politic> <>f th<
f.rnpir<.Io«ph", ","",n". d<mon .... tion of '""'"3< ,ha, tool< piau
..,IO"I! C<>"Uin piou' J<w> whm Pd .. ", brought mili,",}, ... "duds witlt
<f/igi<s of Emp<tO<Tib«io, into J<nu,;d.m. ,hat ,h<)' ...... willing
'Q d"., m .. "y ... in. Mnvi<t!<n, P"""" '0 "phol" I<wi"" low. PH. «
,."lent«l anJ ,"""""" ,I>< I<>s<ph ... '''''''unt> . o<>th<r in<j.
d.nl. in " hi,h Calisul.> k1tl • d<pU'Y by Ih. n .. m< of 1'<'''''''0' to
k", .. 1<m 10 ,,,,ioU Gal"" .. ·, """" in ,I., "'mpk. d<m,nJin8 , .... , '" b<
It.1ikd ... god. R<oi>Ul, ....,." 10 b< 1"" 10 d<a'h. fo<:"d witlt •
",,,. I'<,,,,,,iu, bod:o,l down . nd .. V<d fr<>m hi, OW" """"";"0 only
by ,he .....,; ... rion of Y1igu4.l<pp.o ....... tlr. boIh of lhot "",",n k"""
h.d ""riouoly u",k"",imot«l I ... i>ll f<dingl .oou, inug«"r f<>rrign
!!O<I> lor '" """P)1"l! ,um) in ,OOr holy
N""",h<koo. til« Iwin .nd T .... ulli.n. Josqthuo tool< • <Qnci!i.,o'1
'p",OOlh •• ,ho, ,I>< '0 = 0, hoM' " . , .... 0{ "'"
«ItJ'<1'>1" ..... no' boO<d on h.,,.,,j_ ,,, <V<1t J"'''I'«' _ r", Ilotrt. ,nd
its 'ul ...... bul on ,n un.UtsI'nding lbolih<y II< off",;. Uy s .. nt<d Ih.
fr«dom 10 Ibid< by Ihrir o"'n r<ligioo. loW>. H< .. plaiN ' hot .hboogh
rio ... "",h.,....d ,he "",k,ns Q' ",n,r".,n of im.og«. Ihq """".
th.k<>"<'"«< ... dlioS t<t off .. N<Ti1i« .nd pnt)'<R for IlI<emp<r<tr.no:! bi>
f.mily. fu"h<rmor< •• I!hough kw. h.,d "cont<mpl for . pr.o<b«
prof"U>k '0 n<i,her God nor mom' 1,1>< '" imaJ! .. "r livinS
<,,"0=1." tit.,. ooO<1h ..... off<m! p<rpo<t",1 praym for
Ill< <101""""<>.1 hi, f. mily,M Th, Talmud , <II .. no'1<>f <><t< pat1icul .. ly
holy ..... n. Rabbi Sob"", bor Sima;. who n .... in hi> lifo "'.." k>ol«d
upOn. coin. l><eauo< il "...". 'Il< im.o"," (of ,II< Th< Ch,-;,.·
tw, rokm"i>' Hippo!YM off<f«l>imilor .... 'imonY ' 0 """'"
;'y >bou, ;mpo<tw l""ieuLo.ty on
"
56
3i. DMloel
and N<tM..o;:hadnezzat; 4tI1 <en.
,>. OIn>tlM1 .. rtopl'¥'.
(wiII1 <le\aiI MJ""" do
rMe!.Atlt>:p.oo

FACE TO FACE

TIl{' story of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego in the Book of
Daniel provided a model for Jewish resistance to imperial images, and
we have abundant textual evidence that Christians saw it as a type for
their own resistance 10 religious persecution in the first three centuries
C.E. According to the story, when King Nebuchadneuar of Babylon set
up a gold statue and ordered that il be worshiped, these three refused
and were thrown into the fiery furnace. Their miraculous survival
demonstrated the power of their God and their own heroism in being
willing to die rather than worship a vain idol. Christian interpreters
made much of this story, seeing the three as figures of martyrdom-
forced by imperial edicts, like many Christians, to choose between per-
forming idolatrous acts or suffering torture and imprisonment. Cyprian
praises the confessors (those who survived martyrdom) by comparing
t hem to these biblical heroes: we can see that in your own case there
have been put into action the words which these courageous and cele-
brated youths proclaimed before the king. They declared that for their
part they were prepared to burn in the flames rather t han to serve his
gods or adore the idol that he had made; yet, they asserud, the God
whom they worshiped (and whom we also worship) had the power to
IM ... C( "'Nt> POHAAIT IN CVLTVM ... ND MLiGION
rd ..... h.", ft.,,,, .1>< f.try fu.-...u,.nd '" f<'S(U< dxm frum ,I>< hond,
of ,t.: king."" Thus .11< m, uYI"$ of c..uhage "'"" ", ,I>< you.h,
"f "'byk>n .n<! W<r< """r<I«I high .. , """"""
A numlx< "f "" .... round in e.tlf o.ri,,;., •• n iOu,,..1< .hi ..... ,y.
m.lU"!I iI •• ioual aM''''",n t" <W" i..w.o.'}". A r.::... ... h-«o'u'r fr"""
;n II>< IIom'n CotllOOrnb of Mm" • .u>d M, r<.lIin". <kpk1l ,I>< ,h ...
youth. .... nd,ng ",,'h ,I>< ki08 ... Ito p<>in .. ' •• b ....... up<>n , ,,",umn.
An".he< founb.en"u'}" ""rI<.. rd .. f corvo<! "n thel;d of. "rcopha@'"
now in Arl«. ,h<>w> .h. 'hR< )"".h, ,ulni"3 .t..;, w.:kJ On' " ntil.,
.... " " "P' ,,,he< mol< om ... column. D.nid .ppn .. i"" ,,, .h. light
of 1h.i.1«n •.• Ix«>k noo< ",i.h his n,h", ",,,,!>;m',,n <i,h ... oide (fill-
.H). I'rilh<J of,hcs< ""00 of an ..:", ... <iy iU"" ,..,,,.1>< <1<,.", of ,I><
bibl;'aI "MY. Th< " ....... f< flO! mod< ,,, kook .. ... f.:",y ",bi,.
high .nd m;o<l< of gold., d,.",ih<d in the 8ibk. I .. ,<>d. ,h ... "bIe,,,,,
'PI""" ,,, in'<lI'''' It.: ",.'" .. ,n i""S' of Ntb",hadn.wOf him>df.
looIo.in8 very much lik< • pon .. ;, of. 110""," <mp<rof . ... up fu, honor
O! ,..."fi« in ,h. pubIK 5«u.l<. 11x ". I>a> , I,n dy iDCO'p<>,,,«I tl><
"'nrn' (Of i"" m:rntly 1"") >i'LlO1",n of who r<>i,,«II"Y
'''8 """"'. '" of ,t.. ''''p<t<rl ,,",h t"-of,1x ,,,di,ional
IIom.n god>.
Tt.. d"'''1f< of Chri"ivrify"' "",u' "n"" Co"'''n,io< . fT""'" ,h.
ellO" "" of ,h. imperi.1 cui. "nly '"P<rlkiaUy_ Con".n.in •• I'k< hi,
p,«l<c....."". "' .. pro<l, im.d, ,ii"", .f'<I b'. d"'h •• OO <u,n, .nd
m«l.al. mint«l .b<>wing him ."""d.ng in." 1>< ...... in. ,h • • ;.".
OOn;; f<Cm-«I by 'he hand of God. Hi> Ch,i>,ian "'bj«" 8 ... ,«1 .hi.
inltfJ''''iog i, ... d.im ,b" eon",n,i", w .. «('«ia/ly
guideJ by, . nd in , ("fi>il<s«! ,<lotion '" 'hftr God. In lif •• Co .... n.i""
Il.>d fuh",n<d him.elf ... h. thin«"flth .po>tI •• roo ... nins ODd p ... id_
ins " "" 'h, fi", ""menk.1 ",unril ., pli" .. io l2S .fu, hi.
d.>th. II< " .. hur><>ml ..... ,0' ",.I buh«! '0 ,I>< Churd of lh.
.1.,.. Iii. I">",..i". " h<th" "" ""in. '" """d. , ;",.lIy "PI<"-<d h.,
.. wly ch .. ><1cr." A<ro,din;;.o h" ""'_unbi,"" biogr<apolt«
II"" ,,, ..... m ;mpltiO<d "r th< "" ... , of d;";'" I. R" ...,. ..
from dw ,imrJrIot>_ ""'". _ 1Iio"""" to .. .umr«i
.. dw.,..,." """ 0("" ""1"1< _ .... <l'"> .piift<.! .. '" "" p.o'." 0(
"" W '" GoA ond .h" mo...,. b.c."" """'" .h",,,,hoUl ,,,, Rom ..
...- Hb """'oi' ....... ioII ............ plO<t<I __ dw"''''''''' ..... oI til<
("0 .... .., "' ...... ,i';"" til< <l'"> ..,.-_ .. _.oW dw ... ..to.......-J
.. ,f ;" pt
In ,hi. ".y. CoII>"n.j",', biOSJ'P/>« fbtt<fingly 1"""')' ,Ix ,mp<t<r'
"." o"ly .. bu, a/", ... h<o ..... 1y in'l'i,«I .nd di,'in"y ksiti-
m.t.<J 'Uk-r.
Al'hough Cun".""", unl««1 ,h. ''''1'< ... 1 '''''(1« to
, ..... in """" ""1"'''' .h, ,01. of imp<rial p<>" .. i1> "m. in,d "''Y
"
"
FA« ( TO fAtE
m,"", It.< "'m<." m<di.>tinl! tht r"'*"C< of ptnOn Tl><
..... of ,he..,,1'<"'>' 1" ..... 1<1. tho, of ... in, in ChtUtion ',.,..,1 .... , ..... i<1I
ironi<>11y ""'" b«n • ck.ol'n" sqw,'ion from dirinily,ban ,"" dif·
b<tw«" , di .... "nJ . ok... in th_ p.-.vious ..... A...J fmon ,II;,
poim On. til< emperor'. im. could b< """,1«1 wj,h 'lI< imag< of til<
.... L ",elm BoW<nO<k apl.>'m:
"'" m;p." ,"""u .... I'"' imr<rioI <ulo] ..... 100>«1 -..10 .. _
,.."md-.ld ___ .-mda.riorimo ....... ..-
viW<'Y. 10 <»d\or<d '" kq 1>« ..... " 'ckd ......... m_ .... of ci< •
........ fu_ft ... _ .... .-., .... __ ..... """....., ....... I, ...
..,..Ie. _ of I .. olo .. riotL mr-l" .-oktp<o-... hum.n .. ,;.oin
""" """'_ ......... , -t.J..w """- .. 1tR<_. but .. _ .......
....... - ""'" """"" ... ....... _ ... -
N", long .fta ,h.<kv;o,ion ofCoIUWl, in< . OO OItiso;'ni,)". ,,.";,io"
from I ptn«ut<d con", an impnwlf .. ""ion«! <>n<, CltrioIian ,b<_
ol"1lu". m<r<nc«l the m .. H. ,ory function <>I .h. imp<Tw imogo'.
o plo'" It.: cq .... l;,y of .. to ... ...;,hiQ .1>< Trinity. Mh.m"; ... >pnki",
of II>< idtnlj'r of ""to,", bdlo'<ftl ,lit I'o1h<1".od III< Son in h .. Thinl
l>uc=rJt """,." tit< ..,..inN ,II< _ from II>< Goop<l of
Joh .. _ '"Th<"n<,.. .......... -" ,h. """ .... >«n III< ""'II ... • (1<>10" '.:91 by
..... "1IY ... II>< ;",,11" of ,I>< ""'P<"'>"
A." ... ....,. .-<om. ,h ....... /.0 .. ,"" OIl"".", ... or ' ................
...... "'" .. til< .... of til< ""J'<">f ;, .... ""'r< """ 10"" of tho ""1"'0<.
on.j ..... ....,....or" ... ""'" - ............. "'" ... ,""-""' ....
............. dv ............. , ...... ,.,.....,. ...... I0:>04 ............ _ ..
... tbr ........ . .. ...".dROPY .... __ ...... _I" ......... n _-
""'" tbr <m/'«Ut ."'" lot .......... io IUo .-... .. . o.d _""".'
l.il<cwil<. in h" "'''''1< On 'h< lIo>ly ,,(Cut.oreo uoa 'h<
<>f ,I>< .."pon>", 'mag<" "" illlul",,, hi< proof ,"" 11K Fits' .<><1
So<Qnd I'<-n<>n> do no' """,nut< 'wo diffmn' s<><k
For .... Son io .. til< p....., "'" tho f<tIwt io .. tho 5<o<h ""'" oud> .... <II<
"'"". _b io "" _ •• "'" .och .. .... "'_ . • ",h io ...... ....-. "'"
_ ...... 1lBir)o. So "'" ""'" "" .. tho """"'""" 0/" 1\, . .. _ ...
_ -' _.""" "''''wo' ·nloyol ............... "-.-' N
.......... _ ............. _ pIoI __ >p<'Ok 01. kioJ. "'" 0/" ....
"Of', i_ .• 04 "'" 0/" _l<i>,.o. n.. onoia<>';, _ dmm .. _ ..... >Iv
...,..,._ 1"110 ......... roo.d ......... y_ ... • .-. "",,,, .... _-
",,-nboJ l'I' .... "'" ....... bo'_.boa ....... "'-".;d ...... ....
-"" ...... ...-,....
Hi, f ... .. ";"n -.w ,,, ... day h«,;.i<ally ''''I_.n, '0 ,,,", ,b<.
oI<>t;i<.1 j" .. for _<rolmg .. i",,· >00 ... " w"n'. s..;1 con _
clud •• hi. renlp"j,,, .. poi"hog Qut ;" b>,i<; H. w, WI> ..... ,h,
imJ'<fi.ol ron"" i •• n ;!ILIS< only bpinu< ofib """po im;'"ion, II><
Sun ,lure> th< "', ..... n"u,. of , .... !'>.he< 'nd .h ... is in fIoU co,,,''',,,,,,-
;"n w"n It."
Amlr.linS to ,n. '«oN. f"u, hu<Hi,<d Y"'" ""0< (787 cO-I.t 1M
«,,,,,'u,i"n of th. s. ..... th [(" ..... Ilk.' Counc.ol ... h<n th<
func.iOD of ;.o<>n, ... ., Ii .... '.,. p""",,",.u.l ., on in,I">"'"' I'..u"" of
"nhOO"'r.' "<><-,i",,, iro"""t. ... Biohop Th<odo<iu, of
ronf.,....) hi> f.;Ih . 1><1 .. k<d 10 I>< , .. ", .. ,«1 ... n oflhod.,. h<licvn.
1 .. ""in8 he .. .".. haJ no OOj«tion to the .... ""., ;,," of .he
ro<'''''' of .. i"". he apl.in«l hi. <hong< of h .. n .. lb. , .. w. of hi>
no.in;; , rommoD proche,", 'For if 'he prop" go forth ,,;,h IIS'1II ond
i-«nlt'o ">«1 tho '1.0 ••• ,4' . .. d i""W" "f,t.. [n'lP<,.., .... ,,10 .. th<J' ....
1<'" '" cili ... or , ..... , diu,k ... 'I><y 1>0_ ,,,,,,Iy "", ,h. u!:>l<l ,.,.,...,..j
0>''' wi,h wu. bu, 11>< f.mI"'ror Th«Hlooiu. m.y h ... ooon
,,,,1,,,,n<<<I toy ,h. 'T''''''''' of Th«.J.". ,I>< .. ...ti' •. "ho
di«l in ",ii, ",uinS 'h, of ,I>< I." ":o"",,Lu, ""'1"'<''''' .nd "tIo>
, ;,«1 bo>1h .nd '\,h,.u>;u, to 'h" ..... , Wi,h ,I>< of
tim •• nd "",Un« ,ho, tho .mI"'ro, W", himl<lf Ch,;" .. n •• ny
«n,,,n'ng ""upl .. . oou, tIo>no, '0 h" , .... S ... h.d di .... p-
I"'. f<Il .nd II< rould I:>< ..,.n OS m",w of tl>< h."...,ly
K"'t!. The ,it ... b &>>o<i .. od .. i,h tl>< old Rom." =p<,o,. <ul, hoOd 'ufo
';'N Ih, ' .. to . nd in'o Sru"-
,in. ,ourt """"'"Up
"
The of",c
E""n though ,I>< "...,1;; lawxlxd "6"""t idoIaIry by en,"".n 'hrol/>.
gUn. from f'.uI '0 .. ... would ,uWS' ,ho, tl:>< adb<r<n" to ron
r<liiU<>n> ... ", ronf",.,<d ,do' "",,,hil'C'>.
,u .. i.,ng docu",,,",, "", .... Uy """,. ,1\0, ,I:>< iot<II<ctu.allr i"dinN of th •
• o.Kn' .. "rid .... "" . oou, ,I>< mflM. rit ... h. and Idol. of ,h,
If.d"ion.' <ul,. 'h, poly,h""n of Rom. n I .... '\n"qui,y
,,,,b,,,,,«1 " .. nr .nd hod ;ncorpo<>, «1 0' .b,.o,b<d m,"y of ,h.
kK::oI or rorriln d<i.id, ,1>0 «Iu<olod d ..... 'rndod 'o .... rd.1<ind
of .,.Jigh,,,,«l d""m. ,11< n'flt..< .. po><1i< , U.,.", .. ,n"
<>< h<wi"& 0",,1i r .,. Ilk l><1id". !hot IouU=I 0' limit<d divinity t"
• p",;""t.., ,"'0, 0' in .. g._" :-; ....... 'h.ku. in ord<r ,h .. ,h.y m;v"
«m. in ("" .. bit. ,h. god. "ill I'«<i..d <!<vo,ion .nd pr.rmul 1"'. ,.
,i.,", (<<1m lb. d"-..,,r>. For 'hi ' purl"»<. ,I><,r 'm.g ...
I"lnt«l. -... rroti<><<d in q ..... titi<r., ,. nS'"5 from thor hos!o.
<>' . n fo,-m. ", 'ho ,"""" .nd """" ","ndo"e. T .... ,pl ...... -dI ....... r·
k." .. «. filJ«l .. i,h f'Su .... of tho sod>: >Iorin ... nd . k ... in publi<
fAU TO fAU
sp..:n. ""'" _f><f'I. "-' Ind pri"'t< hornt< ....... wriI ,uWliod. R<p.
rum'";''''' ffl lh. godo W<ff limply .... r"""" ... ChriJlian .<Kh<rt
.. 1"<Un,ly no.cd. ,nd ....... Im .... impuooibl, to 'void,
Ch.i""n. ""'" urv<i 10 ,_, l!><i, 'l"'" '" bI<ro< 0' .pi' on ,h<m"
10m< ffl,tw:..: .. .. by ro....,... ><wpt<m. btu mo .. olt<n __
kn.o<k·olf copir> of fa....,... .. ,,"co. Coun'\eu Oltv:r. w<" "",pi, mod<
r,um mold ....... p>u.tingo.. portoble im'l!"-.nd """"ie> al$o
" 1«Ilh, ho.,.. "r ""'" who ",Wd 0&«1 II ......
1);0 Ch,.,...,.", .. ,. ... "" ... 'u'1' oro'''' .nd philoooph«. Ii" ... art ...
Ii< "",rum,.,,,,,,, ffl ,It< JOdI .. <In< of fou, '" .. .,.,.., ""'''''''' for
human C<H>«p1ion '" Ib, d;";'" loion& ";'h the inno" """""undi ..
• nd k_lod,. p int<! rrom po<1 ... I."'!Ii....,.., and phi!Moplt<n). To
him, ,kill'" ,ra/isp«>pk who nwIr It .. "" 0. likc:1>CSkl, whethn in
"0 .... wood. m ... l ..... or poinl land he li,,«1 many of II>< grnleM
, n"" 1m",," 10 him),1P"" III,;, .,.Iron," .mpl< ond , .. ,i<d """"P'M,,"
of tho di.i"," br prod"d", 011 _II of fill"'" of dil'kr<nl 8odo.. in ,
.... i<ty of poon. Dio point«! 0"', " , ;"JU wmo retioeJtl
.1><>u, O"e , hird ow.y r", .. innovo,i"n., pld<trinS to
adh<r< 10 tit< dtK.ibtd by tit< po ... and 10 "";ntau..omr """ •
• ilten.., with On •• ..."h., in ,h";. N"· .. th ..... , h.
addtd. I r.... h..,j .... ,rd ' 0 ronttibut< .Iwi. """ MIt .. ond . hw twam •
• It< potU' ,M\o " ""U" ft!low cnlUm<1l-9rimanly 0.' of poUt;..
impu'" to honor tit< divinr brin3t .nd lO";n tt..if
11>< I ni,,', 1"" ;""1., ,".".rilno • .,., 10 tho work of moIci",.n imag<
of I !I"'I m"'" "",1« i, , ...... ,h.n. limpl. «>rI' 0. imit.tio" of . ... " .
d.ard fig.", .. I, .. t in tit< vi .... of """" "'puncnll. Accordin! 10 his
thied·, ... ,".y ... pl>rr Phi!<MI,.tu .. ApQ&ni ... ofTyo .... obj<ct<d '0
,It< ... ' "'I',<><nti'",n of ,twi. sod> ... nimo!. o. birds.. Sud>
thingo J«O>«i.o him in .. ion,1 and i!>do:ctJl. and h< lh<tughlWI br
doing 'hi' 'h, EIYP' i.n, .hOW«! th .. , h.y ,idicultd .. ,1><. than
It<hnrd in , he godo. Hi> qrption omtponw.., ,,(f<n<ltd "" his ';tw,
.. ,""'I;",lIy ..... "'polloni ... h.,... .... i," like Phid;"or P, .. ittl<s ,,,uld
Iuww h_ tit< godo .pp<>Mi-hod 'i><y 8"'" up to h<ovm to mok< tho
im'g .. th<y "'Prod.,..! in their .... Ipt ... of ..... ,h,t< ... m. ",h ••
mun. "" wt.i<b tl>q prod""rd , h";, fi g",,, of ,h. """1_r", wha'
bct.idco imi, .. ion 0>u1d be • for such "p, .. "'tlt""'? ApoIloniu •
. tNIl tit< . nisl·, imagil>l'ion" a .... btk 'hins. "prepoon' wi,h
wiodom.nd ,...;" .. ; Ind ,h.I! W<I'\ inco.,.., .. 'in, this imoginatioo is
fo, .... porio, to .nd mOl< ...... in.pi.ing ,h.n ' ny ""I< imi .. t;"" o.
"'Pi, "rOt imitoti<>n <on only "'"t< .. itl t..ndiworJ,; .m..1 " "'" ..... ,
b ... imogill.l.lon <q .... 1y ..... , i. u. not otm; for it will .:onerir< of itl
MIt .. with «f<rm« 10 !It< , .. Ii'f ...... imiti'l<In is nil ... bo.!lltd by ' ''-
"". bu! imagi ... lion IPy no1hing; (,,' ro.KN:o .. ndism>y<d '" tit< .,.1
whkh i, "'" i .... f laid down.""
'MACE AND 'N AOMAN <VLTVM ... ND MUC'O"
Altboogh tl>< ub"lu,ty .,( ,uch tbat th<y ""t< oftm
mtrdy «>mmonpl><. ohj<Ct. <>f dommi< dtwr .. ion IDOl. tlum roc",
point! <>f d«p odigio ... pi .. y. wh .. ,II til<>< wid<1y varying im. s .. <>f
gods h.d in ",,,,,,,on ..... supe,fici. 1 t<colI" ... bility. Til<
";'-""'r should be .1>1< to idontify til< sod in the imoS •• " In>! from c .. •
,.in ch ... " ... ;;,jc .ttribu'd (<k .. ik of sart>. prop;. bair Or be.rd "rI<.
and,., fo,th). ''''"1\<' ...... the ""'''''''y prop> for the cult of. sod.
without the >(:to, 1 foco, of ',- t<P",,.ntin8 ,h. Jod.< bu, no'
><".aDy id • ."i,,1 wi,h th"", (oin« '" ... ny t<pIicu ,,;"«11. Th< """'''
countin< Uttl< " ..... ohriM> • .,,- d<di""ory i.",ription, 'hot . '" "ill
<".n' <1<"",,,,,, ... 'h, "'i<k'r,ud ,,,d <k<ply """nched h. biu of
!(Qm.n poi)"beism. Such 'hings we« undoubl«lly 1"-" of 0 .... ·• ""'ural
idontity .nd apt ... iom of • kind <>f local. <;vic. or .... tion.1 pride that
w., ....."plm..! '" ..".,. ........ in the ph """ "",,,hip«!. $isnifi<>",
.. «pti"", 10 thi' ron'·cn,ion.1 r<"'ptiOfl "f ,h. de'ti .. <1I'''cd. <>f
<i>un<-<II< .to, .... of lul<mi> iD Eph ....... for inll. n«. '" the m,.".';.
ou< black "on< I!a.oI of l'.I"II'bal .... whid> ot<m '0 ha ... h.d a n>Of< row'
.-rfuI ..,Id on ,II< ;m..poo,;"" of thei' dovot= n
Ho ........ '. lI.di,,,,.,, poly,h.i ... m;g)" 01 .... l>< .... ,y or '<I<> much
,up<r>li,joo ,n ""&,,d '" .",b thios<- Piu""b. for one. apr<M<d 000'
"mp' I", p<r>onr ,,"" m><i. d','.< , .... in ,1M: Iii<...."..... "I hom. n
l><ingo . nd dr<M<d ,hem or , .d "",,,hip«! ,11<.,' N...-Iy ,h,.. hun_
drod rn" Iokr (.t ,he ",d of ,I>< f""Jlb «n,ury» Emp<ror 1"Ii"D was
det<nnin«l'h" r<"pk $bould J;,',np'ilh b<t_n ,h. 'm.og4 .nd ,he
sod> 'h.m ......... iu"" 'ixy ibould d,"ing"i>h b<t ...... til< imag< of
,II< ""p<rol "od ,II< .... p<ro, him,.11. Slil l, ho <k<Ltu. 'Il< im.rs<l had
• poW<ffuJ fun<tioD,.nd th< """<Ii",, ,ha, 'hey II<Id "... ",S«l on ,Il<
<lev« of .ff<Ction ,ha, ,hi: h"" f<» th< modd:
h;w ..... r..thm ..... 1" """.rw,...,d ,0. ow"" ...... of """r-
'tIC """ """"'" <>'t"t}"\h.,. of..,. ""'." If ",bob 01 "" r-"
<n< .............. "'" ..... _ "'"I'''$' .d ,""' .... p .. .,..,.l>u< ..... -""l'
......mp <he tpdo tbtm. . .. "'" jwt .. tboo< """ mW oII<rin" "'
th< , .. , ... of .... "'I ... who.,. on,...,J of _ .... _"""" in.j_
.. __ I .. ill -.rd! -..... tbnrloy ... too ...... """ ""kr oIIninp to ""
....... of .... pJo ,'''''''''' .... .,.J< _ no<hinaJ J" ............... u..m.,-
""' ..... <km to hOp .... to """ ... tbtm. ... n...<for<. wh<n _ iooI< "
""""'" of..,..,..,. lot .. _ ,""""" ""n' .".,. "" """" .. o<.o>J.l>u<
_I« .. thin. ttwy ....... .,.t<th" __ "" "'"
"", ........... ol ...... """"' ... -.. _ ,0<1 _""'-.. .......
..... do W< .. , 'bey ' r< ,]" ""'f'<"'I"' ......... 1 .... H< ""n ,,100 low< ""
,m .. ",' "'w.'> '" ... <II • .."""or· .. ,, .... . ... "" who "'""'" .o.
J<iip.tr ., .... .... ........... he """ "-k" f>tl>n' J<iiP" ., ... ""
r ...... " ....... ,,-. "'" "" ,"",..-bo _ .... pod. ddipr. to _ ""
62
Fo&. 35. Bust< of Rom.n Gods.
oc>w in the Il<TW1 M.J5eum.
London
FACE TO FACE
the image$ of the god' and their likenc$>1e$, a nd should feet ",,"renee and
>hudd .. with a ..... of the god> who look b""k from 1M un""," world."
Cull images were equally important for the ancient and traditional
Roman gods (for example. Jupiter, Juno, Mars. and Minerva) as for
imported or regional deities like Mithras, Cybele, and Dea Caelestis,
who tended to hm." a more self-selected group of devotees or provincial
transplants. They played a key role in the religious revivals (and politi -
cal propaganda) of particular emperors, such as Augustus, who associ -
ated his family with Venus and himself as a special favorite of Apollo.
These cult images of gods had generally recognizable appearances, even
when their identitit'S were conflated (as in Apollo/Sol/Helios). Jupiter,
for instance, was presented as the supreme ruling god (a mature potent
male), with full dark beard and abundant hai r. He was usually pictured
as enthroned and holding a scepter or other props of the ruler of
heaven, wi th an eagle at his fect. Dcpending on their rank or authority,
other male gods might have a similar appearance. Neptune and Ascle-
pius also appear with full beards and heads of hair as do Mars and
Hades. Gods associated with Jupi ter (Zeus), such as Liber or Serapis,
were given very similar facial features hut with their own disti nctive
anribUles (in Serapis's case, the small grain measuring basket or modijjs
on his head; fig. J5). Mars, on the other hand, was sometimes shown in
full mi litary dress including an ornate breastplate (wirass) , while at
other times appeared nude except for his mi litary cloak, qui"er strap,
and helmet; the nude depictions are rare, although some exceptions
exist (for example, the Jupiter Column at Mainz). Artistic representa-
IMAGE AND PORTRAIT I N ROMAN <VLTVRE AND RELIGION
t ions of this group of gods intended to project dominion, authority,and
an uncontested right to rule and to judge,
Another group was made up of the younger male gods (such as
Apollo/Sol, Hermes, the semidivine Hercules, and sometimes Mars),
gods associated with the mystery cults (Dionysus, Mi t hras, and
Orpheus),or heroes (such as Meleager, Hercules,and Adonis), Members
of this group were often shown as youths with flowing locks and beard-
less (or nearly beardless) faces, although they could also be shown as
mature figures with beards and older body types (especially Dionysus
and Hercules), While Jupiter and the older gods of the Panthwn were
usually shown bare-chested but draped, these younger gods often
appeared nude, with almost pubescem bodies, This is especially true, for
example, of Dionysus and Apollo (fig, 36), Mithras and Orpheus wore
typical clothing identifying them as in origin (see fig, 69,
p, 149) while Hercules-although nude- was usually bearded and was
more ruggedly masculine. These gods, on the boundary between
youth and maturity and even, in some cases on the boundary
between female and male, projeded sensuali ty and could be poly-
morphic. They were the mediators between the upper and lower
worlds, managing the transition from life to death or bringing messages
from heaven or Hades. Sol/Helios was also a kind of mediator, riding his
chariot over the heavens to turn night into day.
Given the familiarity of the traditional images, foreign gods and
heroes who were introduced to the Roman pantheon often entered by
means of conflation with known deit ies. Jupiter was conflated with the
senior gods of other nations (such as Sabal.ios or Serapis), just as the
younger gods were often linked with one another. Apollo was variously
3S><Kiated with Helios and Sol, for example. Their representations then
borrowed the facial types, postures, or sometimes attributes from one
another. According to Ludan, Herades was transformed into Heracles
Ogmios by the Celts, who kept his general garb and equipment (lion's
skin and club, bow and quiver) but transformed his physical appear-
ance, from that of a young hero to a balding old man, and gave him a
very dark complexion.'"
Although often confused with one another, the female gods were most
easily recogni1.ed by details nf their attire, headdresses, props, or other
attributes. Diana was nearly always equipped with a bow and quiver,and
she, like Apollo, was associated with one of the celestial deities (Luna).
Athena wore a quite re<cognizable helmet. Isi s generally was shown with
particular Egyptian accoutrements, including her special rattle (siSlrHm) .
She was sometimes shown with the child Horus on her lap and a bared
breast to feed him,an image often asserted to be the prototype of the Vir-
gin Mary with child (lig. 37)." Venus (also known by her Greek name,
Aphrodite) was almost always at least partially nude, draped so as to
accentuate her physical beauty, while luno was usually presented as
63
Fie. 36. o;c.,)'OUS WItt> panIhe<
M O, . :o:p MJteum oJ tt...
PhI'.' ?? "" F;eIdo, 1st""" u.
Ilornan =on<tructJo<\ 0(

s.... (Photo: AutI>c:<-}
64
Fo&. 37. Horpoo,..,,,, on bf>
of I .... wal l 1" """'& frnm
1>00", ... Ka<V>O. ""'" on c.ro
(Photo; George R. Swain,
l>t perm«ion of Kelsey
FACE TO FACE
and matronl y. Reclining
Tellus (Earth) holds her cornu-
copia, which makes her diffirult to
distinguish from Ceres, Italia, or
even Pax, as she appears on the Ara
Pacis in Rome {fig. 38}. There were
other female personifications too:
Pietas, Salus, Fortuna, and Concor-
dia each had a particular prop Or
attribute to identify her. Winged
Victory held out her crown. In a
similar way, Roma became the
personification of the state and
re<;eived temples and cult, usually
in conjunction with the emperor.
Such personifications were adapted
by the Christian church to repre-
sent virtues of its own (faith, hope,
or charity), or even the church
(Ecdesia) just as the later
Madonna iconography borrows
from the various representations of
both virgin and mother goddesses
(Persephone and Isis, for exam pie).
The practice of adding necessary
identifying attributes of traditional
gods and goddesses was dearly car-
Tied over into the images of the
saints from the fifth century onward."
The function of the actual images of the gods can be difficult to spec-
ify and, indeed, was subject to a variety of interpretations. Like the por-
trait of the emperor, images of the gods served a kind of representative
role. They did not entrap the spirit of the deity in a particular place or
statue but rather mediated a presence that was understood to be in
many different places simultaneously. At the same time, the image of the
god was a central aspe<;t of the religion, since this was the way that devo-
tees recogni zed the presence of the god and were called to reverence. To
venerate a divine image was actually to exhibit a pious respect (if not
actual devotion) to its model. And yet the power and efficacy of these
objects continued as an open qnestion well into the era when polythe-
ism was waning, after the death of Julian the Apostate. For instance, in
City of God, Augustine cites a debate between Hermes Trismegistus (the
'·thrice holy") and Asclepius aboU1the nature and operation of divine
images that suggests the question was still a live one at the beginning of
the fifth century.
IMAGE AND PORTRAIT I N ROMAN <VLTVRE AND RELIGION
In this document, Hermes contrasts the gods created by the Supreme
Deity with images made by human hands but acknowledges (according
to Augustine) that human artisans had a technique for attaching
immortal spirits (or demons) to material bodies. In this way "the visible
and tangible idols are in some way the IxIdies of gods; certain spirits
have been induced to take up their abode in them and have the power
either to do harm, or satisfy many of the wants of those who offer them
divine honors and obedient worship.» Yet, even so, this is only an imita-
tion of divinity, and Hermes predicts a time when all images will finally
be destroyed as «delusional and pernicious." Augustine interprets Her-
mes' words as referring to the arrival of Christianity, which then casts
the dehate as an example of pre-Christian prophecy.'"
Taking advantage of divine images' power, the emperors, their wives,
children, mothers, and even favorites sometimes were depicted in the
guise of one of the gods, a tradition that may have begun wit h the rep-
resentations of Alennder as Zeus. Augustus appeared enthroned with
the goddess Roma, his portrait bearing some of Jupiter's attributes but
holding an augur's staff rather than a thunderbolt. His wife, Livia,
appeared in the guise of several goddesses, including Ceres and Magna
Mater. Her representation as Ceres Augusta in the theater at Leptis
Magna is a famous example." Nero (like several subsequent emperors)
identified himself with Helios or Apollo and had himself represented
with a radiate halo." Hadrian's lover Antinous was variously portrayed
as Bacchus.Apollo. and Silvanus, the god of the forest." At Ihe end of the
65
Fig. l8. Te ." (l'1othe<- EMtI1)
rom the Iv. Paa. A u ~ .
Rome 1)..9KI. ~
~ - ,
66
39. ConvnociJ> os

d<I P>I=o <loi
R.ome (PtlOIo;Al.JtI">o<).
FACE TO FACE
second century, Commodus appeared with the lion's skin and dub of
Hercules in a famous bust found on the Esquiline and now in the Museo
del Palauo dei Conservatori, perhaps modeled after an earlier such rep-
resentation of Domitian (tig. 39)." His mother, who appears in many
portrai ts, has been identified as the face upon the figure of Venus in a
modestly draped group sculpture o(Venus and Mars {Iwr husband,
Marcus Aurelius, appearing as Mars)." Julia Domna, the mother of
Caracalla and Geta, was portrayed, just as Livia had been earlier, in the
guise of the protective mother and fertility goddess Ceres (or Demeter)
or given the attributes of Juno and Isis." [n most cases, such representa-
tions did not intend 10 identify the mortal ruler as a particular immor-
tal god (delis), but to associate the one with the othu, and to give the
imperial personage quasi-divine status (djyillillls)_ The intention was to
legitimize their earthly authori ty by
associating it with immortal divinity.
AI the same time, adopt ing the
iconographic aspects or attributes of
the gods imparted a sense that these
particular character traits belonged
likewise to the ruling individual. In
some cases, the emperor even
adopted the halo of the gods for
himself.'"
Like most of the earlier emper-
ors, the first Tetrarchs-Diodetian,
Maximian, vl!1stantius Chlorus,
and Galerius- were associated in
their portraiture with the gods, in
their particular case with Jupiter and
Her<cules according to their senior
rank as Augustus or junior rank as
Caesar, an ident ifkation that was
reflected on the iconography of their
coinage (fig. 40). Claiming to be in
some sense human representatives of
these deities, they adopted the divine
names into their own and in so
doing reaffirmed Roman religion,
repudiating the quasi-monotheistic
cult of the Unconquered Sun insti-
tuted by Diodetian's predecessor,
Aurelian. The distinction between
Jupiter and Hermles was significant
with regard to the division of
authority and role among the four
IMAGE AND PORTRAIT I N ROMAN <VLTVRE AND RELIGION
rulers.lupiter is the ruler and judge whn sits upon his throne in majesty,
while Hercules is the active agent, known for his wondrous deros. Such
distinctions came to playa role in the iconography of Christ, whose
facial features suggest that he plays both roles--on the one hand as the
enthroned ruler, and on the other as the active and incarnate agent of
the Divine Trinity."
However, when Constant ine I ascended to power and Degan to con-
solidate his rule, the divine patron was Sol. This may have been a way for
him to signal a break wit h the Tetrarchy. The critical moment for this
adoption (or conversion) was reported to be a vision that Constantine
had while visiting a sam'tuary of Apollo in GauL" Since the worship of
the Sun already held an official position and significant following, when
Constantine had his vision of the cross (or chi rho) and «converted" to
the Christian faith, he may have conveniently confu.sed the Chri stian
God and Sol, or perhaps allowed a certain ambiguity between their
respective symbolism. In thi s respect, Constantine tried a different
approach from that of the earlier Roman emperor, Elagabalus (218-222
C.R.), who also tried to establish the worship of the Syrian god of the sun
under the Roman name «Sollnvictus" but who identified himself with
the god, rather than taking that god as hi s personal patron. In any case,
images of Sol, shown as a youthful nude god wearing a cape and radiate
crown (or halo), remained on the coin reverses of Constant ine until the
mid 3205 (fig. 41). Later, during the last of the revivals of polytheism,
Julian the Apostate made similar attempts to promulgate the worship of
So]' whom he associated not only with Mithras (into whose cult he had
been initiated) but also with the language of Neoplatoni sm and even
echoes of Christian teaching {his former, but renounced faith}. King
Helios, as he calls him, is the Son and [mage of the Idea of the Good and
coexistent with the Good from eternity."
The religious and social culture in which Christianity emerged and
developed understood viewing images of heroes, deceased family mem-
bers, emperors, and gods as an essential part of one's engagement with
these persons or being:; and with their personal patronage and authori ty.
The center of one's gaze, specifically, was the face----the access point for
this subject-object relationshi p. Whatewr its degree of «likeness," the face
mediated the representative Or real pre.sence of the model as no other
part of the hody (or being) might allow. The portrait thus had a disti nct
function, more than a didactic, memorial, or even inspirational one. It
also offered a mode of encounter or e.><perien(e of theophany not avail_
able in the same manner through a narrative image. God was apparent in
cwnts and deeds but now even more so in the holy facc it.self.
For these reasons, external appearance was more than mere illusion,
more than 3 record of a transitory and superficial exterior. [t was a way
to establish a connection between realms, whether of the dead and the
living, the royal and the lay, or the mortal and the immortal. It became a
67
Fis- Gold 000I"I'
.na...ng D,,,d,, ... ,,
Ma:.:Jrnwo (01; , e: "") WIth
k>rter.-.d 00 u.,.;r
respecwe minted

eo.,., ... y

68
Fo&. i l.T1voe eon.Wrtroan
coon. 'Mth .ogtrtIy _'d,t
~ types. minted ..
T <inurn, J 16 CE. (Photo;
Cour-tety dille ~
N...........,.toc $ocOoty).
FACE TO FACE
visual manifestation of a presence. But while the portrait opened lines of
communicat ion betwt'<.'n these realms, it also created and nurtured
a.lnal relationship> between beings that 01 herwise wuld not nisI in the
same space or timt', even if thai was a relat ionshi p of worship given and
re<:cived. And while bot h traditional philosophers and eh ristian theol o-
gians str .. nuously argued against the presumption that likeness could be
achi .. ved by a work of artistic imitation, p.>ople never uased 10 make
images of the immortal. The need to "see" as well as to imagine, even if
only symbolically Or partially, was essential to the human and so \ 0 the
religious experience. The power of such images (and their religious
fum'tion) was why early Christians avoided port raits as su{h, even while
they made other kinds of visual art (narrative and symbolic imagery).
The portrait represented the danger (and potential) that was known to
apply to the images of the gods in polytheism. And, as if in a wn{erted
effort to dist inguish themselves from the religious practices, beliefs, or
values of the surrounding culture, Christians at first avoided this partic-
ular kind of iconography. In time, the image won . Its place was too well
established and its attraction too real to resist.
._,

\
THREE
•••
-,'
f





(-
••
. - ,
The Invisible God and the Visible Image
A RO V N D TH E TV R N of the third cenlury, just before the
earliest known date that Roman Christians began 10 adorn the walls of
their burial places (with figurative art), a professional advocate and
North African Christian convert, Marcus Minucius Felix, summarized a
(probably fictional) debate between a Christian named Octavius and a
polytheislnamed Caedlius. The dispute was over the credibility, moral·
ity, and value of Christian faith, and. although at the end Caecilius is
converted, he offers some expeded pagan Hiticism of Christian teach-
ings and practices, including their lack of divine images. That Christians
did things in se.:ret surely indicated their shame and perversi ty. That
they believed their god to be invisible, omniscient, and omnipresent
demonstrated their gullibility:
Why else should they go to .""h to hide .nd "0"",,,,1 wh.tever it i, they
worship ... why do they h •• ·• no .h.rs, no tt mples, no publicly known
im.ges! ... Ile>ide" look atlhe fant.st;';, unnatural creature thai the .. Chri ...
tian. h.,·e devi<N! They nuke that god of thei rS-whom they a'" unable to
.how to others or see for th.m .. make him pry with ",rupulou.
care into the mOTab and action, of all men, e,'en down to their words and
hidd.n thought.; lit h •• to ru.h to .nd fro, ht has to bt present everywhere!'
Octavius answered Caedlius's objections by asserti ng God's essential
transcendence of human vision and knowledge:
Now you think that if we ha ... neither templ.,. nor altars we are ron""aling
the obj«t of onr worship? But what image wonld I f •• hion for God, • ...,ing
that human, rightly ,omider them,e)"", the im.ge of God? What temple
would I <'T<-<:t to him, seeing th.t thi. entire uniwrst, the wort. of hi< hanill,
c.nnO! cont.in him? Would I enclo .. the might of ,uch majesty within the
69
.

FA(f TO fA«
..... ,s " 01 , ...... <hap<l. -....,. ........... opociouoIrl " ...
_ """ ... "'" _ ..... , .... bt ..-bt -'O<d .. _ -. or
,"""'_oW """,-.,,'
o.:""u,', .... ponl< d .. ...,. « ...... Pour • .,.m '0 ,I>< A,bm',n .. , .
""",,,,,,cd in """ 17, 'Tho: ,ex, ""i!Il'='I' '1>0' ",.1', ""d_ ..... "
,IK behot of ,u..."u, 1_ .. well .. ,,1<1 Epku .... n rhilooophoro.,
with wIIom "" Ud '-n "'1ui"" "" ..... <Ii .. .-IO >« ,ho,
,hat <i,y"''' ful l uf Paul ... by""""
plim .... tin! hit , udi<na "" II ... ;, .. ,"""'. mig;o.;,y, In ponkulat,""
not<d. 'i>q hod.n 01 ... oI<di<at«lIO.n 'unknown tod· M.kin, 'hi>
,h., hi! obj«1l<ooon . nd undoubt<dly hopi"8 to >Om< ",,",,",n
"",,,,,d wilh hi> ini<llt<'uolty ",,*,ioticot<d I ........... Paul,.oo.no;<!
,hi 0."";',,, """obip l!I" God.' . pi wIIo ' don not I;""
in .luinco· ... d i! "'" ma<k uf gokl..iiv<t.or _. ' ,n imos< form«! by
''''' on .nd i ..... lIi..;.". uf mortolo' (AI:" 11,1l ·l\Il
O<uvi .... b ... Paul d ...... UP<'" ''''' ,<><hi"" of Gt«!< , nd Rom&n
pocu . nd phil_ptl<n ,., .u"""n hi. <,,,u ... ,jon ,ho, ''''' o., ;";.n
(,.0<1;' f", oIx>Y< n«<lin« I humon •. for b<yond hu .... n
• ...,.. od.nook IS<' Thi! God. b< .. p. · an"'" b< """" b<;, 100 bripl
ro, >ish', He- an ...... "" U .. pcd; I>< ir 100 pu", 10, Ioudt. H< annOO be
n ...... "'" b< io 'DO P"'" to. ou, XI T • boundkoo infini'¥. shori"t
",til hinu<-lf .10 ... ,I>< <:Jf hir ............ · On ...... contin .....
drnyins llut .n)VII< <an koow It.. """,itud< of God .,. ...u • own< ro,
(".oJ. nl .. '" _ .. I n ...... d;"inpiob IndMd ... b in 0 I""'Po bu,
God it U" ;qu., 'Should l aU Hi m f,tha. "'" _ Id """,Hl<T ,ho, H< io
""My; _ .... I <>011 IIi", " "50 "'" _ .... ... ""'" ,hi 11< ir mod< '"
1Itoh, ohoold I call Him Io<d. Y"U _Id «t1.inly u""" ... nd ,ho, H. io
mo". I, R<mol'< th< ogs"5"l< of nomn .n<! you 'Will ... <1<001, Hi.
>plrndo,," All ''''''' trutlu ... -U known ' 0 !h. rommon p«>pl ...
....u .. po<!> .nd .udI ptlilooophm .. I'ythogoou. Anti<thmco.. Epicu.
'u'. At;.,."I<. lno" ,nd PLot o. All ' h .... phil<moph ..... hold ""inio""
' rm'¥ weU id ... , ;o.J with ..........
MI ... pronoun<ins 'hOI< who f. il It> und<' ''' '''' 'h<
untn.cr.<.bility of the uniqL>t. un ........ n,.bl< •• n.d U"""mob!< ("..,d.
Oe .. ,i .. go& on to L'idi<uk ''''''''' driII<kd ,nd <n<>ush
'0011'" proy<1' 0' ",. ili« to i""P'l 01 tb.- 1'"8"" gods. No h.ow
"'U,kally '\<go"" ''''''' things <"uk! b< nothins mO .. th.n d.""
obj« .. mod< byotdinory humon <",It. fun . nimob. birdo. and in>«11
, .. Ii«<l ,0.;, wonhks> ..... .. ' i'q- t ...... pi<d ....... p<reh<d "",.nd built
IIdU 0, _ in ,uch idoh. k .. ing tI><m lor ",. I" wip<. <k .... on<!
>CW' . th., pn.otWi"I, 'od,.... d, •• dh'l god. you 1>0 ....... d.rou',
..m.. AnY" .... b< Ny>. who wouW IOU pa" in illYOlvi"ll _
i""P'l '" ,hN "'ppt ad pl. is booh ,nd pi'''bI., Lldudtd
,nd of LttI$OOnd mind,
THE INVI!l81E TfH VI\IHE IMAGE
Justin Refutation of Idoh I.Ild O;v;neTheophan; ...
,I>< in,nim ... "" ..... of 1"11"" sod> .. "' . ...... I· W«!
b<{",. Min...:i,,' f.h. w,,,,. hi. di'I"I!IK, lOllin M,ltY'. ,,-ho liv<d ,
«nlu,y I><fot. Minu,i .. Frli:<. timil"ly r<prdrd hoo<>,in& imagr< of
III< g<><h "' foolW,. bu, h, 0"0 bd ..... ...J th,m '0 I>< .. livdr do"8<""' "
Ac<o>s, linS I" luoti". ,b<x ..., .. 1 .... fab,iw<d ium. ,,' .... lIy had th,
.. m .. ,nd ["nil, '" w;d<oJ oJnn<,,,. who d«civ< gullible hu!lW\' inlo
"""hip;ng th,m ,"J ,d;po... . "''''''''' ", rotTop'it>l, (ond "",.
,up,rd) hum,n· mod, obi«I>. In" .. d, th, til>< dei,y ,ho, Chri,,; ... ,
w,,,,hip. h, p,,,,,I,in> .. b .. ,n id.bI •• pp .... n" and &tory, which
a nn", I>< ;mi"I«1 0' f<J'T<"rnlrd. Th;, ",10<1<» God. ,I>< !OOR:<.,><I
1'"","><1" of :oil IhinS'- I>a> "" n«d of con .... '" co_king , nd "'l"i, ..
h"""n .in"" .. ,h« 'hoo m",,"" olfd;ngo.·
l.ik """l' of Ih, Ct.";"i. n .poIogi>" and w,i'm "00 f"U<>W«I him
1;11( 100 ins Mio""i". I'd .. ). lu"", ..,kn<owI«igo:> ,tu, Ch ,i"i. n. ;Wtt in
""""n mp«U with ,I>< It..,hinp of 1"11"" po«. and rhik>«>I>h<r<. H,
iJ.n,;r..,. i ....... lh" lI<.nd hi> 'udim< ..... ¥ hold in ""mmoo, and I><
'PP"'" bolh '0 tIKi, "' .. 1 ... ' .... 1 ""*'''Iinlio" » ... <11 .. to 'h<i' rom·
mon ><n"" ·fo, "'hy n«d w< «II )'0". who ,lr .. dy know, i.,o wtul
fonn. th, (J , n."..n. """ing ..-.J rutl in8' .00 lum ....... tuh·
;on ,h. "",,,i.I.! And 001 of ..., •• .1. of di.OOno<. by m<,dy
<h.uSl"S til< form, . nd mwns . n i1NlS< of 'h, reqoi,il< ,!t.p". 'h<)"
m.k wIu, • ...,.. c..u. pi'''' AU inltlligon' 1"'<"> .... h. ' '''''''- .<hon tl><
idol. oftlx sod> at m<r< ·wo,k> of mortal lund," . nd ... 'll<h. io["",,
10 tb< Ol1i .. n, who "",d< ,h,m.' And >ltboosf1 phik>«lph<r> ..-.J po«<
Ito", alrcody .. id ,hi •• l"'lin "s"" ,Itot Chr;'li, ... I<",h _h ""'h,
""'" fully .nd olf ... proof ol'h<ir .... IIIOM. In thi> "''Y, JU>lin <J. bo·
, .. «I IItt It .. hing> of1hi' n<W «ligioo in opl""i'ion 10 1"11'" idolatry
.ud by lpooiti .. l <omp.l''''''' wi.h rhil<>oo>t,hy.
Tho" ddpi" hi> <h .. ""mUlion of tIx I"'pol .. ,ollul< .. m.akin&
ond .......... ipi"t idok lu"in n,. in<oioollh .. enri,,;'n p,.,r..."", of tl><
iovUibility .nd of God "'" """I",ibit wi.h «r1';n
,<n<t' of .h. p.S'n philo>opb" ...... n 'IJ>lm.n' ,h .. m.y n.", b«n
iDI<n<i<d 10 mak< "" D<W toi.b..."" """" int<ll<cttWIy l and rullur:oUyl
"'ttpt.ol:>k ,n .. <o;lu,,"«i1"8'" ,udi",«. At tIx .. m< tim<, ''''' Chris·
"aD .hOl (".oJ i, 01",,1, It'n,.,<n<i<n' of h"m'n .nd
wi,hQo' d"""ib>bI, (, .. u ..... >«On' """,<rodic,«i by «n.iD Script""
."d .his !Om< ""pt..in"'l1- /o$tin "'" """,dy , waf< of
, nd probably IOm ... it.at ""bar .. ,...J by'''' i'r<qu",,, biblinll"''''.,..t.
",-God .. 'l'r<.ring with hum.n <har"""''''''' ,nd habit>. For .... mpk •
.warn . nd E"" -heard ."" «>ton<! of "" Lo. " God in 'Il< prdrn
., II>< tim< of ,h. <"mins br<a<"lG<n H ), God .mdh the pI ... Utg
odo< of No.h'. burnt offmng 1G<n 8:111. 111< Lo,d 'PP""" ond ,,,,,k>
'v AIm," "' """,.1 pL.o:", (Grn I'i""",: 17: bud 18:1) •• 1'1'<'" to
72 FACE TO FACE
Isaac (Gen 26:24), and (apparently) wrestles with Jacob al Peniel (Gen
32:24-30). God called to Moses out of a burning bush, and hid
his face for he was afraid to look at God" (fuod 3:2-6). Although the eId-
ers of Israel are allowed 10 see God (b od 24:9-1]). when Moses asks to
see God's glory he is denied. since no one may see God's face and live.
Instead, God puts Moses in a rock cleft, covers him with his "hand" while
God passes by, and allows Moses to have a look at God's "back" (Exod
H: 18-23 J. God has heaven as a throne and earth as a footstool (IS<! 66: I),
gathers the lambs in "his arms," carries them in "his bosomt and meas-
ures the walers in the «hollow of his hand" ([sa 40: 11 - ] 2).
The prophets uekiel and Daniel both describe visions of a divine
bt'ing with the of a human form" (Euk 1:26) or the Ancient
One with white raiment and hair likt> pure wool (Dan 7:9). justin. who
repudiated the polytheists' material and anthropomorphic images of
the pagan gods and proclaimed instead that God was beyond human
conception or form, was challenged by these texts. He claimed continu-
ity with certain teachings of ancient philosophers, which were (rather
safely) critical of certain pagan religious practices. However, so long as
his community retained the holy books of the jews as their own, he
needed to resolve these awkward manifestations of God in their Bible.
Atthe SlIme time, he elaborated the differences between Christian teach-
ings from beliefs he attributed to jews, in order to demonstrate the
unique and salvific character of Christian faith.
for example, in his first Apology Justin asserts that "all the Jews"
understand that it was the "nameless God" or "Father of the Universe"
who appeared or spoke to the patriarchs or prophets in Holy Scripture.
This belief, he claims, clearly demonstrates that Jews are both ignorant
of God as well as of the fact that God's Divine Word (logO$) is also God.
Furthermore, justin continues, the Logos appeared to and spoke with
Moses and the others, wmetimes as fire, but also wmetimes in the guise
of an angel or apostle. And when the voice out of the bush said to Moses,
"I AM WIIO [ AM" ... "the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the
God of Jacob" (hod 3:14-IS), it signified that all of these departed
patriarchs now belong to Christ (the Word who has come in the present
age as a human being).' Justin thereby explains all the Old Testament
theophanies as christological events.
In his debate with the jew Trypho, just in further elaborates hi s argu-
ment that the attributes ascribed to God in the Scriptures actually
describe the Divine Logos, and the Being that the patriarchs and
prophets heard or saw act ually was the Divine Word rather t han the
Supreme God. To this end, Justin ci tes the story of Abraham and his
three visitors at Mamre (Genesis 18). HeJieving Moses to be the author
of Genesis, he notes that the prophet declares that the one who appeared
to Abraham under the oak in Mamre is God, "sent with the two angels
in his company to judge Sodom by another who remains ever in the
THE INVISIBLE GOD A N D THE VISIBLE IMAGE
supercelestial places, invisible to all men, holding personal intercourse
with none, whom we believe to bt- Maker and Father of all things.H"
Here Justin recounts the story in Genesi, that begins Lord appeared
to Abraham as he sat at the door of his tem in the heat of the day" (Gen
18:1) and continues through the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah
(Gen 19: 1- 28), and asks Trypho and his colleagues if they fully under-
stood the passages. They assert that t hey do understand, but according
to their understanding, God fi rst appears to Abraham, and then subse-
quently three angels appear- two of whom go on to destroy Sodom
whi le the third brings the joyful news to Sarah that she will become
pregnant with a son. Jus tin, promising to persuade his listeners that
these passages could only refer to another God who is subject to the
Maker of all things (who is also called an Angel), bt-gins to attend to the
varioU5 titles and modes of address in the texts as they appear in the
Grt't'k text of the Old Testament (Scpwagim)."
I.t:ading Trypho through a cross-examination he points out that the
one who spoke to Sarah is called Lord" (Gen 18: 10 LXX) and that this
one appears again at the birth of Isaac. Trypho, conceding that that this
title"Lord" might indicate that God and two angels appeared to Abraham
(rather than God, followed by t hree angels), still does not see the n('(essity
for a second divine !x-ing." Like other Jews, Trypho apparently can accept
the bibl ical statement at face value. If the text says that God appeared, then
God appeared. Justin, however, having gouen Trypho to acknowledge that
the ti tle «Lord" refers to Ihe Divine Being, draws Trypho's altention 10 the
secti on of the story that names rwo distinct !x-ings as "Lord." After the two
angels safely whisked Lot and his family out of Sodom, «the loRD rained
on Sodom and Gomorrah sulfur and fire from the loRD out of heaven"
(Gen 19:24). To strengthen his argument, Justin then points nut other
places in the Scriptures where more than one !x-ing is called «God
H
or
(KuriQS). For example, he points to Ps 45:6-7, where God appears
to !x- anointed by another God God"), and Psalm 110 where the
psalmist writes: uThe Lord says to my lord, «Sit at my right hand until l
make your enemies your footstool" (Ps 110: 1 ).n
Toward t he end of his debate, Justin summarizes his position---that
all passages of Scripture in which God is said to act, to move, to speak,
or to bt- seen, refer to the Word rather than the Unbegotten God. In
other words, every scriptural allusion to God as being seen or heard (for
example, Moses and the bush or Jacob wrestling with the man at Peniel )
should !x- understood as a manifestation of God the Son or Logos. " In
addition to asserting the superior Ch ristian understanding of the Scrip-
tures (including a claim that Christian believers were the heirs that God
promised Abraham), t his clear distinction between the First and the
Second God is absolutely necessary in Justin's mind, in order to protect
the utter trans<:endence and incomprehensibility of the First: uFor the
ineffable Father and Lord of all neither has come to any place, nor walks,
73
FA(ETO FA(f
'"'' sI«p<. nor n.... "P- .... t ...... in' in h4 own p/a«. wh<ffY<f ,ha, ..
'0 b<h<>ld ,nod qu;o. ." h., •• h ... ;n8 n";, h« .,... ,.,,, . .... two
b<ingof indeocribabk mis"' , , . , n..m., ... lIti""" 1Ibnham, nor loPe.
00. Iacob. 00. ony orbn J><I'On,IOW.II< Fa ...... nd ir><fl'abl. Lord of 011
(.00 01", of a,,;,, ), bu' ..... him woo .... orcording to hi> " ill hio Son.
b<ina God ... • Acco.-din8 '" Justin, ... divine I8<nl of II>< Un.lrn
Go.!, ,I>< Word COn ",_h .00 inl..-"" .... h Ihe ""leti.>! . nd "",ru)
..... 1"'. s..,h '3<nqo protcc" ,he s..pmnc God', ,ralU«1ldonc<. while
oiJoowinS inl<'O<'ion ... i,h tho , .. ,tion th"'''''' Go.!", Word. After 011.
whik m;';ng witlt ' .... '.,n ,..., . nd dirt}' ",,,' k ... "" ...... bod
do it.
Irenaeus:The Unity of God qainst the Gnostic.
, >-l#
.h ... m. 'ime, .... 1 fu,Jtffcrrn' .. lr<nac" timilarly " i«l
'" tcCOOcil. Ih< <onuadi<li<>n bct"«fl COO', ....... ''''1 invitibility.rx1
i<>tfFobili1y wilh biblical ..", .... to of Min. 't..orhanin. In Rtfi.",.
'"'" of 11< .... ;... Ilk I" " in, " ...... ,he ",tct , .. no<rn<I ....... .,r
the Fi .... i'nIon, bu,""" I>< 0100 wan" to pro!Kf ,he unityof ,I>< God·
htod. h. ",uld nm to <I;"i"8"""in8 IK,_"" ,II< J.osot
and God by ,he lA>t!o<', direc' in'","""'n wi,h ,he <fn,«I "".tel Tbt
diffcl<TI<" bnW<nl ) .. ti.', ond I, .......... ' '1''mmu...tI<'<f ,hei, <lif·
fete"t Wit.", .. J ... in «Vi>in> the ,t...,p/unior<.,r ,t.. Old Test. ·
mm'" .pp .... n<a of tit. Word in <>rdcr.o atabIir.h.1I< duoli'Y'" d ••
d .. ;"" ""'" ('8'i ... , • )no), lmuoruo .. mot;",..1 by • d;/f<ftn' , ......
Iop<ol plJlp<»< .nd cimt,""""", he .-I. to doftnd II>< unily '" God,
,II< <l<Tn&! "''''''tcncy of the d .. inc plan "" ...... tion..rx1 ,he ....... w
sood ..... of ,,,,.,ion '6"in" G ..... ,ics. In oddi,ion. ."ho"", I .........
d ...... upOn Se.i",u"" whrn h< r<fu, .. the I<od>inga<>f ,he G_ia.. he
connot U!< it It> .utltonu,i>« proot 'nt in the ... .,. tha, I ... ,in did in Itis
dW"3U< "i, h • J<w.
I ..... w ... liud ,ha,. ' .... h" lilt \'alentinu, ",uld >itnply oIiqr<
,ha, ,h. biblkol ... <>«"" of di.ine IIwophan'" pt<r'I-'«I ,II< 01
• diffe .... U v<l in tltis .... """her lho DMr>t: Word ....... 1>< Inl'isiblt:
God, but on inlerio, 0.-.'0' who,..., Illilird by .""",;a. ion wi.h ,It<
matnW rnlm. hu'in"' ><>lu,ion (, hal the Sorond hnon WOO ,be Ill,*"
of'hcst: ,hcop/ronia) -."..t 01", ' 0 "'* 'hi> 0an8<'"" Fo. tltis t<aOOn,
I"' ....... ,nin. m.kins 0 d ... di"in<li_ ... n ,h. ,_ !1ivin.
Bcinp P''''' to ,he ilK ..... ';.,n, H. . h. pro ...... nd .... ifl .
nn« "f,h. i.",nub"" .. ,t.. nniq .. -r in wh;en G<r<I 'pre'" '0
hum.nlirxl mot< ',,",n .. dcmon.rrorin1l tl>< cxioIrn« 01 , Sro>nd ...... _
fOn in ,h. c:;.,.,±1><, d. A • • ,,,,.It. O'Cp<,'cdly i • • Ul, th .. ,It<
fu'"" io in thos< biblical .. ",i", of God', . .. nif ... .,ion.o
h""""ity, And 'hi> wI> hi> proof "'God'. mi,W . 00 ... n-<Kd<nd pIm
for human Wva.ion, whidt incl ...... I>oIh ,he f m. Adam'. WI and ,he
THE INVIIiHE GOD AN!> THE VIIISLE IMAGE
s..:""d Ad,o", ', m,kml";'" in , .... f'<">O" of In ..J.lio.", '"
hIS btlitf in God', un,ty, "'''''''''''1'. o.nd p<OI'id<n«, ho ......... , Ir"" .. u,
bff" roo.o" .. of 'h< "",,,,,i,1
ing ,h. divin< ,hroph. nieo to tI>< pr<-inc .. ""I. W",d wm ... p<tilously
'Q , .... "Q''''' of di.in, ""nif ..... "iofU in pagan 0' Gno"ic my!! ..
in which. di.in. l><inS l""'y, . nsrl, or d<onon) t<mpomily 'ook on
mer< hum.n 'p!'<.nnct. bu, ,ua. Ihfflp"'ni<'s did "'" and could "'"
io"-""< ,.ki"S OIl ..... u. 1 /k>h. Mo,,,",,,,,, , .... {.., ,h .. God ",n><
i" diff.""" 'l'1"'"inS diff",,"tly '0 diff.,.." individual> ... , a
""" of Go<!', indu,,,,, l!"' .... ".;,y . .., ,hot oil _", migh' I>< indud<d
on ,.,.f. p"",kknc. irr<spe<'i .. of individu" in, d lisro<' 0' . bil-
i'y to p<rr<iw Of und""'nd , n ,"",cri< ,ruth."
Th<rcfo,..I""'...." ....... ,I>< P'";''''''' <ow wal •• i>ion of
,I>< D;.;n. Wo,d who. .. God, is i""i>ihl • • oo t>oondl<!s. bu, "Ito, ..
\\\>«1, ,It< "'I"';'Y ,,, b«om< ..... iblt.nd ""uld do..,,, , .. 11\. poi",
in Ih. {,, '"t<o "U' of ("oQd', infonil< 8J><>dn ... ,,,J Io:.ov< fo, ""'''ion, ' "
''''''''' who h,Y< f.oi'h. " Til< Word, who ""k<> God known '0 bWlWl>
'brough , h. 51ft of rrorl><q ,nd sr. n" <m. i" indi.wo,I,.
glim"... of, "OW 'hing ,ba, would co.,. to 1"" in ,I>< " .. " Ii ...... ." In
"' ..... """d •. 'h< propbru .nd l",ri.Kh> fo""'''' ,II< "' .... ,...,! m.n.iko-
",ion of God_ in Ch,is'. Th_ "isr><>"'" ott<>-,' wOo io.i" ,"', ,h.
pruph"'. a.< , Jiff.I<"' God , .... " ,h. ·in ..... ibl. F"h<r 01 .n: unde,·
".nd nlilh<r tI>< ",luI< 01 God no, "" fu",,"" of prOJ>h«r_ Ac<oN.
ing '0 11<1IRU>, ,It<ruminS of aui" ...... 'h< oingul" .... r in God
' PP<'" '0 mon. l .. ",d ,h. mod. by wbi, h God i, full)' pr<><"' "'i,hin
,,,,,,on" And 'hi' unique .. "hl, '1'1'''''"'' (. lw. Y' 1"" of G".f,
o"ginal i",,","" for"" ul''''''''' p<ri«,ioo of ' ''' "",rid) ;. ,,·h. , ,I><
prop ......... . OO ('''<101d. Fu""""",,,.. wll<n ,""," .. I. ullim."dy "'"
COO', full &1<>',. " "'ill ,,'" be ou' "fth6, "",,, .. <>0=;'1' bu, do< '0
Go<!., VOIn sdf·"""I"",n, to "hom God , "d in ,II< .... y ,ho,
GOO <ItO< ct, ., eli,i" "Y' in M." H, .!II....,J .1< ,I>< P"'" '" h<. n,
fu, 'ht-r .. ill ... God."
A, ,h. <tid ,im • • • «o,ding '0 I""",, •. ,b. Log<>< ... ill k .. ! ,'-<
l>I<s6tJ 0"<> ,,-/to 10,,, God ;"'0 'h< I'r<o<nc< ",d th<y wiU I"rw« of i ...
briiIWt<),. 1Iy 'h" .ogto,. '1><)"'-;,,< im""'tWir, Ci nrottupl;"n for <1",.
nallif.") ""d hu,w boIh Cod .00 'h<m><lV<o in "",h. A, ,It< ... ,i", of I
)ohn rut' ile 'B<1owd, _ .,. God'. ,hildf<" """" wha' w< will .... ""'
not)"<1 ..... o """.o..l . Wh .. , "'" do) bww is ... hnt II< .. IW< ....... "'"
will h< 10k him. for- "" will ... hi", .. ",;," (I I",," lol). 10 ,II< in",in"
"" i",,,mp«il<nlibl<. and i"..;,;/)k Cod will be • ..dt
ble kn"",.\oI •. "rt<)ph<rically ,ht<)ugh ,h. Spi,;' •• nd o<iop'i ... 1y
through th< Son.'" In "'y, th< inYioibk God i. I"ni.lly .. ", p_i_
.io".lly ."'bk in ,h. pr<><Tt, •• nd humon> .f< ""li,,,neJ by =>&"ition
of God'. in.i,wly io ..... ,.", and .ub.<.ju<n')y 'hrough ""
n"n;f<>,",;o.. ;n Chtiot. Moming ,ho, God an I>< p«<.i.-..l ""'h in 'h<

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THE INVI!I81£ 'OD ... ND THE VlllHr 1M ... "
eonl<qu,nlif. onlik< 'u"i". I",n .. ", " 'giJ, di"in8uiot.ins ,h.
di,· .... penon. on t<nm Ih" imply .uoordinali"", but llik< IWin) .....
'ho:>< .. ",in fmm 5<'il"o" ",.m.,< ,I« kw> " 'hQ-im'$io< 'h" 'I><J'
MuM kn",,' ,'" F .,htt by hi m..,Jf, "';,hool ,I>< lI'ord. ,Iu, ;.. wilhQU' Ih,
S<>n,'· AI Ib ... 1D< lim •• I,m"" .. , .11<) ,om""" Gno"in,.-oo ... iDly
d.d1f. ,h .. tht purpo»<<>i Ih. I"'I-No on. """"" Ih. F.thtr ""'J'I tht
S<>"-I hI.li II:l1; l.uk< IOcn) ..... '" in,rOO"'" ,,,,,,her. uolnown GOO.
AgaiD! llbi>, lrm .. u, dod ..... 1 .... 1 Ih. l.ogoo ;. tht oD< ",flO w .. mani ·
feo' .nd who. in Ihi' ... f. -,,,,,,, ... '0 ","ul G<><I.., ,h .. God
beoorn< Imow" ."" Worki"ll s.im .. .S'i"" iliff"""'l oppon.nl ..
1«"""" de"i« ..... 1 God ..... hu" .. nly .;'ibl< pnu, '0 II>< in<.>.""""'"
of 1<> .... whICh i. hi. of prol«linS Ih. uni', o/God ....... 11 ..
,ffirmins 'h, d;"in, «onomy Ih .. d,irn<d th" God . ppnml .. n>q .. , i y
in Cbri" fo, Ih, •• k. of the "orld', .. !val ion. Thi. di.in. inilia,' ..
low;" J homan. did "'" imply COO', mu"bilily. 1Iowtvcr. ,inc, Chri,,'
U h"m.n "u oJ.."'Y' • 1"" of COO', plan. Mom . <id Ev.·, f>ll
..-... "'" • mi.",kul .. ;"n of II>< doi'Y'>r.n inh<r<TlI rosmk flaw: "1h<T.
i. "' .... n««»ty PO" of. "'ng .. d i nltntion>l P«><$ of "",,", .. ;"n,
<olmi".«<1 in I .... 'Pf'Ul' '''''' of God •• , b. Inc,,,,,, .. Ont Ion '1'1"'''-
.nC< r",f><'<O in'''' p<Uphtt,).ne! '" .... """">kr,.! in ,h. <n<l Ii"" wi,n
Ih. uI.i& .ision of Goo', fun slo,y,
Tbe ... , I","" .. , UOdo"I. 1>.Io Ih. w",d '0 >bow f"rth ('.<><I i.
Ihrougb lho >g<ncy of <"'''ion .nd-in lilt incom"ion_IIIt "'Orb of
mi"'>tty .od ,«I<ml"ion." mu"' .. ,h",ugh 'h< .i''''n' and word.
O<m 'nd .... «1 by ,I>< Iltbmv pt<>phrt>.nd ,ht du-
dpl .. ' fut . nd ffflling ,h.m .. Iitt Lu. SupPf' w= w>.)'> llul COO
"<xmi>«l pro.idtn«- lo ... rd lboot who ... n .. tly d<>irtd 10 bthold
God. bu, in thu woy. "><rordi"ll '0 'heir uplKi'y,' Fi""Uy. iu"" ,h •
• htopbani •• vf.t.. Old ,.. .. m'n • .u"... Ih. potr;a.du.OO proph." I"
>« .Dd k""", Chrj". I ron ...... <101m. ,ba, ron l<TOpor .. Chri>, .. n. who
,h", .h..., .. "" "'>in",.« .h,m,d ... "l" ..... ',.! in Ihol< .1lC"nl
The 'burch 'PI'"'' in ,,,., Old Teo""",nl •• 04 GOO', «dtmp<ion
i, .. h .... n"y fro .. ct",';"n. "'" jus",,'ho>< who """
i><>ro .lttr ,h. lim< "fTIt..riu.
Tertullian:The Dil nity ohhe Incar nat ion and the
Di .. inc.ion of tho. .... rson. of t h. Tnnity
TenuUi.n. tiM hi> f<1k>w No"h I\f,ian Mino<iw 1'<1t.. ridicu.l<d ,ho.<
wbo "'<><ohipod in .. im.o ...... ...,. '" inug<> of 'ht gods """ """" fash -
iontd oul of <V<T)'1ay mll<lial>.ln hi. ApoIov ..... PO'"" ou' Ih .. Ih<y
.... n><f<'ly pi«<>"r .... ,,('f--·l«adI .. .- obj«" ,ba, "h,,,, "" "" .. of
Ih. 111IU,i .. . nd di'S,.«. of Ibri. ,on •• ", .. i"g ... Ib<y at. "Iu. lIy
uJKOn.ooo."r tht honorS p'Od lo,b.m.· Ttrtulli.n Illtn <kknd; Cltri._
';'n, ag.'"S! I h<ll< ,,' M _IJ 1"<"'<'"" I hem fu, ttfu<i"ll '0 p."k'pott
"
FA{[ TO FAH
in .... eh fooli"'"_ "w ...... oJ, an"ol be nwl. "'" 10 inju •• ,h_
lsod'] whom ....... «,,.in "" In hi.< ,,· .. ,i .. Ato;...r
1dJ>4. h.;' """ ""'" bLo .. nt/y """'''''pi '''' .... dod.";ng 1M (I""" who
m.ke .h .... hingo nol only r«<i .. no help from Ih""', bu ..... liu
k<"... t.c.r. fed nor >mdI. I "d"'hrit!><orb ,re
....... nd .. rtb" (d. Ps Apin" Ih ..... in T .... ulli.n
i"lim th.1 Ih. <>bjca of eh""i. n """"'ip iI ,h. On< G<.i _ ,''''
.,... ",,"not .... hhmogh h. ;, ..... This God is indeo.:tib·
.bI< •• houSh di>«mibl< in vac-. bq<>nd.1I tho""" or oonapIion. bu.
,.., ""'nif<>' in ,bat ""1' "Anf«1Idt_. H""", .. II) corooc;", of
('.;d ",.wlIy a1kow> ""'rt""" undrrot.nd ..... , God;,.. Fu"h<rmOf<.
huma" .... .,.,. rul"", ....... of God Thty can!\01 i"<'O<Ibly bo:
of God .inc< God', "";,,.no. i. d<mon" .. bIy .bown .... ,..... ...... in
n>t.r<.Dd .hroush . h. workins ""' of hmory.OO ... ry tim •• "'.,
r,ivd ,h.nks or " ... """ for j"""'" H God i ... 1'1<.<1"0 .. , J<> ..... hing
hu" .... do "'" $t'<, bu, ,<1 r""" .. ide"«.D "" • ...J Ih.,...,
.,...., in Ihri. own ; ... ti""" .. 1 b<Iwovior.
In hi.< ,rf ..... ;.,.. <JI"h<m;"'" oo_c<e<. Tenun .... <>OO<I<mno Il>oo< ""'"
m"und<nund til< <t<m.lI no' u,. . n<! """"" j .......... "'" ci , .... W<>t<l
M.re""' • ...., tim;.. , .... Inlity 01' the '''''' I'IcohIy """rnation ci
o.n., . nd ,lo;ms ""', h< .. ,.. "",...uy "' .... I<;nJ ci spi,i,uol, ",rqsrbc"
t..ins. l<nulli.ln ;,..i .... ho. thor< _ ""'''ins un ..... ''''' <J< ckpodinS
.oo..t the DMn< !\rinS ...... AM. I ............ ;., onI .. '" pm •
• "" the ,,,,,,,",,<i<n1 ond ,.m..bdi.y 0{ God. TmWl .... funll ..
con,.".u ,"" i ...... ,he "S.", of.1>< c...,.,.. """" ", .... ll. ,,,,,"..d '"
and with tb< proph<u ond pa,,"rchs ond _ lat<. ;."mot<
in human 8M Only.1I< 1I<JI<>tt<n0n< ....,._It .. Pu<nt ....... l"o<>,.
i"l! II :27."D« no (mortal) On<....,. ... God.nd I"" (e ...
On OIl< tt.nd. Tmullim:og=S .ho. ,ho ""ibu'" th.ot M. rcion ...... 10
<lto<rib< God. ,10th .. """",")i',. Umppm..d ..tHlit}l. . nd 'm .. ".nobility.
OJ< ' I'ProprW<' On ,II< oth<r h.ond. T<T1ttllion i ....... tIw tho« dtstod·
i"l! h uma:t q...titin ""'t M.uOon _Id dmy to God, ,10th .. ""'''I! ...,...
...... od. ut "",>un .. t«! in b",My funn. ...... .... ' '1 ft.. h
y
.... " ..w._
ti"" .Dd thu ...... nIIy "f.nd I:><a>m;"8 '" God_ Bu ...... tbrir .... ".
,h .. ,h. w.mJ .. -.. ,h .. me",b., 0{ . 11< Godh<od who o<tually
,..;.h ..... p«:>pheu ... .1 I"',w.;b. from ,"" m.W"I!
hirn><lf • • hid. k>w<t ,h. " the . ngdt" (d. 1"1 k5) .nd, by thi> Iowuing of
hi"""'f. ",.ually ..... D<d .I>ou •• nd p .... ic<od { ....... ,:I«IJ h<inS i" Ih<
hy",," ",t< .hat h< ...... oI<Otin<d in t .... md '" I>«om< .• And .hio _
,ho On< who d<o<cod<d . o .. rtto to ;nl<rro$l'l< Or "'8"" with humanity.
with . .... . u.bo<;.y .nd in ..... nam< oI'God (who ............. . ioiblo), III<
On< ...., , Ion<· knows the F. thn" (M. n
fut .his " • ...,n. when TmuUian tulTU to ,h. " , ipty .. 1 ,"""nil of
.1m"" .h<opItan .... h< . 1):U<O f", , .... "", ... 1 hul!Wl'rul n .... .,. <cal"yo{
'h< di. in. ' PP'". nc<. for u . mpl •. in hi> view. t .... ,h_ ...... of
THE INVll18U GOD AND THE VIII HE IMAG£
AIi"h . ... in Cen«" Ifuly . pp<. red OS '" .... JO<n. And ",1Ii1< 10<
judge> ,hi, ,hese wer< 001 wdinuy m<n, bull"" ""8<" IOn<! Ch,i". h •
• ho iwld. Ihot 'Ixy ........ i.h,<'<I in ""I hu"",n HM. How<V<l. ,,,,,i.
ncoh .... , "'" , h .. si""n " 'h< binh from . hum.n mOlh< •• un,< II ..
h'"'' .,r IO II< • ..-nty h<i<>l! from , "",,,at WOrn." ..... mt.v<'<i 0011 {O.
(h.i" .. 110. mom."' of h i. n"ivi'y. Rolh ... 110. Huh "f ,h. 110 ...
('(,om ,,10 ....... IQ,"''' <lc"Ye<!') d,d no, h . .. '" bi"h.
!><gu .. i, .... "", «<>in8 '0 dOt. h' ""011,,, •. 110. IIa.h of ChriS! on 'Ii;"
""""''''" ..... 01.., 01,,,.;,,,,,, wi.oou, b<nc6, ol hu ...... bi"",.on« i, w ••
.. ,hi. june'u",""" "'" ",bp' to d .. IIL Bu'. i. " ... .... ,,..,in,. "t..,n;"g
t" hold i",<KOu" •• mongol morulo.· Aft<l aU. Tmullian rondud<>. if
GOO co" on< <b
1
m.k< bum.n. in'" ' ''Fi'' GOO un. inly con mak<
.n&d, in'Q hum. n, (joot ., ...... G<><l <on t.:com<
Tmu.ll .. " th< .tory of """,.hom·, v;"i"", and I0<0I>',
,,· ...... I,n3 ..... "10 ." """" ,t.., ''''' "k'ng on of 10""",. 1\a.h i"di< .. " ""
",*, ol disni'f'o.1I< S<c<md. """"n. r..,. ...... if ..... ,hi, aU
,_ '"8"" W<f< m"", ' ''Vh (.00 ..." 0"", .,r,h<m Ch.ist),,,"< would
'0 ""1 .... < ,ho, ,1><;, ... umpt,"," "fhum," dUl 't..m "" h.tm •
.... n .oousb 'Ixy m",' i>< ... um«l '0 i>< inf ... ", •• ".i>< Son. NCON'
in8ly •• h .... umption of hun .. n /koh ",.,.n ""ion ,10 .. «>nfi,n!<d
Chf;"·. ,up<rio<i'y. h;' invuln< .. ." ."" <bng«> of bodily ch'''S' .
. .... hi . ... . ocrndmc< of.n ,II< mow" plty!.>:alla .... A, ,Io< .. m< ,im<.
,i>< Socon<!l'<rlon i , '""on. of ''''' Trini'y wOO i .. bI. 10 ""do'l" ""'<I'
nol duns< .nd '" .. k< on a_b<r Ihum ... ) ""u"'.·
T""""d th< rod of h;' book "&lin" M.t<Oon. T<t1U1lian r<k .. '0
I',ul', 1<1, ... ,n 'h< Cn!<wi..." to "",pO" h .. """'m'"", ,hot Oi";', .....
,h. ,.;.ibl. ' pp<a""'" of GOO ." tho prop""" an<! ",,, .. ,do> of SClip_
'Uf<. I"" .. PoUl <01" Ch,i" ti>< 'Imag< of."" h"isibl< God.- T .. ,ullion
prod ......... Ow< .on,ilotl]i .. , ,h.o, ,t.. f.,,,,,, of Chri" .. i"";"I>I<.
.now ,ho, i, WlO""" Soo wOO .......... in .ncirn, 'im<> ... os.""
of tIw Fo,hu him>df.- · Such. rot. for ''''' Son. "" .imul .. ....,.".y au_
'''''' •• m .... "'" b. undm'ood ,,, okmo"", . .. , Jifl'<'r<"", b<1,,«n.
,.;,ibl .... d.o ;."isil>l< God. lin« ''''' Son .... h. E!<mal WoN anJ Fi ....
8<g<>1l<n of ,10< roth ...... nnol1>< di"i",u,""" from."" Foth<r in '<1m,
",,;On, lvill. lim< .... ..,M .. ".... Th< • ....., di.ill< Pmun, .t< CO<1<tn.l .
• h< <1m. in ......... 1 !><ins. .nd unit<d in in'",''''" . 00 d«<l. TI><;, w._
,inCli,,". for T,"ulli, n ..... IS "n ,10< dill><"''''''" b)o ,.hi<h ""< <on
app<" '0 h"""n, m..m h ...... finh whit. th< 0'''''' 00..""'.
Wb.n T<t1uUian ,.fu, .. ,10< .tachi", of ,10< modalN r ........ bow_
"" •• 10< ol<><> "," hi", '" .lIitm.t.. ,.. Ii, y.nd disn;'rof,h< i"""n""",
in hum.n fl .. h. o. '0 do,"""" .... tho un"1 .,r,1o< in,i.ibl< God "f
>c,ip"'" " 'ilh tho On< ""'" '1'1'1"'" to ''''' """ .. ",h,. 11. ... 11 ... 'go'''''
''''' modal;',,' .. dial ido, ,hot t"" iingl. GOO ' pp<a" in ,h, .. diiT<t<n,
'n"""" o. n;les, T .. 'ull ... up"""" "'" plurol;,y.,rCoO<! "hi!< >how,,,,
,h. di"in<1",n, of ,h. ,III<, p<.""n. of."" Tfini'y. H<t. '(muU"n
"
"
FAU TO FA{[
.t..O'd ",,">cu", co, .. :.,," to . ho .. (b. 0<1"''' uf Go.! . 'on. with , ....
I.ogoo and If<IIy SpOrit in cre.o,;"n.<>d ftdemption. Acco<ding..,
TO'It.Uion, !'run> Igd '" pro'"'" .1'1< un;1f of God by drny.
'''II tho .-."iaI di"maion b" .,," C<><I. a..;s,. ODd Sp;,;,. In i"'''"''''
"t. Pluta. "u"llI ttuot the Supreme f.,1>e< was born in.., ' 1 ....... 1d
(.nd ,hu, ' ''''pororily .... ibI<) .. th< Sa.ior. Su<h • INdo,,,!! "to 7 Hil,.
ifnrIM'd th. t whm "l'I"",i"8" 0.,,,,. "'" 0... God .u/lCml ...... died.
Th;, I..t T,,,.lIi," '" """" .. I'ro ..... of -"uo:ifyi"l! (".0<1 I ..... Fothtrl,-
To "lute,........ l<rtuIH.n d<monoI ..... ,I>< d<fmi,i .. of
divin< by.obowi"ll til< pra<ti<:oI diotin<tion , ........ ;,.;.
Ilk God and the Woo:! and by lumin8 tu ",no... 1dO;·
m<>nja of Cod', opp" ... nou. T«,uJl"n prod";m. tlul .mil< nu .... '"
""'1 flO1 >« God in full I...,. ....,. >« lilt s."",", Porton,
by vin", of "th< d;,.p..n...tion of hi> dorivod "';"-n«,"" Th<
God io /'f'<diaI«<Iby wtIik II>< ........ l"I'" io n<>I. Thcrdor<,
.milo: th< tt", I'n><>n ;. "'*'Iu'e/y inviliblt. God ,he <ltrnal W<'ltd may
b< iovisibl. or ,;,obi<. $;nu invitibilily" ""'''''' of ,"" Woed', unaondi_
.ionoal qu.h,""';' moy be",.,,, y;,.;t.I<, bdo" ,,,,,,,,,", ... ,,-, in
.W<mo and 11>< 1" ..... ""'-. by_trw. an "....,. b<-...
T .. ,.llion candidly acknoooi«lJ<o tlla. ,I>< xlip.u .. -.... ><If·
(O,,,rad,,,""1, ho_ .... , He .-,,,," in <m,;n pt..<co ,be tat-..IO
,"", "" <u>< ....,. ... God aNI I ... (d. E..,.J )):;!(II, whilt in <>It..r pbcft
p... oumplto of !hoot wbo djd led: upon ,Iv taco of God and OU"
.Md-fo, <lWIlpl<,looob .. I'ftli<l (Gm )2:30) and ""-in DnlI<I<>n·
<>m1"""'''' ,II< "[,on:! kn .... f.u w fa«' (0..., J.4: IO), , .....
>pporen. di.",opand •• ",n l<ad to the «>nd"""", ,"", rith<r th< S<rip-
'u .. is tal>< or misl<adillfl or i, .. bt, ,«" diffffm. divino
"f"" ... " p,-. .... and hi. {nil.,...." ..out.! """" doimed ,"", _ h IU"
,Iv dilF<1'rn' divino< .......... p<rhapo . hi< liU "'f"Ity wbo
.oom<Iimd K1 ... \0 the,,,.d ... On the 'hird PC'''''' . nd """"";"'" in ,Iv
'm
T..,uDian .... ,I>< rontrodi<lion P""" hio point""", ,I>< d",in<1ion
of ,Iv , .. , ...... (on< wh ... doc< misll' bt ocen, nn< """""" r- ....., _ I,
b.., Iv .00 S<n an _rlUftily to play on .Iv ..."..j "foc<' ,nd ront<n<b
,""t .udI """trod.""",, >houkI I>< undoontood .. III micmo Or riddk,
b<tm>win8''''' li .... of""ul:",.,... we Of< 'h""'ljil • ",;,m.;n "" ....
b.., 'htn foc< to foc<' (I 0>r 1):12, ""hor', tr....a,,,,,)," Fo< iruanu,
Iv"y>. .. -t.y ...... Moo<. ... to_God', r..:.. in E..,.J 3): I) ond IS, ""'"'"
Iv .... j ......... """",dint to -.. 1110r why doesC<>d..n...;., ......
lO. whtn CoOd hod ol.....ty ....... n M-. Itio!.a! Can """" ..... _
fa« I>< """,oIly.w.row whil< -'"II tl>< oth<r be bt'kf>rialr Tonul·
li.;on", ,qy OUt of 'hio ronundnim io to doim ,'''', ."" oppd"_ of II><
Son.!>ow> f<>rth ,Iv "fa« of tl>< F .. h<r" '" whoom h. b<\onp and by
wt.om II< io txso ....... T<rtuDion 'hw rrio ....... Paul", .. , , ..... "· Iv io the
;""'11< , r/ thor CoOd" (Col US)."
THE INVUl8L.E COl! "I'll! TH E VUlBlE IMACE
fi...uy. Tmullian ron.dud<.. ,II< Goo.,.!>.nd Epi"k> ........ bo,h.
vi>ibk.nd ilSI invu.il>i< God. "undt,. m.nif .. , .nd .,.,...,...1 di'''IK,i<m
in ,II< condi,io<! of I:>o1h .... in ,II< inu,n"io<!, ,II< i"vi"01<
.nd .i.ibl< Dc<om< ,«on<il<d, .. d Ch,i" . how. u. hi. "1><," (,II<
"F.ih<,"). Tmullian ""rho .... brrn lbinkin5ofP. ul'. <In<Tipli<m ofih<
f.K< of len. >howins forlh ,I>< "lis!>' of ,II< k"""''kdWO of ,I>< of
God" (l Cor 406 ). Sud. on 'flllmrn1 'her<by mo/vn ""'h >«mins <on_
,,0<1 .. 10<1 ""<mrn".' k>hn 5,l7, ")'>\I1uvc TlCV<f he.", I,he: F .. he,'. 1
"' .. ,. ,>t 1«" hi< form," and k>hn 11,45, "".""","" ..,.. Ill<...,. hinl who
Jrnt n ..... IIK:oUI< of ito "d<fiwd .. "'.IK<," ih< P ... · innm . .. Word ..
';>ibl< by will,.od btau .. of i" ho""" .. i."n«, ,I>< I .... """ WQ'"
Is vi>ibl< by ( its hu!tW\) n"''' ....
Clement of Alexandria:
Philosophical Aniconi.m and the Futility of Idols
Cl<rn<nt. in '<"rf mIKh ih< .. m< ton< • • r<rtuUiln, ridirul<d 'hr """.
>hip of 0d0I • • nd, by apooi", ito futi lity. 00p<d to """ .... t tho>< .. ""
followed weh plactic •. 'n hi< f.<llM .. , ... Ie tlot C.udJ. II< off ... to ...
50".. imag<> up lor iru.p<etion .nd prom;"" hi • • lIdimu tlut ")'>\I will.
"l"" 5" over 'h<m, find how'",11 >iU1;' ,11<",,,om in whicb )VII Iuvc
brrn ",. ,..J, of ""'''''ipi''' tl>< ...... "'" ....,,\0 nf ho""", II,
<k>c,i ..... !, .. t < . .. Iogu. of .xompl<> 10 d.mo""" .. hi. poinl,
i ... 1ndin5 .n i .... 8< <If ",,,,,,,i< rnoJ.t fmm • If .. 'runl<, " ... of lupit«
nu.!< fmm bon«, "'" of Diool"'" m><l< from "" ... w'I""at"'" h.
fin,lfy eI.im. to pi'r ,II< m;"",t.Ir w_h<o who to'" ""h thinp .. ri-
"""'y . nd, pnying to inugts. t<' thr .. m< r«Ult os th<y would if thry
ulKrJ to tho woll. of 'hrir ""u .. Not I"""uta,ly dong.roo •• bu,
ut"rtr fooli.h, he ...... "
no. w ,,",,,,,,, ,_ ;, dOl ...... ..! '" 110< ",.u" of ...... who """" ;, '"
" ....... ""'" .. 1""1"" .... " .. "'" ...... ....,.. \0 .... "" ..... -
<n of .... h wontUp _ pI •• ..d dnnon., but ia mr';'" .. • ..d .<t,
_ .. ., mol< up ...... "" 'NIy,the ....... ""'" "' ... mltt<!.n.p...!
.,. u.. """'- .... _ ...... .., ,, -.. ,! ......... ..--,V """",,,",,"
............ .. , C· odwl>o_lo,noIyGod.'
Uk< )u .. in .nd Mlnuciu. F<lix. Ci< .... nt oj", und«>lood 'hat Ch,i.·
, ..... W<1l' not un;ql>< in their t .. "hi", tlu1 God i. invi, it.lr. In (0(1, ""
him ...... mof< Ib. n tho« othrro. Ibi, i< ,n impor .. nt """po" to rom·
idob,ry. In thi. Non< proo<lytwns '''''ti .... he <it .. Sorr ...... PI .. "
x<"""I>on. o..",hr" til< Pytlug<>f<. "o. .nd lb. <)'1\0.: philooo.
pM, An1i" ....... I. "udrnt '" Socrat .. ,nd 1hr found« of Cmid",, )
..... mpl.o .. of non.(h,i"iln philooophr" woo hod in.i""" on thr
If",,,""""nt prrf«-tion ,nd of ih< di.in< ""inll- Mo,rov<f.
FAn TO FAn
It< odd>. ,"rh ;. lU.iw I<> whether <durottd .. 001,
f01" if th'1 .hink about i, aU. <V<1I .i ..... twir .... 11 •• h<y wiD tnliu , ....
God;. OIl'. unb<g<>n .... ind ... ructib!t • • nd on high
in tho outer""'" ipK<> ol tho h ........ in , print< watd>·,,,,",,,, God
.. ul, oi ... fo r", ... ' lind h, (ollows .hi. up with I quo •• • ion from
F..,tipid<o, "I'.'bot R>t"rt • ..,.. mu" ..... ocrib< ""God! Who,.". .n.nd
r< ...... .... nl -
II<tordinB'" Cl<m<nt, PIa.o had ,, "sn. ,Iu, inapabI< of
..... tairr«l <in< of tht divin., ,in« ito be-. "'r • " n"",,,,1t • It< .elkaioono
ol;, '" both "", "",.nd tht 'm"";" ...... OO"n« nrithtr imn_ t>.li.y
not ,1:>ooI"t< port..,.;"" an b< ochi<wd b!' hurtlll"'" God <on I>< ron_
templot«l th"""Sh .It< humon faculty ol b .. , =_ bt >om '"
,I>< <>rd' '''Y 'I"'- (':\omrn, """ doi.....,.j ,Iu. PllIO btli""'! .Not (ft'';"
hu .... n' m;gn. .1>< I<> _ tho tru.h • • nd .1><0< p«>pI.
hod ,n.iripa.«I both I"' .. " d«lar • • ion Ih • • -bl",sc.lI'" Ih. pur< in
h<art, for 'h<y ,,;a I« Go;I" ( M". S:S) .nd 1'11 .......... ro_ ,Iu. whik
now""", ..... hrousn. mittor in," <nigm •. 1M" .... .. ill .... f",. 10
1'0«. ( I Cor 11: fl, . .. ,hot·, ... "",.ion). I n tho ........ i ..... _h be-..in<
.ioion io or flmin.g..nd p""" I<> m. .fin&! ..... r..c.ion· can only
I>< "uind in .1>< mind Of oouL Thi> p«f<n«l ,.;,;on ;, ,I>< ....
of .boo< .. ho K<k in.<U""uoI .nd ' pirituol cnlWl'rnmcTl', And, ron·
!cioIUIy <l<owi0B upon phibophic,al Ilodi ....... Cktntnl <Ondud<s llul
,I>< Suprm>< One .. "'" """.,11 Uwisibl< bu. '"'''''"''''' ord"'r, "gil'
.00 .. p .... ;"", <:Oot;"!! for btyooo ... rt hlr 'I"" . nd ,inK.
In hi' ' ':p\u<''ion <>f . It< , .. , .. '" of God in ,I>< 51"' ......... Cltn ..... '
.. I, .... 10 Ihe I .. cltinp of. number of philoooph ...... apt<;"lIl' ,h.
I'ytlug<>tNM and Stoi<o. litho"", I>< .ndoon hi< rndingo of th<m '0
.he bo, ir ,met, ol.1I< · "ulh-)q,;Il3· Plat", ' " .. hom M mu," wi,h
""' .. pr«!icubih" ...... d yrt.'" .. yo. Pl.I'> and lho ........ WCf< "'" ooIy
ind<bt<d to ,It< _ hingo ron .. "'«1 in .. boob ol M ...... bu. 'h<y
all ,h .. ...,uld l>< V,.,.lai,.,«1 ,n Ch'ioti, ,, $crip'u" . 1'<:>,
<o,"p'" prohibi.ion of ""'p'" or .1 .. ,. in mo ... . hon.,.,. pIo«
'OOi<o,«I . h • • h< kn<w .Iu. God ",ukI nOlI>< ",n •• ined 0, <irrum·
scribe<l ,..;thin _.l,eM «It.o.o<d .h. ""''''' bt <lairllft! ,Iu, h".,. ..
O"sIt. '0 ...t .. in from malting <ilh« tempi<> 1<> 01 imat;n '" th< gods. ..
did Plato wh<n .......... «1 .Iu. ROthi,,!! rmde by..-tal b';k!m and
rntduniuoould he '<5"n.I«I., ""1}_ Clrmrn' mmplrtr< hi>....,.". <iI·
ing "'ul', ..,...rn in 11th ........ ·bon I>< tItdor«! .ha. ,It< God . Not mod<
.hr world ."" all thi"" in i • .s- not d¥rdl '" tempi .. made by human
hond, ( 1I<u . 7:24). II littl< 10.<, in .... di"",,";"n. o.m.m do ...... tho,
Plal<>· •• '1"".,.., •• tho. it II impoMibl< I<> dodo:< ,he M.m- of ,I>< Uni·
... (oin", "" h. 'hi ...... bt),<>nd.It< ordi""'y kirod of
"""'U<t"'n). wo, dor;wd from h;, (I'Ia'Q'.) hn,inA , h .. Moo<o onl,
took pan ol .bt 1"<'1'1< '" 1. • .-." wi.h him up to tho holy """"n,.in. ""'"
IKroniins to CIt""", •• r ... o had .... rd abou, M..... <nom ..... It< ' hid<
THE INVII18 l € (;Ot> A Nt> THE VIU81E IM A(;(
dark" ... wlI<", GoJ . 00 II< I P\.ot<» in,,'pr<1«1 ,hi, '" "' .. " ,h ..
"God i, ,nvi,ib), and b<yond .. ion in WON'." PI. ,,, had ..... n
J"",riW ,Iw- i)mn< T, ini'y wh<fl h< "' rot< in tl>< r <ma<., of,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
divin< b<iop ",,,,,,u..Ji n8 ,II< God of G<oJ,."
"
An .. ie nt Rom .... Precedents for Christi .... Ani .... n lsm
Fo< MinU<i", I'<li .... 0.: .. ,,;.,., ,Iu, Chtioti.", h>d no '.,.sa
of tb<ir God w ... 1"»'" 'h<r ..... «1 in """""nn wi,h G1t'd< and Rt,m. n
1"'<" ,<HI ph'IooopI><r>. ",hm"",,,, ."",her uk ><rond. c<o,,,,y ' pol.
<>gi". ,,0<.1 . diff<"", "'I'p • ....:h." .... blilloin!. ' <>p<a.ot>k . • nd <""'0
"""" . 00,,,'. pr<adrnt for Chti$1i,n Iod. of diri ... im' 8<"!- "hhoul!i>
h< . 1", p''''''''' rh' u,. ,1 p •• ·Chri"'on phil_ph, •• 1 "sum,n"
r<ga.rding 'h, uni'y. invisibili'y •• oo imm",. bili'y of God ,nJ (Iik. rh.
o,b" opotOSi"' ) <I .. ,m. ,Iu, Ch, i" .. ", do "",h'ns 0,1= ,hon """b
'h<>< .. mo '1Uns> in • mann" mo" ",1<.00 rompl<r' ,lun ,h<s< o,h·
0 ....... . 'har ; m'&<o of ' .... p.k in ,ho p<>pul.>f <u.), . "' . ", .. " .. Iy
.... i ...
A,J.rn.gon; "", .. "d. rho, t3i/u.,. '" dinins .iJ.I:r <I< .. rd 'lung> 1T0m
'ho u ... " .. «1 God rlMn ,I>< pet,lloobl, "" ,1>. .. ",. pion. wirh ,t.<
ino!'<'""h. bI. ,nd •• 1"" ,h ... ","'" abo>< cb< ,WI of ,h. a" ...... Any.
on< m.)·s«. hown,«. ,ho, id<>l. "' .... ru<"C<J of o,d,r»ry """ ...... rt "n·
"bl .. .. ,h" ,h. n 'hin ..... Th<y" •• 1", of '<eO"' ()tiJin.
'" hi' inform" ..... prio, '" Ilomer.nd U«i<><l. th< G,«k>
1o,1«J ""'Y r<p,<><n'ot;"n, of ,I>< god • • "J <>nIy b<g>o '" ""I« ,bm •••
,h. ,im. J",wing W1' iID'rntrd. !(t<ouo,jng ,It< I<s<nd 0/ Saurio .. "-h,,
Ii", >I«t<W .1>< .ru.daw of . ....... in , ..... un. or , .... of , .... Sifl
who trlK«l ,It< ouriin, ,,( I><f I<IV<]" on . ..... U .. h< >I<p'. A,l><n, (IO<"
..... " ,ho, "" .. ,,,in8 i",. of' god i. oIdrr ,h.n (Wf hund,<d )T_
. od ....,.. 'r< d ... rly ,I>. WOf' of hum. n . ni"", and 'h .......... )"""'5<'
'h," ,1><>0< v .. h., mod. ' .... m. Ikrof< 'h< iOI'<D"O" of ",.lp'"1< . nd
"",,,.il\8. ho",",,,, h.d no in"'8'" of' .... II. I"""" his obi«<.on in
• qu,";",,: "If ,h'O< ' I< 11<.11 g<>d •• " 'hy J iJ 'hey.<.>t ... i>1 r",m ,b<
I:><J!jnning'" "W'by Jid ,hty D«<I ,h ... , .... ,," of "Ii><, ,,, bring 'I><rn
in'o l><,n81-
llut <V<"n the g<><b. wh"" ,mag<"> th", idol. po""y, did 00' .. i"
from 'h, ",,-<i.runs. It< poi"" "u' . Th. 1""'" in ...... "J ,h<;, n.m ...
duf .. ' .... . " oJ Il«o .... 'hcr"'''''' iolO !><i"g. 'My or, nO """.
iarmon. 1 '" <"'not ",",0 rh,i, A,l><n'g<>'" d ...... upOn ''''
.",i,n' """'1 o( Errlt<m<rU> in ,h. to.rth ",,,,u'1 .. c." ,Iu, d . im<d
,h<d,,,,"1 god<"""'" .... 11y oo<hing n",,. ,ho" _ ..... , k,nll'''' h"oes.
ofion wi,h ",.."dai",,> """'''''''''' who Iud b<roar< rnytholosi=l OV<T
,im •. n.o.. who ...,,,hip«! ,I>< irnagoo of ,I><>< h< 'horg<i, ...".
J .... ·o '0 'II<m l>t' d...",.... .. ,.. '0 .. ' ,h. bt.x..t of ,II< ...,i!iors ,nd
, .... mind' of,b< """"'ipm., filii"" rh,m ""P'Y vio;"", .. if
F .... H TO FMI:
comi"ll (rom ,I>< idob ,1>nN<ivn. Sud> 1"" only ....... m. yjo:.
'i .... 'o b<<V<1I mortaddOct<'ll 10 .........
AtIl ..... so,".d.im t\,., ,I>< bown i""""oflh< ""oId<t:
,loan four """ (..t.m. ..:cordi", In him, "'" C=b b<son 10
mol:< ....... on) do, .. ,be oId<.I ortif..,1> In around llS .. c. .. Thlo i ..
..... ,iwIJI I ... do .. , rompor<d '0 • no.,.. ,radi,ionai fOrmula in <im>la·
'''''' .. II>< tirol< • ...t..i<h ... II>< ... di>ine imageo 10 . cenl"".nd.
Ulf OM ,II< {QundinB of Ilmn<, or _in .. in ,II< Ia .. oi<th """my
'.c.1L Clem.n, abo oi ... 'hi> Iti .. orical do,um in hi> fi", book of ,I><
... 1Im: I>< d . im, ,Ila, Numa. ,II< r.", ki"ll of Rom ...... _
.. n, .nd 'oid", by ,II< p,«q><' of ""-- (m.
Ronu .. 1 from maki"ll .nr ionag< of Cod in human form. . nd of 11><
.... ""of I 1i>-in@ct<o,urc." A!>d",II<Ny<.forl""fi, ,. hunJr<donJ,,,,,.
tn'y 1<'''. "'ho<.lj.h buildinB '.mpko. lhey mode no o. l!-',v<n
im'g<. For ""uma ><e .... 1r .00....:1 'h<m d"" ,II< Ikot of !kin&, """Id
!lOt b< .ppt<hrndcd cw:p1 by ,I>< mmd olonc." Thi> .. ..:hin5o Ckmrn'
Ul<tU.load I\ou. i>h<d in antiquilY"""'"8 til .... Ii<>o<, inoduding II><
G...nc,yp. ...... OWdn .... Dtuidl. ..... ...-m It.. Moogi of
til< i'<n ...... "who r., ..... 1d til. So.;"", binl>.nd """" in,., til< land of
ludan guOd«i br ' ..... ..
Plu""h ""'Y loa"" b«n Clem ... ", ""ur« r." 'hi> Iq<nd ....... 1
101 ........ ,mo< hi> UfrcfNu ..... told no","" til< _>to<y:"Numa fo,' . +
.h. Rom.n. 10 on ima@<"'CodwlUdlloadll><fOrmofman ...
1:>< .... )00:", ... .. . h,,,, ''''on& .h.", " 'hi> e.rly Ii,., • • ny poin,ed <t<
v • ..,n ';'<.n ... of u.n,y, bu' ... hik 10, II>< CU>I hund...! . nd .. ..,n'y
yt .... ,hty,...... """in""lIy building 'ompl ... ,tid ts,abIUh;ng wftd
>hrin<O.....,. mad< no ''''_ in bodOly form lOr til..",. «:nm nad ,loa, i,
..... imp"" ,., likrn high .. ,bingl'o "'-' •• nd .hat i, .... impoooibi<
10 '1'I't<l><nd /ki,y e.<eq>1 by lh. inl<lkct .... "'ularch. lilt Oemen'.
<ndi,ed PytbagtJro ....... influm« OIl Nu",", but, unli'" CL:mrn'. said
nothing . lH>", Nu"",', b<i","oided by til< pltrtp"of Moo..."
T<null" n . too bows . nd <i ... 'bio p«O<UIIl"'jon of an<i<n' Romut
oni<oni>m durins til< ,im< of K.i"ll N ....... 'n ,I>< middl< of •• <>p«iaIIy
";,00Ii< ,,!Xl on .... v .. ious Roman jIOdo ..... migiom of hi> doy. I><
""" .. 1h< _"ulO<nl ,loa, Ruman t<lW'm <00lfit:.u,oo! signifiantly '0
Ro .... n pro'p<Ti'r and 5' ......... Ewn during ,h. ,im< of Numa. II<
Ny<. rdigion ....... in IUp<nIi'jon. ol'hoolsh ., ..... '"no,)"<Io .... " .. "'-
,..",pi<o .nd irn2p' Th;, olkr lion>< was "frupl." . nd ito "n ... .....,.
.impl.: witll no forw:y "pi''''' Or ol' .... "The GI'<d:I .nd [I""",,", load
nO' r<' ,II< cily wilh ''''' 'prod""" of Ih.;, .. 1. ... W .... rno
CI.""n, p"" fo"""d M.,... II 'h< ""ur« of . ... i<n' ""nt<rnpt lot
idol&. """"'lU<1l,1y phi"-pby .. i,h ancirn, Hdluw t<a<hi"",
T ... "II"'n J>f'>P>'<O ,n., Ch""",,,, loa,.. iru. .. ittd ..... moin .. ;" ""irn,
Momon .. lilIiou, ... Iun . nd tIlw ... mot< f. ithiul ,h.n 'h<ir idol ·
wonhipi"ll .. to th<ir own , .. dill"".
INVI\l8l€ GOD AND TH€ VIlIHE IMAGE
Thi, ,.adi'''' .... 1 ""ihu,io" of , "iconic """o!Iip '" 'he ... 1
I!<>m.", <OI1I'n.<> through lilt fuu"h ""d in'" ,he fifth ""n'u,y c .. In
.. in.·. Cit)' of God. ,h. l<s«>d " ""ibu,<d '0 fin' ,,,,,,,'",), ,",c.,
pltilo>oph" and .",iquori. " \'",,,. According '0 Augu"in •• V •• t(J
mai" .. in<d tho, ,he • .oro, II.om .... ,"","hip«! ,h. god- fur 0 hundr<d
.nd ><vrn'¥ )T'rS "';01.0'" rn.kina ' n)' i"",8<' 0Jf ,h"", •• nd th.l"if II,,,
h.hi. had b«n co"""u ... t.,,,,, ""r$hip of ,h. god. ""uld lui ... l>«"
condU<1ed ",itb gr<'>t<, pu'ity." """"tiD< ,bo ")11 tlult Vat'" cr<di'ed
) ..... ,.h .niconic ,,,Jiti"n a ... idtn« fu, Ibi, .... "ioo. adding .it ..
V ... " bdi<>«l th .. .Ii.;". """&<' ull;" .. «ly kd lQ ro' mi·
pon ,nd that 'too.. ,,-1>0 ... "" up image> of tl>< rod' for ,I>< propl<
W<T< fo, the .boIition of '''''tl'' fo., ,n Ihri, <ommUIli,,,",
.nd fo.,h, ;"rn-. ", of .... 0'· boau""il .......... y '" d<$pi"
b<c .. ,>< of ,h. ;""",,,biJity ofth.;,
FllIlb., 0" io IW <1Ky<I<>p«bc 'om<. how<w'. AlIS"""" .;,... V" ro
'sai" .. It" ""U'e< but iudge> rum more n.s>,i .. ly •• in« V.m, .1>0
n!.lin!.lined .h.1 when .h. im>g<o of the god> fioall)- w= they
,,-.re fWtlootd in .""h. "'f,ltal ",ho>< who had b<m initialed into ,I><
my""i .. " .ould fut ,hoi. <y« upon Ih<m and ",it .... pp«henJ wi,h
thei, m,nds ,h. 'rut god>. n.omel)- ,h. Soul of ,he World ,1><1 its "",ni·
f .... FlU<h<tmore • • crordinS to V"", <h< buman lorm _ coo·
.. " fn' m.ooy of .b ... ""u" b«,u,,"the hu .... " body moo ..... dy
'<$.mhl" .b. Immo,lal Spi,i"· Aod. "",bil. Augu .. io. ""knowledge>
,10.0, ,he .... I<>pmen' of ""k i ..... .. ;n hum.n ""m _"""" ..,..,..
.hi"& of.he """"i,uti.', ..... u .. of God I.ina Ih. hu"",,, .pi,i' m""
n'>fly , ..... bl .. ,t... Immo"" Spi,;' .1><1 is <o"";ntd in d.,. -"" of.
nu""n b<:><Iy). h. oJ.., disapp,.,..._ H •• ,:.,.". V.,t(J of 1""n8 .h.
inlisht lh..ot had .1l.It.led bim to ... that Rom.on. in the remote bad
"offcrtd • pll'" wor.'up- ..,;'h"u, i""l!"'-
Wh;k conlempOn'y hi.",ti, .. hold differen. <i ..... un lhe ql ..... "'"
of lI.o .... n .nirooi.m. m.ny .'Su< ' h" 'h, .. ,Ii«< I!<>m. n ""I,. f,,,,n
,h. "m. of Num.o to ,h •• !C<nd.tnq of ,he Elf"«'. kings (.oou, •
hundr<d.nd ..... n'y f<'lB) indeed an im'8<'l'" on •. Wh"....,
,he hi""'i<>1 tn"h 01 the m."" •• h. foct tb .. Ch,;"ia" 'hrolo&ian •
.. ,'"'' .bl •• o doim.n .ndent lI.om.an t .. di'ion 01 'm.gel ... worship
"'">< \e"'''ge with .h.i, crili ••• who t<prded th.i, t<je<hon
of imal!" a •• n indie .. ;"n ,10.0, ,My ..... "h<i." "';,OOu, tradi,;"nal
",Iu ... Acrording '0 Ou;";.n ""'i' ..... although the Roma", .... ' .... Iy
I<,s. ,h.;, "nv""l pu';.y of """hip. ""'''' .mon& .b.m .ontinutd to
h ... • n OVff>ion '0 di";., j""g<1 . nd .ubo<rib«llQ , PIo,nn;': '<pud;·
.. ion of orh"jc im;",io", "";"ol.li. " m.leri.I"m. and S.oic
m"",,,h<i,m. In Ih. Ii", «",u,y '.c.o, fo, .umpl<. Ck.t(J had
,id;,:oI«l ,he id<, thot I!"'h h.,... fot-".. tlo.o, """Id be f .. hiootd 11')''''
. 1><1 <>p«i. Uy dtidtd Epicumll> fu, <l«minS ,u<h imagd (ond 'hoir
"",'hJ' of wo .. hip'
"
86
FACE TO FACE
We t..n .. an;J"" of god impLmttd in ou' mind>. you ",)'. \'os, and on idea of
with . b<-ard. and h IWI'" in 3 htlm", but do you thrrd'or. t..,li ..... that
tho .. deities Of ..... lI). lik lIut? The unlearned m"him"" is surely wi .. , here--
thty assign to god no! only a man',limbs. fur thty gi," him bow, arrow$, spear,
shidd. tridtnt, thunMrbolt: and if thty cannot Ott wltat action, II>< god, p .. -
fonn, yet 1hey c.nnot ",nee;"" of god as entirel)' in.<!iv •... but your god.
[Ef>irurr:uu' J not only do no .. ",icc that you can !'Oint to, but thry don't do
anything.l .11. "God.- [Ilpicuru,] .. yo, "i. fret from trouble." Obvious))' Epicu-
nu think$. as .poilt chiIdtw do. that idkn<$$ is lh. l><st thing there ;$."
The Philosophical Argument in the First Four Centuries C.E.
We have s(:cn how the early Christian writers dted the "iews of ancient
poets and philosophers as being in general harmony with Christian
tcaching on the invisibility of God and th{' vanity of the idols. The
\'ious passage from Ckero's treatise De Narum Deor",,, partially sum-
marizes his teaching about the gods in one of the three main
philosophical s<:hools-the Epicureans. the Stoks, and the Academics.
In religious mallen, Cicero generally sides with the Stoics, who tradi-
tionally objected to divine images, following the teachings of their
founder, Zeno, who was famous for his opposition to temples and stat-
ues. In fact , the conflicting positions represented by Stoicism and Epi-
cureanism in first -century Athens on the maner of divine images may
lie behind Paul's speech to the Athenians in Aas ! 7.
The mention of the Epicureans and Stoic philosophers in Acts actu-
ally an interesting background to Paul's speech. Christianity
might hal'e been seen by this audience as addressing current debates
within two key philosoph ical schools and aligning itself with those who
challenged the traditional religious practkcs of Roman and Greek cul-
ture with its images and temples for the gods." Pau]"s commendation of
the altar to the unknown god (Acts 17:23) as a pos.siblc way for aC(cp-
tance of the Christian God, who docs not lil'e in shrines or appear by
means of artistk representation (d. Acts 17:14), has clear parallels with
contemporary Stoic thought. At the same time, as Paul himself points
out, the Athenians (and the foreigners who lil'ed in Athens) 10l"e to hear
and tel l about something new (Acts 17:21).
Around that same time (the first and second ceoturies , .E.j, a philo·
sophical movcmentnow known as Middle Platonism was indeed form-
ing a syncretistic blend of religion and philosophy, especially
Platonic, Aristotelian, and Stoic clements. This movement's influence
on Justin Martyr is apparent, but it is even dearer in the thought of
Clement of Alexandria, who refers to the writings of philosophers as
well as the ancient poets in his exposition of Christian teachings about
God. Middle best-known anci ent repreM'ntative, Plutarch,
echoes and Plato's critique of temples and (alw cited by
THE INVISIBLE GOD AND THE VISIBLE IMAGE
Clement ) as well as Paul's address to the Athenians when he criticized
the Stoics for their inconsistency regarding the images of the gods.
Although they s.:.:off at the building of shrines, they continue to act in a
traditional manner in other respects:
M<>TWW', il i, a doctrine of Zeno·, not 10 build lempl.,. of lhe (!Ods, because
a temple nol worth much i, al , o not and no work ofbuilde .. or
me<haniu i, wonh much. The Slo"" whM applauding Ih .. '" correcl. al1.nd
the mysleTi.,. in lemple" go up 10 Ihe do ",v.,-enC< 10 stalue$, and
place wrealhs upon th. shrin« . Ihough Ih...., .Tt work. of build ... and
meehani"."
In the next century, Plotinus also combined the ideas of Plato, Aristotle,
and the Stoics into a system that had enormous influence on Christian
writers of the late fourth and early fifth centuries--particularly Augus-
tine, whose encounter with this system was partly mediated by the
works of I'lotinus's student Porphyry. Plotinus's view of the divine
image bridged that of Plato and Aristotle, incorporating both the valne
of the particular sensory experience and the assertion of an ideall'orm.
This allowed him to elaborate the value of aT! as a mode of participation
in the reality to which it pointed-a Form that existed in a higher real -
ity that lay somewhere outside the individual human mind.
Plotinus agrees with Aristotle that anists begin by examining the
naturul world. [n Plotinus's view, the order and structure they experi -
ence in nature, however, leads artists to dis<:over the transcendent world
of ideals and finally the experience of pure intellectual beauty, which
they attain only through contemplation. Comparing two blocks of
stone, one worked and the other unworked, Plotinus sees in the worked
block a Form, introduced by the idea in the mind of the artist. This
Form exists outside the stone, and oUhide the work of art itself. The
original idea trans.::ends the material creation, even though its exhtence
is, in fact, revealed in the anist's product. Consequently, works of art are
not mere imitat ion of natural objects (which are imitations them-
selves--imitations of a higher reality), but draw upon the Form itself
and, in fact, perfect what is sometimes lacking in nature. For Plotinus,
this is as true for a painting of a bowl of fruit as a portrait, or even an
image of a god: "Thus Phidias wrought the Zeus upon no model among
things of sense but by apprehending what form Zeus must take if he
chose to become manifest to sight."'"
In other words, according to Plotinus, great artists like Phid;as pro-
duced works that were superior to nature by incorporating their vision
of the ideal and by their ability to portray that vision. The influence of
this thesis on Augustine is apparent in the where Augustine
wrote that artisans who create objects out of their mind have "the power
to impose the form which by an inner eye [the mind] can see within
This form derives from the translation of inward vision to
87
..
fA<E TO FA([
• .. «na1 {m.«rial) obj<c ... .mng .lut v"ion to jll<lg< whm<r .1>< worlt
..... """,n done,' or oou''''. for ""5"";0<. ,I>< ulb",,,< lOur« nf ,I><
on;"' ••• ;';00 i>.txt.. ttl< lium.I" mind, iI ;, pu, thm: by God,"
lha. thi, "'lummI of ... ', i> g<rma ... to.1I< quntion of di" ..
i"",&<," .... iJ"'" in.t.. nampl .... ,I>< inus< of z... .. For
Pkltin ... inf<rio. mull'" may h< to thrit P""otypn or modds.
.bey <.>0 nm or.--.«. h;p.r "';pon, pU<pOO<_ Whilt ,,,,",," '" l",oh"8"
of.1>< gods eouId not p""""d to _ .. in or «>mm""a" divi ... ""'h
in their ""'Yaislrn« lhcydcmon<".tod tn. • ...:h ,,,,,n
","uW I>< comprthtnd<.l. In "' ..... ..."ds. altho"&'> .h< 5"'io ...... no'
in 1M, "' ...... W<ff pit"., in, ... ioftal
........ Thdr imaet' pl'O\'ided • kind of proof of .hei, nis' ..... , j u .. ..
""i«" in 'he ou'n .... l worlJ p ..... i<l<J proof of .h< hish'" ... I;. y of
which Ih<y wcr<. t<ikctiolL
0<",; •• 'hi> .;..... rlo,inu, nn<r bftng.a..piy ,u.pkiotll
OOoh of ,II< "",«rial ,,"<>lid .nd of I'io,w irmgos (;ndodin@:hi>"",npor_
t"';' ). ... hown"<f, 8f11d""llr foWld . pia« lor iInagd in thri •
... ;v..... pra«i<n ... "'"Y '" hdp ...,,,hip« ... .-wnu thr p ...... c.
of tt.. divine. Th. coooi,ion.1 r<h. t.W!"ion of ifl\ag<l d=- upon til<
,j.1l1h ' soo<i.ud with til< mywry cui .. . nd with .n. ...,tm.; bI<nd of
.... gO< .... ,;. ..... 10 Iu\aw .. u '''''''JY. wII_ I"'rpoa< wu '0
med"'e .-m. t<rial thoo.,/uni<l of,..., drily ( .. ,odoy we m ifh' all
"'Piri'''''' Socii ''-boni .. ,.... ,1>0 _bI< tIuwgh
'he n....Ji .. ion of. hum.n b<ing (an .00;'n, "medium' ). Porphyry',
""<In,, umblid. ... """"",<t<d, wII ..... tpl<nl ..r pM, .. "phy ... d ,;, ....
, ,, .. d<v<"d«l upon im.ge< . nd .. "ifo .... Thi, .yol<m ... won the
.",husi.>.m "f julio", til< <mp<1'>\' who ..,."....,«1 fn>m Chr;.ti.ni'r'o
polytl><iun, tbat it I<d to • • noMI of. kiDd ofpbilooophinily baood
I"pn "",.ph._ of . di.log"" bctwe<"n ,he sud>
Mcl<piu •• nd lI""n .. Th, ... ",,.. in hi> 0". o{QJd ilh ........ tho <mi .
temponry pop"I,,;,y of ,hi. m"""ment. In 00>0: po ... go H ........
.J.o<rib<> ..... 'u .. "r tho ... ,,,.1 sod' •• witll soul .. fuUr
<qUipped witll ><mibili,y and .p;rit; .. "un wIUdI rorfu<m • ...:t. V""
. ... wonderlul work.t; ... .. wIIk/I fnreI:_ til< fu.u", ."<1 k>m.U i,
by nip", of , h. 101 . . . ...... ich di ... ..,. upon m<n and olio cu",
than. b<>Icwing ....d.ooo. 0' iOY, according to dtteru. ...
Foo- ,,,- who .ub.a;1:><.! '0 ,II .. p""'ia, ;0\;18 .. ...,......;1. m<d;.,i".
fuR<tion, ailing tht vi ..... , to """",.i", that the <>b;.co: I>od a _ft<.'
p"""'yl'< th.t mu", U;., in otd<t '0 be «>mmuni<ol<'d th,wgh ,h.
int..,.;", nut<riol 10m<. The imag< io. O(tu.lIy. the proof of ,It< pro ....
'yp<-<n i<l<o &riY«! from PLotoni< ,t..ory. nd m"ra1 to thola, .. th.·
oIogy of iro",. Of <Oun<,' .-phiJosop ..... mar 001 hi.... und<to'ood
'M ''-'ry or ...,Ji..,! , hat til. 10'-1 woo '0 """" ,h. <r< of ,It< mind
I><yond tit< im •• " tit< """ot)'p<. em. ..,. .ho a>=IlI' """"" mi8h'
t.. .... ' V«<! , .... 'h< pIen,;ful " . 'u" .... p.oi"';ngo of ,It< ... ,iou. """"
TH( INVII18U COl> Ai'll> TH € VI\19U IMACE
""', .mp!' proof th.o, 'he go;.b ,1;,,«1 .nd ,h.o, Ih,y ",,,,i,«I ,W><I",'
'ion. Such im.>g<S .110 m«li.>,«I . di.in< prn<n« .nd fun<'ionod <1/", .
'i«/r "' ithin .... IWOu, cul •.
"
first.Century and Early Rabbinic Tea(hlnll' on the Invisible God
w. h,,< "."n how .l<cood.«n,u" Ch,i"i' D .. ri" .. lik< lu"in .nd
Cl<m'D' ",«1,,«1 G ....... phil'>oophy w;,h ««>gniD"!I GQd',
.od ,.;ngul.ri,y ...... ktihmiti"t\ r>",Ud fur lh<ir ""n cI.im.!. lh< wis·
dom of tlx Gr«ld.oo ,lUi point ... ,...! .. on io.oIu.bl< "",UK< for.h<
.. apologi."_ Th< It<b"'''' Scriptu' ", "p'''''n,«I .oo,h<, .uch
ane"'t .nd authorital;" nodil;"n. (hri"i ......... ,h"'" SC,;ptu .......
,h. '><'gin,1 ,,"ur« "'" only "r Oui"i.n tu<hin8 .oout God', Ind,·
",Ii babiJity bot \If C=k ,..;sJ<,m on 'h, ,uJ,j«'. $i. .... 'h<j" 01\""
p' ..... m«l W, ...... til< .... K< of Gr«"k phiJooophy .. ""U .. \If Ch,i>·
,;.n poioting out lh .. wtirr"" Chm,ian' hod got .
lcn 'h< tru,b \If th. ",.'''r. 'h< C"",b (.nd 1.1", Roman. ) p<"i>,«1 in.
ft.w<d .nd in.u(fi,;"'l undm"nding. Sud. • oi .... i> portKuUrly ,ha,·
"",;<ti< \If O<"",n'-, ... ,i.ings. bot ' ''' 0110 .,. ..... " in 'h< "",Its of
otb<r Ch, "".n 'J><>Iosi>'"
H""""". I",.io M"')'1. in hi, r. .. , """ 'hot " .11 1< .....
bchn<"d ,h.ot G<><l ." .... lIy ' PP<""" to Ahfab.m . od .h< o,h<r, ,,+.0
hod .hMphoni< ,i,;.,,,, in.t.: Bib!< .• nd Ttypho i> pm<n,«I .. agr<ring
... i.h ,hi. I>o,i, ... mi"n,M lu"in. who ' S""" 'hat 'h< Di.in< Wo,d
mighl ' PP"" in hum.n form. furth" "i,idu. I'ws f", .hoi, li,.,al·
mind.dn .... thai tMy mi..,"<I<r, .. "d 'r-<h ,nd
.... f'\'<'.I< th" ",,,, h,""" of all. ,II< un."", God. tw h, nd<.Dd fM.
ond fiJ,S' ... nd • ooul. hk< '"""pooil< !><ins: ,nd for ,hi, "..on .".<h
'hOI i, • .-u tlx F"h<r liim.«lf who '1'I"""r<d '0 Ab,.h. m .nd
S,ill , "'h"C'o"'- I<'<Ond ·, ... ,u"!' lew'< "" .. 111 . boul lit< 'PP",,·
.n<n of God ,n Sc'i p'u" ("'0 lh< on<». tb.,
'PI,,,,,nliy td .. in«l from "l'l'tWtItalioru of God in ruual . rt, J<>«phu.
"I,]",n, in hi' l" .. i", .... ,\pi,n lh" .mil. God mOj' It<......" in ,,,,.
ation, God', form . nd m>gnitud<.", compl<t<ly i><yQnd h"nun abili,y
'" ddcribt.nd!ha, no "",,,,,i.1>, _'''' pm:ioo .. rould bt wed to
f. sh'I)o .n im.18< of God. M"'<O>'rr. no ind;'idual "..,..,.... lh. ability
", <on«i", of 0' m,l:< .""h.n G<><J i ' ... for i><yQn,1 hum.n
vision (ha( """'0 """<101 .... " ,It< ><1 of "l't<S<nto"on of ,II< divi",
On< i, Th< lilt of him..,. h ... O«n, .... ole> not inug' n<.
"nd it i. unpiou.'o ronj<ctur<,· "",h,m. lhis from lh, Koman
p< .. I'«'i ...... )ing .h" J<ws _«1<, of only .• nd lh" wi,h 'h<
"mind "Ion,." "S.rdinS .ho", who m. k. divin< '<JI, .... ""lioo ...
impiou. >.in« tit< ,uP"'''''' .nd <1<m.al di,;.,. i, n<il 11<, d<$tru<' i·
bk nor ,bl< to Ix
fA(£ TO fA(£
Vha., d .... , . 8 ..... with th;o I"'<i,;"", h. <;tp.and.< "'''' ...... , un
tho ";mpl. rro/tibition '" d Mn< i_ In h;o npooition of "'" Sooond
Cumm",Jm<"t, h< u "bin' ,h ... .11,1>0 .. wOO _,""i"
obj«" in <"""ion rot"" t"'n ,I>< o.>tQ"" in "i<vou> ... ro, . nd
hOY< don< S"'" injury to tho humon <0«, God 00.. "'" """.
dem" ,_ who ""' ..... ip ,I>< di>-in< in "" 0,01 pbrn<>rn<no (fe, a.m·
rI., tit< " ... ," tho , un ) .. ,h" ..... hn ....... " im.s .... •
"'roroing to M ...... h. 10}'> (o';"II 0n o'l"mrn' d .. , woWd "l' p<a' in
lat .. Ot,;.ti.n .[lOk>s<ti< ... ri' ;ng). tbot< wOO I><...ruy bodi ..
"fk,>d I ... t"'n too.. who WOtoltq, idob.l><a. ... tl>< latt .. do not POl"'"
t1ut human· nud< obj<ct •• J< to and )'OU"g<r t1un both
'It<i, .... k." and ,h.ir moon., N<v<rth.1w., <>eh 8""'1' ef iil<>!o ....
h .. c." aWlt y a nu,n ,uPI"''' of ,It< ",ui-th< pr<>[l<' ooo«ption 0(
"'" .
Pha., ili<> "",;cip.ot .. CIrm..." .,.J in iM"'I'mi"8,1>< bihli<oI
,11<0,,""n;" .. mystical ond not .. For "..",pI<,
,"e roin5 to ""i!o. Mold' .. ' to ... God', fo« .... mod< <WtI
though 1>1.,... rnliud t1ut .udI .......... <>I>IIlJ n ...... b< 8'0nl«l. but
SliD I>< 1' ..... iSU un,il h. Mitt! ·;nto tl>< thid do'kn ... ...... ' God \0U-
t .... ;,. in",. «>n<q>1"'" "W'roi"ll ,t.. Ex;""", II<inJI ,b.t belong> to
til< un' l'I""'""h, t.I • ..pm ........ , ..... . " no mal<Tial foft"" ... And
"ut of thi> "" ... , ..... '""'"" to M<*< • ,"" boon. ... m<ty to '!'Pt<.
heooJ ''''' ,It< God of "oJ 8<;,,& i> . pp ......... bIo 'n no O<t<,.n<.! '" I«
,b., H. is inop.bl. of l><i"8 ... n_'" SIKh • mYSliQI
.... 1>< contradktian tl>< "'I'<ffi <ial implk .. ""'.........J
<V<n ,h. ' PP"""' contradic,ion. of tl>< tn' of EJodu .......... nd Philo',
.... "M .... ttto, ""tlli"8 "'" t,. .. i4 dc><riptimy ,,f God', oPP''''on«
.Dd ,ttot no 01>< may IN .. on actual phyoical vin< of.1>< Di'fin ••
Philo ,Iso <laimed tlut «Ttlin biblical It""""" of God m",' I><
u ....... $IOOd in • 6guroiw .Dd "'" • li, ... l __ "It .... "'pIo, II< ooy<,
_ ,t,. tc:rt"r> tlut 'T"h< I..,'" -..t do7wn ,,, _ tlwtt d'r:and that
'QW<l". (0(1101><1, Gon not m •• n tlu, God •• " .... llyCim.
do7wn . nd .... TW arouDd .. if God I>ad • human i:ood)-, hut ... 11<, that
God fills aU pla<es 01 on« and buih <On"",, :and pavada <v<rythmg in
,I>< uniwne. Tho [)j-,i". Ilri"" ht ""'" is bo1h iovisiblo ",J
h.n,ibl., ond at til. 10m< ';m< "'ry>o"h<r •• nd in n Fo<
Philo, I><MOCY<T. _"'''8 that til< im'ioibk God oloo II.>d OIl ·i .... • .....
<>«<O&a'Y, .;n« ,h. Ii,,, dIapt .. of G<n ... , doi .... tlut humanity .....
ctnttd in tINt iltlaj!< .. . ht 1:26). .
• , tl>< CII,;.' .... AI ... Dd, i' nI do lot .. on • .....ru.l .. tht imag< .. itn tht
.. n' Word of God-th •• gont of ,,..,,;,,n . nod ,II< model for
humanity wboo<ldtoes< .... y .hrough , h. p""ic< of in'oI·
k<t<WI . nd ".,toI "i " ..... ",.1"" ...... thot hu .... n.1:>of< to thi. qnal
imago woo not ocroNinS to at ...... opp<I<&IIC<, th<n. bu, ocrord_
iRe '0 tho< dow« llu, hu",",", _ in [)ivi ... lI< .. on, Philo iruiw tlu.
THE INVISIBLE GOD AND THE VISIBLE IMAGE
no one this as onc to a bodily form; for neither
is God in human form, nor is the human body
On the other hand, thc ofJustin's time and later maywcll have
emphasilcd the human-like appearance of God, as they wn-
sidered the epiphanies portrayed in the books of Exodus and Daniel.
Au;ording to Elliot some of the rabbink authoritics from the
tannaitic period an anthropomorphic manifestation of God
in wncrete, "isible was a basic part of biblical For exam-
ple, Wolfson cites the midrashic Mrkhjlta de-Rabbi IslIIIlMI
on the book of hodus and expounds on the polymorphic appearance
of God as noted in these texts: ··The lord is a man of war" [Exod 15:3].
Why is this said? For at the sea he appeared as a warrior doing battle, as
it says, 'Th<' Lord is a man of war." At Sinai he appeared as an old man full
of mercy, as it says, 'And thcy saw the God of Israel
Wolfson $CD ao ami-Christian pokmic at work in these Jewish
tions. Just as lrcnacus was wnccrned that Gnostic teachers might imer-
pret these thcophanies the appearance of a lesser God, the were
aware that Christians were proposing that they demonstrated the e:o;:;s-
!ence of a divine person. The polymorphous represemations of
God (S<lmetimes as a warrior, sometimcs as an old king on a throne,
sometimes as a bridegroom, for instance) were not as worrisome as the
claim that Christians like Justin or Tertull ian made that these were
epiphanies of God's Son or logos. By way of combating such Christian
readings, the rabbis might wish to assen that the manifold and diverse
of God in the Bible werc an essential means of present-
ing a trutb aboll1 God- thaI God appeared in reality and not just as a
figure in the prophd's imagination and, al the same timc, God tran-
sccnds ordinary (or banal) morphic consistency." The illl'isib1c God's
occasional manifes1Ution to sdect illdil'iduals at particular moments
givcs the people assurance of God's presence, but, at the same time, it
demonstrates that God cannot oc limited in any sense or by any single
form or outward appearance.
91
Theophilus, Novatian, and Origen: Salvific Vision
("Seeing God and Living")
Theophilus, a late second-century bishop of Antioch, anaeked pagan
idolatry and expounded his vil'ws on the visibility of God in his apology
To Aurol),ws (his only cert ain surviving writing). In this work,
Theophilus begins by sening 0111 the occasion of the di,tlogue. AlI10lycus
has boasted of his gods of wO<>J and stone, carved or cast, aod scornfully
ash'd Theolophilus to "show me YOI" In response, Theophihls
impugns character, that God is seen only by those
who arc pure in heart (Matt 5:8), who haw cleansed themsclws from all
sins, impurities, and evil occupations (adultery, robbery, slander, en"y,
"
pand<ring. .nd ,., fo<th). On!}' .......... obi. to b<bold God. with pu';.
f...J"ry<o <>f 01", <loud tIw int<mal <reS of tinnen, Iii«.
""d p.....,nl ,hom from ""«;.;'" Ill< light. Of .mng God.
!luI. wt. ... how C..,d will """"" It> In .. .,..... ... "" .no ocl!;"""
,hi •• i(l.ht. Throphilw; ••• ...n> with. lo,,!! di"""u"" on lb. lolly of
im..., __ hip .nd II>< utl« <>f .ny of tho
I:>i>'in<. Th;' d<oc.-iptM>n hod much in oomn_ with tho writi"3' of tIw
Su>i<> Ind of Philo, .nod inrorpo .. tft both "'P';" I<fm;"olllfy.nd
well-luww. till .. fo< ,he o;';n. Bring. For ....... p .. , "" b<si",,"TII<
"f'pn"_ of G..d;, ir><ff.M. and iR<l<o<:ri",blt, and an"", .,. ... n by
<res of fl<$h. f"" in g\<Pt'y "" is ;""mp,"""""a.I<. in ""',,,.,. "n r .. h·
omal>k. in hdght in<oncQv.bl •• in PO""" in<aml"'nbl<. in "'-
unrw.lkd.;' sood ...... inimmhl<. in kindn<w ""u"<nbk." FoIowi",
Ih;'" I>< 'u ..... 'n tb< o.kscriptivt ............. could r< to God. "'dudi".
Lisht. Spirit. W"1Jdom, -.,., Pnwidmo<, lG",.
dom. lo"'. ludl<. FOIl><.: •• nd fi .. , Eod> of ,hco< .jd .... 1000"""8 to
•. rtf ... to. pmicular •• p«1 of God', being. "Lip' ," fa.
' .... ncr..f.ro wG<..l', _k •• nd Flt<,. ""'i<NbIr SI<>O: b<>,...,.,.; .... to
God',
__ • l'h<ophil ... ""',in .... (follow;", ' he P'«<PI' of "'Ill and
«hoin8 ,II< ' flU"""" of I .......... tho"", God .. m.iaibIt '" II><
al.ma! <)'t. God can be pm:riY<d in th< world-<h""4h Cod'. WOrL
One <.n k'< c,.,.. .• p"",Od.n«,"" ",i""1 <I«<k in ,h, ... i<!on« "f
""u'e .nd in ,t.. f..,. of On" '''''Y o;"<D«. A"" f.,nh","",«. if on
jn,;Ii.id ..... 'hi> ..... 1M:> ' .. ""'....,. IIo.m t.. o. oil< w;U _
Go6-ofiu toe;"8 •• ix<I '" ,ho /ksh. 1'<" ""'" d't: im.-laJ
""1 b<hoM 'ho i""""" oI. TIt"" ..,in _rul"'g muclt iiI.:.: ]""a<"",
1l><ophil'" <kocribto .n md· tim< .ioion. whrn th< mot'u1 wia <0"'<111_
pt.tt: ,iI< divj"" n...:..phil ... "'" dol", (h"
"",'ifl' ..,ion to "" ,I>< OJ .... of immor,oIity (&I ..... doof).
.. ,h<t- ;, will "" tlte ,....1, of ;,.."",,,01;'1, whl<h .. ,,,df the 1TWlI0<I fat-
rilht""""'<>O "I>< pu,i!i.:>''''n of ,lit 1<) .. 1 from .n i"iq .. ... ).
LA<.II .... otl...- 0.,;., .... "Thoophil ... . """ko ,I>< imo.,..
of tho .... gud!.. "yi"l! ,1», i, ... I><uo<l to ,hink .haI humon mioono
"'iSh! ,h.p< "", •• hl ... ",,1<.i.I, into of !ho!j<'d. th., ro"lJ
m<rit .. u itiao or r<aiv< P"l ..... Funh<r. I>< ,he ...,.i .. told
olio .. , ,h ... 8"'<1> <1<0 ..... """'" tb.t they 0I't:'" .....,.." .b.. hoIm.o. bc;np.
dev.tta! ... to ,iI< 01.11 .. fA p>do. "-. in (II< mids! of bis
KWUnt of II< digr<>o<>. <l<orIy ....... thot God .. rr-nt<d in
c.rn .. i ... h •• humo ..... '..:Im.tin. he """",i ... ,h.t he "'''''
dority how ,I>< invioiblc .nd uoOr<ulftllnbobl< ("0<>01 """Id h< d ... nbtd
....... . ",,,,,d Edm ond ...uintl out to Ada .... Tb<ophU", ap\aJno
.1>;.1 ;, ... ." God', w.,ro """' • .......,..J.t.. _ oi th< Fothor ond '-'>«I
of all: wI><> -..t 10 th< gmkn '" .11< 8\1"'" of God . t><! talUd ... th Adorn
ond E",,- In oM;,ioo<>. ,he ""'" lhol Adam 1N:a..! woo..., ... mhn ,!.on m.
TH( INVIIISL£ COD AND TH £ VIIISLE IMACE
.ok< of d,< Wo<d ..-ho i. God .. d i. g<n<,.,<d (rom God. Thi. Word
gto<> .. .nd fur.ny f'U'f'OO< ,h., God wiIl •• nd is abk to bo: booh
..... n .Dd lI<.nl in ,h .. J<.i1V"',<d plK<. Th<ophil'" i. amul '" 'r«ify
,h.ol11o< WOfd i, DOl <>Ih<r • ..,,,,, of ,II< 'hrough IQ •
... 1 in'''''<nU'K. bu, i' .... , Ill< "fi'>1oom" o( " .. , ion .nd tb< <1,m.1
Rt»on <)f("",.l. by ,,·tucl\.11 ,ningo eo"", in", <:<i..-<Z". On ,I>< bos.i, of
Iu •• rgu ....... , "1I"rding ,I>< '1'\'<'''= of ,h. Losos '" A.d.am .nd I ....
<)n .. :,o ...... "'. ,tl.o, IiI« IU01in.t>ciOcv<s .. ''''' Word is ,n.
mibl< fo,m of God.."" tn. Divi ... "ho un in'","" ,,·i,h huon.n
b<,ng<. .nd ,i>< 00< "ho >1'\'<'" 'n th< pmphru. "'n><tin>« in hum.n
soW< <v<n p.io, to tl>< inco ..... tio ..
In ,10< mi.! · thinl ''''"I)'. N", .. ,,",, off....-..! h;, , ....... of Q,d., i ... If. ·
bili'y in hi. " .. ti>< On Trio",. H,. k><I •• <cogoiw ,h .. Script"'"
()ft," "...,...,." (,00 with hum .. I",m 0' ,h"OOkri,ha. bu. t.., <sploi n.
tba, ..-h<n ,10< >",i,n' '''''' <k><rib<s 'h, toM", <)f 'h, !.W .. 'w,i",n
..-i,h (t.., 11oS" 01 God" (E..0<l " , 18). '" , PlOY" ,b .. ,<Iu. God ,,,
",nchn< you. eo •... op<n )OU' (l Kg> 16). """,,Iy show. how
.'" 1""1'1, thoupt, of God "th .. ,im,. hot do<> DOl rrll«t ho" God
",ally " .... God "'" n<V<I limi'rd. b", human 8u, •• ii<,
the coming of Chri". '!ting> ,h.ng«l; 'h< I.ith(ul no i ..... gine
,1>1, rna. <»nftn< God in • '''''pi< 0' on , moun .. in. Qooti,,! th<
Go;pd of Ioho. "","",ian wcru. 'G<:>d is 'pi,i".nd tho« who
Q,d mu," "" .. !tip in .piri' "nd in truth" (John 4:24). H<n«. ,,"'n (".oJ
i, de><,ibrd . , h",;ng qn.,.. ..... i, m«<ly impl;" 'h" God ..-n "'"
h .... ill " rtf.....-n« '0 (".oJ·,linF' is .....nr. rrl .... <>« '0 G<:>d.,
will . • nd , m,m"'n of God·, fm i •• m<upho, fu, God·,
,nd '" f""h. 1it' e<>n .... ion t(O (il< n«<b "I bum,ni'y. God
rnay "",n b< ",Urd ">pi"'." "IOgbt' 0'· but ,il<>< .'" m<r< figu,<> 0'
_oaIogid. DOl .... !lidm' ap,,",,,,o, of wba' God ",>II, ...
wh.n odd, ..... _ 'p<Cif..: problem. like til<
'pp,,.,,n« of ,I>< th= 1"""'" '0 Abuham o. ,il< Ont ,,"110 wrntkd
,,"h J.rob, he >«<nO '" .dor< T«,ullian·, p<.o<i'ion."" m,in .. in, ,to...,
.... , ,I>< Ihvi ... Pmon who to...J ,il, ",""",i.o] apobilj,y of b<i"ll
-.0 •• nd not ,he lo,ffobi< Gad. Sin« So:,ipoul< '""'Iy <.."no, li<. b,
_'11"<>. uuly G<:>d " .......... -. "'" th, h("" who " • ..,
h< 0"" w ..... n. but 'h< Son. "ho h .. booh b«n .«" .. om<d '0
oi<>.c<nd.:ond '0 b< .... brnu" H< no.. ob:<ool<d"
,h., <hi> ' PI"'''n« ...... """"",ion to human f"illy. ,h .. '"'lIS ,II<
Dc .. in. Word .... " ."",;n !b< p,oem of grod""u.,. b<ing obi ...... d;ry to
... God Thi. i. brn .... ""thingo tho, "" gr<at .... d.ng<rou. if 'i><y 'r<
",oJdrn." N""""m 'hm wm"..u th< n<td to.. snd",,1 odip'''ion "" ,II<
";';00 of !.>Mn< M to '''' blOnd ..... by th.,or coming "'"
of p"<h . .. into ,10< 01 d.y. Th, 'pm""« 01 ,h.
W<><J to ,b, proph<1>. in ili, vin< ....... o".. ,,"P ...... timt m .. o. of
p'''l'',ing bu"""i', """ _ fu ,u", b<-.,ifi< .isioo •• ' wrlJ .. 1hr m .. OS by
TO FA (E
wh",h tl><-,' might .ppt<h .. d God in tho ..... ntim<. 10001> oouId call th<
pb« thot I>< w ... tI<d with .1>< ."(Ift. "'Th. Vision 01. God" (!'midi.bo.
tb;. idcn,i!ieltion o»uld only rffl-r '" hi> hovins ...,., God th< w",d or
at .... (th. W",d mad. n ... h).a And whik Tmullilm .peal. of tl><k
manil<>' otioru of ,II< WoN., ,I>< IJICOm by wIIid1 God b«omcs """".
",rntd 10 hulJWl app< ... au (ond lutu .. inez"" ion). _ian Wldtr·
.,,"d. 'h<m .. . w.y .. hy",.,.. to b<ron>< gtod ... 11y oc<wIOm<d '"
.mns God. Through Ihn< oca ........ N<N .. "'n...." .. " tl>< wtlk"....
ond iml"' rf«,,,," of 'h< human deotiny i, nou,i>hcd, led up.. .nd
«1""",«1 by him;.., ,ho" ,", ,,!! """''''>rn«I '" ""'" upon ,h. s.. ... it may
0 .... be obi< "' ... God th< Fu l><r hinudf...., .. I><;.. ,ho, it may _
be- .trid<n by hi. ,o.Kl<kn . od '''''' ..... 01>1. blighln ..... od be hinJor<d
r""" 1,.;"8 .Nt '" I« God ,I>< F,,'-. whom i, Iw aIwo,.. <ksil"fd. ...
OrigoR. no dil'kr.nl from . 1I ,1><0< ",h .... . MoI"«", bdicv«l ,ho,
'''''''''bility ............... '0 Co<>d, "";,h in<orP<>1"iOY. imm"tol>ility •
• nd Th;' 0>0<tti<>n of ("o<>d., u,,'" .... ,>f«1ld<nc< of
hunt.l" >igh' or knowI«lU led Orig .. ' 0 I>< I"'niorl.ny <autiow obou,
'l"'wn5 of God <Vat .. · >pi";,; """" 'hot '",mi"""'1r mi8l" ;mply'
lind of ph, ;"'1 ... ,,,"".n';.I nisi.....,.." In t<Sp<ct, O<ig<n ..", nJ.
o bit lik. N"""u.n (who Wi> hio l"'un8<' ron, .... porary). In to
I .. ,;n. T.rtulli,n, o. N'''''';, n. h"""' .... OriUn ..... In'.'.....:1 th" ,h.
i .... ;,;I-,;);'y <If ("0<><1 n .. n<!ed ...., '" ,I>< OM ... WoN. " "" (in Ori8<"·,
vi.".) .ho .... thi> .... "'i. 1 ch • ....:t<.ini.: wi,h ,ft. Unh<eo"<n God.
G''''" h;, po,it"'. on , h. "'"'tl .. ("""0 m ... ,ion hi> obho".,,« of
idoto). OriV"· .... mpl. of....., .... _ '" . ......... tho qU<Ol itm <If
.. hrth .. God h .. . body Of oouhl to< visible in or\)" .. _ -.... some·
.. ho, 11>< .... k,gy (I« ......... ) co""", ,.;. run OliVO·' dot·
ilia,ion of .1>< w.y bulItam . .. " ... «<1 .n ... ,I>< Divin< 1m •• """"""'"'.
ond to< ..... it '" <ltmo"" ... 1< II<- . n imago functioru .. Ol"',uptiblt
"""t<S<nto'itm oJ on imp<r«ptiblc mOO<I.
IJriI!<n . ".., ...,. tho """,n."itm ... ,I>< .. ..,. God """'" i\:Jrtlt on otI>«.
wio< i",,;,ib.,. bu, ...., unlxanbl<. divin< 11o<y.ln 10", ... d<arIy mn·
in"" ... , oJ 'h< my</t of th< a v< from 1'Llto., R<poobl>:.M o.q,rn ",pl.i".
tho, mon. 1 q<S annot to<" ,I>< <Jf God difrt1l, bu, '<qui .. ,n
in,<rm«I" 'Y brigh'n .... ,hot ...ut. tl><m littk by tittl<. un, il 'I><-,' can
b«om< "",, .. onl«l ",'1>< ... ,II< lish' in .. dc.o ........ 1I<a ..... ofli .......
hu .... n Mih ... Oriun .. ,.., • m<dmin& ...... tha,
olo"" kr><>WI God (MOM 11:17) ond ,ho, can ap_ or r=oI1h< form 01
God ' " ,hose who ... copobl.< of it. And ,h;" OliVO .. yo.. i> why ,II<
,u,ho, <If H<b"",. => all Cltn.. tho "brishtn ... of God·. glory." .. -U
.. . ,t.. or ..... imogo '" God·,.<ubo.to..,. <II .<UI>oiot<n«. (Hob I In
oro.. to ....u tit;. priftdpl< mor< undm.un<W>l •• Oriern " ... . n .n.!.
tho, II< " both """" . 0><1 «ntdtuion io pmbI<-mItic.
sinC< i' bo<mw< from .,t.. realm of "",,<rial ' bi"",":
THf ItNlllHE COl> ANI> TH E VIIIBlE IMACE
I .... our,..,... "" ..... , .......... itt<d • .. or .. l'''' ..... ..
.. fill .... who!< wo,j,j, bu! "".,., "" '"""'" <II in i",.,.....", wu 1DIp<f'
_ i!Pl< to> ...,.,.... and ............ " ..... .. ...&, .u.w.. to> i, '" .....,.,.
<In..!, ;" ... ... of b ..... .,.j....w.. 0( I." ..... in Ionn . ... m • .rn.!. "'"
... in iu im ....... . th .. ,_ "be "" ... ",bI< Ie r<><., .... . nd
_ .... "" ___ «I'UIoI "" '" __ , ...... ,».y hod _ " ,,"'"
....,. &OW .... .",.u ""' . ..... _ u... p""' .... ""11in< orWnbo . M I."
,.m .,.j ....... y Ionn and """"U[ ,..;m on obooIutdy """"'''8.'''''""'
,,,"iI.,"y,·
OriS'n ddcruh hi< u .. olMKh.n .""Iogy. d,imin8 it> only pufJH>'< io
' n """,. how ,II< Son of God, bdng 'b",ugh, willtin lho nanvw """-
pass of 0 bu""," body: rould bm",", ' on "I""'" i m. <>f ,.,.1', ,u'"
".nc< '" .w,. ... """· IH<b 1,l ). wh"h ""uld ....,. I:.. in 'IS full
glory Of i .. "imm<o .. ond invWbl< ... igl" ..... ,·!n 'cr"" "..,y mo<h IiI«
Nov.,;'n'., Oris<"""", ,ho, God i.ligI>' and ,I .. only. ""'F'"'' WoN
i. ,h""h'igIol,,... uf,,,,, ligh, ; ....t.o..: 1'0'1"* io '0 ...... .,... !Iu. W<rt"
in 'h" d"k '0 boc"" .. 8,,,,, ... 11, .diu"..! '" .nd .bl. '" .nd"", ,h.
IOUr« of th., brigb'"....·
"" dori""" ,I>< .uri"" ,nul!< ,h.", hu ...... I« in ChriSt io "'" in
hi. physi<. 1 'ppur ... ,:< (hi. hum.n n .. u,. ) bu, ,,'h« ,h...,.,gb hi,
<k..J .. "hi.eh ...... ,ho ....,,1<> ofC""" in lh.,;, It,n><<nd<n' ""';':"r ond
_er,· H ... Or\g<n "'"y h.v< b«-n 'hinking of Pou!" .. " ...-g.ttding
,hut< I""'i<hio, for whom lho ""pol;' V<iI<d: 'In ,1l«r .... !Ix sod
<>f ,hi. ""rid ho. blind..! ,I>< mind> of ,I>< unb<Ii<"" .... '0 I=p 'h<rn
from 5«inS tho ligh, of Iho 8"'''''' of .lto glory of Chrin . .. bo i. tho
''''''8' of God .. . , F...- " if ,Ix God .. "" .. ;d. 'I.« ligb' >h,1I< "'" of .
....... ,,"" h.o< >bon< in "'" ""'rI, '0 .1>< liihl of II>< knowl<Jl< of
II>< glory of God in the f>u of I<:>u, C/IrU,'U Cor 4:4 , 61. I\<tl Or;g.n
Ixr< <cbo<s I ............. ....u, who . rgt;od thol on< knowo God no! only
by "i<H-:>'" .nd ,.."ds bu' oJ.., ... O(I ... !-u.
LoI<r in tit< , .... ,n.. Orig<n r<fu'''Ihut< who doim ,hoi .he God of
'h" Hoi ...... prop""" ,nd p.",,, .. ,h, i, d i."",, flO'" ,nd i"f""".o
Ih< Sup1"< .... God ,..-=kd by Cb ...... Like Ttrlull .. " . Orig<" nndidly
adm; " .PI .... ", ron' .... i"""'" in S"iptu" ' hOi "gu.>bly ref .. '0 ,w<)
d'il"..-.-n, God .. On" , .... 1>It .nd .h. o,h ... ;m-ioibl •. 1\0." "n,l< T","II'. n
w., m"" rng.>g<d wilh <on". di«ion. wilhin 'ho I'X<>Unl of
re<[U<>l for • .won of (iod', r .... Orig<n .. pand..! bi> dioru .. ",n '0
<umin< ,h. ,of'lH"«l di .. imil.rily i><t-.n 'h< God of 'h< book> of
Mu"" .nd the Proph.., , nd ,".God .... .led in't.: N<w T .... m.n'.
I'or uampl., Oris<n ju . .. poon II>< I'oo"h Go'p<l", d . im ,ho' "no
"n< "" ""'" ..... God' I "",n ' ,I, ) "';'h , hi: ""tiro of God', 'W<""
' D'''' 10 M"... . nd II>< oth< ... Oriun ""mi" thi, . ppa .. nl ron, .... ;,;..
l;"n might .0Pl"''' . h . . .... , ;"n .Iu' .ho God .. ""m M ..... p"",I.im'
96
FACE TO FACE
(the Creator) is visible, while the God whom Jesus teaches is im·isiblc.
BU1, he points out, an utterly irlvisibl .. God would have bem invisible
c"en 10 the Sal-ior himself, a snag that would make il impossible for
Jesus truthfully 10 say thaI no one has seen God except the onc from
God, as in "he has SC{,ll the Father" (John 6:46), or that "whorl'cr has
seen me [also] bas seen the (John 14:9),"
As a result, Origen concludes, the language of seeing is not meant in
a literal sense, bUI rather as a metaphor or an allegory. uWc must sup-
pose Moocs to hal-c seen Goo, not by looking at him with eyes of flesh,
but by understanding him with the vision of the heart and the percep-
tion of the mind, Imd in tI,i, parr 0111),."" And here Origen restates his
position that God can ha"e no hody that could be perceived or known
but is incorpor.:al and utt erly outside human >cnsate knowledge. ksus'
statement in Matthew's Gospel (Uno one knows the Father except the
Son,» Matt II :27) in some sense clarifies the meaning of his statement in
John, sine.: the language is equivalent to and best replaced by
the language of uk now in g." As he says, it is «one thing to see and be >cen,
another to percei"r and be perceived, or to know and to be known."'"
Origen's understanding of the power and nature of words as symbols,
however, opens the way for a theolog), of image that will come 10 apply
to th ings actually seen by the eye.
Origen might have made the same argument with respect to the
whole text of John 1:18: one has ever seen God. It is God the only
Son, who is close to the Father's heart, who has made him kllOl"'(
(emphasis mine; Greek'" exigi5l1fO, trans. or '"interpreted»).
This Jrgument also allows the words preceding the claim of John 14:9 to
explain its you know me, you will ktlOw (Greek '"
rile) my Father also. From now on you do hlOw him and ha"e secn him .
. . . Have I been with you all this time, Philip, and you still do not blOW
me?H (John 14: i -8, emphasis mine J." Moren"cr, Origen that this
nonsight..-d '"knowing» also characterizes the way humans encounter the
whole Trinity, since t he ability to be seen properly belongs only to cor-
poreal bodi.:!, which excludes the Divine Triad, which by it s very nature
"'transcends the limits of Incorporeal and intellectual nature is
only capable of knowing and being known. It is '1ewr seen, even by
itself."
Using the language of sight as a metaphor for intclloxtual perception,
the stories of God's appNfance to the Hebrew patri·
archs allegorically. For example, in his fnlmh homily on Genesis, he
gives the story of Abraham's divine visitat ion at Mamre a moral and
mystical meaning. He focuse,on the between the waysAbra·
ham and LO( recei"" and treat their guests, the significance of the placc
name (Mambrc, thc name Origen uses, mcans "visionH in "our lan-
according to him), the symbolic rather than superficial meanings
that one can draw from the fact that Sarah was standing behind
THE INVI!IBLE COD AND THE VI !iBlE IMACE
ham. 0' tlut GOO <p<u, of"d<sc<nding to tho in'Guit;" of SoOOm."
.n<! "" forth. Or'S"' i. un;"t<f<>tcd in tIr< .. , ... 1 i<kn"'y of
tn, tnt<, m)"t<ri<>u, AU"'''. l'h<y ob.i<>u>iy un"'" t>< GOO. ,or,.:. . 11
thr« ""non, of tl>< T,ini'y Oil" in>;'il>l<." 5;mil .. ly, In h .. romnwnlarr
on ,II< SonA of Son!!'. Orill<"" "'Nl"''' ,Iu, ,II< ,im< of ,.., , ·i,it
n.m Imidday ) d.no, ... ,h. >oul', pu"ui' of tb. d,,,, bright ligh' of
i<Jxo,,-kJg< I<f. Sons 1:7)." l.ot<r. II< iJrntioo ,t>< "II of til< iov<rlO ,il<
d.,..., in Iil< dd"t, of ,.., 'o<k. "1<1 m< "'" l"'" r ... • (Song . .. ·,th
M<»<, . 1"" in th. , hcl,., of til< ,0« . whfT< h< ,,,,, IJ ><'< GOO', bad •
• in« n, .... . not . 1I0w<d '" ><, GoJ", f>«. Th. b"d< of tho SonS i,
arrordcd romnhing ..... no' un,il til< tr.n.figurati<>n, 011, m.y
"""«mpl". ,II< glory of GOO with fa«· lef. Exod
) Coo- );7-18; I = ' :J-').-
Such in«'p'<"U!",n' """'8<" out of Orig<">1', <>Senti,1 u"""""nding
of how human .... <It , .... 'cd ><<<"J,ng to ti>< '''''S'" ,,( GoJ 'nd how
,...,. " ,II t.. ,«ltotmcd throoq,h th< ,."....;d of t1u, <>,igi .... in"I!'" o.i ·
g<o', ,i<w. " 'hich ..... , imil .. '0 ,10.' of hi' oI.lruoJri.n p,«k<...."
Ci<n><n', ... ., th .. , .. hun .. n hkrn<>. to GOO .... , ... i""u,1>I< "oJ 'I'i';.
'o.ll i.."...., _ .n ",<mal Of rorp<>f<<II 00<. Th<di"i .... Ii ...... mid<->
,n ,I>< 'n .... ' I""f"'n, "'hieh ..... mad< immortal, i""Of'Uplil>l< •• nd in",·
ib!<. T" 'hink 0' ......... """, Id I>< to >OPr<"'< th .. GOO coold
i0oi: liU u. Of ha,<- • no"",n I""",. Ho, ... ,I.., ifi<>, ""'t"n;'y .. ,..-_
.tod ,"onlins 'u 'hI ,m'g< of GOO. th< 5o.i<>,. "'00 i, ,h. · tho IU<'
imp'"'' of GOO', '<"Iy boinS· Ill ... 1,3). In. "i'"-'II" of ,n. ;m' i';!.k ('.,.j"
, n.J ", .. fi",OOm of all «wi<>n· (Col L:I SI. And, th .. " .. -IIy I<", . .. n
"y,." ,,1M, 10 .. >«" m< n .. ....,n tn. h''''''" (I<>kn 14,9).
SilK' .nl""<"-OO Iook> ... n im.oS'" of iOn""""..., t" or iglO'! mod<I •
... • 1 ... dot> ,nyo'" wt.u...., Clori>! prn:riv< GOO.
So,h 1'<""<1',;"n i, ,i>< <>f hum. n >pirit"'1 Pros, .....
lS ,I>< ,,,,,,,,I of t1u, inn". ;n,';,il>\< imaS'" S""" '0 m<n ,nd ..
th,,, <..-.. ion. O"s,n 1>.-1;",-., t1ut , .. 'hin8 un, t..ho1J, i. " '10 .. <tno
l><(Om ... lion, con" mpl .. ", the im' g' oiGOO, on, will g,.du.ll y
0«01'<, ,10 .. lik,n<". If on, 'um, ;n"<oJ ,mnn) ,h. 0.>;1. ,,,,., ""ill
t..com< lik, th< o".il. Sin .,,'" on<". o,ig;n. 1 im.go . nd t><sin. to
imp!.n' ,no,hn Undrr".ndinS t'" Jyn, mie 1"'''''' of ,i.i<>n is critical
';IK. hu,",,, ...... , "", d<p<n.l. upon i'.- In h;" dtba" with t",,,S'"
Cri ..... 0.;1«" vahd.tt> ,I>< 'I><ory of I"rtieil"ti<>n, '" IonS .. ,I>< con·
"mpla'ion of ",n.ibi< thins' I<aoh to tl>< «ont<mpl.lIon of ti>< ,n,.-II ig"
1>1. """ IJ. II" ..... ". h< point> oot . '0(> 0(1<" tho .. "ho h,,'o 1><0.
""bled to fOfm tIr< """,;'1 Of om, il>l< "1"r..-n'ati<>n'.f< drawn ba<k
to ''''m .nd ,l ip ba< k into tl>< fooh>h «ro' of off« i oS 1',,,,,,-,, 00" ,,, ,..--
,,«I th inS .... ch.ng'ng tIr< .ubii"" fOf "" N><.nd making t" ""'h of
GOOinto . I ... ..
In, diff<<<n, lKomily on G< .... i .. Orig<n oll';n ..... up this tl><m,.
ri'ing ,I>< 1",,1>1< oftl>< WQtJUn .nd ,I>< coin ( Luk< . nd in«,·
FA(€ TO fA«
pt<1i"ll il ... n aUegoryof , .... .IO .. ·.1ost i ..... In lit>d 'hot loot
""n (I .... i""'F). ,II< """""" had Iu lithl. lamp • .,.I . "'«I> ..... <It."
hn huult (Ill. "",I ). ft1'!IOVing lho ..,d rubbUh that had
up owr, '-II ptriod of slop"" ho....t.<ping. So Ions" the inn<! pn.
;on i. rov<r<'d wi,h dill or d ... ,. , .... ,m,s< ,t obocu .......... n «oo ot
Po",', prom ... in I Cor ·)uot ..... 11> .... horne the i",..of' ....
tnOn of JU>!. ,.. " iU ....., boor , .......... of ' .... .... n ofhnvrn. .... Ii<r<.
Oriso., ""por_n1 of tho nulrtialily of hu"",n IInh in f. ""r of
r.",.. .... inS' >Pi,;' .... 1 . nd '''''''1''>",01 """""I ''t1'3'' "" .gr<eins wilh
,h. Gno .. '" r<J>IIdio'ion of ,,,,.I<'<! matt ... V""ib,!i'y to. of ,I«
follm II". hh. """ ..... buund lu the ... r,hly bod)- .. . p....;.nmatU •
..... ,h. p!'OJ'<S'iv< .... of ,11>, "' .... ;,;.,., maUo hullWl> mor< ..,J
"""" ptl r...tly. in.i>ibIy 'piri, ... I. r .. CIrism ..t.-. to ap<cify ,11>, in
,t...nd - bodily oa,u,,· wiU porilII. silKt ho ......u . ... thot '0
..... wi,lH)u, .... '<riol."""an« ' nJ oport from with.
b<>d;1y tI<mn>, ;, . thmg ,11>, bdonp """" to , ........ 'u .. of God. ,hal ..
of ..... Fa,btr. ,h. Son. ond ..... Holy Spiri': n.. ptl ftel<'<! or .... rit"'"
"'m, ",i U ,,;It l>< boJily;o IQ .... knk bu, no 1.,1'111'" . ;,ibl, '0 Ih.
or in , .... ........... y tho, its 10-< form wal."
La'.r in ,hi' .. me Orison 00« ' saln . mp""".n . noIogy
from ...... 1 .n ' 0 <XJ>Ioin this !pi';,,,,,, motwal of tho ori&i .
1'1. 1, ........ 11'1 thi> <»t. hnw<vn ... thn dun daaibin@' .... Lqp .. ,
.maU .. of on inIXImprd>rnl.ibly m<>rmooi$ ""uc, 00;8<" 'p",k.
of , .... u.g.:... .. , .... .,.isinol of. pain'inS " W<Il .. , .... "'ist whn pain ..
il . • 00 h. rom""". 'he humon ..,w 10 'h< <OPT'" ",""""".ion_
II<ntat ..... 1"in' .. is GOO. tho trouv is in<!.liblt-i, "'n .... oborurod
bu, <annot l>< <In,roy«!. Hu .... n. eon p.o'n' OV<I ,hot 'tna¥ wi,h on
.... hly 0'" mod< up of ",Ion <Itt,,,,,, from lu"._ ......... ' •.
pridt •• t><! "' ............ be' on« hu ....... . em .'n .."...ni 'hrir ori&inoL
God eon mnov< ,...,.,. muddy ond m!dw, roIor> h ... on . n ""0 .......
u_i"l! .mI r.-..h<ninS '''' lu"';_, o'iti.wo.
Orig<n', . .. Iogy 00.. no! .... ,D'O downpliy ,I>< human panicipoo.
,;"n in 'hio ....,tltof ,",,,, .. ;,,n.,;_ ...... i .. n .... bqth d, ......... of
'''' -.. "hly" pmon """ tht ori&inol ,mI m ... t bt <r"oiI'IftI in cl<> .... '"
..... touL suid<d by 0 _ of,ho Ttu< I""". In ,II .. mop« •• Orijpm
_nd' .--.,hn Ii'" 1h<ophil ..... """ 0<Xt><(\td ,h. ".<ion """ to th.,..
.. -1>00< "gil...,....,.., .n" .. ..J , ....... to .tt'" Or, ... •• idto
of "",it",1 ftJI<""oi .. sroun<IN in """NI "''''''''''''' •• id<d by ;.,tII«.
,,uI d'ocipli'" ond conforming It) St:,;phI " . H","""", Or .... •• ph ......
.. ""' .. voduol- Th.,.., b<inS""'......u.;! Of ",,1<I«d mu" alw>yo Uq>
,hrit ' inn .. ) the modrl. And the ' ...... formo';"n from ,h. muddy
<I>"'n ... of >in .nd ronfu""" to , .... cl .. , rod"not of di., .. Ii ........
"' ..... in ""'-' . , I<a>t up '0 ,I>< po,n' wit ... ttl. lOll! i> finally obit to
wi,h".nd , .... fwl hril/>' ..... of d;"r.c glory. 1-10-<" ' , in <Un"'" to
Thtophil ..... Orig<n. I"", , ........... -.)d "'I ,hal ;, "orl{ ,,..,,,.
THE INymBU (;OD AND THE ymHE IMAGE
fu,"".i,...oo ..-lviii<;, ,,,I>« .han .h, .itn of ..,Iv".,n >eh;"'...!.
irro""", bdi.,... .ha. ,'i,.,n oi ,II< Divine in il> IuD brillimr Wli·
...... tdl' .. ". hu ....... i"m,",".I;,I"od < ....... 1 inco"uphbili'y, ... hil<
O,ig<n '1"''''' in 'mm of • ,im< wh<. ,II< ·Io, m 01 tho will I""
.....y( I Co, 7:31). '00 ·lH!dil,..ut.. .. na will to. '" pur< .nd R'/i""'; ,II<
"" m,,' 'hink of i, J:><;r.g lik< 'h< <1h ...
In «I"du,i"", .I,hou[d> m"" of ,b_ ,n<i<n' ,.-,i' .... "h<'II<,
ehd"i.n, p'po.'" I<w;'b •• ffi,m ,h .. God;' in. i,ibl, . nd " .. "II'
hum. " mo..-I<ds< 0' .neou"",. dxy _ ' 0 roo,moY, rang<
. 00 .. ,;"n in bow'h<r on<l< ..... oo.od dtfmJ 'bis bui< . ... "ion.
AU tIu« sr<'"r< cr;,i<i>.<4 '''J''IO< who migh. io<1u.1Iy , "um< ,h .. ,ho
d i";o< "",W to. <ir<u",,,rit.od try. " .1", Of «In"in<1I wilhin. l<JI\pl< .
• nd ,n var;"'" wor> .. ch .".. migh' "'CUI< ,II< "' ...... of "t .. ;'m "' idol·
"ry. d<prndinS <><I wh .. ...., .. ... u.
A, til< ,."" .im •• ,h. biNi<. 1 ....... .," Ih .. hu""n b<i"l!' -... ,« .
.. od in ,I>< ;maB< <>f God "nd "-<fo« \><0, ... m< kind of hUn<>< 0<>
God " ..... ,h. prOOlnn <>I .. hal lix '«m "I ik"""," migh' m .. n ... d '0
w .... , .. 1< ... , i, h., ,,,,y'h,ng '0 do wi,h . ""nal 'pp'.ranc<. And
"',""ugh Ih. '''''11><"' ,ha, God" i""i.ib!< >«"DU >impl •• oou[d> by
i,,,df. ,t.. wh"k m'"'' i, ""mpl;,:.,...J wh .. S<,;l"u« ,01 .. , .. w .. in
<p iph .. , .. of God '0 s<lw ru"h .. mof< • ., ,b. D,.io •
.... 01d i, inc",po"'od ino<> 'h' , ..... ,i. 1 ",.Clu" of ,h, Godh .. d in
eh';""n ,,,,,hinS.Dd 'h", id<n,di...! try !Om< Chri"i.n I<O<l><rs .. ,II<
0'" """ . ' pp<. r«!" in ,iIes< ."' ... n .... ""mplicoh"'" ari$e . <>1>«;'Uy
wi.h '<sO'" to ''1I"""n" obou,.11< plun.ii'y .... unily<.>f G;..J .nd ,'"
"I"""'>hip of ,t.. Word 'Q 'h, Fo,I><,. Fw.bermo«. 'h, Ch,;""" d«·
I. ",,;on ,b., ,I>< beam< (",,,nul< in .. sib!< hum. n /k;h ,alb for
• ,hroty.rou, .h< rda, ionohip .mollS 'b«>ph;Iny. I><.,'!i<.won, di.,,,,
pm:<p1ion (MowI...Jv). ond hum.n saIva,iooo. M ......... ,old ,h., I><
"".Id "'" k>ok .. ,t.. f_ of God .... d I .... , bu' Chri" ..... '<aching .",.
11"" j"" ,I>< Ol'l"»i'<-'h." -'"5 God "f_ '" f.,," i, '"< .um
,ub"""" <>I b<i"S ,,,,II' ali"'.
99
FOVR
Seeing the Divine in the Fourth
and Early Fifth Centuries
o fl.l' E N '\ AN ALOCY of. pain';n,. ,..,"0''';00 to nunun
.. Iv .. io" (do""","", in ,I>< ct..p!C'fIIu>. ,lust p.lnHd in ,ho:
w,;,;np of lh< mun • . ,rn'".., Al<nn.lrian llI<oIosi,n Athan .. iu •. In
h .. ' ..... i .. 0.. 1M loea"",'"'' A,o." • • i .. likwil< >p<.k. of ,lie- h,a"·
''''< ... pain'''' or ott ,..,,,"', ..... ollh< hun",,. oouI, nudt in
til< ilm3" ofGo<l ... I>kmiohod or ooilcd p>intins, <>I>I<uml .nd dilm-
-5<'1 th""'u> to< com... """",ion of lin. TIl< log".,., , .... T .... 1m""
of G<ol,.hrft """"" '" mI<'W II>< painting ",ff><al bjI"1in, from ... ·;'h·
out" '" thot th. m.oy h< r<n<w<d o.d ,."o,ed. IIorrowin8
",,,.p""" from lh. ",,'u.1 pr:wh of PO"";' pointing on wood,"
Atho....; •• main"'n. thit til< oo.rd ,nd .h. outh ... «i" • .,.!
mlY ....... ICd, ,",,, , .... colon owl to h< IiJI<J in >&"n .11<1 , .... liUn ...
• <d .. wn! In .""'.,.,. pi .... A'h.." .. .pin «1>0;"5 Origm, <i<pim
tl>< """ui Il001, , .. in<d by "'" fil th oflu ..... ...roin! to b< w..t.cd until
'Il< fomSn m,n .... h .. b«n ",moved .nd II>< lii<m<1> to II>< im.s<"
,<,.",cd to ' u ".'IIi ..... ",,,«1 ... ""'"",,, .umy mi, ... " .. lib< """I I
bring 'horoughly b,iJll,<n<d, Ib< aoul brooId, .. in • mi,ror ,I>< !""'S-
of ,I>< Flth<r, <,,<n ,I>< Word, and by 'hi> "...n. ,,,,,,I>os 'h< 01<, of 'h<
F"II<" """"" I""'I!< 'h< s...ior io,"'
Dnpi« 'I><i' uS< of simil" .n . ... A' ...... ,;"' !al<es • ...,. cliff .. •
.nt "",i,;on from Q,il<n', on the impo,"n"" of GOO', co'I"', ... 1
'Pl"'",,,,,,,.nd tIK dqr« of nu,",," .ffi>r1 i"",lvod in ,II< pro<'" of
10< ,,,,10,,,.:,. of Ib< i""I!<' Wh< .... 10< Oril!<'" 1M o;.in< I""" i,
<>I<fI,;,.lIy i"",'l"'''.t......, ......... i, ;. brouJll' 'wi'hin ,I><
.omp ... 01. hum.n Oo.ly," fo, A,h.",oiu, ,h. In""n". 0 •• w.,
n« .... ,ily .i.iblr braus< .i.ibili,y " .. , «I<",i . 1 '" hi, , .. ing mi.·
rion' A,n. .. ,;", miri on 1M OCItaI, mat .. i.tI «>'I"',nli'y of Ib< inn,·
... ,ion • • • m<dium of 00)"",;0., n.. "" ..... 1 of ,h. di.;ne imall";n
'"
'"
FA<E TO FAU
humankind ""PI'<"" '''",ugh .. noiblo ", .. ns. s...ing G<.J', 'mov;"
Chri" Wi> 10 boll. A'IwIaoi ... or>d 0riFn. bu, ,""".....,..)d
illY< ooid 'hot ,......,. w<r< l<><>lins" dil'krm, thint<. OriJOn i><Iio<¥cd
=--r " ....... " .. of ,h.o .. of.t.. in" .. <pim and
'ion Qf ,I>< mind, "hil. Allwlasi ... boii.....:! .1>< hwnan !kahly ... Iily
i....tt' "'" "dot""obI .... d<morut .. t«l in . he i...,..nation ODd ...... f<'(.
,.,. of lh< body of Oui".
At th ... rn< time. A,h.n .. i ... bold •• mOl'< .,...umia';' vi ... of
human;.y', ability 10 p'",,'" on iu -.. th.an Orisen <Ion.
", "',Iu ... foU .. hur",,,,, lodE ad<qtut< twOm><O< of ' M dim ,rod
",,", .. «<I i""I')' within th<rru<Iv<s .,.... 10 _"" th<ir own ..... of
<l«rtpitoo.. Moo. to am"'" «lin< 10 of God t.,. tOO. own
pawn lin« th<y:m: hopdtooly miml in blOndcd br " ... ond
dt«;....J 1'1' domoru. fl...,. ou ,t .. "br «Old .. <d ;",,,ffi,;"'. to ... ith_
... 0<1 tb< "";!yorido ... H< .. 1;s., "If tomroD< cann'" .... how"", ... Or
oh. "" tfflIueat«dl"' Tho: 01 foOd in ,m-t;"" ' r< "'" ....,.,gt.. for if
it ....... h""",njt, """"Id not b< in ...m ....... bon tII< om... _
>Mwin8 ro"" thr ttn.h .. ;" r., ....... Ii"...,.." "'" ""'''V ft..
hurna", Iud miooodsMng . hit and mo£<OI<. IlOWlq>t thri • .,...
down, .... Tho: oru, mn ... I<ft .... forGod '" hultWOity' •
.-110> •• ""1'<'''''' "1'1"' .... 1>«. 11) ............... n 10 the .....nd of "'!U ..
• nd of ......... 0 'aUOfIO mortal b<>dy 00 tbern half><oy
hullU'" mi;sht finally p.=<'i .. th< truth in til ... dim""';on, . nd !'KOII'
n;'" .1>< Th .. ( u><""l"'ttol) G"d br "' .. '" of wt..1 ,I>< I".,.".. .. Ont
<fItrto 'hro<lgh hi. body. Th ... "";n6 ,I>< fft""""ion of , h. Sa.lot.
,00.. wOO W'ftt J ... wn '0 wo ...... ip ;dolo ot to "'i., .... IMm rot 5"<1'
-"'",.. ...... tt <Ji ,!><;. br (nft'Iptiioo .... Aod Ii_ 0>" .... _.
po ..... pp<atan .. and hio vU.ibl< loCtI.nd doN. _. pan of
hum. n .. tva'iott, It.< Sa.iot 0""," OOrn could nOl immtdi.at<ly off ••
hlnu<!f r.,.. oacriflu on .1>< ' ..... ood tttU....roon from tl>< <ltad,
r.....,. ............. -'"_""""h_o.,-.,. D"'''''''''''_
,.;o,&, ........ ..,. ......... did. ..... ; .. ;. mol ...... oudo -. .... ___
.......... hilnl.-. ........... lNmaI,boo .. God .... -.L
""'..,.bio-.. ................................. r"·· __ of ..... .
""' .......... _<7
dn

hftom
....................... . .
...,.,. ....... ,ioa>k· ...... ' ........... _inl __ ..,. .... _
.. .............. ofGo.!..md .... Lln-of .... uon-,-
f<>' A,ho""""" II>< _IT koowIa!s< llIat ." ..... Ib"",«,> IMuttr .... 1
..,. _ <ruci>1 f.". hu",",,,, '0 ........ ., ",...,,«1 to Otrioo. 'and .... Iet
th<it ........ on ... ,ho, ,...,. "",Io! ... hi. wooo (h<.oI.i", .1><
blind and tho Iamt. "'""sins w ..... to win<. om! to ""'hI and <lim< to
t«<JW'i« , ..... .... "'" hoi",... 0...,. bu. 0100 'h< OM .... W><d.nd.
.... "oodom of "" TN. God. I'<>r ,I>< <aU of human """,ion, ,iI< i_I<
!EEIN(; THf PIVINf
had to b<ro .... vi>iblt. Goo had to rom< dow" to til< hulJl.l" 101'<1.'Q
-show up' in • body.., Wt hulIWlity migh, !« tlx Truth ,"d thmugb
,11< '", .. "a" aui" '<rogIlm God (tb< fotll<, ).'
pro""", that sui"5"""" an im!'O,,.ot
fuoct ion in til< wo,king of wlr.ich in hi,..,... now ""lui .... tho
,«<>sni'i<>n of GOO ""'" .pp< . ... in human form in addition to thos<
in <ca.ion. Hot, . • nd 1Wro<y. Sin«
'" fae th ... ,>thor mo.n, had no' 'o<,o«lod. ,,.00 .""'" t" .,,,«.
bum.";t, haIIWllY' and""", on it< phy>i<al ""b.y. In Chri.t", ... nldy
I""fo,m._ of "".ks. ond as....,u , r ;n hi' hin"- d,:.,It, ,nd
,,,u,,,,,,Krn. Ath. n .. i ........ God·, natu",. krv<. , "d r«Iompti .. pbn
«.....t<d. /\.t o"" ,hm Otigo:n. A'h." ...... ,hat WlI' • eri'i·
e.1 ,,,,,,,OJ of knowi"5- no •• mnapoo, fo, It. I" tb< i"a" .... ti"". tho
hum.n n« ..... oi"".ly and phy>i<ally ronfront«l wi.h it> !'Ot<otial.
Now .... i.h • ,i';blt mod<I of it< tm< o.<If. i. could both r« ito o,iSi n ,"d
««.>y>i" it.< .!e<. iny. In • mo .. 1it<,,1 ><M<. ,II< Origo:"oi>t Pf<'I"",,1 tho.
what ott< Iook> .. i, wlt.&t <><t, be<ome> .. utond<d to til< p,iociplt -
.nd Ii ... • til< <mpbui> on o.ri" ... h. ph)".kal . nd
io<>, ... " mod<! of .. Iva,",,, """" ,h. I""'ibilily of "';n8 .n ..:t...t
p.>int<d !'Oneai' .. '0 irutnr<1iv< aoo """<ficial ilJl.lg<. roth« ,h,n .. '
d<o;nful idol Th. proto'rp< Ire t«:OS"iHd througb it< «p"""",..
t.", and i1l<0'1'<'",«I i010 ,,.,, hum ... Wk. of "orIf.
",
The Invisible God In the Four1:h Century
SOOnl, befur< Ath." .. iu ..... rot< hi. " .. ti .. on the incac ... tioo.
Amobiu •• , Numid;'n ron"''' .nd tta<b<r of ,hnoric. ,,"",hod •
I,,<-b"t ,.<h,,,,.., ....... ,ud< "" ,,,,di!i,,,,al f><>l)"h<;'m. IIi> "" ..... dr
... Iou, "'"""era""n of hi, form« «liSi"n ""y h.", I><,n
.. pl'i...oo by ,I>< .imi"g of hi . Io",i' in8 du,ing ,II< (, .... ""....,uho"
IJoJ.-J" 0:. 0.1 . nd by hio hop< co{!Vi"", oth ... to ""n .... n .. II< d!d.
tkJ, it abo ....... 1«1 n'uth .boo. tho ..... , of Ronun ""ipo" ., ,he ti ... ,.
Hi! t, ... tis< Ago;"" "" N..,""" ,ru;-..<n popn 'harg<> that the Otri>ti, "
""ipo" " ... bt ioW"3 Rum< to ,uin .nd. in 0"< 10<>8 .1«1",". ,<r,i ..... h.
f.milia, 'f><>log<tk ,idkul. of i""6< wo,.trip. po""ul"ly .monS IW
Nnrth Airia" ... : -"oJ", unmindlUl .nd (""",flrl of "'hat .h.
,u", .n« .nd ofiJin of .h. i""'8<' "'. )"0". ,ation. 1 1><"'8' , "d
",dow«! with tho Sill of,..;,dum .nd ,h. d""'<tion • .<ink d(rWn 1><10 ..
pi"'" of t..1;<d .. "hmw,,,. odor< plaa! of ""PI"". bq; from .h •• «th
of d<J'h>nh g<r<rd hahh .. . 'nJ ... hik i. " pi.in and clea, ,ho, )<>U .r<
'p<.I<i"! to "no"' .... hi"",)"O" think that)"Ou.r< b<ard .nJ bting
)"OU .... into diogr_ of !">"' ""'n """",d. by "'inly . nd «<dulo"""
<l«.ivi"!l )<>U<><Iv<o." In hi> wo,k AmobiUi ill"" fdlowo til< pott«n ...
by ,II< .f><>lugi'" .n.! .... il.< ''''' pOIy1h<i<tk pr.aiu ofltrc>liling
'"
FA<£ TO FA«(
god< in • t<mpl. Or im.g< . Dd of pmumi"l! ,lut they ha ... DMI of NC·
rtfio<a and lift>. And.like h;,".Let O>\>"''''l''''' ...... <kkn<b .1.:0.",.
!ian pr..rno. of rdYoins botb t<mploo ... d to God.. BIn "";!hln •
f<w gm ...... io ... Arnob;",', «iliq .... m"" tuov. ><'al'I<'d do1«L d"" to tilt
podual <Inn;" of I.odi,ion>lllomon religion , o>d Ih. ",read of Chrio-
tianity in II>< Empire ..... "I' hin. Ij<n .... tion OJ '''''' "'" . " •• ,ion.n
auisl; •• 1<><hen '>Q)' from O>OOcmnl"ltxlemoi idoto'rr.nd
focuO<d ; ... te..:l on .... C\in8 in.m" "'<I •. ldoI.try .... no 10nB'I'
><oio ... ,hr. .. to ,hd.i,h bo'dy woo.
AfI<r Ill< blict of MiIon, tho fu"". ion of th< i ...... besuloo tal« 011
>it!ni6<.n« in m. dopnaIic of Christw.
Uk Ath.nasiw.. loin four1h-.otnlury diKu...J It.. maU..-
o! divino Im.ga ... ,",,01. n ... I<WI. _ibly becauI< 'I><y t...
'h"",,,,,«1 by ....... ''1 bu. ,I.., ;"",Iot<! '" ,110;; • ...."" .. .00... th<
.... t"« ,00 ...... """"'ip of d,. lIivin. 8<inp of II .. Trinity and by th<ir
<fforu to find .ppropriol< omninoIosr for God, l.ogoo..Dd Holy Spirio.
Th< ... 'i<TI'''t<m '" Ip<ol.inB of"'" Lot!ot .. II>< .ioIbl. mnnbc. mIll<
Yrin;' y ( ....... in ..... in Or T .. ,ullionlcontinu ... 00' with.in , "" pol<m.
ical nruggk to . 1I<Tt ,I>< unity and >ham! ........ of.1I< Godh<od. For
... mpI •• 1I»iI of Conun", , .... ;,... 0. ,II< HoI;r Spirit (wntt., .. rour.d
J7S CoL), <mphuiuo ,I>< unjty of th< Th ... J'<ono .. I&'i'" .-_
_ uld d ivid< or rnulJK'T'''' <he J'<ono .. into 0 ,,/uflll,1)' of d,vln< boinp
ot ted ...... ,t.. Holy ,t.. ... , .. of. mer< ="u«, ,hus f>lh"3
in.o II", .,roI of po/ythrum. To ill ....... hi> point. 8uiI .mpioys ."
. .. mpl. well ."""," '" hi' «>nl<mpo •• ri ... ,h. po., .. i, of , ....
• mPft<lr ...... n iU""ruiort ............ Id ...... b«rt unlhinkabk , =.ury
a.lia ........ d.f!UCS ,1>0, tl>< Divir>< r""'3<...:1 _YI'< ""'" ,t.. .. m<
"'UI<. whidt i> n(I' divided ht' ,I>< f ... ,1>0, 0 .... i, -"...:lilt< """'"
"-
....... tbm,if .... . md""" .... """ ... ,_.,.Iot 00< ... _ ....... ..-.
ond d ... ............ ...:1 _ oi_tiop. nr. ...... , ir _ domo ....
...... _ .... .....,_nr. .. u'S , ....... -,_"' ...... ...:1
"' ........... , _..,. .. b _ plural but-. 1>«_ ... _ prO!
.......... _oo., .... _1P<_Nowwlrotio ....... _ .........
irl- _..-.......... I.... . . I tim · .......... ...
'" : ... , portr'IO' ." """
s...;...,. .. """.oo .... _or .......... ft •• ·., .. ,"" .... _
'" in .... <D<..- ... _ ..... ''''''''OJ " .... """"'" .... _...... io
.... _, ,·.."of ... ("- jj .... .
IIo<iI h<r< >p«m.. ,tit im!">'I • • , .... "ion 11>01 will b • ., i:>don3 to d",
d.f ..... of kuno: .1>0 • • ny honor poM! '0 ,I>< ;""6' J'Ui'" on ro .tIt
prolO!yp<. H< COIrhn_ "'" m".tlininS.hollh< ",b'i<>mJIip of It..
Wo>rd .1><I God i> ..... of i""l<.nd pt""",p< •• nd h ... Y' .ho, wbrn
0 .... pm at .h< be,",) oftht ' .... one .. d ..... ·n "II '" .h. >p«,adc of
IEEING THE DIVINE
the archetype. Io.luch influenced by the teachings nf Greek philosophers,
Basil sees vision as a dynamic activity of the senses and a spiritual aid,
sim'e it leads the viewer beyond the external appearam'e and on to the
perception of invisible truth, thus forming a critical link between the
philosophical thwry of participation and the later defense of the place
of icons in liturgy and devotional prayer. "
lIasil, howel'er, does not have painted images in mind in his treatise,
and he prefaces this discussion with a traditional insistence that God
is ultimately invisible and ineffable, a Spirit t hat must be worshiped
in spirit and in truth. In his earlier writings against the neo-Arian
Eunomius (ca. 363-364 C.E.), who claimed that knowledge of God was
possible, lIasil insists on God's incomprehensibility and defends a
metaphorical or allegorical reading of the theophanies in Scripture
against a reading of Scripture that would take the anthropomorphic
descriptions of God literally (whkh Ennomins probably did not actually
do)."
Correspondingly, in his refutation of Eunomius, Basil's brother, Gre-
gory of Nyssa, addresses the problem of names applied to the deity and
their source as well as thei r validity. Gregory argues that the mind might
supply terms, but that ultimately God's essence is incomprehensible,
and that the only true descriptions of God are in terms of negative con-
structs (for example, "pretemporal," or
«ungenerate
M
). Elaborating on the unknowability of God and human
incapacity to give name or description to this ulti mate reality, he asserts:
"For this inability to give expression to such unutterable things, while it
reflects upon the poverty of our own nature, affords an evidence of
God's glory, teaching us as it does, in the words of the Apostle, that the
only name naturally appropriate to God is to believe God ·above every
name' [PhiI2:9]. That God transcends every effort of thought, and is far
beyond any circumsnibing by a name, constitutes a proof to us of this
ineffable
Gregory's friend Gregory of Nazianzu> was of the same mind, insist -
ing that God was beyond expression and impossible even to conceive
because of the udarkness of this world and the thick covering of the
flesh" that serve as an obstacle to the complete understanding of the
truth, not merely to the ignorant and careless but also to those who "are
highly exalted and who love God." Gregory denies that even "higher
natures
n
and «purer intelligences" (he presumably means angels) are
able to perceive fully, but, "bKause they are illumined wi th all his light,
[they] may possibly if not the whole, at any rate more perf...:tly and
dist inctly than we do . .. in proportion to their Thus, the appear-
ances to Abraham or the visions of Isaiah, E7.ekiel , or even Paul (when
he was caught up into the third heaven; 2 OJr 12:2·4) are partial and
provisional glimpses of an indescribable mystery. ! n another place, Gre-
gory speaks of the Son as the perfKt image of the Father, the "pure seal
105
'"
FA(t TO FA(£
.Dd hi> m",' "n<ning imp, ... • by .... of nplainin, /<$ta' .... t"""".
'bot ' w""",,,,, h. , >C<'fI m< .... 1<'<" til< roth,," (John 14:9). Bu,.
h< i">isu..1x kind of I<>ring mc. m ill thio tal. io mrntal. __ ihI<,
,
-"". "
pt"'P ..,...
In who. nuy ""'" b<m hi> Iu. _I:. pmbobly in ,ho )91)0,
GrCSOry of NY''' r"'POO«! Moon ....... mpl .. of how • "'J"IiQlI
ohrologion .pproadlcs tb. infin;" by r<mOOI'ing <on<qlI>.
.... '" th" _.Id deoa-ib< (or <;r<umK,itl<) God.
'Th< ",u'-'<ing pt, fKtion m .... bo on • joorr><y that .... on u ..... in·
obi< pl . • 0><1 Y<" , .... joomq judf;' the r"W<>' tt.;, •• 11< to'" mak<o
'u"""d """«ti,,,,_ Th. ,n,I'OST lor ,hi •• I>&olu,. , •• no«" d<J>« and
infinity "rGod, and for Mo .... ' "orr. t..ro ..... tho filP'''' of .", 1<)"'
".m08 '" >« who. ;, =001 _. y<" by ' ha' ..... ' ....... , mokill@
8. >0;1 .... pn'V<" 'UWI"J cnIiv.lCnm<nl ,b., co ..... from <k>ir·
ing wh., ;.!><yond " .. inm.n,. Th •• M ..... - ,hO<l' with lIor, And
.khoush lift..! up through ,"oh Ioity <'+"" W:"""" h ... u .... ,ishtd and
dcoim ""'t<, He .hU ,hir>!' fu< tlut with .... ich h< ca"'tandy. fi ll<d him·
... , to <'p. d,y. and h< • • b t" .".in .. if bt hod """. l"". k<n.
I>n«<hin8 God '" 'PI"'" 10 him, MI "",,,d;,..o 10 par_
10k.<, bu. >«<><ding '0 God', 'ru" bei,,&," ... "'" <i ,i", 'h" '.x' .,( Uod
ll,l() (' \'". an.., .... In)' fa« .. _ .,..j ..... "), c,"'$"'TUp!..;". ,ho"hia
dod no1 ...... " d"" !he of God", f.« "" ..... &.th. bu, rotlwr tho,
, .... ,n.1 God an b< k"""n • misund<nt.onding <i<adlr 10
, .... ",ul, "Thio lIeing IGodI " i...."...,M< 'n k"Qw\tdIl<, If ,h .. Ih.
hk'gn';"8 "ot.", ... ""","d, know\odp, .h .. whido .. pm:.i...-d <or_
uinly ia no< IiI<." G<qjOry ",,"dud<> by ....ning .... , , .... Divi ... by ito
Y'<f, n.'u", i, infin;t<, <ndoKd by no oo..nJ . ry, .nd '<>n.,,,,OO, . 11
""",,<t<tU.iQ."
Around ....... m< ,Un< (co, }86.}81 in som<Wha. , .... .. m •
.:on'''' all"""", in hia 1''''iruLI, """, john Chrysostom p.-...:t.cd fi ...
.. rmo .. at An.""'h on ..... ,ub;.rt"( , .... in.:omp",h .. lihl< _ u", of
'oOd, olIO opi .... ,t.. DO>-.... ",,",.ion ,/10, ;,;" _ibI< 10 know God
...... U .. God know. God, In , ..... homili ... lohn bbm """"mi ... for
.. rogon1ly inii"in, , ... , God', ... ,"'"' rould bo .ppm. .. drd 'I\rou&h
human .......... . nd ... dd"md, , ..... _Ul< in<fhbili.y of God . nd , ....
"'l"'''1' of God', 1>.;"5,· lohn ............ h .. ' 'luma\'' wi,h coKfuI
. " .. ,ion 10 , .... "",iplural ' 1'1'<"' ''"'' of God 10 , .... po'ri..-du ,tid
prop ....... but <"<p«iaIly 10 , .... o;'io .. ollYiah, D.ni<l,.nd Ez<ki<lll<
poin" ou' ,Iu. Ibn< In"..,pn..siu ,II< """W,-=hobl< s'<>'y .... God.
unbo .. abI< '0 hwnon <)'<>- 10.;. ... for .:umpl •• cri<o '"" in r..r .. , ....
,ioioo, f.ul<id fdl on hi, foe<, ond [),oniel _'nrifi <d. Bul, cvrn Ihac •
..""ding '0 """" MI "".ual .ioio", of God', divi". .... "'" bu,
only God', .. If-tcv<b.ion in , form , h .. til< vi' ;on' r"/ <ould ,«<iv<
within , .... limi" of mo","if<, O ,;"g I limothy. Iohn alli. on,.1\00 God
." ... .n. in urwppr-=hobl< lighl, whom no 0 .............. ...., 01 <all ....
!EE!N<::THE DIVINE
(l TIm /d6). Th" on;opp,_bablt ligb' nUl only inJi<.t« (0;.1., ill/;·
ni,< gI<,,}" ho'.1so prot<aS God·I ' bIoIu .. indUt>;li'y."
Fro., ,hi, k,nd ,he i"";,iMi" of Go><! fin<b
ill in ,he "')'>,"",1 ,n<!i,;c",. Th< inmibl<. im""'n.l. ... d inrom·
pf<h<o.ibi< God i •• bov< ,II (0'01 , od <1'<0 im.gining. Tho .. who
'"'-'old ,.ion '" m<di,,,< on (II< 1U(01< of Go><! m .. ' tbm mind,
of .11 im.g<S v' "" .. pmJ'<.'li,;Un, ,h"",po • P'-" of ",,",'ion k_n
. , 'I">!'n.tic t h«>losy. I n til< J. t< I'oonh con t ury. fo, i",,.ne<. ["' S' illS
of P<rn'u, IH:'-)'19 <;.0.) """<lop«! ,b<1< « .. hinl!' of
'pirit"..it,. ond. .lon3 ,,;tb other ''J'«'' o( on Oriunu. thMiogy. II<
<mph.,iu.j the ""n",bot,n,i.lity .nd ott« onknow.bilit, o( ,h.
])jyjn< ""UK. In hi> Clwrpm> ... """" h. gil'« dirtetoo .. , 'WII<n you
.,. pt»"in& <In '"'' (.rt<)" ,II< I)i.,.il)" lik< torn< i""l!< i'ofm<d ,,;,b,"
)'00,,,,1£ Amid .100 ._·inS )"OU, 'Piri' '" I>< in>p.....,J with ,11< .. 01 ,,f
"'''''' p."'icol,, oh.1p<. bu, ,,(her. rr.. (""" .11 _"CJ. d" ,.. IX" tl><
unma(<<'" 8<ing onJ)"" "ill " .. in '0 ""<knt.onding.· " By kftpinS,1I<
mind (,t< of . ny i"'"'l!< I""" n><tIpbotical) 1'0, God. Evag,iu, hcI;..v..J
'h" 'h< h"""n .pi'i' 01", w" kqrt fro:< <>f midtodins «tn<'l''' or fini ..
ftJ!u","" whko ...,uld tr.p "'" hU""D ",ul in. ",",,,riaI;',;< <koJ .n<! .
Thi. gr>JuaI fr",;ng of "'" mind from the i""8< in to onrh·
"'nd ruy>'ic&lly (II< irm.ibility 0' inrompr<hen>ibili'y of God ",n,in·
u<J to "",uPT' """"t 1'1.« in Ch,i ... ". ,od .puit",1
p"'''''''' (hrough tb< fifth «Dt"'y, S«iptural <><F''' of 'he .... OM ,nd
'rr""n,,, of G<>d ,I", .<hored up ,n '""hodme"' "",i'ion on th<
kMW.l>ili,y of (".,.. in ""h " ,;,.,. .. Theodo,e! of Cyrus in the mid-
Mth «n'ory." Th. idOl """Id "och • kind o( high point" the l><Pn •
• 'n8 of th< ""n «ot"ry in 'he ... ri' ing.! of Dion)'>i'" (II< A,,,,,,,.git.
(1\<udo.I>io.tysi", ). who .... <koo:tih<J .. 0 'Pi,""aI h<i, o>fbMh
G,<1"'Y "f Nr»o .nd ( "'Sf;'" II> wdI .. Philo).-
In hi. ("ati« My>ri<ol Th<oIot>" 'h< ."tho' al", p'<><n" M.,... ...
p,otot)"J>t <>f 'he 01'>< "'00 .!t. ;n" .uion "fGod by fi", >«inS God in
.",hly m, nif.", .. "., b", fin,lIy ",.ndi"8 in'" '0< of
"nl:o .... ;ns· on Sin,i." Th< OIX "ho ",john to kn"'" God i. _",",>«I (0
.m uJ.« .\\,,.... pt« .... by S' .du.U y "",ting all poosibi<
.ffum"ion •. n,m ... 0' ""ibo« .... ign.d (0 tho Di.in, 00. 1<11·
'pn.,ic ,in« .11 tl><o< Of< "I'i"",,..ly "nly h"m.n ,nd lim-
iwl <on,lfuction, ,n., f. n far ... "" "f ,h. tr,,'h. A( ttt<
how."". ,h •• ",h", .... grt.I ,n in,tial ... Iu< 10 im."" 0' ... ,ihl< 'ym_
1><>1,. " 'h",h ""'" os ,he fi", mr "" ,he lodOO of ue<n' (owo,d ..
• "',, ....... (by n<ga(ins all,,,,,, !mas« or ,((,ib"t .. ). "",il on. 6n.dJy
If,n"""'rls p"'''pI;bl< qu,li'''' .nd arrivn" , m),>'i<aI .i>ion of .nd
""ion wi,b God. In . n,,(h« (,."il< (nm", Nom .. ). h< , ""'mot ....
,h. w.y ,hot. >«10:, 1'''''''''''' from th< n<gation 0' tll< pn<q.>tjt.k.nd
th." tho rot>«pttul. ""'Ily '0 or,i .. " 'h, in,';';bk
'"
".
TO fAtE
0. no_, _<10<. io , .... lOooy .... ' ... _God .... ..-.. Ilio
"'''''' (foo ..... .. ...... ' , ..... io ......... 'or ...... . Dd -.......
itIf).buI "' .... _of ... ..... Ii< boo .... ·r .. 01. .... __
_ ................... ,ofHio_por%··I' 7 "'''''''''''_bf_
.oor.. .. _ ..... _ ... ...,.......... ' ... ."._ ...........
_A'_ or __ ._"' • •
---. .... ,-'...... -........
Fo.. 'hi!. P"""" ;. on ORe, in wh "'" ,I>< 'r "0I>0I0 '"
im.", ' hat hu .... n. opply to God that ... u .. fuJ at the ,,, .. of the
. ..... , mu" b< finally ,bo,.Jc,ned AI ta.t, , .... "''''' .. cnm .. 10 __ G<.d
.. 'he pnin' that ... i ....... .wn . .. .,.,. •• nd
lik< ml<r1 , .... of unknowing.
The Anthropomorphite ControverIJ
n """' ,,_ ., ....... "" ....... .
H"",tvet. m'nd. do not .. wi""" 'm0t<" .. "Iy, «r«io11r wht" 'he
thinking r-i<><lf <&1" ro" h i ..... oon>!&ntly. RnUtan<. to rotI ·
<rivinS of Cod in on . nthropomo<phio: form bdong> to th< .pirit.wt,
o<kpo .nd _''', bu, "";!y '" ,ho vnerol fUrth_.
xnpou", ili<lf ....... to <11«1",. iUdo vKualiuoion. In ,II< lot< fourth
. od ... Iy f,fth em,",;..., (<rllin .nti. o.;!"ni .. (and.., 01 .... ",i·
£"gn.n) 8n>11P"""'"8 f-SYpl;'" """,Iu. nd Syt,.. (olk _ ... n( . cer_
tain A.di ... pooil<d. <Vlporoal and .ntllropomorphi< undml • ..ru",ol
God', ' pp .. "n«. fol\cw;ng II>< ,,,,,t of Gon L:26·l7 , "Le! '" "",);0
h8mankiDd in oou imas<. O«OJdi", to <HI, lik=<oI .. .oj. AaQrdinlto
, .... Ch, ........ hillo"'''' So<r., .. ()l!(l--tJoO), , .... qunlion ""outd m""h
llrif< . nd ron"n,ion: On< ( th< "mo .. limp!< ...,..iQ") fri<>Ml
, .... opinion .ha. God iororp<>rOl and ha>. furm. wt"l< . ...... .....
"",,<nd..:! thot God ;, inro<pnrnl .Dd f,.. fu>on 011 /00' ......... ," "P.
So< .. , .. "PO"..:! .hot Bid,op Th«>phih .. of AI<Ulldria (JU-oI121
;",-.;ghcd '5"i"ot ,t..- who I><Id ,t.. . nth"'F"""""hit< poo.ition •
... p....,Jr "",chinS ,Iu. 'he Dhi .... po,.;''''''' '''''', ......... "
fn<h«l 'he ... " of ' he ",imple £gl'1"ion monu; empl .. d out the
mo .... ,.,. ... 0I1h<y rusMd ' 0 Alnandria '" proo .... ,"""ins , .... bi<hop
of ;mpiny . nd mrnt<n;nrs 10 1"" him'" <In,h.
Th .. ditpul< got <n''''&i<d in ,I>< 10 ..... on,.n ... com"",,,, pan.,
......... 'hoo< m<KIk!. dcm;,,><k<I . coodmr"",,,," n(Ori,s<'" •• p;,;, .....
W"," ' h<oiogy •• nd Tboophil ... morld ...... oHo<d to 01 ...... '" 'h<m. I n ,I><
m .. n,im<. h • ....,. Iu ...... V<d hio OW" , ki n and puifi...a ,h.
anvy <lOW<! by ",Ui", th< "",nb that 'In "";"11"81 boh<>ld!he
of God." "'" a .. hile • ..,.",'" of Origen' " ' i>eoI<v may Iu", _ sit'
• an,hropomorph;lc" .""port 1m .heir CO<>do.rnna,,,," of Orism', genet.
oily "'<goot;"" poo.iIiun un ,Irt kuman body. Tho monu. we..
IHIN' THE DIVINE
boing d ....... i ... abou, ,h";. ""' n ' .... ,'ion'. in whtdo thty im'll'
in<d God OS hovin8 • body Iii« .hrits (,..:! thus ,h";, ""'" pOI",,,"1 to
.tt,in ,h. divino form through OJ«<;'1. Th<r ... .J'-«d ,ho, ","'n th"l'
pr.y«! tb"f hdd . m.n,aI imag< of God. Am>tding to , ........ inhibit,ng
.. <h ,m'!Ii"";"n ....... d i, im_ibk for tl><m to pray.
loon C ... i,n '<'<0<10" an ... ", in 10;' "oth Conf.",,,,,. ,h., c'p·
t"",,'" .... nu of 'his .....,..n>.n' .nd 'h, ""m"" ."..:hmrn' '0 tbri,
'mag< of God. H. "III tho .. I. of a monk ILImed s."p;"n, "''''' had
IiV«l • lif< of dediat ,ed ." .... i'y • ..:! di "'pli"". lkspi" 10" ag< . ..,...;"
.M 100"""". h. ""''' linl, igno"n' 'If 'It<OIot!y .• nd to him
.It. ,10" God', 'p"",,,.nu w .. in«>"'p"b.n,ibl. m,d. no
....... It ... med on of i,, (dle« ....... nll • dir .... ro"tr.di"OO
of tho H""' ....... "h.n, «r .. in <1<0<00 n.m«l Pho"n" ,
... pt.ined ,hat ,h. "imal!< ,od 1ikrn<M" of God .... , '0 b.- "M ... tood in
• • pi';'u,1 .. n .. (fo. God could 10'''"0 ""por<.li'y), ,b. old OLIn
ftnalty pI'< io .nd >«<'I"ed "', , • ..:hin&- I h' .... n' '0 ""1>0><1",, In<h.
ing II"'< V<>' joy to . 1I in hi> rommu"i'y, who hod f<or«! lo,i08 10 ..
",u1 '0 h ..... •• nd 'h<r S,,,h<r«l '0 pray • ..:! gi .. ,10,,,,,, fut II>< ,"""'.
of 'hi .. implt.mind«l bro'h<r. ""nd .... n •• mid tb.-i< til< oM
man ""'. m. <unfuO«!, r". t.. .. "kd 'hot ,I>< bum." im.", of God
whi<h I>< "0«1 '" d .. ", Mor< him .. t.. p,oy«! .... 00" SO"' from Iili
10 .. ". Sodd<nly h. p .. woy to 'h< hitt"",. mW .bIond,n' t<'a .. ,nd
H, ,hr .... bi,.,..,1f on ,to. g1<I<Ind ,,,.I wi,h ''''' migh''''' "",,'1 h.
<ri<d ""', "M ,I>< mi.fo"un,! 'They' .., ,akrn my God from m<. J
h ••• no on. '0 hold On '0. ,nd I d"n', "now whom '0 .dor< or '0
" vi",. 1 id .. of God. ""'D 0"' only imagioed. w.o. if not
;mpouiblt ... k." '''''ihl, diffl(ui< .nd <v<n dcbili"';ng '0 'xp"n8'
from ,I>< mind.
'"
AUluni ne and the Problem of the Invisible God
Aufjll>tiD<" 'pprovaJ of one"",' lI.om.n . nkon"'" (in 'h< ,in" of
NWtI.I) i, "'''';.'''''' with hi, 1I""<t.J po>oitiu" on "'1<in3 .ilUa! im."",
of God. fl. d •• rly "";"''«1 thot ...m thi"8' "or< ind .... ;.,., of .in,pI,.
roinded m ...... li<m and "«<It<! '0 b< .radiw«l. · How""" . d"pi"
.ffo,t> to f ... Cbrioti.w from tho ""'" of idola''}'' ""S""in, """n,«I
in On< of h" ><,m"", ,"", idol, .nd im>"" hood n""""h<k» found,
plo« in ,t.. ehurd>.nd .I'<n 3<"",,'ed i""ir"bI< .. i,irum of ,hi,
Thri"i,o ,up''''i'io"" .". SOm< '" their eduwed p.pn neighbo ...
k<rnind<.l ,ho, t"'" .,,'" _'" <l<f<t>d ,hti, own prache. of inu5'
... ""ar"''' .". ,LainUng ,"", 'h<J 'd<on', .oJ<m: bu, wh" i. ,i!Ri.
fled by ,h. '"'4'." ""","in< dullm"" ,h<i, 1-1< uk> why 'hry SO
'0 ,to. tr<>ubl. of malrins ,."ain in"s .. , wh." ,10< mod.1 i< to "'i ....
110 FACE TO FACE
dircnly available 10 them, as in the use of the wn or the moon: «But
since they can sec the sun, which is signified by the image of the sun,
why do their turn their backs to what is signified, and their faces 10 the
sign it is signified by?H He that if pagans only made their
images of things thaI were otherwise invisible, might actually be
acting in a logical manner, As it is, however, the action of offering
ship or pra),er to an image of something otherwise I'isible or available is
parallel to asking a favor from a ponrait, rather than from the actual
person portrayed:
How can you OX""C! him to he .. )UU, when YOII .b.1ndon him, and mm to
",me fahe and tot.H)· milkading image of him? It ', •• if )' ()U wen' to the
boo", of ",melanuowne. to btg for som",hing, and h. was standing jn hjs
oourtj'ard whilo )UU turnw )'our b."k to him .nd f>cod hi, portrait; and if
you not on1rroortd out your heart to. pj"u" and not to a man. but dj d '"
in the of the man portrayed in the wouldn' t he a .. ume )'0\1
making fun of him. or put you d",,·n., "02y, and in any OaK haw )'0\1
thrown out of hi.
But, as if suddenly realizing that his arguments might be used to justify
Ihe visible images of invisible things for Ihe sake of prayerful petition,
Augustine adds Ihal seeing things and seeing God are two different
operations. He tells his listeners that God "made you one thing to sec
Ihese Ihings wilh , anolher wilh which he himself mighl be seen- fo,
seeing these things he gave you the eyes in your head. for seeing himself
he gave rou a mind-you cannOI therefore be allowed 10 say in Ihat
inane way, 'I can't see him:» In the same way, Augusline continues, one
cannot see a person's soul but can know that it exists from the eviden(e
of its work to move and control the body." His argument here is llilral-
lded in a homily on the Gospel of John in which he distinguishes
between seeing the visible miracles of Christ with the external eye and
perceiving the lranS(endent and invisible reality 10 which those miracles
point with the mind. By analogy, he contrasts the way one superficially
sees the whole of a picture in onc glance with the fa" that one must read
a text through to understand its meaning."
Augustine's concern for protecting the invisibility of God is also evi·
dent in his responses to severa Ileflers wrinen between 408 and 414. The
first, written to a widow named Italica, offers some (omfort in h,'( lnss
but at the same time refutes a popular idea that, in the resurrection, God
will be seen by bodily eyes. He assures her that such an idea is absurd,
since God is a spirit and cannot be s,,.,n as a body. At the same time. he
also reassures her-that a vision of God is promised as a reW'Jrd of f'lith.
That vision will not, however, be a bodily one, but a spiritual one." He
similarly admonishes a layman named Consentius, who has trouble
thinking of God as disembodied, like some abstract virtue (for example,
' - ~ ~ " ~ l J " " " " " " " " ,
-",,,,,,,,,-,,
",]00 • . 0 .. ..,_
~ , - ~
......... ,,.,..,.-..
,
,
,
--
' .. )'0 ~ __ 0..... "'''"'' Mono _ ...... ,.., (L __ ,_ '--\
r. ,,_ """'" _ ' ........... '"" 'La-,-.....
1_1_·'-'-'·
'.J>Coo. -... ' .. .... 'OI-''1eo.
_ .......... ,Gc.--v __
--
'."00'01 __
........ - .. ," ...
!C' ....... ' ..
, __ 10<..,
",-,,--""'1
'.1>_._ ..... .",'" __ " " ~ .. '-__ .. ' - ~ ........... ..-___ ,s;,
IHIN' THE DIVINE
,ish''''''''oc>' 0' piny). Aug"!!in .. dmi!> Ih. , it i. difl'KuJt M- hu ..... n'
10 of . being "';lho.l • body. bta .... of l!>tif f.mili>rity "';lh
vi, i"'<. bod,ly .hiogo. SIilI. h< .. ro. 'h< in.;'ibl<. inro,,,,,,,,I • • nd
i"",,"tabl< Trini'y .. uobolUld<-d . nd omni.,.....n'. Thi, i, only known
'hrougb 'rue '''100 ond 001 'hmug./t nm. 1 apcri.n«.> Aug""in.
,h(-n "",h"d tht« k'nd, of .hi"" ,b.. """ b., 1«'" fif>!. octwd co"",·
t<oI 'hingO .ho. on< map<" in , .. Ii.y; ..rond ,boo< bodily 'bingo ,ho,
on" im.t,ioc. 0' d«'rM ",.I fin.Jly. ,h_ (hing> (ha. hal'<"" bod ...
bU'.r< m",,.11y conc<ivN. ,uch .. ,...i><Iom. Th< T,ini'y. oo... .... f. i.
no .... of ,h"" .• in« i, ""nn01 C"nt t.. t' .. p<J fully by ,h. mi"d-
",,, .. ,hing .. h. ")" "". >m»<bow S'''ro .. 'hroush ' gb. .. ,00 ,n
""'go"" ( I Cor 1l:l2I. Thu .. A"""'i,,, u'1'" hi, r.-.der 10 driv< oul , nd
droy <V<n 'ho>< m.n'oJ 'm .. V' thor "",uki giv< God It.. ...... of.
""'.
A f<,. jU" lol ..... Aug."i"" , ...... up ,h ... m< them. in hi, ""'1">"><
to .1."", fm'" • "",nun n.m«! " .. uli ..... App.o ..... tly. " .. uli ... hod . d«<!
Aug"""'" 10 "Til< (..,m<thing I"'glh)".nd d .... iW) ",boo, rb< in'", ·
bk God ""d wllnh<"f b., un b., ....,. by bodily <yC1-. "c.:.."pI pnS wi,h he>
Augu"in. wroo<. book.l<ng, b ,,,, .. i>< thot II< I .. re, a llrd 0.
God. in which It ..... ," .b.. Itu",",n, eon I« (".oJ. "'" . , "'" , .n
I« ,h"un or ""h/y 00;";'" h"' rotll<, wi.h .h.·SO'" of ,II< mind' ..
,...".t"< 0 ...... 1"", i" ... ,,<lly. G'ing M .. " (·BI.....-d.« 'Il< pu« in
h.>". f<>r 'h<r will 0« ("0<><1'). Au"'''' .... ....... b<t_" bodily
... ing:tnd m<ntaUy 1o, .mI., b<1 ....... n PI ....... . nd
fu.u", 'ish' ). >inc. "'" bodi<v< mucb of whol w< .:urnor _ (hom <k1oil.
,bo", 0'" f.mily lUstory '0 Ch,d, con""" ... ,). '"""
Ifi., (0 ,<coo,il. Scrirtul< ""xl> du, .loim tit" om,in 1"'<'00' h ....
....., God 'pin" ""-'I< .. $Or ,h .. , ,uch up)t, i, in,po.,;bk.
In.1t< ."",.i« ...... su>"n< >r«if" .. Uy <omm<n" on l"t1icu1ar 1", .
.<ogo:> f' om .h" Hc\" ...... Sc,iplu«1 in God 'PP<'''. including
101<''''·' ."""ion du, · I...,. God foc. 10 fOOt and my ..... 1 ....... ve<I'
(G<o 32:.lOI.,h< ""<mon' tit .. , Mo .... pok" ,,·i,h God "fOOt '0 fOOt"
(f.md )):11 ) •• nd I .. i.h·, l<>'itn(1nr,h,,'1 .. w.1t< Lo,d of_Hittiog
"",,0 • ,hro ... • (I .. 6: I ). Not< ,It.ot thn< 1""'3<> a'" diffimh '0 roo, ·
din .. " ,,·',h tit. _minglr oppos«! d, im .b .. ·no on. h .. <v<,_n
(John 1'18). Urowin@hi,onder" ........ ion'o.he ... chiogofbit
mcolO!. Ambml<. ... ,in •• rgu,", tb.' .. nUbk thingo .r.! God .r<
001 K<n '" •• imillo, m. no«. ,ilK, God , .. n will to b< 5«D '" nor to b<
0«0. ",I><", ... U o.Il<, obj«" Of b<inll' "nno' cl><>o>. to \>«"""
",,;";hl<. No, con oom<On. '0 ..... God. fo, God·"p!",ran«
;, "n'r" God·, ",,·n """'r<. God is invitibl<.
nO, ""ly.1t< FOIh<r bu •• bo tit" Triniry ita<!f. on< God •• od ""'ous< b<
i:! no' only hut Wo immu"bk. II< 'PI""''' .. II< will, 'n wtr..t
fo,m h. w'll.o 110 ,ho, hi, in,ioibl< . nd immu .... hl< n,'u", ouy fft1l.olin
whole witltin him.""
'"
FAU TO FAU
Tb<1t. "I,mnl '" th. mI '" "'"' ,.,., '" 101", lole (" I' .. God ,ho only
S<m. who .. do .. to ,ho F ...... ·, h",n. who .... mad. him known· ).
AU5""il>< ,11uw> ,Iu, K>m. "su. ,lui tho Son woo , h. _ who
'»p<Ot<d to AbtdIom. looob. _ I nd 1 .... 11. . 00 tin. would rd ....
=t,in adoption'" htmic> I'ht Pho,in;'DI). who anip • bqinninl '"
'ht Son . , 'ht humon bi"" from tilt If'qin. tto...vn. ho ron.in-. ,ho
i"3 of ,II< h .... """.,.,. "",...,., God" .... 110\ ""'n' ci;"i",uUh
.ht!'<non> of.ht Trini'y bu, ", .. ,.bIi>h that no ..... "'n ... God;" ,ho
Niln<so of God', dmni'y •• nd. mucro .... ,1wI, which i> ' mad< known by
"'"'Son" i .. ....,n lIlo«oflht mind 1Iun ,ht<JU,'A IOrm io_bul
• pow ..... ""d. know,, ___ . Go.! .. n<ll K>Ush' by l>o<Iily ')'<0, no<
...... -.Iop<d by .<ish', no, by hi> W&lk." ANI .,."" Ch. i$t .. ..,
Ioogor ..... in 'ht fItoh. bu, only in ...."...of , bt
Bu,. in • ..-iified full;"". .... ""'" .h. 'ish''''''' ontO <II
old db<! ... GoJ. '0 ,II< ...... , ,ho, God will..! ,,, I>< ... n_ Ci' ;ns
Am_ .pin. AuJi .... int .... , ... ho, to anign thio 'pp<. nn<l< to Iht
So>n ""old I>< '" """'PI ,h. «o<hi"3'''' 'ht A . ........ to., btli.,.. thlt "'"
n>tu", 01 ,I>< Fot"" i> invioibl. bot ,hot 01 ,I>< Son i> vioibi<. Htna ......
m .... thot oil .h"" I'mo ... or 'ht T tinity . r< «j<Wly iovUibit ... <1
." tht ""m' ..... , thty '»p<O'. ,hty do ... in Iht form <hooro by ,1Irit will
and not .w:m!i"8 to .ht;, ... tuot--tho Holy Spirit '»p<O,inS ... <kM:.
I" ..... mpl<. · Fi ... lly. tht .1;"""' ''''0 \o<I"""""";"l! .. ;th ,ht..,.. and
<Omptthtndinl wi,h ,h. mind .. ....,1wd in tht rnd 'im<. wIIrn the
';sht", ... will «'CeiY< II>< V- to ... God .. God io ( I lohn l:2). The
unriJh'-' .. ""',"W. wiU not 1>< ..... 10 do ......... in Iht ...... _ioo.
Only ,ho$< wlto . .. "d .... "nlt, n" ( Molt SoB) >hall r<Cri .. thio gill. All
()tl>< . .. ;n(l...!ins ,11< [),nil. '" ... Ind«l (mrn .""h " .. i' hou',

Finally. 'pnlt.ins of hum,,,,,' ddi ... to 1ft GoJ. Aug"'ti", " 1111<0
tho •. 'Willy uNln1100d.lhi' ""'It i> not 10 .... portiall" • ..,.a of
God. but nthtr ' 0 pt. «i .. Iht Divi", .. ' Ult i!><lf. M"...· ptti''''''' '0
... God "oprnIy"' (Erod lH L) .... ...m, "' ... 8u •. A_tint contin·
...... ""b ";';on eon I>< ...bI.J".,.! ,fie,- ,t.. <k>,..;", '" ,I>< .... n
ottd ...... n Iht mind i, drown "'-'Y frnm all comal ....... wlliob i> wily
,h. So:rip,u' d tdtifr th,,, "no on. un ... ,he flO< of God , tid I.iv< ••
On<. lb. mind i. ,un>«!"""*1" f,un> .nr """"y ,1><....,..,,,
his • oon 01 "",·ol·body np«o..a " milor '" dootb. which may hop-
pen in ..... < of ..tv.""", ""'''y •• <X>ndi.;on .tt,i....:! by«n.in ..
prin, '" dooth wII<n ,hty ...... 5'"",«1 tl>< I",ftt.ion 01 ..... Io' ion. li ..
tho, d...:. ib<d '" 1 Iobn 1:2 {" wII ... lot io ...... 1«1.,.. will I>< I ... him.
I,,, ... wiU ... hin> .. lot i'"I_ Wh<n human, ..... '" .. .,.,.Jlift. At.tsw-
,in. conttnds. • • oh.oU I>< Ilk< ,ho, of the . nsrl&. oro. w< dWl
thm bt "1",1 10 tb<m" ,nd wm I>< obit to ... ,hinl!' tl\l, ... ,. in 'hi>
lift i"";";b!< , nd io"",,",ib!t. A" d In ian5""sr ,ba, _old .... Lly tuv.,
upot! ,h. 'n,h""",morphi>' qyption monb. A ...... tin .... ,to: "And
lEEINCTH E: DIVINE:
00, un. who <.n i".;,ibly ... God in,i,ibly <. n ding 1<> G<><I in."
i",a,po,u! .... y, ••
In ",h<, •. A"g,,>li n. off ... mOf< ";mpl • • • monil ion, ,b" •
.!<,po" ,I>< m.oy .n,hropomolphitd.rkt",ns of God ,n Ih. Bibl<. GoJ
do<> 00' h.,.., . body lik h"m," " I>< ha> 00 lop 0' no
1:><.,..,.,. 0< h....h. In hi"h,'" "..,.« On I"""" Goi.r<1. h. «pI" n, ,hi>
ond <"' "n go<> on I<> .. y 11K <y<> th;" .... God . ... no' ,I>< ..,., of fl"h bu,
, ... .,... of , .... pu", h< ..... "od ,hi, i, n ' .... ''''' of ,h. Son priol I<> ,I><
inw'""'on. Onl y lhoot who annot "&I"'" ,I>< i"",ibl<" .r< hdd Of II><
. i. ,hl. , 00 Ih", wp inlO iOOl .. E ... n '" ""8u,'in. allo .... ,h. , II><
>crip'" ral ". p"..ctn<t<· of God '0 ,h ..... "i. r<h; '"IlI!"" 'h" bodily
.ye< ... ..",... in,i"""lon of ,h. divi ..... no! • fuil l)1" "'mpid<
.;,;onol, .. ><I.
H" " """""")n of ,h<s< Old T,,'. m ... ' """' . ... """'. dis·
'i"gui,h •• ""S" " io. from .orlie, Qni,,;. o ,,, i,,,, 00 ,h •• ubi«'.
on hi> ' 'S'"'''''' abou, , h. invi>ioUi'y of ,I>< I)i.;in •• I>< r<f">«il<>
allow th;" ... ",>h.m·, _" '" ""' .... 1 """i!eo","," of ,ho Holy
Trimly. ", . n ' rp<' '''''''' of ,I>< Do.in. Word wilh ,wo On tit<
",h .. h.nd. h< ",un,,,,.,J , h. "'I1·r' .... I."t , ,"" ,h" pn>po...J ,h.
or..in< WON .. , I>< \,<""" . 1>1< ' 0 ... ,.ibl. ,n cr",'"," ",",n I><fo", II><
i"",n>1,on-o .i.w ,hoi 1>«."" <ommonrb.«'n ,h. lot< fo""h·
_'"'y P"km;';" ""in" _· ... ri.n'. ' '''''''3 ....
Fo, .... mpl •• io 'h< ... Iy 10 mid· fourth ='ury. Eo""'iu, "fc....., ..
",d " gU<d ''''' only It\< S<cond """'" "",Id .h.nll' wfP< . M 10k. "n
tit. f<>rm of. hum ... nd arm' 10 Abraham •• Dd tho, il woold I>< impi .
0"'10 suF' ,"'t Ih< ""cn. nll"bl •. GoJ """Id J,m,
",,,n, by 'he t:.-b'"" ''''''p",,,,",n of Ih. ' Pr<"'''co, "f
t,;.od in ,h. ltd. ...... Scrip'" ..... "nl ik ir"' ..... ·• Of Tatolli. ,,·,. do<> """
, n>«v 0"' of. pokrroi< wilh COO" ... 01"<1'<0 from .n ."Iy .. lorl 10
", .. I>li,h ,h. d,!lin<1ioo of ,10« Pmon' of II>< Tri"iry >pi"" •
[i.1n . .. mu<h .. ou, of • ,,,cful "'posilion of "" qu",tion of
....".. 'h, Pi., .. ..... n" n;ko, '0 n"""n,ry b<fvt< ,h< u.;.rn..,",,, . In hi,
«<g<>is of l,.iaIt '" F.UO<"bi ..... '" "."" 10' ,,-hom) ,h. proph .. "'"ally
,.w wh<n .... oIc><n ....... h;. "<ion of,h, I.on! ';11 ' ''3 on • ,h",n<.
II>< .. ", (,om Ih. Goop. 1 of lobo .... id."« Ib" "'" 0"<
l,.i. hl "" ..... __ ,lot Untq.:.II.n God. f."""i", 'nsi, ..
lhol II>< P"'1'i><I could only hoV< ""'" Ih. ""I. !><go"'" GOO. "00 con
<I<>«od«1 '" hom. " .i<w .• o4 ho: """ nn «, ins,,, ,ho, ;, "''> 'h, Wo...:l
(. od not (;oJ ) "'00 . pp .. 10 "' braham. I .. ", I .. ob, Mo ...... nd
E""id. fOrlh« 001;"! 'hot , .. of ,1>< ... pp''' ........ .... d'>lin<l.
whi<h m.y ho ... J,m" fot h,m.:on inJit.,jon of ""i, ,till in<ompl<te 0'
....., <ni&m-o'K ... ,""." In on .. ,I;', 1Jn,il<, Eul<t.; ... I"'<'''Y' . II,h""
... of, h< Word. b", h< ""'''' ,h..r, only ,h. · I'orl«f" .. ", him
in. bWlU.n form, b<a .... il ",os =<rv«I only I<> Ib<m 1o I>< ,bl. ''' ....
o.fo,d>.tnd iu for ,,,,,, ;"",m," ..... p<. The "' ..... 'Pl""""'" (bu""ng
114 FACE TO FACE
bush Or pillar of cloud) inspired fear and wonder, but they also pro-
tected the people from a sight they could not bear."
In opinion, however, claiming that the Word appeared 10
these proph<.'ts and patriarchs undermined the equality, shared natures,
and common activity of aU three members of t he Godhead, Augustine
discussed the hospitality of Abraham in some detail in his t reatise On
the Trinity. Pointing out the problem of plural manif .. station (three
men) bUI singular address ("wrd"), he too interpreted the slory as a
figure of the Trinit y and CQrreCled those (for example, Justin, [reneaus,
and Tertullian) who maintain that while two were angels, one of them
was the Son, in his own proper sub.tance even before he was
born" since "only the Father is referred to by the words 'to the invisible
and only (I Tim 1:17). Such a view was impossible in Augustine's
opi nion because the Son could not have been found in human form
prior to his incarnation: «Surely he had not already 'emptied himself,
taking the form of a servant, made in the li keness of men and found in
the condition of a man'" ( Phil 2:7). Moreover, he noted, none of the
three appeared to be superior in stature, age, or authority to the others.
And, while Abraham addressed the one who remained as uLord," Lot
bowed low before the other two and greeted them as Lords as wel L Thus
Augustine concluded that all thret' were angels but that they also served
as a figu re of the Trinity. The one that remained with Abraham tepre-
sen!ed the Fat her while the two that went on to Sodom the Son and the
Holy Spirit, for t he latter are said to be sent by the One who is never sent
(the Father)."
Augustine's refusal to set' the manifestations of God found in the Old
Testament as actual appearances of the Word was mot ivated by his
resistance to any kind of distinction in the Trinity and to a differentia-
tion between visible and invisible Persons that was untenable to him.
Moreover, he rejected literal readings of the texts if God really
appeared as some kind of material form. The full or true nature of the
Divine simply cannot be set'n. Such a position is demonstrated in his
subsequent of the other stories of God's t hWl'hanies, to Moses
in particular (for example, Exod 3:2 and 33:21-23), as perhaps manifes-
tations of anyone of the three, since "right- minded faith understands
these words of the supreme and supremely divine and changeless sub-
stance in which the o ne and <.mly God is both Father and.wn and Holy
Spirit. All these visions, however, were produced through t he changeable
creation subje<:t to the changeless God, and they did not manifest God
as he is io himself, but in a symbolic manner as times and circumstances
required."" In other words, God, whether as Father, Son, or Spirit, can
be seen but only in a form chosen by the Divine will and never in its full -
ness, in appearances granted out of consideration for human weakness.
And thus, while earlier thinkers allowed visibility only to the Son, in the
fifth century Augustine, at least, eliminated it as a particular characteris-
I EE ING THE DI VINE
t ic of only one member of the Trinity, yet he opened up the possibility
that humans might see symbolic manifestations of the whole Godhead.
And, although he doesn't have this in mind, we may spe<:ulate whether
these manifestations could include visual art .
At the end of his great work City ojGod, he speaks about the kind of
vision with which the saints will see God in the world to come, when the
flesh will have become spiritual and bodily sight will be t ransformed
into spiritual sight. Citing Paul's daim that our present insight is only
partial (as through a mirror or in a riddle- t Cor 1 3: 1 2), he Can also cite
Paul's promise that someday it will be uface to face" as the holy angels
already see God. Of course, this vision will be of a different order from
the kind or corporeal sight we now possess. God will be seen
in the future time by eyes that are transformed and possess the ability to
discer n immaterial or spiritual truth and then "perhaps God will be
known to us and visible to us in the .sense that God will be spiritually
perceived by each one of us ;'1 each one of us, perceived in one another,
perceived by each in themselves. God will be seen in the new heaven and
the new earth, in the whole creation as it then will be; God will be seen
in every body, by means of bodies, wherever the eyes of the spiritual
body are directed with t heir penetrating gate.""'"' Here, in a sense, Augus-
t ine adapts the Pauline notion that all creation reveals God and in all
creation (includi ng the human race) one may see God. At the same
t ime, August ine insists that Paul's promised future vision of God will be
a kind of disembodied percept ion- a sight received in the mind, nOl
through the eyes.
115
Portrayals of God and the Trinity
in Visual Art of the Third and Fourth Centuries
Although the question of God's visibility to the human eye was a subject
of much diKUssi on by theologians, almost no surviving and parallel
arguments address the related impossibility of representing God (the
Father), the pre-i ncarnate Word, or the Trinity in visual art. Presumably,
theologians who discussed the invisibility of God assumed their argu-
ments to preclude art ist ic portrayal in any form but particularly as
showing Goo with human feat ures. In other words, the possibility may
simply have been unthinkable and so not raised. On the other hand, if
they were aware of some visual art that portrayed the Supreme God,
they did not di rectly attack it .
IHspite this lack of comment , however, artists' workshops, beginning
in the fourth century, in fact produced a number of images that were
meant either as actual figures or as symbolic representations of God, the
visible Word, or the Trinity. The most obvious iconography, the popular
presentations of Jesus healing and working wonders, such as we fi nd
sometimes rather crowded together on early Christian sarcophagus
116
r ~ 12 Tho Holy T....-.t)< I no.
(t""'p .. a o n ~ ~ ~
RI.bIev (c. 1370--1 OJ)
(PhoIo; Trotyoro,. Gok)<
~ , Rvsw.. 60 odg.""",
Nt l.tI<ory}
FACE TO FACE
reliefs, might have been a type of visual response to the writings of the-
ologians such as Athanasius, who writes that although God is invisible,
God's power as much as God's image is manifest in the person and works
of Christ, including cleansing lepers, healing the blind, and changing
water to wine." These and o!h<.'T miracles mentioned by Athanasius are
frequently represented on early fourth-century .arwphagi as well a5 in
catacomb frescoes and fifth-century mosaio; {see fig. 6(}, p. 143 J,
On the otht'r hand, certain representations, considert'd alongside the
extensive discussions of human inability to "see" God, suggest a level of
discontinuity between popular practice and theological argum .. nt, or
perhaps a perceived difference between artistic representation and ver-
bal discourse. While it is possible that such images were so rare that they
were unknown to these theologians, their existence should have been
disconcerting to those who believed that such a thing should not or
could not happen.
Abraham's three visitors at Mamre was a well-known subject in
By tan tine icons, and visual representations of that scene are still
widespread today, alt hough usually interpreted only as a symbol of the
Trinit y and not as an actual visual presentation of it. The early fifteenth-
century panel painting by Andrei Rublev is the most famous of these
representations (fig. 42), but there were earlier models, including a
IEEING TH E DIVINE
number of twelft h-century Bible illuminations. According to tradition,
a painting of this s.:ene also hung in the southern aisle of the church
Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, over a table made from a tree cut from
the very grove at Mamre."
Possibly the earliest known representation of the story occurs in the
fourth-century among the frescoes of Rome's Via Latina catacomb. This
catacomb contains sewral other innovative narrative images, including
Jacob's dream of the ladder and Jacob blessing Ephraim and Manasseh.
Alx>ve the image of Jacob's dream is a fresco showing a seated Abraham
(calf at his side) greeting three men dressed in !\Lnies, mant les, and san-
dals (fig. 43). We cannot be certain that this image is, in fact, any refer-
ence to the Trinity, but its proximity to the scene of Jacob's dream
snggests that it might haw been meant to represent a divine theophany.
On the other hand, given ih placement with other narrative
s.:enes from the Old Testament, it may be merely a single image within a
Genesis cycle. However, the similarity of the three visitors also snggests
that the interpretatinn of the narratiw as found in the documentary
materials might have been incorporated into the iconography.
I n addition to this possible symbolization of the Trinity in the
iconography of Abraham's hospitality, we also have evidence of other
early, but now lost, parallels. EUS<.'bins of Caesarea mentions a drawing
(graphc) set up at the traditional site of the visitation, a place honored
by locals as a sacred place, where the trt'<.' ( Eusebius calls it a terebinth,
rather than an oak) can still be seen. And those who were entertained by
Abraham are represented in the picture sitting one on each side of a cen-
tral figure, "Our Lord and Savior," who surpasses them in honor and
"thus in person from that time sowed the seeds of holiness among mor-
tals, putting on a human form and shape, and revealed to the godly
ancestor Abraham who he was and showed him the mind of his
Father."" This description actually comes in his argument that Almighty
117
Fig. ord h , three
>$\00"$. V .. uu..
Rome
Soooty. Photo,
Est<k
118
r" « _Tho HO$pfIoify eI
Abnham, e><ly 5th ( <1\. C£
rnos>o<. of SM.1A Mon.
Mat:iio e, Rome (I'Iloto:
SaW Art R.e.oun:e).
FACE TO FACE
God could not have appeared, but only Lord and Savior,» who
could put on human shape and form in order to reveal himself to Abra-
ham and show forth "the mind of his Father:"
The scene also appears in the mosaic cycle of biblical scenes of the
Basilica o(Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome (ca. 435) (fig. 44). Here, the
scene is divid...:! into two registers {Abraham appears three times in the
composition}. At the top of the pand, we see Abraham bowing before
his three visitors and makinga gesture of greeting. The three are
alike and have identical faces, but the central figure is distinguished
from the other two by being surrolUlded by a mandorla (a full body halo
10 the almond·shaped frame of light around the image
in the transfiguration).ln addition. the central figure makes a gesture of
spt't'ch and faces directly forward, while the other two are slightly turned
in a quarter profile. Below and on the left we see Sarah preparing food
(three pyramid-shaped cakes) for the visitors while Abraham instructs
her ("make ready quickly three measures of choice flour, knead it, and
makecakestGen 18:6).
SHIN'TIH DIVINE
00 ,h, ""' .... rigM, ,II< 'hI« mi,,,,,.Ii, "nda ell< Un " • "blt ...
...;,h Sanh', ",kc>, wIIik Abr.h.m I<J'Vt> 'hem. oIk-ring. pa"., ... ilb
,I>< ",,,,«I coif In fmoo <>I ,I>< ,obi<, ""'..,., an u'" (p«ltops fdlrd ",i,b
mil .... i"". it> colo, .pp .... '" b< wIIit<: Grn lS:S), In ,hi, rom""';'ion.
,n. ,h, .. .01", ha ......... drnhcol .I""" bu, 'he «n,t>! r.g.. ..
i. no, 'hi> eim, .p«ioU
y
0<, 0(( by. rnandod. and m«<ly 8'""'''
'o ..... rd ,"",,,hom', prolJ<r<d pOI"". N""r<heks<. si""n 'he p,,,'ieul. ..
J"<"<."'ioo of eh. «nita] vrnk>t in "'" uPl'" ",""'ring, ... migh' "' • •
dud. rh. , 'h, .i,o...:I ,,,di,;on h., ,.H«I On I .. ,i." ><h .... '.'h .. ,,,.
'h,,,,, .1< """n' '0 rq>r<>m' ,I>< SoD . nd ,_ .ngrh- •• hhoush "nlik<
Rubl .... ·' f.mou, 'm. s<, th, <hr« h ... "" "' '''gs-or 'hot 'be imas<
r<"><nt> • • w,.,mi"".io)ni" Trini.y (lite Son . nd SpO,i' .. inf""" In ,ho
FOllin) •• 1.l>ough _h • con" ..... >«Tn, hi5hly unlikfiY!l"'" thor dot<
,nd g<n,ral .nh· ... " . n;"" of ,,,. Rom • • <h"od> Undrr S;,,, .. III (wbo
.... 'h, d<tor.,ioo of ,ho o:hun:h 'nd de<ii<':11«1 " I.
Thi! ''-'<M <>I Abr>h.m·, h0or''''"'Y i> onl. on, .mong ' ... bok pro·
gram o( rno .. i« in Son .. Mar .. M'Mi""" ""hkh ", .. n, .h .. in",·
pming ,h. m<>n,ng o( .h" ough' 10 mol""" ,,,wid« •• ion <>I
,h .... ,.1., COn',,' .nd of iron"!!,,phic .. m. MOl< ,h.n
' .... n'y )"C ... ago, Suz.:onn< Sl",n . rgued ,hal ,I>< rno .. i" o( ""h .h.
n.-.-c .nd'he "'''"'rh,1 ,,'h hhc ' p$< m<><>"' ...... c ,jn,r<>y«!" 'hc
,,,d of 'h, ,hi,I<,.IIh C""''''f .nd hul 'on1Oin«l • n",num,n •• 1 r'8"'"
of wi, h r .. u. on h<r I'PI . Il poin' 10 Ih. bro. d lh.m. of
p'''ph«y lulfollmcn'. in wh,ch S" . h ><<wo 0" p"""'yp' of
Th. "o,i .. oflh. Old Tes"''''''''. indud..,J in ,h. 0" .. ,11 d",,·
,,,ion, (",,,<Ii 'hc fu."", io,.,"""'n <>10"'11. Thooo",. ,b. ""0< <>I
Ah"h.m '0.1 hi, v;,i'''10 i, 'M" ,00"' lb, promi« "I
Ab,.h.m ,h.n a d'vin. 'hropb.ny .... , ,ho Am< ,im,. Iwwn<r. ""<rol
01 ,hc "'her _iC$ ,ho, 'Pf'<" in ''''' n.v< PO"'»"' "'.,..Ny f,gu",
'hOI migh' It< in"od,d 10 "p" .. nl 'h, vi>ible Divin. Word. Fo,
, .. mpl<. , fig"" ' ppr>" in ,I .. "",,<Ii in .ho iIIu,,,,,i,," of Abr.ham
m«1in8 M<khil<"tkk, in • Kcn. (rom .". IIOry of rlKoo .. king .h«p
f,,,m J.. \>ooo' , 11« ..... . nd in 0 1",,,.)"1 of ,h. mon ... wm,ns '0 'h,
l.ro.li .... in.1>< .... iI<I<r ......
Ah<>h.m abo ' rP<"" iD !lCV<n1 oth« plocn ,n ,''' of San ..
M.". induding 0 Ian< "n ,h. m,in a"'" <hOI """,.. ko""'"
.nd Mory', ""'""hal, Ih<i, Iwl.b hoiog ;o;n«l I>r .n . ngel. H"", Ahf. ·
Itom i.;howo in • PO""'" aim"" ;&nOOoI '0 b" grttl'''S of thor 'hI«
.o!l'l_ {"""l" hrr< bi. h.nd. 0'" "'...-red) ... ". belo", 0 v,,,,,,, of
• ,...,.,,,," bolrung' clilld "' ilb • bolo , " d ""'" "...-r bi> h<>d, i"" to.ho
1«. of 'hc ""'""he<! """pic, Spo.in inl<rpt"«l 'hi ... ,h. finol fu lf,lI·
men. "f tbt prom;'" ,,, lIbraham I>r on. of hi> 'hr« So><>": ")"0'" wif.
S. rah "ill h .... a ..,n." Th. ""m.n holding the Ch,i!t cbild in ,,,.
m.,..i<: i, none ",1><, ,Iton So",,- holding her gr .. ,. gr. nddlild, wh ik
Abr>h.m finol ly l<"O.>pim ,h. m •• ning of ,II< _ n' 'hOI l<OOt. plo« ..
'"
120
r" is. Abnham aM ", 1M:<
""""" mi<J.6th <en co.
rr<>SaK. San Vrt1le,

FACE TO FACE
Marnrt'. Thus, Spain argut's, Sarah has become Mary's alltitype (the
"mother of many 17:16) just as haac is Jesus'."
Roughly a little more than a century later, a portrayal of Abraham
and his visitors was set into a lunette above the presbyterium in the
Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna (fig. 45). Although in many ways very
different from the composition in Santa Maria Maggiore, it also has two
parts. On the right is the scene of Abraham's offering of isaac, with the
lamb at Abraham's feet and the lland of God staying his upraiSl:d knife.
In the ,{'nler of the mosaic, we see the three visitors seated a1 a tabl ...
under the oak tree, The table holds three loaves, marked wi th crosses
(perhaps res{'mbling th ...... ucharistic br ... ad s ... rwd during th ... actual
liturgy). Abraham holds out a platter with th ... calf, and Sarah , on the
left, watches from a smal l booth with a bemused expr=ion. The faces of
the three atth ... tabl ... are again id ... ntical, as ar ... thar dr ... ss and this tim ...
also their haloes.
In this presentation all three visitors gesture to the bread on the table,
as if calling our att ... ntion to it. And, while th ... other hand of the guest on
our left is hidden, the persons in the center and right make particular
gestures of blessing with their right hands-their index and third tin-
g ... rs ar ... ext ... nd ... d whil ... th ... fourth and fifth fing ... rs curl down to touch
the palm or thumb. The equality of the three and their function as
symbols of the thrt'<' distinct persons with on ... shared natur ... may be
intentionally expressed by the composition. Here, however, the iconog-
raphy also points to the importance of the ... ucharistic off<.'Ting mad ...
directly b ... low, at the altar in th ... center of th ... presbyterium. Across from
the lunette of Abraham, Sarah, and Isaac is ont' that shows both
Mechizedek, the priest-king, offering his gift of bread and wine (Gen
14: 18) and Abel offering his lamb (Gen 4:4) before an altar prepared as
if for a Christian liturgy.
But even earlier than these scenes of Abraham and his visitors, Chris-
tians employed visual representations for God the Father that were both
less symbolic and more anthropomorphic, although still being curi -
ously amtract-a disembodied hand, reaching down from the sky. Pos-
IEEING THE DIVINE
sibIy drawn from Jewish prototypes (the divine hand also appears in the
synagogue at Dura Europos), it frequently appears in s.:enes of Abra-
ham's offering of Isaac and the giving of the tablets of the law to Moses
(fig. 46) and continues into the fifth and sixth centuries." Gregory of
Nyssa des<:ribes a painting of the sauifice of Isaac in some detail, includ-
ing Isaac's bound hands and piteous expression and, as he says,
the edge of the sword touches the body, when a voice sounds unto him
[Abraham] from God, prohibiting t ile deed."" Gregory's description
does not tell uS how God's voice would be portrayed, but we might
assume it was indicated by a hand reaching down from the sky. "
Oddly, the divine hand rarely appears before the century in
scenl'S of Jesus' baptism, where the descending dove is shown according
to the narrative, although it appears somewhat later, beginning in the
century. This is particularly interesti ng since, in the two prior cases
(the offering of Isaac and the giving of the law), the I'oi(l' of God is no
more signilicant to the narrative than it is in the story of Jesus' bapt ism,
and because in Western medieval and renaissance art, the iconography of
Jesus' baptism became a prime locus for iconography of the Trinity
(sometimes with a hand of God, but often with an anthropomorphic Iig-
ure of Go<! at the top of the composit ion)." In the fourth-century mosaic
in the dome of the Baptistery of San Giovanni in Fome in Naples, how-
ever, the hand also appears out of a dark starry sky, holding a wreath of
victory over a large chi-rho (Iig. 47). The divine hand also appears in the
seventh-century mosaic in the B.asil ica of San Apollinare in Class<: (Iig.
87, p. 167), as weU in s.:enes of resurrection or as.:ension, on ivories, and
on pilgrimage flasks (amp"lkle) from the Holy Land. Probably borrow-
ing from earlier imperial imagery, the hand also appears on the coins or
medals showing the apotheosis of Constantine.
Paulinus of Nola des.:ribed a different strategy for avoiding anthro-
pomorphic images of God in the late fourth or early fifth cenlury. In
121
Fig. 0\6. t-1o>e< tho
ia'w ...., Abr ...... m oIIe<YIg
I,"", from • 4th ( en. CL
the Mv>eo Pio
Cn.-ti¥>o. VOIOn Gty (F'>oIo;

12>
'f7. ()orn" me ....
"'" hand of God •
wr,,.\h i-om "'" ith C<11 . CE
bopti.tery of 5arl Giu.tanni in
Forno. Nopie< (Photo;

FACE TO FACE
addition to his usefully distracting and didactic gallery of biblical scent"S
and portraits of the saints, Palliinus also commissioned an apse mosaic
that portrayed the Trini ty for his basilka a\ Nola in the early fifth cen-
tury. Conscious of the error of represt'llling the infinite and unknowable
divine nature as having human features but stil l wanting to find a way to
enlighten and inspire his congregation, Paulinus substituted symbols
for figurative repr .. sentations of God. In a letter to his friend Severus,
Paulinus poet ically praised the result:
"The Trinity .\hi De< out in all it' Chri.t is ... by. lomb.
Father', vo;';e thunde,.., forth fT<J m the sky. and the Holy Spirit Aow> down in
the form of. dove. A wreath', g!u,ni"8 drcle surround, t he ero .. , and
.round thi . ci",le the 'I>o,des form a ring, represented by. chorus of do> ....
The holy unity ohhe Trinity merge. in Christ, but the Trin ity has ituhreefold
symbolism. The P.,uhd. voia and the Spirit show forth God, 1h" ero .. and
the lamb procl.im the holy vlct;m. The purple and t he pal m I>o;nt to king-
.hip and 10 triumph. Christ him .. lf, the Rod. 'land. On Ihe rock of the
chun;h, and fro m this rock four pla>h;ng fountain. flow, Ih. evangelim, Ihe
living ,tream. of Chris .. "
The Trinity, portrayed as a lamb, dow, and something that would haw
symboli1.ed a voice (or perhaps the hand of God), was based on the bib-
lical descriptions of Jesus' baptism (including John's reference to Christ
as Lamb of God, John 1:36). Paulinus's rcfcren.e to the image of a voice
is similar to Gregory of Nyssa's descript ion of t he !Kene of Abraham
offering Is aac and, based on the frequent portrayals of
Abraham and Isaac with the hand of God, it
seems reasonable to assume that the divine
voice was represented with a hand in both
Paulinus's apse and Gregory's painting.
However, according to Paulinu$,
somewhere else within the composi-
tion a noss represented Christ,
twelve doves the apostles, and the
four riwrs of paradise the evangel-
ists. The Bishop of Nola, proud of
his portraits of saints and
prophets elsewhere in the church,
also chose to substitute symbol s for
portraits of the apostles or evangel-
ists in the apse of his basilica. The use
of doves to represent the apostles can
be seen elsewhere, for instance in the
early sixth-,entury mosaic from the bap-
tistery of Albenga, which also uses a triple chi -
SEEING THE DIVINE
rho monogram to symbolize the Trinity. And, just as the lamb often
represents Christ (as in Pauli nus' s basilica and in the dome of San
Vitale-fig. 48 ), sheep or lambs frequent ly stand in for the apostles as
well, as in the apse of the Basilica of San Apollinare in Classc (fig. 86, p.
166), or in the sb;:th·century apse of the Basilica of Saints Cosmas and
Damian in ROllle.
Arguab)y, a different kind of nonfigurativc presentation of the T rin-
ity is the image of the empty throne with a crown or cross set upon its
thick cushion, with ~ descending dove often hovering ~ b o v e . One of the
earliest examples of this comes from the mosaic program of Santa
Maria Maggiore, but stunning examples may be seen in Ravenna, in the
Basilica of SaIl Vitale, and both the Arian and Orthodox baptisteries
(fig. 4'1). The absence of a figure rderring to the Holy Spirit in this case,
however, is innplicable if this is a symbol of the Trinity, although the
throne may be understood as a symbol for God, The image may be a
more specific reference to the kingdom of hrawn, and the ascended
and enthroned Christ as the Lord of that kingdom, with its parallel in
123
f ill· "8- t....."O of God. modoo/M
<en Cl. m.,.." n the pt'elOy.
to")" \lAcJ l SlnVItOIe. ~
(pt,oto; Author).
124
Fig. 49. ero.. >UrTOOU:l\ed on
eorty 6th <en."'"
me ; "< .. "'" dome 0( the
....... 0 bopt.<tery.
--,
FOS 50. c.on on<! Abel pre>er>t-
ng u....r gi ft> to God, 4th <<<l.
C ... Muse<>
Pio cn.w..." V>1.On Gtr

FACE TO FACE
more figuratiw images of the enthront'd Christ, like that seen on the
Junius Bassus sarcophagus (fig. 14, p. 34),
Despite these efforts to arrive a1 typological, symbolic, or nonfigura-
tive visual images of God, the Divine Word, or the Trinity, certain
attempts also were made in the fourth centuTrlo portray the triune God
in Ihe form of tllre ... human-appearing males. Some of these
images showed the Trinity receiving the offerings of Cain and Abel. For
instance, on a sarcophagus now in the Vatkan Museo Pio Cristiano, a
bearded male wearing a tunic and pallium and seated on a rock receives
an offering from the two brothers; onc has a basket of fruit, the other
holds a lamb (fig. 50). Tne figure makes a gesture of blessing
over Cain's offering of fruit and grain- the same gesture made by the
figures in the hospitality of Abraham mosaic descr ibed above (two fin-
gers extended, the other three curled back to the palm). Behind his head
are cut (in low relief) two other faces that might be interpreted either as
onlookers (two angels!) or the other two Persons of the Trinity. If this
was intended as a representation of the Holy Trini ty, then the Father's
older (bearded) visage, as well as the distinctions among all thre<.> pro-
fi les, may be signi fi cant, perhaps implyi ng a subordi nationist or Arian
Trinity. Or, if this is an image of God blessing the offering of Cain, then
IEEING TH E DIVINE
the story in Genesis has been undermined in the image for some
unknown reason. Later, as in the mosaics programs of San Apollinare in
Classe or San Vitale, only the offering of Abel is depicted (while in a
fourth-century fresco of Cain and Abel in the Via Latina Catacomb, God
is not depicted)."
Strengthening the identity of the above image as a portrayal of the
Trinity (as opposed to God and two angels) are the representations of
the Trinity on two other sarcophagi from approximately the same date
(early to mid-fourth century). These images appear to depict the Trin-
ity creating Adam and Eve. One of these is now in the Muste de l' Arles
Antique (and may be the older of the two), and the other is in the
Museo Pio Cristiano in the Vatican. Both of them, double- registered
sucophagi, ha'·e the image of a seated male in the upper left corner,
joined by two other standing male figures, perhaps meant to represent
the Holy Spirit, the Son {figs. 51 - 52) . In both cases, has a
full beard, but, in one instance (the Aries example), the is beard-
less while the "Spiritn has a dipped beard and shorter hair than the
125
Fis- 51, 'itt. cen. u.
go» '" t"" "'""'"" do rN1e5
Amique (l'ho<o;
Sor=pn.-
Il"' .. 'Ith cen. c.E, 1'1IJ= p;"
Cri ttiot>o, Vaticon City (PI>oto;
"""'"
126
53. DeuitAtlos ...-eopi'>.
vo. "'" TriNry v.,.,,"i Adwn
..-.d (PhotcxAuthor).
r" 5 •. Deuit the T .. .".y

V>tian
(Phot<>Authof).
FACE TO FACE
IEEING TH E DIVINE
Father (fig. 53). On the Vatican sarcophagus, the Son and Spiri t bear
more resemblance to the Father (fig. 54). Before this group are two
diminutive nude figures, Adam and Eve at their creation. The Son puts
his right hand on the head of Eve in each of the scenes (in one case
Adam is still lying on the ground ), and the Father makes t he nOW-
familiar gesture of blessing. " On the Arles sarcophagus, the apostle
Paul also appears in the scene, as if presenting the kold Adam» to the
"new
The images of the Trinity are presented in some CaSeS as identical
and in others as having different facial types---either older and bearded
or younger and beardless. The fact that the central figure is seated while
the others stand suggests that these latter two are the ones engaged with
the world as agents or messengers of the Father (his «right and left
hands" }." Given the date of the images (mid-fourth century), the
explanation for their age or facial distinctions may depend on whether
the prevalent theology emphasized the identity and coeternity of the
Persons of the Trinity Or tended to subordinate the Son and Spirit to
the FMher. A Nicaean version of this iconography arguably would show
the three faces as identical, while a pre- Nicene version would present
the Son and Spirit as younger than the Father. The Son Or Logos figure
may also be shown as identical with or older than the figure of Christ
elsewhere in the composition, arti stically capturing another theo-
logical idea. On one hand, the flesh taken in t he incarnation must be
127
FI&- 55.Adorn ..-.d WIth
a..ist./l.ogo5 Or> 41/1 cen. CE
Owi5ti&n in the
t-'Meo Pio Cri<tiooo, V<Jtia.n
City (PI>oto:AoJthoo")
128
F,&- 56. Det.;o;( Ador.uoo 0(
the ""Ii 0<1 the Me.
(I'hoto;AlJthor).
FACE TO FACE
acknowledged as younger than the Eternal Word, but, On the other
hand, the of Chris! is the and revelation of God. The
face of Adam (and also possibly even Eve) may also bear a likeness to
the logos or Son, as ",<.'II as to Christ, the new Adam (compare figs. 54
and 55).
lust below these Trinity representations, on Doth of the sarcophagi,
are representations of the adoration of the thT"" magi. In paralJel pos;.
tion 10 God the Father, Mary is shown, seated in an almost identical
chair, while a male figure, perhaps Ilalaam, Joseph, or even the Hol y
Spirit stands behind in the position of the same figure above (fig. 56).
The jlUtaposition of these images suggests the story of the original ne-
alion and the recreation of Adam in the incarnation; thus, the whol ...
composition may refer to th ... economy of salvation (old and new cre-
at ion, old and new Adam-which may account for Paul's appearance on
the Aries sarcophagus), In addition to this, however, at least one inter-
preter argued that this image of the magi also suggests the doctrine of
the Trinity, either that they symbolically represented the Trinity (in their
number and appearanc ... ) or that they, themselves, had a thwphany of
the Trinity (each of them seeing a different Person),"
IEEING THE DIVINE
This tradition has beeo hard to pio down, but it may be related to ao
Armenian Infancy Gospel that rerounts a legend of the three, each hav-
ing a different vision of t he Christ child (as im'arnate Son, heavenly com-
mander,orsuffering sacrifice-a vision that emphasizes differenl aspects
of Christ rather than the three Persons of the Trinity}." We should note
that in the iconography of the two sarcophagi the first of the magi points
to a group of t hree stars or disks, rather than to a single star, but that his
pointing index finger also draws our eyes up to the image of the Trinity
on the upper register. The iconographic message is conveyed through the
arrangement and relationship of the images of creation and incarnation,
fall and redemption. Mary and Eve are above and below,just as the Logos
who prC'Sents Eve to the Father can be seen as a child on the lap of the
new Eve, his mother Mary. That child, the new Adam, is then greeted by
a trinity of guests, not unlike the angelic visitors to Abraham, but in this
case the visitors are mortals and the host is divine.
Such a dogmatically sophisticated iconographic program suggests
that at least so me artisans, clients, or viewers Were conscious of the way
visual art may convey a complicated idea in a visual rather than verbal
idiom. It also tells us that making an image of God (or at least a visual
metaphor for God) was not universally held to be impossible or blas -
phemous. At the same time, the iconography of God did not present a
portrait of God so much as a representation of God doing a particular
work-.:: reating Adam and Eve or receiving the gifts of Cain and Abel.
Even so, at the end of the fourth century, the anthropomorphic pic-
torial representation of God the Father goes underground until the sev-
enth or eighth century in the West and almost permanently in the East.
At the same time, the portrai t of Christ, along with images of the saints,
begins to emerge and in a short time becomes a dominant moti f of
Christian iconography. The representation of the hospitality of Abra-
ham remains, especially in the East, but it is understood to be a symbol
of the Trinity and not an actual representat ion of it, while the image of
God as bearded old<.'T man disappears for several centuries. A condem-
nation of any presentation of God in actual visual art is specifically
argued, finally, in the early eighth century in John of Damascus's treatise
011 Holy Image>:
Fo, if "' .. !o make an image of the invisible God, We would really $in; fo'
i! i. iml"",ible to depict one who i. in<orpo,eat and ro,mJ .... invi.ible and
And again: if We were 10 make image> of human beings
.nd regard them and wncratc lh""' •• gods, we would be !ruty ,"cril<:giou,.
But We do none or!hese thing •. r"(lr if we m.ke.n im.ge of God who in hi.
goodn= w.n", inc.rna!e .nd was "",n uI"'n earth in !he fIt,h,
.nd tived among huma" •. and . .. umN !h. na1ure and density and fo,m and
colo, offle.h, we do nO( go .may. Fo' wolong to see hi. form; as the divine
'"r', 'now we "" 1'Ul'.Aing ",Hection, in . mi,ror.' 1'0, !he image i,.
129
FA(£ TO fA(£
mi" ... ..,j • JI"UI<.""""" .. , ... ........,. ........ IIo<Ir. f<>r thr iok&«t.
vmly w..L u .... """ '" """ b.,."d thr bod'if ... ,10< dl .... G....,.,.
-"
Thro""""" h;.'<n' .... lohn dimdy odd""", tl>< """,1m> gf idolot'1
U>d tl>< dr.'i., injul><tion "pi'" p'<fI i .... 1!1'0 ( Uod ».4), In on N'_
I;" PO"'V. lit .. pial ... tlut God forbidi tilt ..... ins <Ii im"", 10 pI'<'
..", idoI"ry .nd boaus< il i, imp<>Wibl, for.ny hu,,",n 10 malt on
i .... <Ii,h< infini •• • nd invioibk God. And I><,i, .. (Xu, H I._
M,*, r<mind. ,he l5ro<li, .. ,Iu, · ,he l.<ml opoU 1<>)'01' from 'h< midio
<Ii 'h< yoo h .. rd tilt """nd gf hit wonh , .d you did"", ... any
liu...... bo' DIlly , ..,;,;., Bu,. Iohn ;",,;., .. tbi, prohibi'ion ..... V<m I<>
the !two beet..., th<}' ...... p .. 'irubrly pro ... 10 idoLo'f)' 0., ......... _
,lit otl><, t..nd. .... obit 10...,;.,t ...... .,"'" r...,.;ngl"t«iv<d lro", God
lb. ob;!ity '" d;,c.,m wILo, .....,. bt '<Y'atnt<d ,nd ...... , nn"'" bt." SliD
,.,hn·, d.im <tf Christ;'n .piri'o,1 tnd di><<tnmm, waS
u:ltd '","Sut ,Iu, CJ"h!i.I .... "';g'" <kpi<t ,I>< di,i"" "'Ul'< "P'''
from ,h. im .. <tf a " lK. ><rordinll<> John. , "';dint .i>""
.. 'iolU of lb. fi .... Po....., 01 the lfizlity _ It.< ... "!'
of rtpodL..,ing ,I>< lin of idol .. ry. Ch,i"" .. do noo mai:< i""F' of God
1>«>01< lb<}'.1'< 1Ur<rim' '" pagans bu, .r< «qUi.m '" mai:< imag<t of
Ch,,,, beetOUC ... '" r .....
lohn', "Iu"""" """', ..,m. of A,Iu" • • iu,·, 1"""'" in mU(h ,I><
.. "" way ,Iu, Adun .. ius _mtd 10 dr. ... fuom the i<l<>o of OriJ<n.
J<>hn. li'" A""' ...... "" ""' ..... di>,i",,",n btl ......... ,I>< ;""","bIt God oT
Trini. ),. and ,lit vioibl< I",",.", On. wooa .... '0 hu ...... in , .... bl<.
rltysial. ,nd """p<>",Im.m .., ,Iw 1hrr migM fi ... 11J ... and Q)mO '"
know. Otbn monif<Oto,iono tha, had rom< btlon ...... inadoq .. ", for
humon ...... ,lott. .incr bu .... no ,..,.. .. d<op<n,tIy -u...N "" ,bti,
infin".11" ....... vf <k>wncut q'" ,nd doJ<tded m;nds- n.. .... bl<
lou .nd body of Cltriot ....... ,bt oIti ..... '" <=tdy lOr , sinful ,nd """
humoD rOU. And 1>«>.", it _ .i<ibl •• :and ""'''';ng it..rf wa ..... ific,
Chrlll', r<y .... nuoioo in .iwaI "', woo I>ollt p<1'miooibk ,nd btrw/it;'L
Th. im'g<." &.il >0)'>. r<VNI.;u . n:lt<1rp<.nd in 'urn iu
Ah'" .11 ....... (he J iocipl< lhoona. Me 1M ...... "'bel ....... And.
al,hough I<ow odmonish .. rum....,-ms ,Iu, it is roo .. bt....d to bel ......
'<ithou, Iu.ins ..... ,I><)'<t rond" ... d, to hu""" -u""",.nd .uo...
Tho"",", ' 0 1"1" hi, finger in.o h" wound, ,nd hi> lund in' o hi. ,id<
(Iohn ».24· 19).
FIVE
Portraits of the Incarnate One
Al TH £ previous chapters have argued, ao;ide from the anthro-
pomorphic appcarances of the First Person of the Trinity in the latc
fourth century, God the Father was universally asserted 10 be inaccc\.Si-
bk \0 human gaze. On the other hand, the Second Person, "the image of
the invisible God" (Coi l: 15) might be peTrei,-cd, at least ill certain lim-
iled ways, according 10 various thrological arguments aboulthc divine
activity (and presence) in both creation and redemption. Furthermore,
God is known, prior \0 the incarnation, through God's deeds, as beheld
by the prophets. According to Christian dO(trinc, the Incarnate Word
cam.:- into the world as a human !x-ing (Jesus ehr;5I) and shar<.'d all the
aspects of ordinary human existence induding an outward form (face
and body) that could be .seen and recognized in time and
And so, in contrast to the rarc reprcscntatiolls of the Father or the
Holy Spirit, Jesus (as the human manifestation of the Word) regularly
appcars in Christian visual art from thc late third century onwards, first
as a figure in narrative images (performing the dc"eds or wonders that
rewaled the divine naturc) and then- at the end of the fourth ccn-
tury- in a portrait image that showed his face alone.
As Athanasius e"plained in his treatise on the incarnation, the invisi-
ble God had become fuHy visible in and through Christ, so that humans
might fina!ly.see and comprehend their dh·ine potential and recognize
the true works and nature of God. [n addition to ColI :15, key New Tes-
tament texts were cited in support of thc claim that IcsusChrist TCvealed
the hwisibk- God (the Fathcr), not only through his teaching but also
through his appearance. For instance, while Jesus says in John 6:46, «Not
thM anyonc has seen the Father exccpt the onc who is from God: he has
seen the Father," he saw; later ( in 12:45), «And whoe.-er se<!l; me sees the
one who sent me." John's Gospel echoes these Jines and daboratcs
has .seen me has .seen the Father. Howcan you say,
131
FA([ TO FA<[
'sn""· ... d", hi".," ,)0 you ..,. bd .... ,hat r .m in IIw: h .Iw: • • Dd IIw:
htlw:, .. in rn<? 1bt word. that J .. y.o you , do not tp<U on ""-",
but ,I>< F ...... wtu. dwdll in "'" d<>c$ h" W<>I tu..' AIxordin, 10 II .....
.... t .. ·...,;ng· r ....... .l .. , '0 ..,.mol ond i •• i.i1ok [)<it,
in 10m ... n .. , P""ib" in ,h ... m. woy ,h .. other b;blic.all<. " ( ••
..-.11 .. .. ,1, Clarul;"n lilaatuf<) .... " lhal the ir><omp ... h.ruib"
clivi ........ "'. ;, knuwn ," ""'" m«li"edln_v. '"8"1 .. p"'ph<1io:
ul ..... rao, 0< tw:.vrnIy sigru ,nd T1w: openi"8 ""po..- of the
GooP'" of Jobn IOJ'O wttil< no on< tw $Om God.lhe Son .... ",,,I< him
known, ... ins ,''' GfftIr. ·10 .. plo'" o. int<rp""" ratlw:.
than. "'W<I1ik< .pohJrp.6, ' ,,, ,""". {fohn I: II}, tl>< . m of
John ,. contrast"'" vnbo ginD<kD and 00",,;, • .., know" with .... ; aru:l
'" '0 . _ . [duo ;. '" both Ie< . nd know God. n. .... ,1><0< GospoI J>I"
"'8'" p .... n' I..,u, .. mort than.n.nsr! '" propl><t. H< iI tl>< OC1u.o1
...... .. iom of ,ho: On< wIIo ' dwcl"'in him, whoo< fa«.how> foI,"
the of G<>d (1 Co, .,6),
Such ''1Iu"..."" ha .... imm ..... implicl.t ...... rot C/>risti.n iconogra.
phy_ J ..... .....ooubt«ily had , hum.n f""" ,ha, «>IIld b<..." onJ __ _
niU<! in hi, lif<.ti ..... For Ih;, ... ",n, th. rq> .... n .. ,;.,. of en,;" u.
')'DIboIic Iorm .. t'" Good Sh<ph..,d 0< <VeI> .. of God could b<
in favo, of "'" h.man rq> ..... n .. 'ion.' Tht fundom.n .. l
qu<>bon ;. wh<t .... tl>< 00 ,>< p/tysicIl form of kw, 0>u1d b< rep",.
duud 0, "'Pied into aD ... .... "Iivins" .. ''''n (. pointing o.
"",Ipled im'5<), whim <optu. od only tb. 6 .... 1&1 .pp .... nu and
"hid!, by not ... , could ROt cont,,,, r,;, i"dp' i .... i<rt<riot ... Ii'y--
hil _. In light of tho phik>oopltial "I"m<nLl tit< limi·
.. hon' or < .... n d""",'",n in ..... nt in pol".i" of ..... n o.dina, y
humon" the .i,oW ""''',ra1 of a di.,.;". hum," ... m •• 11 the mOl.
probI<rn.>tic .. im_ibl<. Th. itt"" of viwatly " 1"""",i"8 d;.-u,·
ity "'as ....... of Ew<biu,', 0SIcrt>i1>k oIJj<aioru to eoru .. nt;" in hil
. 1I<g<d r<>polll< to h., ... fo •• port"'" of 0, ..... Althmogt. ,hr;n: io
>om< doubt .trout ,h. ""'hrntirity of the documrnt, it. m.iot<>IoJiaol
. '11" .... " .. cln." the pt<>b\<m of divine ."1',...., .. ,"'."
...... , "'" 0( ...... '" 0ItD< ". ,.,. k.h ... • !r it tilt "'" ""'..........,.
__ boor. hi> ...... ial_ ..... ___ ... _ "" foo-
.......... _ ..... ,'" ... ""., of • ...-- IPIoiIl,7j .... Gr ..........
bar _ "' .......... t do.." ""'''''' _bar ",do_ltio _
_ . . . s....t., .......... ""' _;'1 bio ........ , _tbo,"' .... 600b
.......... po.- '" foo- ......... ,... w.."", _""",,bono to"", _ """"'"
_ .... !bY '" bio <IMni<y '" dut .... """..a port _ ....rlowtd "" '" '*'
[l GotlAj.·
A<C<lnh"3'o thi> ''lummt •• ny ...... 1 port,,!",,1 of A. . ... m ... ' b< inod·
<qWI1< it "'th..,...,;ckd '" .tt.rmpi«! ' 0 """ny ,I>< divi .... tu ...
POfl.Tft ..... m OF THE I N(ARNATE ONE
To .how only ,II< hum. n fOfm ..... ""<ti<al: 10 . """'pl ' O p""ny ,t..
in" i""" d"'n, f<>rm "' ...
C""'nly •• ,,;,.w.. ""word ........ «p«'S<'n"''''''' of J«u, d,f·
f.<¢<! ><co,d,ng 'o d,ff, .. n •• , ...... of !he n, ' .. r< 'M fun<'",n of ,n
'mog< i.>df, ,b .. i>. -..+.rtb ... ,b. i""V 1"''''''''' ." ''1' ......... b< >C1 .....
......... "" btin8 of or wh<1btr,. h ... o"", o.l><r kind ofluno·
"on lfo, eumpl •• dili<1;, Or m ... ly <<>mm.",on," ·<)' Pul 'OO1h"
"'''Y •• I>< probl<m abo loy ...;,n II" ...,.. ,h. irn'F' "'"
in". _ •• mi$hl ""1'0<' '" <n«Iun", 1O"" kind of (;.;ng , .. lily
'n.n ,mIg< or OI<I'<!y"" 1t<.1>< 'mos .... ,uJ><'l'<'o) re<»ni of .... ,""I
'PI"""'« 'h,' I"n<100....:l .. . """"''Y I ,d or ,n'pi'''Oon'' <kri«. Nl
<>f'1><s< (1)$>iblt hod pr«<d<n" ,n , h •• r1 01 "" ,", round·
ing ,.I,uf<. including fun""'1 of , he S<><l .... nd ,b.
olli,"1 1"""' ;" of tl>< <mpcror.
Aod..,.b< rotI,,,,,,, rrOOkm of,b< .... too"'l"p btI....,n '"1'''''''' ...
'ion . ",j .. , li'y, . nd bn-.n ,"<,", 1 f"m' ,nJ t" .. ,,,nd<n' Ituth.
""m .. to) ,I>< f",. _ Add<d." .hi> ... n ""«1 mo .. ho>k probl.m:...., ..
mod<I would......, f", , PU" " 't of ,I>< 11K.,""" Di. i", 011<'-0'" ,ho,
"""ukl b .. r """" , .,.,.,t,U"", 10 10;, 1(, ..... '1'1"' ... 0« wb,!. 00 .",h!
On "'hot b .... <OI.l1d . n¥ weh ;m. 1><. "'"'P''''' ... or .·<r,Ila ... Iii«·
n",1 Should .LKh . ... I>< Ni<d on , utb<ntk.ot<d pun .. i" "from
til'<" '" up<>n IOot .. 1 d<s<:ripl i"n> """ PM"ok """,gh dd,,;I ... buis
10' 1« .... ion of b .. ph)'iical '1'1"'.,-,,11«1 .o!h" of 'h .... how
""uld one """"""" . ',,,,,. ;m' g<' f i""lIy, ",Iu,..,,, of ' PI""" "'"
""uld . »<i<n ........... ""pM.he In<l" """ I)'.in< On. to '"
rroj«t1
So ..... ,Iy 01, .. "." documt-n .. ""n .. in ,<f<t.DC<> '0 I"". pI. lft •
.. "",,,r><,,,,,, I . .. u .... Iu>,in M.rtyr.'n hi. d .. logut w"h Trypho
'h, I<w . • <kno"'I«II;<' .b" Cb"" WI> ><po<l«i '" he 'n&lotiou ..
00""' ... ",d of onl'n..-y "",<Iii ' pp<. "n ... Bu,.,o 10" o«ottd """,_
,n8- hu'in .. fS, h. w,lI ' pp<" in his f.1I .ad".' &lQry.'
O,'st"', ph'."opbtr. <rih< C<""' ... 1<>", had I>«n rq>011«1 to b< "not ·
It,,,,.., •• nd ,h" can COun' ... '0 ,.h.>1 ott, ,""uld . up!"'" fo' . b. In ... , ·
"'" On. ("p«ioIly'" tbe mind of. G,,,,,i<. .. 0«1 to 'hink.ing ,ho, ,h.
g<><h "ugh' to l>< ,up"mely l><.u" fuJ). To ,hi, p<>'n,. Origen q.o ...
Ol,u, .. ""m;""!!'
Sin« • """,,,, .. "" .. "" lof "-I. " on"" """""r ..... boo"
.wr",", Ito .. , .. , of""", 1>< ... ,. ;. Iftp«tofpondru,. o>l><,.'y. ""
""""h. '" -., "" '-'" .... _ .." i> ""poI'*"
tII>, M. '" """"" ... , "'po<U<I .,.,.. dmn< q...tity...,.,.... od....- Orin",
""""d "'" dUf" Itom ...... ,,-bm, .. th;, ....... "'" wll<, ••• "'/
t'""" _ , WI -. .. """"1""'. bttk ..... ill _ .... ;po-
blt l ....... '.
'"
134
FACE TO FACE
Origen, on the defensive, admits thaI there werc some Toxordcd accounts
of Jesus' appearance as but not actually and cer-
tainly not And, as a way of justifying the supposed lack ofbeauly
in the Savior, Origen cites a pa»age from Isaiah (ha 53:2); «He has no
form or majesty, and we beheld him, and he had no form norbcauty; but
his form was without honor and inferior 10 thaI of the sons of
Going further, Origen poill!s out (in a sdf-contradictory way) that Cd-
sus had ovcriookOO a key line in the Psalms (Ps 45:2) addresses the
Mighty One as "the most hamhomc of men." Generations latu, John
Chrysmtom cited this psalm in order \0 assert that Christ was c.'{traordi -
narily handsome. From that Ii me, reports of !eStis' unattractiveness seem
to ha\-c been forgotten. '
Traditions and Legends regarding Jesus' Appearance
Other than the <:crypt;' allusions to Jesus' phys;'al appearance in Justin or
in Origen (who cited the text of Isaiah as if it weIT historically
tive) , only a few references to ey,:witncss descriptions of Jesus' appear-
ance oc{ur in the literature. On the other hand, traditions that 3{\ual
purtraits were made "from were more widely known. Among the
rare textual witnesses is a letter suppusedly wrinen by a fict itious gover-
nor of Judea, Publius Lentulus, to the "Roman People and Senate." The
oldest version of this document is found in a fifteenth-century manu-
script, included with the «Life of Christ" by Ludolph the Carthusian and
purportedly found in 1421 by a certain GiJwmo Colonna 'tmong some
ancient Roman documents. In this let tcr, Lcmulus Jesus as a
man of medium site with a "cncrable appearance; his hair was brown,
curly, and p'trted in the <:emer «after the pal1efll of the Jesus'
brow was smooth and unwrinkled, his complexion ruddy, his expression
cheerful and his abundant (but not particularly long) brown beard
divided at his chin. Lcntulus's description concludes: uHe is the most
ocautiful among human ocings (p"k/'errittws "',['1< in"" IlOmitles ).'
Lentulus', depiction conforms to many of thc earliest portraits of
Christ and, in one detail, finds a parallel in a fourth-century letter to thc
Emperor Theodosius from Epiphanius of Salamis. Epiphanius opens his
rener by denying that any ancient Christian "father" could ha\'c painted
an image nf Christ either for a display in a church or in a private house,
and he argues that any who do «I by rcpreseilling the Savior with long
hair. This, he c];lims, they arri"e at "by conjectu re because he [the Sav-
ior I is called a Nazarenc, and won: long hair." Epiphanius jU5-
titles his denial that Jesus was a Nazarene (with long hai r) because while
Jesus drank wine, Nazarenes do not. According to him, those who make
su{h pictures ill\'ent physical Iypes according to their whim, e\"en
though logic contradicts them. For, how could thc Savior havc had long
POf';TMITI Of THE ONE
hoi, II< " b, wIIrn hi> di>cipl<o aU Ud ohon, ",'I'J'<'I h.oi,' If he w=
'h" drll'<r<n, IooLinS from hi, . """1",, ,b<t< _kl b«n no ......t
for 1"<I>r '" Hl<o,if\' birn (w,th .Itio» w lh< lklnun • ."I><,,;.,.,.,.nd ,ho,
Ph.,;""" COuld h.o,', ... I'd .h,', mol>tJ!' lo!<r<>l,ns)y, Epiph.niu,·,
""j«'ion. or, """"odini'd on many .. ,ly Cb, .. ,;"o work> of . n, wb<t<
• iU"'po<ition of IonS·h.iKd k;u. ,nd .bort · h.oirod .po<, .... ir f.irly
common (0« fig>. U • .!(I • • nd ll. fu .... OlP).,).
l.<n."I"'. d<><rip.ion . 1", m"f< or I .. , '1"'"'' ... i,h tb, d ... ;I, of
I<"su" r,..tu ..... i" • f,mOll> '""""' of. "from lif," p,>rt,.i, of ,I><
mi",ulou, ;mas, o<quirod I>y Kin8 Abs-or of Ed ......... 1>o, .uff<linS
It.,,,,. d,.ad ill,,_ IOUght. m',.",""", 'ur, fmm I .... th' It,.k<.
Seve,a1 diff.""" vtnion> of tht Itgtnd ni<1. b," ,""filing w. V" .... I
""tI,n<. f.b&.t'..". hi • .,....,.... ."ib< '" r ..... , w;,h. kI .... imrl<>rin£
him «>,'"'''' tQ V ....... ",.id til< king. ....... coukl ...,. <Om< bim·
><If, but h. wroO< • reply promi>ins th.ot 01>< of hi< . 1'<" .... "wid
in hi> ".ad.Sorn<tim< .Ii., "",,,,' "",,"oion. Th.oJd<", .nMd in Ed ....
• nd ptrf.,...nod ,h«u ..... ....u .. "'""'Btii';"lI til< coun.' In l.rkt
.ion. of ,I>< Ahgo, ""'y. h<rw<v« •• ho. <Uf< W>i df«oM I>y rontxt w;,h
• po"',i' of Clui>! 'h" .. ,urn«l to [d." , wi.h Abpr', n' .... ns"
sai .... who ,i,1><t rainoM iI himldr 0' ,... S'''''' • mirllCUlou' i,,",SO
( .... d .... i.boo. h,""Ii) ........... '" wip«! hi, f". of><>" • ,,,..-d. M
H<>w<v<t til< "ory ..... told. ,h. ir",S' ,h., Abgu' .... van' brough'
N<1t '0 I!d<w w .. "'......J ... n ,u'hentic .nd .. i"cul"", in"g' of
Old". I, M.m. on, of tl>< hoi,,,, imag<> in ,il< w,.lmown •• 'h,
1oI.>.dy/i.m, TIl< .. neti.y.<>d POW<'! of th. """ d<monOl .. uod I>y
its '0 J.,.troy cornp<t,"& m;p.u. idob .nd "' ..... tho kingdom
of Ed<ua from '''''my i" .... ion •. In ,h •• iI,h «n'u.y, Evagriu,
""",nO<d """ .• 1>< ek>th hod ...... tU<d ' o .....,.1. '''0<10.. Hidden
;" tl>< ,i'y willo .nd 'h<n O<d,-,'<r'<d in tho , .. ,b """"ry. ,I>< "'lie .....
"mov«l '0 Con .... t i""Pl<. """" Em J><"" eo"".n,i,,, Porphyro",n.
u",romm;';;or><d"" oIIi,;"1 Mtcry of ,ho Mand]1;""'" A1thousJt mul·
ti' u&. of cop;" of til< o,,,,no! 1""''';' W<T< mad< (""",ibly <Kl' found
;,. w.y '0 ..... ". il ..... krn by til< Pioanu pilgrim). 11>< ><Iual
Ma.dyU"" i,,<lf W'" I"". fin.Uy di"M, .. ring from eo",""'inopl.
"'her> Ch",,;'n Ctu>M.k .. "",kot) Ih .. o'y " til< "'sinnin! of ,I>< ,hi,-
,..,",h ",",ury, "
I .... p,t< it> var"nt>. ,il< "ory of ,h. mi""ulou. im,¥ of E<k»a "-"
no< .,nly .. p"",," of tit< d;"i", 'rrrunl .. ...,11 .. ,t.. "!iol"Y
ODd ....... ..,r of holy im'g ... bu, .1>0'" ",oro of how I .. u. ·".Uy
I""k«l.· 5<>. whik 'h' o.;!i" ,1 wo, i" '"""m.uM,
'opi ... found ,hmughou, ,ho £.o" .. n Ch,i",," wo,ld in pani,ular.
,hat< """i" b .. ", fn'u"". Mo.' I"""""."y, ,I>< ponto" of Chtl>l
only .Ito... .. hi. .nd h.ir on on (JIh.,wi .. ""p'y fj,1d I,b. 1;"'0
<loth). (br;,'" <)'<1 look ",.ig.h' 0,". under wdl-driir><d br.,.... and
high fo"hn<!. Hi. nOI< i. and "ar"' ..... wi.h a .m.1I mou,h
136
r" 57. 2O\n .;en.
in !he KoIyTnnrty
Onhodox c:t.urm N_.
Tem. (f'I'oota
FACE TO FACE
beneath a rather drO(lping mustache and above a beard that comes \0
two points (fig. 57). The hair of his head is parted at the cenkr and
hangs 10 his shoulders.
The story of Abgar and his miraculous portrait has a Western paral ·
lei in the legend and subsequent tradition of the veil of Veronica (also
called the S"d<1fium). This famous image was also made "without
hands" when Christ's face left its imprint on a cloth held out to Jesus by
the woman Veronica, while he was going through Jerusalem toward Cal-
vary. Veronica's name means image," of course, and she is some-
times identified wi t h the woman with the hemorrhage whom Jesus
healed. Although neither t he portrait nor the Veronica legend can be
dearlydatt'd any earlier than the twelfth century, the cloth was accepted
as authentic, was promoted by Pope Innocent [[[ in the thirteenth cen-
tury, and quickly found its place among the most sacred object> of the
Roman church (kept among the treasures of Saint Peter's Basilica). A
representation of Veronica and her image became a permanent fiKture
PORTRAIT) OF THE I N(ARNATE ONE
in Catholic piety when it hecame the sixth stat ion of the CTOSS. Like the
Mundy/ion, however, this actual SlIdarilml disappeared in the sack of
Rome by German troops in 1527 and was reportedly sold in a tavern by
Lutheran soldiers." Redi scovered in the seventeenth century, it
generated a vast number of copies that were distributed all over Europe
(fig. 58).
137
Fe. 58 Soofl\ \It,-onoca, Muw
ofSao1tVe, "..;a,.a. I «Xl. 01
on wood. N.oonoI G.I<ry
L.onOOn (Photo: &lch L..>""'w
Ivt ~ e . N."t).
138
59. a.,., P>rttocra,,"".1.th
C,"" G.E eo:>UoU>ti<: en f'O"eI.
Mooasler)' ofSt c.theooe,
Mt. Sinoi (I't <AU Araent
Nt CoIeo:t>on. [hJg''''''' Nt
Woo,
FACE TO FACE
Like the Marrdy/jar" the Veron-
ica portrait shows the face of Christ
without any background. It often
appears (as dOl'S the Mar/dr/ion) as
a feature of a larger painting, the
portrait upon t he cloth held by
Veronica herself, saints, or angels.
The face of Jesus is and
dark, with curling long hair, parted
in the center and reaching to his
shoulders. Jesus' nose is long and
st raight ; his mustache droops
down to meet a forked beard.
These two traditional images have
much in common with anotlwT
the Shroud of
Turin, as well as bearing significant
resemblance to the earliest {sixth-
century} Byzantine panel paintings
of Cllrist, like Ihe Teacher from t he
Monasl<.>ry of Saint Catherine on Mount Sinai {fig. 59}. Earlier portrai ts
of Christ also bear some similarities, however, including the fourth- and
early fifth-century port raits of Christ from the Catacomb of Commod-
illa (fig.II,p. 31).
These two miraculously received images and their legends (includ-
ing their amazing travels and rediscoveries) hecame rather entwined
with one another in the Middle Ages, and their details are difficult to
distinguish. And while these stor ies dearly have enormous implications
for the Byzantine and Western cult of images, neither the details of
these stories nor the questions of their veracity are as important to this
discussion as the matter of what constitutes an authentic portrait of
Christ. [n both of these cases, a claim is made not only that the portrait
of Christ was made from life but also that it was produced miracu-
lously. However, a much simpler assertion, that a certain artist painted
an image of Jesus during his lifetime, can be dated fairly early- the ref-
erenCe by Irenaeus to the Carpocratians' possession of a portrait of
Jesus "from life," made by Pilate. " Since Irenaeus shows no obvious
doubt about this, one wonders whether other such claims were in ci r-
culation.
Furthermore, since the details of Christ's appearance on the
MafJdy/ioll and S"da,;um are quite similar (long dark hair parted in the
center, forked beard, and so forth), the matter of t heir bearing an actual
'"likeness" is mutually supported. Unl ike ordinary portraits, however,
these images "made wi thout hands
D
were alleged to be imprints pro-
duced by direct contact with Christ's body, making them "reverse" or
PORTRAIT! OF THE IN(ARNATE ONE
"n,i,.."." iaug<>. Th"".n ....... ",t.; "",1>«1 '0 but • pO" .-.i' "" .ithtT
of ,.,... "Jr",- ;m.gn would "<I'd K> ,,,"_ (,,;'1 ( .. ,u, ... of
0.,;., ;" Ih.it 1";"';"11'- 'Th;' p_ of <Ou"', ........ ,1'1< p,oI>I<ot ..r
.,.,... «",fully' "'1'1" .. ,mid to. """",!>«l.n,,, ,n ,o,h""h",,'..! ,te"'"
'YF .ou of wh<'h<r ,h • • • lidi" of lb. im.s. migh, h< bok<! on lb •
.J<v« 10 whkh i, ...... good '" foi,hlUl rq>t<Jd"",.,." On«.
d,nm ..... mad< ,h .. is ....... Ch"" kw>k<d lil:.." th< ud< ..... "'" of
f,i.hful ' <prod""';on "'h", ,h." prod",;,,! wo,k frum I n ind ... id...J
lmagin.otion. though 'h, !"tti<t.W.r I">"rai'
to i,. ."n<1)1'< w., <I""ioJ for _bli>hioS tho vili.lj 'Y of ,I>< '"P""""'"
,ion. ""'" variotion did not DOCrSUril)' ..ooermin< 'h, oe«p"nce of .n
i!rug<" .uthrn,ie"
Oth<r mirorulou •• oo "from Iif<" imagrs of Qui" . 1< I<no><" i" ,I><
tr.diti"n. i"<ludinA .b. Vol,,, So",,, (Hoi), h«) of 1.,,", .• ,...,If,h·
«n'"ry ....... ion of wbi<h is "ill on in ,h. «,bfilral of th., ltal
i>" ' ;'r" Y<1. <k$pil< ,h. ,)"im. mod<" v.,;.",. pOints in hi"ory fo,
,h .. hod b«n mod< "from lif<" .00 ,I>< p<ruiv«l impOrI'R<'
of i«>n"li"Phy r." eh,i". one Ii",,>", .,,''''''i'r in,I""'"
'hi! no .... ,h tradi,ion """ known or r«<>p>iud I;" tho W<>t) •• i'l><r fo,
""", '" .ny oflll< ><in". In hi. ,«.,iM on tlx 1Iiru'y, Aug"";'" points
'0 tho .. , .. ,ion. io ,It< wOf' /fiu> i, in ,'is...t.n ... kind of
p,"",f ,h .. DO on< pO.".k<! . oy 00. , .. o,d of hi • • "",1 ph)',i«1
'pr",,"« . • nd ,hm.dd< ,ha, (to mind • .,k .. , ) ,h. mlttor " . 11y
.... , of V<rJ' Unto imro'''.«' "'long .. on< ucognired ,h .... h. wo, •
hun,.n "' .. m .... .... '" hod..,me kinO of .wu"""'" ,bi.;, "", .
.... ry for tho ,..,.1i'1 of 'h, in"''''"'''n. r<)t him, ..... wo,k of" ... nlWJ·
"r ;, "", • """" of its '" its f.i,hful r<pmdU<1ion of •
cot'!'- Sin« i ..... ... 'ion folio;" wh" ",n"", .. known.""", .... 'uroUy
"m iJ" .. gi .. ,. .... with ..",,. kind of hum." f"".nO f"nt'I .• nd ,h .. i •
.. far ........ S""in< "i>h<d '0 s«
f>Tn tho rbrN<-! fo« of tho lOrd rK'umj with .. lin"" ootmI·
"" ;"""""'_ """'F ...........,. ..... Olor ... , .... inJy """ unt. 1<0<
.. ,I.. I,it!> "' ..... ;o .... '-"ttI ...... a.ru. io ;, in ....... " ..t.v.no
.. """' .... wIw .... pid ... h .... IOk, whld proI>oI:.Iy""it<
..... """" "'" .......,. ••• . Who, """ .......,.;, ", .. '" ,hOnk of OJ,,, .. .
""'" r.,. ..-. "". ",,\OdJtOd in"," ;, wtff .... noJ.tol _"'" ttl ........ ,..
"'"-"
Jesus'Variant and Chan,;n, Appearance. in Literal")' Sources
""'S""in<', ,h .. <V<'f}'O'" ..... 0 im.g .............. """. ('" on.
of ,I>< ";(10) looked cooju,,", • diffuen, imag< .... """U<l. ;" .. """
<!o<um",,,, $<""< whi<h ...... ' ,0.., """ • ..,...tly h.d • , .. ,,,1>1< '"
"t>y>kal.pp<' ''nu, ""rtku[;uly (h", "'" """y>l in hi,
'"'
FA<E TO FA CE
ro<t ....... n«,;oo .... nj r .... Of COU,,",. It..: variuu. prtOrntaliOIU iJl
C!Ir;" in tho canonical Goop<I ..... t<Wmo",/ in th<r>Udv<o '0 •
!j<Dctaha:q'liIn<tof ,",,;"lion 1ft the _rob ... ()(kouo'lif<." kut. but
.. ,,.,. no""""<mic.alli,,,,otu ... od<b to.ru. "rid, in tdf><CI It,
how I<sm 10 ,boo< who AW him. In , .... Am of-to. ... m·
pl.. I'et« ..,...1<> of II;' <'I'<"ionc< of"";"8 ..... ".",flg..>"'" J",'" "u,
....... f""" .. I ... ..,.. "', .... in." Fu" ..... on, in IW pf< .. hi", !<>pth·
<Rd beI .......... !TIn deo<,ib<dl<> ..... " " i1 (God ) who iabolh gmo, .. d
link. be.uliful:and ngi1. )'I>""8 ... d old, opp<.n", in .im< ,00"" in
"'ttnitywhollr i.wi,;bk. __ . H< ... 11 'hiop..nci thor< i> no01i>tr 8fCO''''
,h,,, h •. •• In the SyriK MI' ofn.._ the "",,un' of , h. dted. of
J ..... · · "..;n.· f<1W hiHUdf .. odd......t .. b<i", ' of many for ..... '"
/t..,ther .p<><l'l'l' ..... (.nd pmboblyo<isioal/y Gnooic) boo:>t.,.he Am
of JoIt._ .1.., con .. in. ''''0 ""pa"" .... " ion. of on inco"';".nq in
Chriol', appean"«. but. in , ...... <O><t. .. ",'i"",",." O" .... ·. d<vinj.,_
TIlt ""'.n« coocl ....... I<CI;"" of 'he 1<"'1 of Dr\u.io,.. ond her
h....,.nd, . oci ko.h in", ,t.. """""" of John', pf'<Odl"" .hoc
g<><p<L ...... Drwiana d<><ribt> •• ision of til< Lotd in ..... """,lcI""
""' .... h<t furio .. h .... nd t..d impriOM<d h«;"The Loo:I "l'!""'red '"
"'. i" ,'" 'omb in !he f<o<m Q( "*'" ond i" ,Iu, of • _n,' The
>«ODd ",».n ..,;,00, ,<coun,ed by )olin hirN<lf. , i"", J<>hn (who "'"
lioI'"'''S to Vtu ...... J ouli><d ,h., h<f .ud;..,c< wo, «>nfuor.d by ""
deoeription of "" vi,;on. Thu, h< ea:plaine<t ·M.., .nd Imtb"' .... "'"
.... w <lIp«ier>«d ""'hinS .... "8< or i""redibl< in )<I'" pofC<ption of
,"- 1.-.1. oJ_ ... """",, .... c ...... .., t.. h .. . poo,1« ....... uff.......J
ITLIny l<mp"'io",,' ·
'n """" '0 eIobuntte. Joh" F' , ,, ... mpl, from hi> ..... " ap<ricn<c,
'" tIu, bio .......... mi8h< kol.,.... or ,t.. p,..., <rf 0.,,,,. ,old uf ,he
'ime wh .. bus had ..... dycl>ooen And""".nd ,bon arne'o
hi. "r.", ... r need "",." And h" brother r. m« came'o
""'" ,"d .. ><I ,
......... ..... , ...... '" ....... 01,,, dilld ...... _. _ <AII<d .... ADd. ,
WoododUldl"ADdh<_ a ul .... "Tht_whoio ........... .
.. ", .. ' """ , ooid. 'Thio b«>"", « .... 100& """" ...... '" k<pI"_
....... .. ipt._ ........ Do _ __ 'h< .............
...... who .....-. fa;, ..... I . ' ."1" "'" '" oaOd to ow,'' do
... 1ft I ......... 1. "'1' toot ...... bo, I"" .. '" • ..,JI ... wOll "" ...... , , ....
-"
And '" the 'wo bnche<I ,h<i,""" [wi,h "bi>" help) ,,,J to r ......
him. and h, then " ppea,ed to Ilohnl .. rather bald bu, wi,h. ' hick
0""""8 be.tt<!. hu' ... )<Iu", """ ..-b<otd ..... ;wt bewin.
nins.· And while the 'wo bee."", moot perpleud abou, 'hi> tIu"" ....
'ppea,,_ .• n m"", 0",.';n8 01. ;", .... r pmcd. Joon If"" '0'"
PORTRAIT) OF THE INCARNATE ONE
him "as he was," but Chrht's eyes never dosed and remained open,
Sometinl{'s he looked to John like a small, unatuactiw man, and al
other times he to be looking up to heaven, And he had another
odd characteristic, as John redined on Jesus' breast; it was
hard and som<1imes smooth and soft. "
The instability of Christ's appearance and bodily features discon-
certed John, but also made sense to him, given that the being he was
looking upon was no ordinary mortal. Surely Christ would and could
appear diff<'rently to different and in different circumstances,
sometimes a child, som<1imes a young man who is hand:;ome, fair, and
cheerful looking (in contrast to Lentulus's description above), At other
times, he might ,'ary between being a young man wilh the of
a beard or an older man, bearded and balding, Somet imes he even
appeared to look like someone else, indudingJohn himself, In theApoc-
r}pllOtl of ,01m, the author tdls of a vision of the Savior, first as a child,
then as an elderly person, then as a yOllllg person, and finally as a multi -
form figure with three distinct forms appearing through one another.
changes were mean! to re\'Calthat the Savior is simultaneousl y
Father, Mother, and Son," Such variation in appearance was even
on the need or ability of the viewcr, according to Origen, again in his
debate with CclSllS:
Ahhough ksus was onl)' a single inJi"iduai, he was n<>'<!thd,,1S mo", things
to.n on., according 10 toe diffrrent standpoint from ,,"'oieo h. mighl b.
regarded: nor waS h. ",en in the <arne way b),.ll who I><hdd him. , .. And that
= o. Jid not app ... in like fashion 10 ill tho .. ,,"'nO,.w him, but
.crotding to thei. KYe .. ] .bilit;", to rec<iw him. ",ill I>< de .. to tho .. ",ho
why .• t tim. when h. Wit' about to b. tran,figured on the high
mou nt ain, h. did not .dmit all hi' apo,lI ... (to thi, ,ight) but only Pew,
I.m",. and lohn, be<:.u .. lhej' . Ione wen: cap.bk of I><holding hi. glory on
that occa,ion and of ob"Hing th. glorjfieJ apr-aranu of .. , . nd Elijah,
and of list.ning to th.ir <o"" .. ,.tion. and to the voice from Ih. ho,,'only
cloud .... He did not "PP'" the >an,. r-rson to the ,jek, and to those ",ho
nceded hi. h.aling aid as to Ihos. "'00 were able by ... son of their su.,.,gth 10
go up th. mountain along wilh him."
For Origen, Jesus' appearance changed to accommodate the different
needs of viewers or 10 show forth the different of his own
earthly life.
Cyril of lerusalem offers something rather similar in his lectures to
those about to be baptized, borrowing the biblical metaphors to show
that jesus adapts himself according 10 the n{"cd of an individual
bdk-ver-<hanging in his mode of being present 10 different people,
while at the sam,' time remaining stable and unchanging in his divine
nature. As for Origen, this \'ariablc image had less to do with a displayof
141
142
FACE TO FACE
power or divinity than with a concern for the care of souls and Christ's
sdf·cxtcllsion 10 persons in a way that could be most easily and hdp·
fully received:
The Savior comes in va.ious fornl< to .a<h prrson .<cording to ne<d. To ,h"",
who lack joy, h. ,,",com., . "ne, to tho", who wi>h to rn,er in. h. i •• door;
for th"« who mu" offer prayers. h. i •• medialing high prj .. !. To 1M'" in
sin. h. b<'Wm ... she.p, to b. sacrificed on ,h, i, bth.lf. H. bocome, "all
thing! to.lI people" remaining in hi. own n.tur< what he is. For so remain-
ins, .nd ptJS$<$Sing the true and unchanging di!!"ity of Son <hip, as th. b«' of
physicians and earing t.3che". h. adapts him",lf to OIl r infirm;t ;', ,"
And while these texts imply that adaptability of Jesus' appearance was a
mark of his divinity as well as of his loving concern for those who
"according to their nrcd
P
saw him in differmt guiS<.'s, the construction of
a visual representatioll of Christ ultimately came down to the dogmati -
cally oriented problem of how an artist might show both his humanity
and his divinity (his two complete natun.'S rather than his varying physi-
cal appearances). As we have S<.'en. the Roman gods were shoym with .er-
tain attributes that suggested their divinity, such as the uS<.' of gold,
halocs, relative size (conlpared to mortals), or other signs of their power
and trans.:endence. Im'lgCS of Jesus would seem to demand the same
kind of distinction, to signal to the viewer that this WaS no ordinary mor-
tal. even if he was born into a human body. But, at the same time, Chris-
tian confcs.sions also insisted on his full humani ty. Pcrhaps this is why his
divinity was signaled through certain traditional signs (a halo, for
instance) while at the same time images showed him as having a human
appearance and being proport ionally "ordinaryP when depiCted to
other humans in artistic compositions (fig. 60, for example), instead of
being "larger than life
P
or having a dominating stature.
Jesus' Variant and Changing Appearance s in Art
Although later (Byzanti ne and early medieval) representations of [esus
ha,·c a remarkable degree of consistency, the earliest artistic portraYdls of
Christ (in the third and fourth centuries) show significant inconsistency.
Christ appears as youthful and beardless., sometimes as older,
with full beard. or courS<.'. he is also shown (or symbolized) through the
familiar visualmctaphors of ,hcpherd, lamb, or even fisher. One possible
explanation for theS(' varying preS('ntations is that it simply took time for
artists and their clients to achieve the" right look'· for 1esus, perhaps strug-
gling to find the key combination of featuR'S and attributes that com·C)'\.-d
his dual natures, while still honoring some ancient traditions or ntemo--
ries wnccrning his physical appearance.
PORTRAIT) OF THE I N(ARNATE ONE
A survey of the extant examples (coming mainly from the environs of
Rome) shows us that most of the earliest recQgtJizable iconography of
Jesus presents him as a beardless and beautiful youth, although in rare
instances he also appears as bearded and more mature in appearance.
When he appears as youthful, he most often is shown within narrative
compositions referring to his role as healer and wonderworker (fig. 60).
In the earliest examples of Jesus shown wi t h a beard, he generally
appeaTS as a teacher (figs. 61--62). By the mid-fourth century, the
bearded type began to appear in nonteaching contexts, a shift that may
be linked with a general trend away from narrative images of healing
and wonderworking and toward visual references to his passion, ascen·
sion (enthronement in heaven), and the giving of the new law (lig. 63).
At the end of the fourth century, when the lirst true "portraits" of Jesus
began to appear, the dark and bearded appearance was hecoming stan-
dard and seems to be the precursor to the standard iconic presentation
of Christ's image in the later Byzantine period.
143
Fe- 61) ",th Old
Teo,.."..,t "'" New Teo,.·
rr.eno: scenes. 1th <"" CL
Pic Cnruano. V-.n
City (Photo:

....ty 1th C<fI. CL
NWoo ole (Palo=>
(PI'IoI.o;
144
Fo&. 1.2 a.,."", ~ ~
4th """ a.. ~ <Ie r Ar1e>
Aotoq.Je (Photo;Author).
'OS 63.Je>m gMng tI1e low on
4th cen."" ~ ~
Mus« Oe rArles Mtq.>e
(PhoIooAuthor).
FAC E TO FACE
PORTRAIT) OF THE I N(ARNATE ONE
However, the final transition to a bt'arded iconic type happened grad-
ually, and for some time bot h types (youthful and mature) coexisted,
sometimes juxtaposed within a singlt' space without raising apparent con-
cern (or at least not enough to warrant removal of one or the other
image). For example, in the mausoleum of Santa umstanza (Constan-
tine's daughter) are two markedly different presentat ions of Jesus-
although some scholars see them as representing God the Father and
Jesus. Although both mosaics are dearly from the same date and work-
shop, they may be slightly later additions to the building (perhaps in the
late fourth or early fifth century) and their extensive restoration makes
scholars doubtful about their original composition. However, the con-
trasting ksus iconography still appt'ars to bt' both intentional and
ancient." In one, Christ is youthful, fair-haired, and skinned, with
blue eyes. He has onl y the hint of a blond beard (no mustacht' ) and stands
upon the rock of Calvary, handing a scroll of the law to Paul. He wears a
white tunic (with blue stripes, clavi, from shoulder to hem) and palli"",.
In the other, Christ (m perhaps God the Fat her) is shown having a full
beard and is seated upon the orb of the cosmos. His tunic is a rich, royal
purple with two gold stripes. Both figures have haloes in shades of blue,
but otht'lWise their presentation is strikingly differt'nt (figs. 64-65)."
One explanation for the cont inuance of t hese contrasting images is
that such a variation madt' a t heological point or argument in a visual
mode. Perhaps a polymorphous presentation of Christ was seen as truer
than a single static and consistent visual appearance. The texts, after all ,
suggest that during his life jesus may have taken on different manifesta -
14 5
Fig. M Ap><
<en. CL from the Mo"""""'"
ofConstantioo. Rome (cn..
Intemationol c.t.ccmb Soc;-
ety Photo: Estde
146
Fo&.i.S. """" mid-4th
C,"" CE .. from the
of eonrt.o ....... , Rome (P!><><o;

FACE TO FACE
lions, projecting different exterior features, perhaps in response 10 the
need, expectation, ability, or even requirements of different viewers.
From this vantage point, the Christian God recognized and accommo-
dated viewer subjectivity as well as capacity for variety. Moreover, a
changing also paralleled Christ with the other gods and then
trumpt'd tht'm, 100. Christ's presentation in different guises was then
less a result of confusion than an aim 1o show his superiority to the gods
of the Roman pantheon, who also could appear in different forms or
guises but for somet imes less beneficent purposes (according to Chris-
tian writers}." In any case, divine ability to change form was a ""Tlain
sign of a god's power and craft.
Jesus as Savior and Healer:The Beautiful Youth
These issues lay right at the heart of the development of Christian art
that first ... mphasized Jesus' work on earth, as a savior who performed
certain deeds. TheM' deeds, as they were in visual art, were
directly related to specific textual narratives. The art of the early fourth
century did not try overtly to display divine nature, or to suggest
that he showed fort h the visible face of God, but rather it concentrated
on narrating t he actions Or the stories that were told about him. For
instance, the earliest representat ions of Jesus display no haloes or even
other signs of divinity that were already in use for images of the gods or
of the deified emperor, or even the golden or purple robes associated
with royalty or the supreme deiti es of the Greco- Roman pantheon. The
earliest images of Jesus showed him dressed much li ke the other figures
in a composition, in simple tunic and pallium and sandaled feel. He is
not shown "larger than life" but rather as of the same stature as his dis-
ciples and followers . The only props he holds or attributes associated
PORTRAIT) OF THE I N(ARNATE ONE
with him usually are related to the narrative itself (baskets of loaves for
multiplying or jars of water for transforming). His posture is far from
imposing, since he usually or wal ks among a nowd of others,
rather than riding a chariot or sit ting upon a throne.Apan from his sig-
nificantly distinctive facial appearance, Jesus looks li ke the other figures
in the composit ions.
Of cours .. , there w .. r .. som .. ioteresting Hc"ptions, at l .. ast at first-
and perhaps th .. ir very rarity proves the rule. In the famous early fourth-
C<'ntury mosaic said to be of Chri st Helios in the dom .. of the
mausoleum of the rulii in the excavations under Saint Peter's on the Vat -
ican (fig. 66), we see a figure that may have been meant to repre>ent
Christ as Sol or perhaps as a rival to Sol riding in a chariot, surrounded
by a golden sky, and adorned with a radiate halo. This rather glorious
147
Fig. 66. o.n.t .. I U )d,
MooJ>OIeu:n M (or !he
Necn>pok (C Th< In..".,....
oon.oI Utxotrt. Societ1
Photo: f<t<f<,
148
Fig. 67 CoI.Jmr..y-
in the M= PK> Cristiaoo,
City (Photo;
'Ii- 1.8. Good Shq"'"d .....
"""", 3rd =>. Cf.
Pi<> CriniM>o. V...,..,
Cit)' (l'hot<>Autho<).
FACE TO FACE
image corresponds with biblkallanguage about Christ as the light (for
examplt>, John l:l·S and Eph 5:14) and with some textual references to
Christ that employed solar imagery, induding Clemen! of Alexandria's
description of Christ as the "Sun of who rides in his
chariot over all creation and "who has changed sunset into sunrise and
crucified death into
Rut while /esus' starKe. stature, dress, and gent"Tal demeanor in the
earliest iconography could be interpreted as a clear t'mphasis on his
humanity, cerlain key aSpe<:Cts of his facial type are absolutely distinctive
I
and, perhaps in a dif-
ferent way, offer a
visual construction of
his immortal nature.
In contrast to later
depictions of Christ as
a dark, bearded judge
as found in Byuntine
icons, the art of the
catacombs and the
early sarcophagus
reliefs almost always
shows Jesus as a beau-
tiful youth, beardless
and with long curly
hair. He has a gentle
expression, smooth
oval face; he appears
to be both graceful
and rather sweet
natured (fig. 67). In
this respect, Jesus'
iconugraphy looks
PORTRAIT) OF THE I N(ARNATE ONE
much like that of the earlier images
of the Good Shepherd (fig. 68),
which symbolically represented
Jesus as a loving caretaker of souls.
More significant, however, is t he
simi larity of Jesus' facial f .. atures to
those of th .. gods Apollo, Orph .. us,
and both Dionysus and Hercules
in their youthful presentations
(fig. 69). In some cases, he takes on
other attributes assodated with
th .. m, like the radiate halo of Sol or
th .. lyre of Orpheus (fig. 70)./esus'
representation also parallels that of
, .. rtain hero .. s, many of whom
bIXamc deified eventually (for example, Melcager or Beller0l'hon).
These, too, ar .. usually shown and youthful, and sometimes
with long, flowing, or curly hair, thei r bodily postur .. s eff .. !e and lan-
guid . Th .. most important difference between the representations of
Jesus and thuse nf these gods or heroes, however, is that whi Ie Jesus is
som .. times shown as a nude child, as a youthful adult he is fully doth .. d
in the relatively simple garb of an ordinary Roman male (usually a tunk
or a tunic and pallium}."
In these early fourth-century depictions, Jesus works wonders
(mul tiplies loaves and changes water to wine), teaches, heals (the par-
alytic, the man born blind, the woman with the issue of blood), or
raises the d .. ad (Lazarus, /aims's daughter). As noted, prior to this
time, certain visual metaphnrs had b...,n far mnre popular, in particu-
lar the Good Shepherd, which was not a portrait of Christ, but rather
a representation of hi s attributes and a reference to the common
-
,
149

go» 3rd <en.
cl..MJ_ Pio Cristiano,
VatK.! Gty
Fig. 70. em... .. Orpneu>
h-<n the u l«;oo"b of
Domtih . R.:.mo (CThe In,.,...
",tJOnaI Cau<:anI> s.xie-ty
Photo: "'t<f<,
150
FACE TO FACE
biblj,aJ symbolism of the Shepherd, L"I'cn though the Shepherd's pos-
tur..- and countenance ",{,fe quite similar to /csus in the New Testament
narrative S(;cnes,As we have noted, this facial type is a remarkable con-
trast with the apostles or other figures in the composition, who arc
presented as typical Roman males with d ipped beards and short hair.
Jesus' appearance in contrast to these others is almOM startling and the
nearly inescapabl e conclusion is that he was dther a type of, or
the replacement for the young savior gods of Greco- Roman religion.
In many way$, the story of his virginal birth, miracles, wonder:s, suffer-
ings, and resurrection from death make him their competition as
much as their counterpart.
Early Christian ",ritas were aware of the parallels between Je!iUS and
hcroes and s<wior gods. Justin Martyr had acknowledged the sim-
ilarities and even argued that they demonstrated that Jesus was in nn
way inferior to these gods. In fact, he asserted that the parallels showed
jesus to be truly superior, if for no other rCJson than that these other
gods wcre invented by devils and those who believed in them were influ·
enced bydcmons (who deliberately wanted to mislead pcople), and thus
they even had imitatcd Jcsus (in anticipation). But, in any QlSC, Justin
could insist that anyone who could believe all these things (heroic deeds
or wonders ) of gods in\'cntcd by pocts ,crtainly could "edit thcm to
Christ, the onc who did thcm "truly";
And ,,·h.., w. "'y. al", ,hatth. \\'ord, who i, th. first -born of God, was pro·
duced without ,""xual union .• nd 'h,,' hc. I<:$us ChriSt. our '.a,hcr w •• cru,i ·
fied and di.d. and ro,"" again. and ascended imo h,,,·.n, w. propound
n01hing differen' from what you Ixli.,"" regarding tho,"" whom )·ou .. I«III
son. of [upiter. For you know how many ,ons your «t .. med wrMrs "",it..
to Jupiter: Me"ur}". tilt interpreting "'ord and k.eher of aU; Aesckpius. who
'hough he wos a gre .. phy,iciall. "'3> stru,k by a thunderbolt. and >0
.scended to heaven: and Ba«hus. to<>' aft« h. had been torn limb from limb;
and He,,;ul ... when he had ,ommined him",lf '0 ,h, flames to e"ape hi. toil,
.nd th. son. of Led •. and Dioseuri; and Per",u •. 'Oil of Donae; .nd
Bdlerophon who, though sprung from mortals ro .. l0 h .. ",n on the hors<
reg ...... , . and ... hat of the emperors ,,'ho die among )"0", .. 1..., .. whom )""
dtem worthy of ,jci!i<alion .... I\nd if we am" th,t th. Word uf God W",
born of God in a p«Uliar manner, different from o.din,,)" g.n .... tion, let
thi s. as $lid .i;Kw •• b. no ordinaf}' thing 1<, you. who s.ay that I$ th •
• ngelie word of God. BUI if an)'one obj",lS that he WaS <n,<ili.d, in this also
on a par wi,h Ilhe .uffering of l those r"l'u'cd >onS of Jupiter of )'OU rs .. _ .nd
if Wt evell .ffinn that he was born of a virgin. ''''''1't thi. in ",mmon with
what you ""pt of Per,,"u •. And in that we "')' that h. mad. whol. th. lame.
the paralpi, .• nd ,h.,.. born blind. we ... m to sa)' what i. Vet)' simil."o the
deeds $lid to MI" hrtn done by
PORTRAIT) OF THE INCARNATE ONE
Part of Justin's apologetic strategy was to undermine the discounting
of ]csus' wonders (since people were willing to bdic\'e them of the other
gods), while at the same time showing that these work>; by themselves
were not the sum of Jesus' divinity or the only measure of his legitimacy
as the Son of God. Still, the similarities were obl'ious to many people at
least, and the iconography of jesus may have reflected that awareness.
But, as we haw discussed, in whatever way Jesus and his companions
arc depicted in the founh·century catacomb paintings or sarcophagus
rdids, they appear mort' as actors in a scene than as pure portrait typ<'s.
Their faces are not revealed as the "isages of holy persom, and the
iconography is not intended for veneration. These figures arc insepara'
ble from their specific narrative compositi ons, which arc meant to teach
or rt'\'eJI :;ome meaning found in the details of the story itself. This was
al50 the function of the various characters or episodes from the
Scriptures that referenced a particular story that 31:;0 served as a typol·
ogy for or prefiguration of a Gospel e\'ent, a sp«ilk Christian sacra·
mental practice, or God's promised deliverance of the faithful from
danger and death! ' The frontal, static, or formal portrait-type images,
intended to invite prayer rather than provide edification, appeared
somewhat later in Christian art. In these earlier images Jesus' face is
more often in partial profile than facing forward, and cven those other
figures (Adam ,md £\"e or Daniel, for instance), who arc more often pre'
sented frontally, arc yet characters within a sacred drama.
ThUs, the figures in this kind of art take defined roles in their story
and those roles arc repeated and standardizt'<i. They arc lIt:wr
distinct from the gencrJI compositiOll or presented as subj«ts to Ix' seen
alone, apart from the crowd around them. However, we do sec some
facial and bodily distinct ions that in themsch-cs became fairly pre-
dictable. In the extant iconography of the third ,md fourth centuries
(especially in the sarcophagus reliefs), Jesus was most often repreSCllted
as a beardless and beautiful youth with curly, almost shoulder-length
hair. This image most appears in compositions showing him
performing miracles, wonders, or healing the sick, where hc looks mort'
like the savior gods of antiquity or of the mystery cults than any other
divine prototypes from the pagan art of Late Antiquity. When he per-
forms certain wonders, like the changing of water to wine or the multi-
plication of loaves, he often docs so with a wand (fig. 67). This prop
associates him with the wonderworking figures of the Old Testamcnt
(especially Moses), or cwn with magicians known to "iewers from their
surrounding culture or e\'en :;omc mentioned in early Christian litera-
ture {for example, Simon)." This Christ al:;o holds the wand when he is
shown raising the deJd, Lazarus, or Jairus's daughter (fig. 71). When he is
shown a.l healer, Icsus generally has his right hand upon the suppliant, a
gesture a1:;o associated with baptism and the reconciliation of sinners."
151
152
r ~ 71 . )=o> ... tsi-!g w.ru...
detoiIlrom • 4th , en CL
~ g u s . MY""" Pic
Cristior», 'MIc>.n City
(Photo: Ao.rtI'oo<}
FACE TO FACE
The predominance of this Jesus type in the earl iest iconography sug-
gests that visual art, al least, emphasi1ed Jesus' role as healer and won-
derworker during his earthly ministry, which, according to early
theologians, showed forth the power and glory of God as well as
Christ's Tole of savior. At the same time, (ertain key events of Jesus'
earthly life, which were equally important for r{'v{'aling his divinity,
appear to be missing. For example, almost no visual representations of
the transfiguration, Last Supper, crudfixion, r{'surrection, or ascension
appear in Christian iconography pr ior to the fifth century. Pictorial ref-
erences to Jesus' nativity do occur with some frequency but seem more
focused on the adoration of the three magi than on the incarnation
(compare figs. 56 and 99, pp. 128 and 192). Toward the end of the
fourth century, iconography of the passion begins to appear, but extant
examples omit the actual crucifixion, which rarely appears [WfoTe the
sixth and seventh centuries. Instead, they focus on Jesus' arrest and
trial. An empty noss appears as a triumphant symbol, surmounted
with a wreath of victory and the chi rho monogram (fig. 96, p. 188).
Arguably, one exception to this surprising (to us ) lack of dogmatic
images is the relatively frequent appearance of Jesus' baptism by John,
where he is represented as a small nude child instead of a thirty-year
old adult (compare Luke 3:23; fig. 72). In most examples, the dove
descends into the picture, thus joining a narrative scene with a theolog-
ical statement about the identity of the one being baptized.
The lack of art istic portrayals of the key creedal professions of Jesus'
virginal birth, salvific death, and resurrection in the early period could
suggest that the doctrinal emphasis on the human incarnation, suffer-
ing, and passion of Christ, so central in the literature of the first three
centuries, was bypassed in the art altogether, or that the visual tradition
balanced (or challenged) the literary with images that represented Jesus'
PORTRAIT) OF THE I N(ARNATE ONE
earthly works- his teaching, wonders, and miracles-rather than
attending solely to his nature(s) or divine status. However, a conc1l1Sion
that the evidence of visual art emphasizes his humanity rather than
di vinit y is challenged by the lack of artistic represent ations of Jesus
engaged in more mundane human activities (for example, eating a meal
or fishing with his companions). Rather, artworks portray him per -
forming wonders and healings and raising the dead-act ivities that still
show aspects of his divine character and power. Such images may have
been modeled on imagery of other gods performing great deeds (espe-
cially Hercules), which was available and fami liar to third-century arti -
sans during a time when the visual vocabulary needed to represent the
distinct doctrinal aspects of the Christian religion was still undeveloped.
In other words, the earliest artistic composi t ions borrowed from and
adapted the art of the surrounding culture, and they conveyed the mes-
sage about the work and the person of Jesus through the established and
available savior types.
Fnr this reason, Jesus' image looks very much like one of the youthful
gods, and the iconographic focus on certain asp«ts of the story- Jesus'
signs, wonders, and miracles- was a way of establishing him as a savior
god, who eQuid have a personal relationship wi t h an individual or inter-
vene in a particular historical circumstance. Such gods were more acces-
sible and immediate, present to their devotees in times of need or stress,
and certainly relevant to the hopes for a blessed life after death. Many of
them were said to ha"e died, descended 10 the underworld, and risen
into heaven, and so the analogy is that much more apparent." Certainly,
hope for a similar resurrection from death (promised through faith in
Jesus Christ) was especially relevall1 for the art, mOSI of it crealed for a
funerary context.
153
Fig. n. Bopjwn of
hom • ceo. <:.Lson::opho.
Muoeo Pic Crnt;..,.,.
v<ticon City (f'hot<>
154 FACE TO FACE
Jesus as Teacher, Philosopher, and Ruler:The Bearded Type
r .. 73. Portr .. , ne.d of
Soc.-.tes,G--e<o-Romon.
laW Mto<W>e
Pe.>od, a. 170-195. bued on
Gr....!< ""il"'& Found ..
Aruc.o. Ath<m (<>id to be
d F..., Art<.
805t0fl (\'I>otogr.p. ClOO4
Muset.m d r ... hu,805ton).
,
Despi te the preponderance of early narrat ive portrayal, of Je,us as a
beardless and youth, in at least some rare early examples,
including the fourth-century plaque in Rome's Musco Nazionale aU ...
Term ... (fig. 61), Christ also appears in the guise of the philosopher, with
full beard and bare chest (he has no tunic orundergarment,but only the
{XliiiI'm draped over his left shoulder- the garb of an itinerant intellec-
tual) and holding a scroll. His right hand makes a gesture of spe&h, and
at his feel is a row of small figures meant to represent his disciples. Paul
Zanker would identify thi s as a dassic representation of "Christ the
teacher of the true philosophy.H" However, 10 either side of this group is
a portrayal of Christ healing. Here again he is shown with a full beard
and in one case (the cure of the woman with the hemorrhage) with a
bare chest. The two proximate healing scenes prompted Thomas Math-
ews to point out the similarities between Jesus' portrayal here and that
of the god Asdepius, who also is represented with a full beard and bare
chest, his outer garment carefully draped, but with no undertunic."
Early representations of Christ among his disciples dea rly present
him as a teacher, although usually as a young and beardless pedagogue,
without the traditional facial features given to Socrates or other ph iloso-
, ,
,
,
phers (compare figs. 73 and 74).
Although some scholars have com·
pared a similar image of Christ
among his disciples from the Cata-
comb of the Via Anapo in Rome
with a roughly contemporary rep-
resentation of Socrates wi t h his
disciples from Syria, the primary
similarity between the two lies
only in their general wmposi-
lion. " The first image shows Jesus
and his disciples as relatively
young, and, although some of Ihe
disciples wear short beards, Ch rist
is beardless. The second image of
Socrates and his followers presents
them all as bearded and balding
elders. The only similarity is the
clothing of both groups (a pallium
draped over a tunic).Another such
image of Christ appears in mosaic
in the apse in Milan's Chapel of
San Aquil ino, attached to the Basil -
ica of San Lorenzo (fig. 75). Here
PORTRAIT) OF THE INCARNATE ONE
we again a youthful beardless Christ seated among hisaponlcs., mak-
ing a gesture of speech, with a basket of scrolls at his feet, and relatively
youthful -looking disciples.
In sevcral dearly Christ ian sarcophagi, a figurc appears in profilc who
looks rather like the scated reader/intellectual/poct on some non-Chris-
tian monuments (fig. 27, p. 44). While on most of the non-Christian
sarcophagi and wen some of the Christian ones (for example, the sar-
cophagus of Santa Maria Antiqua, fig. 29, p. 48), thcse may ha'·c been
meant to be portraits of the deceased or at least referenccs to his learn-
ing and intellectual pursuits (in Christian contexts, p{'[haps a reader of
&ripturc).ln some cascs. howcver, the identification of this figure is less
dear. For example, on a mid-fourth-century sarcophagus in the Mus&:
dc l"Arlcs Antique, we see Jesus presented with a youthful face standing
ncar to a scatcd and beardcd reader (fig. 761. Becausc Jcsus already
appears in the oomposition as youthful and beardless, we might identify
this figure as God the ' :ather. An cnigmatic diminutive figure bends
155
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P O ' i Q S ' I L
% ,
PORTRAITI OF THE INCARNATE ONE
pa&S<.xi judgment on mortals. Certain early bcarded depictions of !csus
emphasize this type o\'Cr the others, and the philosophical a>sociation is
diminished in favor of an cmphasis on royalty, digniTy, and transcen-
dent power, And, as has wnvindngly argued. to thc cx1cnt that
such an image is allied to the portrayal of the emperor, it is because the
emperor himself wanted to be seen with the attributes of these ruling or
supreme Roman gods_"
The apse of Rome's Santa Pudenziana Basilica (ca. 400; fig. 78) is a
superb example of this. Here Christ is majestic in royal purple and
gold-the very image of the ruler god. Sitting in his high-backed throne
with thick beard Jnd long hair, Icsus' depiction looks \'Cry much like the
s<:ulptural or paink-d images of Jupiter or Serapis." For purpOSC!i of wm-
parison, we might consider the wntemporary apse of Hosios David in
ThC!isalonica. which shows another "cT1;ion of thc transccndent Christ.
but here <.'Jlthroncd UpOll a rainbow and appearing as a beJrdlcss youlh,
e\"Cn Ihough he issimilarlydrcsscd in purple and gold. The Satlla Puden-
ziana iconography of Christ emphasizes his role as mature lord and
judge; the Son who, according 10 the ehurm's cteed, has now ascended to
heaven, where he sits on the right hand of the Father to judge the living
and the dead; and the One whose kingdom will have no end. The image
in Thessalonica points more to the one who is the Bcgol1en Son and Pre-
existent Onc--a prince and Sitvior instead of a sovereign magistrate.
ThaI this similarity to the ironographyof the Greco-Roman gods was
acknowledged at the time might be ugued from the witness of an
ancient text. According to a story contained in the Eu/(sirutiml History
ofTheodorus Lector (and repeated by John of Damascus), the Patriarch
157
Mi. 77. Jo,,", !.Tw,
daaj from • 4th ' <f1 C l
,."oph.lgu'''' to., MJ <eo
Plo Cmtw>o, V<tCOfl Cit)'
(f't1ot<> A" tnor)
158
FI&- 78. Je= onthroned
Gl. O>.x-<:h of 5.!rtt.l
Puo.,,1<nl, F'uo" (A-.oto,
Auto"",). Se" ,1>0 f1 97,
p.l 89
FACE TO FACE
Gcnnadius of Constantinople healed the withered hand (or hands) of a
painter who had dared (0 paint an image of Chrisl in the likeness of
Zeus. The pagan who had commi&Sionlxllhc painting ""mted the image
to be ambiguous (showing the hair parted and combed back off the face
like Zeus's).]n this warbc could cominuc to worship as a pag;m, while
appearing 10 ,·cncrate Christ. The bishop, aftn healing the artist,
admonished him to rdrain from portraying Christ in any other form
than the «authentic one," wilh Ushort , Although we should
not place too much wright on this single (and perhaps doubtful) text, il
yel offers some slender evidence that in this era traditional polytheists
needed to keep their religious loyalt ies a by them as
Christian and that people (indudiog church authorities) werc aware of
visual representations of Christ in the guise of the regallupiter.
The presentation of lesus Christ in the guise of a youthful savior,
philosopher, or ruling cider god may haw been more than a maner of
borrowing and transforming familiar visual prototypes in order to
explain his di"inity in the familiar iconographic of the cul -
ture. Augustine, commenting on the line in Psalm I.H in which the
unity of brothers is comparoo to oil running down Aaron's beard (Ps
133:2 ), sars that the bcard signifies the courageous and distinguishes the
mature man, the earnest . active, and vigorous. " This imagery also sem a
PORTRAIT) OF THE INCARNATE ONE
meS53ge regarding thc kind of god and teacher that was. induding
savior, true philosophcr. worker of grcat wonders, human hcro, ruling
and tran5Ccndcnt lord, and judge. many wnfirmed his dual-
ity of natures as well as his divine adaptabi lity. The language of visual
metaphor was a matter of both available modds and effcctive commu-
nication, It was also a languagc that had been taken over from thc
iconography of the Greco-Roman gods and CIIcn empcrors. Both youth
and age carry particular connotat ions in ponraits, and each of them in
sense was an ideal type. For example, Marcus Aurelius was repre-
sented first as a youthful and beautiful prince, then in tim., as a bearded
and middle-aged ruler, and finally an aging and introspec-
tive elder."
159
Christology and the Image of Christ in Ravenna
The of Jesus iwnography within a .lingle building or icono-
graphic program wntinued in the next centuries, particularly in
Ravcnna, which for a short time""s capital of the Roman Empire in thc
West. From thc mid-fifth to the early si.'(th centuries, persons with dif-
ferent politkal and theological affiliations constructed a group of
important buildings in three subscqllcnt stages. The first was the era
from 402 to 493 ( . E., when the city became the Western capital under
the Catholic orthodox rulers Honorins and h is stepsister Galla Placidia,
acquired metropolitan standing. and was by bishops Ursus and
Ncon. From this era survive the so-called Orthodox and the
mausoleum of Galla Pladdia, begun around 425 when Galla Pladdia
acted as regent for her son, Valeot inian III."
In 493, the Arian Ostrogoth Theodoric captured the city and con-
stmcted a palace, a cathedral, a church with a baptistery. and a mau-
soleum for himself. Still remaining from this second era arc the palace
chapel (or originally to Christ thc Savior,
but now known as San Apollinare Nuo\'o and probably finished after
Theodoric'sdeath in 526), the Arian Baptistery. sam,' of the mosaic dec-
oration of the chapel, and the mausoleum. The third phase
of Ra" enna's building was after the reconquest of the city by the Byzan-
tine general Bdisarius in 540 and its return to the orthodm faith in the
reign of lustinian (and the bishops Maximian and AgneHus). New con-
struction in this era included the BasiliC<l of San Apollinare in
and the exquisite of San Vitale (both of which may ha"e been
begun during the second period and intended to serve the orthodox
community living under Gothic rule). In 555-556, during the time of
Bishop Agnellus, the Arian cathedral was rededicated to San Martin (an
orthodox foe of Arians) and was renovated, removing some of its
mosaics and replacing thcm with iconographic themes. "
160
hg 79 j=J. cal ng ,0. do",,·
6tn c"", co.
s..o A;xlI""re
(Photo:
FACE TO FACE
Among all these buildings, three offer some insight inlo the matter of
the variable visual portrayal of Christ. The first, the Arian church begun
by Theodor;. in the early sl,<,h ccnlury (prob-lbly finished by his daugh-
ter after his death ). an inlcrior mosaic program thaI might well
reflect the theological stance of Theodoric or his Arian bishop, perhaps
deliberately meant 10 contrast wilh Ihal of Ihe orthodo:.; citizens and
leaders of the city who were \0 continue to practice their own
form of Christianity. Although much of the original dcwration of the
cburch has been lost- at fust aherl-d after the llyzantine reconquest and
subsequent rededication of the church 10 th€ orthodo.'{ faith, then by an
earthquake in The eighTh cenTury (which damaged The apse), and finally
by renovation and expansion in the sixl<:enth century {which destroyed
any rem'li n ing mosaics in the apse }- some original decorations, in par-
ticular an upper register of mosaics along the nave abo'"e the derestory
windows that shows narratiw images from the life of Christ, may reflecT
an aspect of Gothic Arian Christology."
The series of twenty-six images (th irteen on each longitudinal wall)
may be the earliest c:l:tant examples of such a narrative series in monu-
mental art, and they seem particularly appropriate for a church thaI had
been dedicated to Christ the Savior. We might speculate that the defaced
mosaics on the lower (replaced by The TWO processions of mar-
on one side, men on The OTher) were either portrayals of
Theodoric's court or- less likely-additional images from the life of
Christ That were mOTe doctrinally offensive 10 the onhodox powers Ihan
the smaller images of the upper register, since the former were rcmo,·ed
wh iJc the laller were allowed to remain. On the left side of the nayc (as
one looks toward the apse and above the proce5sing women) is a series
PORTRAIT) OF THE INCARNATE ONE
of panels depkting Christ's ministry of healing, teaching, and wonder-
working, while on the right (above the processing men) is a series of
scenes from his passion and resurrection.
Looking at these two sds of panels, a \'kower will notice that the face
of Jesus on the left side of the naw is markedly different from the
appearance of Jesus on the right side of the nave, On the kft, in scenes
in which he raises Lazarus, meets the woman at the wclt heals the man
born blind, heals the woman with the issue of blood, heals the paralytic
(showing both wrsions), multiplies loaves and fishes., and changes water
to wine, Jesus has no beard and his hair is light in color (fig, 79), Along
the right side of the na"e, we sec scenes of the Last Supper, Jesus in the
garden, his arrest, the trial before Pilate, the trial before Caiaphas, the
procession t01,\'llrd Golgotha, the empty tomb, and finally some post res-
urrection scenes (there is no s(ene of the audfixion itself), Jesus is
shown with long dark hair and a beard that appears to grow longer as
the narrative progresses toward the cmcifixion (figs. 80--81 ),
In ot her ways, the consistency among all these images is stri king.
Jesus always wears the same purple t unic and palliw11 with gold elavi,
while his disciples or other maraClers arc in traditional white garments,
sometimes with colored mantles or capes, His cruciform (and jeweled)
halo is nactlythe same from panel to paneL The style of the work (folds
on the garments, proponions of the figures) and overall compositional
details of the panels (gold backgrounds, decorative borders) also arc the
same throughout. Such consistency argues for a deliberate and mean-
ingful choice of these two rather than their being the
result of employing two differmt workshops with two different percep-
tions of how Jesus should appear.
161
hi. 80. J . "'" """"" Pilot ••
m"""c' . ;rty 6th con. c ... s"..,
Nvc>.-c> p."...""",
(""010: A,;t" c .. ).
162
F'i- 8 I J=' ;o'1 d dts<;opie< ""
,he mod to &r.m.u,.
0M!y 6th con. C>, ' .. a Apo).
N..oc>.-o, R,y,'eo'Y\.I
Ac<Ix:<')
FACE TO FACE
An obl' ;ous explanation for these two different Iypes of Jesus ligure!
is Iha! artisans deliberately Jesus in scenes from his earthly
min;<;lryas youthful. Once the narral;\'<' picks up his fulfillment of his
destiny through suffering, death, and resurrection, Jesus is cast in the
role of a mature god, one who is entering into his inheritance and
becoming both King and Lord. This might reflect an oth€fWise
unknown aspect of late fourth - or early fifth-century Gothic Arian
ChristoJogy thai emphasizes the dual natures of Christ but that sees
as sequential, rather than simultancous. Arguably. this might be a
form of adoptioni" theology that show> )csus coming into his divinity,
perhaps beginning at his baptism." Or this iconography might also
reflect a biblical Christology based on the narrative structure of the
Gospd of John, which begins with a rewunting of signs and wonders
and transitions to a of glory" as Christ approaches his Passion.
This transition commences with the washing of fect at the Last Supper
in chapter 13, when km"W that his hour had come" ( John lJ:l),
compared tohis earlier proclamation, "my time has not yet come
n
( John
7:6). As we have noted, beginning with the image of the wst Supper at
the apse end of San Apo!linare Nuovo, Christ's beard actually seems to
grow longer through the story of the passion and the postresurrection
Jesus' growing in stature and more mature masculine pres-
ence in this case represems Jesus' manifest divinity. 3ppar("nt morc
through his passion thall in his mirudes.
The same contrast of physical types for Jesus occurs in the iconogra-
phy of baptism found in the two baptisteries of Rwenna, one designru
for the orthodox (the Neonian Bapt istery, ca, 475) and the other
designed for the Arians.ln some respr<:ts, the iconography of these two
baptisteries is 50 similar that it is dear the later one (the Arian, ca. 525)
was modeled on the earlier (the Neonian). Although much ofthc mosaic
PORTRAIT) OF THE INCARNATE ONE
decoration of the Arian Baptistery has
I>crn lost, and significant restoration work
has made details rather doubtful in both,
we also S<:<! basic composit ional parallels."
Processing apostles carrying wreaths of
victory form an inner band around a
tral medallion at the apex of both domes.
In both medallions, we see a scene of Jesus
being baptized by Jnhn the Baptist (figs.
82-{l3). ln addition to John and Jesus, the
s<:enes include the des<:ending Holy Spirit
and the p,: rsonificat ion of the River Jordan
(the riv('r god). But although the two arc
similar. they also are "ery different. The
two riva gods arc \"Cry different in their
apl'e<lfance: while the Jordan of the
Orthodox Baptistery is partially sub·
merged in the water and has \'Ciled hands,
the Jordan of the Arian Baptistery is more
like traditional (classical) rivet gods: he sits to the side. draped but bart'·
chested, holding his jug from which the river flows.
The most intriguing and perhaps most significant difference oc{1.\·een
these two works of art is the way Jesus is portrayed. The jesus of the
Orthodox Baptistery has a mOfe mature appearance, wi th beard and a
gaunt body. while the Jesus of the Arian Baptistery has no beard and a
youth flit almost pubescent body. At least one scholar has suggested thai
later restorers have the beard to an original beardless and youth·
ful figure of Christ in
the Orthodox Baptis·
ter}' in order to make
it conform to later
portraits of Chr ist. "
This explanation,
however. fails to
explain the marked
differences l!1 all
aspects of the com·
positions of both
medallions, includ·
ing the pl'Kement of
John (right vcrsus
!cft) and the obvious
differences in repre'
S<.'ntation of the Riwr
Jordan, aspects that
could not have been
163
f'i. B2 Dome
"'" q . OrIhodo>< !!apt
R;t.-"""" (Photo: """tho<).
164
r" Si_Ap$e """"",, tnid-6t/'I
cen C£. s.nVIIAIo.

FACE TO FACE
easily changed io later centuries. But, even assuming that the bearded
Christ of the Orthodox Baptistery could be original, whether or how
these two different images correspond to the different Christologies of
orthodox and Arian believers is difficul t to say since we know very little
about Ostrogothic Arianism {or its Christology}. Thus we cannot be
",'rlain that a non-orthodm theology was consciously proclaimed on
the ceiling of the Arian Baptistery, as a clear and dir<"Ct challenge 10 the
Christology oflhe Orthodox Baptistery even though we may assert that
the Arian re presentation of Jesus' baptism dearly differed from Ihe
orthodox model. FUrlhermore,foUowing the IlYlantine conquest of Jus-
tinian, the Arian Baptistery was transferred to the orthodox (just a5 wa,
the chun:h of San Apollinare in Nuovo) and converted into a small ora·
tory (Santa Maria in Co,medin ).lf the iconography was in any senS<.'
overtly heretical to ortllOdox eyes, it could have been removed or
replaced (just as the lower register mosaics in San Apollinare Nuovo was
obliterated by the Byzantines).
But, as we can see in another important monument, a beardless
Christ was not perceived as problematic by the ort hodox community. In
fact, two distinct images of Jesus, one bearded and the other beardless,
appear in the Basilica of San Vitale, probably begun in 526, but not con·
se.:rated until 547 or 548. The striking apse mosaic-the focal point of a
complex mo,aic program- shows a beardless and trans.:endent Christ,
along with t he orthodox Bishop Ecclesius (who founded the chnrch
while t he city was still nnder Gothic rule), Saint Vitali s, and two
archangels (fig. 84). This Christ si ts enthroned on a blue orb and ha,
short hair and a youthful face. On the inside of the arch over the pres·
byterium, however, we see the bearded portrait type, complete with
PORTRAIT) OF THE I N(ARNATE ONE
darker complexion and long hair parted in the middle (fig. 85). The
bearded Christ may have been added at a later date, perhaps during the
time of Bishop Maximian, who appears in the lower apse with the
Emperor Justinian. In this case, the difference between the beardless
Christ in the apse and the bearded Christ in the medallion portrai t of
the soffit of t he arch is so pronounced that they imply the distinct styles
of two different eras--unlike the consistency of the mosaics in the
upper register of San Apollinare Nuovo.
165
Fit 85. M<dalion portr"M of
ct.nn fmm . n:h of p<O<by-
tenum, 5an Vrt1Ie,
(P!>ctaAuthor).
The Transfigured Christ and the Two Natures Controversy
In addit ion to seeing the variations in Jesus' image based on his different
roles (savior and teacher versus judge and king), a key text of Scripture
also points to a var iati on in the appearance of Jesus at the crucial
moment of his transfiguration. Up on a high mountain, Jesus appeared
to Peter, James, and John as transfigured, his face shining like the sun
and his dothes danling white (Matt 17:1 -8 and parallels). OTigen
pointed to this text as the proof that all persons were not equally able to
look upon this sight in its fuU glory. Peter, James, and John were singled
out from the others as alone capable of this vision,and in this way these
three parallel Moses and Elijah who were both allowed a divine theo-
phany upon a mountain. As if this were his cue, Moses also appears,
suddenly, with Elijah, talking to Jesus. And a bright cloud overshadowed
them al l from which a voice is my Son, the Beloved; wi t h him
I am well pleased; listen to him! " (Matt 17:5; compare the voice at Jesus'
baptism, Matt 3:17).
166
r" 86. Tr>.Mf'i"""'''''
rnod-6th Cl. "!""
ApoInat<! ...

FACE TO FACE
Based upon this in the Gospels, Origen argued that Jesus had
two modes of appearance: one for his daily appearance in his earthly life
as a human (which would not cause comment or raise issues) and the
other that only shone forth on One (known) occasion prior to his death
on the cross. Origen uses this as a reason why those who cam ... to arrest
Jesus in the garden did not recognize him, b«ause he was already
"transfigured."'" Thus Christ's outward figure or form was capable of
visible chang ... during his life and also after his resurrection (according
to the Gospel narrativcs), when he was not necessarily immediately Tee-
ognizabl .. and might be mistaken for the gardener (John 20:15) or for an
ordinary traveler (Luke 24:13-35) or even just a person standing on the
beach (John 21:4), until he caused his followers to ·open their
(Luke 24:31), Later exegetes alS<) saw the transfiguration as a vision of
future glory granted to certain disciples, John Chrysostom, for example,
wrmised that the ultimate purpose of the vision was to reassure and
giw hope to the disciples, who had heard Christ talking much about
dangers and death, even of impending slaughter of the disciples them-
selves, At th .. same t ime, it r .. waled who Christ really was and ant ici-
pated the glory of his st"Cond coming! '
The artistic portrayal of the transfigured Christ in par ticular
requir .. d t hat the artist find a distinct way to show the change in his
PORTRAIT) OF THE I N(ARNATE ONE
apP<'arance as the three disciples saw il. The oldest known portrayals of
the transfiguration both date to the mid-sixth century, and then almost
no images occur again until the high Middle Ages. The first, found in the
apse of the Basilica of San Apol1inare in Classe just outside of It:Jvenna,
shows the transfiguration made up of symbols rather than a realist ic
oarrative image. Half-figures of Moses and Elijah float amid clouds on
either side of a starry medallion containing a jeweled cross that has a
bust of Christ (with beard) fixed to the (Tossing of the arms.lklow the
cross are the words Sa/vil' M,,"di. Beneath the medallion and to either
side on the ground (a green field dOlled with flowers) we see the three
disciples James, Peter, and John, but here portrayed as sheep. The hand
of God issues from heaven just over the medallion. The starry medallion
is centered in the apse in such a way as to give the impression of an ocu-
lus window, 0P<'ning into the night sky (fig. 86).
Dated a lillIe later (only a decade or so) is a more narrative-based
apse mosaic at Saint Catherine's monastery in Sinai. 1 n this image, Jesus
appears in gleaming while garments with gold bands. He stands within
an almond-shaped aureole around
his entire body (mar/dorIa), made up
of shimmering bands of blue and
radiating beams of light. The rest of
the ground is shimmering gold. The
three disciples (Peter, james, and
john) kneel in amazement at the
sight (Peter, in the center, actually
prostrate) and are identified by the
names over their heads. The two
prophets stand to either side, also
named for our convenience.
This image is a beller il1ustration
of the story of the transfiguration as
it appears in the text, especial1y since
the figure of jesus is dad in white
garments, as it says in the Gospel of
Mark: "glisten ing, intensely whi te, as
no fuller on earth could bleach
(9:3) The Saint Cat herine's
composition may have served as a
model, since later Eastern ;com share
many of these same features- the
aureole of light fractured by rays,
three amazed disciples (the one in
the center falling completely to his
face). Elijah and Moses stand to
either side of the spectacle" (fig. 87).
167
Fig. 87. B)'ZM'""" It,..". "
,.,..t>bIe Con o.p.cting
tr.>nsftg>..n!ioo. moooic rom
the MY,,, .. ,,,, Pari,
(P!>oto; Bodgemon Art

".
fA<E TO fA(E
lbt ,,, ... n,u ... 'ion imaga.. ....... hq ....... wet<. warm tdleainJ
<Ix '''''' d;,c,,,,,, .. 'u"," of 0."". 1><>1" h"nun .nd ilivin.<, I nd pv< In
indiwion <tf wh .. wo, to rom., .ftn II>< """'r«1ion . ..tI<" h<
."""dcd in", 11<0 ..... . This "' .. ..... ;"..,,,,. mod< try tItJ« ofh;" dioci ·
rico wtuk It., w" ", U .. £>.1 .... ,""n II>< liI,h «'floury. oo-vn, u....
""1 h .... b«n 0 ...... "'OJ" for .ni .. , to rnul ,t.. .1;';0< .,Iul'< of
o.,iot- for i".,.",<, til< .... or gold .. Or .. . halo
'«f< iimpl< way> of indic" '"1 ,II .. h< p<J_.-.d • d;"; ...... "'" .. wdI
... hu,.,..., form. llul .. b$ ... "" eumpk,."" IOu"" ...... "'}' , .. _ ..
..,.,..;. froon. " .. unl>« of til< ea",omb of Domitill • • oddTflS<d ,I><
... tttr orllio ,,,'1lIy Ir,nlWld."", in • diff<ffo'lt ">If. This comp<><mon
......... ..,. Cbris, .... td on , hiJh·"ad,.d tbro ... within. "rip" 5f«TI
... ,,,,,Ie. S .. ,<d to .ith .. ';d. Of. h1<r .nd Paul ,od It Ch,i,,., 1m
("""''''' til< , .. r«>k)" . k .. "", «)ntoi_ (,_)
porN!". "'-''''0«''' his roI< .. ,I>< IN<Mr of IN< philofophy. In "'I\<
g.r«n """"i, 1<l1<'n ,.,., mol« , I>orde-r fo< ,h. ,.,.,..i, " I .... I"",,,,'
-v..., . r< ""lied , .... Soo . nd fOund t" be th< h th<r· (0.. fiji",
I"' .... ; ............
Such. "'sn'" """" t .. rom. right "'" of, he It,. Iounh·e<n,u.t)' """.
til< ..... ,i<>nl.hiv t.c.wocn ,I>< h ',"" .nd ,I>< Su.., .nd j,
odd ...... ,t.. """me qu ... of wb<th<r th<y .,. '" y<t
diMin<, p<n<m$ I't.. <>niI<wJtJz ""m"", ""'"""" ,t.< Son
bnns "",.ted by ,It< f .. h., I't.. An.n p<>ti,;"" , _ This moooic ..."". '"
.. I:< • third I""i' ion, ,lth .. Ii..., II>< 0' modIlj ... OII<-Ib.
Sun. ddp'tr hi' .... hi. ' PI"''''''''';' It.. F"h«. on. ud ,t.. ... ,,.
00"8 (00)< p"""n wi,h Oft. 11.11",.),
Th. &rJ!um<n,,_.u.ida '" ,hit q ..... ion . r< 1OO ..... ' to""","",iu
h .... HQwcY<t. "". 'co, ,h., ,umm"i, .. m. "y <>f tl>< ........ 100
oddt<so<s tho .... n« of the distinc! oppntoncr of ,...... who by virtu<
alhi. di.i ....... 'u" m ..... how hod tom •• 1'1' ...... , ffl'n;o hi,
hum.>o "1'1'<''''''''_ Gtq!Oty of N.uion ..... PIoill,7.1I..rgu<d
th.ot OIri., ""Iun"ri", .,ripped ......, hi> ..-;,.;bI. glorr .., OS to be com-
po."" .. ,ibk .., nU""'" ....".,
If bt o.d d."I,d ..itlWI hi> __ -.. t bt WeI _ """"" • 1 '.,

.,.; "'"",podwDotN. • • ,... p«1a ... _ ... ,J bi __ """",,,"
_ .... . '-".1"".-.1)''''''' ... , ....... ...., .. f.;o .. ., ... .mb,j;fl;-
'''r tbt bod ro-"oiGod. r..- bt ......... I<d tbt<lo...!,_ brioot pb«<I
.....01< tbt -'tho oi "'" to:.If .. brioot _ """" 1,;, __ "" bow
<»<Old II< .... P"'l """" <lor _,. or ............ "1 .... I _ 1>0>00
00< ........ ...a " oi God, -.. -..,. .... oJ ....... .....n.I <)'<01 ....
, .. ,,,,,,,_ .... "ril" himo<ll' r.,.. .......... odI .. 1000 ....... _ I...,j I
"",.k 01' ............... .. ;, wrn •• ..,... .-o<>d • oIiooo .. """" oi b ..
...,.,.), 100 lM""'KI by <Ioio "",.pi ""'
PORTRAIT) OF THE I N(ARNATE ONE
Thus the artisans might want to represent that glory, and yet also its
diminution, in compositions that placed Christ within an halo of light ,
either as transcendent and enthroned (as in the mosak from Hosios
David described above, p. 157) or by showing him at the moment of the
transfiguration, when he did in fact appear to some human eyes in his
full divine glory. Only certain persons could have barely glimpsed such
glory, and then only at certain moments, for as Gregory says, in most
circumstances Christ had to lower himself to base human form or be
otherwise incomprehensible. Thus, when the three disciples looked
upon the t ransfigured Jesus, they had a visual intimation of his full
divine glory, and their vision was itself a sign that such seeing was actu·
ally possible to thoS(' who were spiritually aware or open."
But even so, theS(' images are arguments for the possibility of depict -
ing ksus not only in his humanity but also in his divinity, a feat that
Eusebius had denied was possible in that lett er to wnstantia where he
purportedly claimed that no image could represent both natures. In his
argument, he also cited the transfiguration as his example, a sight
almost unbearably glorious:
tndeed, il i. not ."rpri.ing lhat afler his a!<cnllo heo>' en he .ho"td ha,· •
• a, ,ueh. when, white he-Ih. God Logos-was )·eI tiving among
mortal, [from]lhe form "f a .erv. nl .nd in ad' .. n<e
to . rho .. " b.tnd of hi' di .. iptc, the a'p""t of his kingdom, he ,howed on
the mo"nllhal nalu,e , urpasse, Ihe human one-when hi' f,,"
shone tike Ihe '"n .nd hi. garments I ike tight. \""0 then woutd be able 10
repre .. nl by mean. of dead coto,.. and in.nimale detineation. Ibe gti.len_
ing. flashing radiance of ,,,ch dignity and glory. when even hi' ,,,,,,,,human
di><ipte, co"td nol!:>ear 10 !:>ehotd him in thi s gui .. and fell on their face>,
thus adminins th.t they could not with>tand Ihe sight! .. , How e.n one
paint an im. ge of '0 wondmu, and "natt.in.ble. form-if the term
"form" i •• t all applic.ble to the divine and .piritual ... ",nee-unte • .., tik
the un!:>eti<Ying pagans, one i. to "present thing. th. t bear no possible
resembl.n<e to
The way this text frames the issue puts it directly within the controversy
surrounding the mailer of Christ's natures, and, if genuine, the letler
anticipates the christological controversy of the late fourth and early
fifth (enturies. The issue at stake was now no longer the equality of the
divinity of Father and Son, but the ways in whkh Christ's dual natures
(human and divine) were united (or kept distinct) in one Person after
the incarnation. Eusebius's point was that, even though the human Jesus
had a physical appearance, that appearance was thoroughly and neces-
sarily altered by its being mingled with the divine nature so as to render
it beyond the capability of any human artist to represent. This new
appearance was S('en in the transfiguration, but it certainly could not be
169
170 FACE TO FACE
reprodu{cd by a painted purtrait, because it " .. s unique. It had no (XIs-
sible rcS<.'mblancc to anything on carib.
Christology. Salvation, and the Role of the Image
Euscbius's leller to Constantia was found (as noted above) in the icono-
dasticflorikgium dated 10 754. Its appearance there required its refuta-
tion during the si.>::th session of th,' Seventh Ecumenical Council (787),
when the definition (homs ) of the prior iconoclastic cQuncil was refuted
point by point. When they came 10 Euscbius's kner, they introduced it
as a product Of"3 defender of Arius.," an "opponent of the holy Council
of somcone "hal' ing gil'ell himself up to a base and "3
double-minded man, unstable in all his ways, who must not suppose
that he will receive anything from thc Lord" (James 1:8)." Thus the
iconophiles dismissed Euscbius's lener not on the grounds that it was
inauthentic, or even on the grounds that his Christology was incorrect,
but on the grounds that he, himS<.'lf, was a known Arian.
But Eusebius' s objections to images of Jesus as recounted in his let·
ter (authmtic or not ) arguably have more in common with the Chris-
lology of Athanasius th,m of Arius, and (Crtainly more in common
wilh Cyril than NeSlorius. His assertion- that the mortal nalurc was
"swallowed up" by the (dting 2 Cor 5:4), and that the mingling
of flesh with Ihe glory of divinity made it so changed as to be no longer
ordinary, but wondrous, unimaginable, and as such beyond representa·
tion--has the ring of Alexandrian ,lrgummts, in which the purpose of
the incarnation was to take the human body, transform it, and thus
extend that possibi lity of transformation to all human beings (and
bodies). Death and corruption arc thereby banished by human appro-
priation of his body and by the Ugrace of the resurrection:'" We recall
Athanasius's vivid comparison of the transformation of human life to
the work of an art restorer:
ror as, "'hen tn. likm ... p.inted on . p.nel has been .ffa<ed by min. from
without, the one whose likerl . ,. it is muST need, rome once more to enable
the porttait to be tcnrwed on the <.:I me wood s.i n«. for 'he sake of 'he pi<fur<.
",'en the mere wood on which it i, painted is not thtown away, but the outline
is renewed upon it; in th ... <arne way .1<0 the m0$1 holy Son of the Fatha.
!>ting the image of the Father. ea me to oor region to ron,",,' humanity once
m.de in hi, likene ... and restor< lhe one k" t. through th. remi ssion of . in •
. . . and crca,ed.n",",' in God', imag<c.w
And the incarnation noxessary, according to Athanasius,
humans had ceased to r{'cognize the divine image in creation through
their own perversity and carelessness. Thus, the Image itself had w make
PORTRAIT) OF THE INCARNATE ONE
an appeJrance in order to renew the human "image after the image."
But, he adds, the incarnation did not circumscribe the divine nature
within a body but, while in the body, quickened it (and all creation
ther.-by); the Image did not suffer any change o r dulling of glory, but
rather sanctifi{'d and glorifkd the body itself, sine{' h{' was th{' maker
and lord of his as well as of all other bodies." Rl'turning to his central
th{'m{', Athanasius insists that salvation for th{' human means becoming
a more perfect image. The restoration of Adam is, in effoxt, the work of
a di"ine artist on a human canvas, an image perhaps suggested in some
of the sarcophagus images of Adam and Eve with Christ.
The parallel of s.1lvation to the work of the artist occurs in other late
fourth-century writing$. which contain no condemnat ion or even criti-
cism of the work of the artist, only an assertion that the making of art
might be an object lesson, For instance, John Chrysostom, in his
instructions to candidat{'s for baptism, compares the artist painting an
im'lge to the ways these new Christians ought to be preparing their
souls. The outlines may be erased and redrawn, but, once the colors arc
applied, the image has been sct:
let the ",me thing happen no", which occurs in [he ,;lSr of painters. They sct
forth tMir ",ood.n tablet" Jra'" whit. lin .. arounJ them, and trace in out-
[he roy.! images before thc)' daub on the true <olot$. Th,"), af< pcrf«tly
ff<r to rrase [he , I«otch and [0 sub<t;tul< another in>lead. ,o,,,cling mi<t.I«o,
and changing ,,·h.t turned om badly. But . fter th.y go ahead and daub on the
pigment .. tht')· <:an no kl!1ser cr ... ag,lin and substinl1e. si nce 'ht')· injuf< the
t..auty oflhe image by doing so, and it t..comes a for reproa<;h. You do
the same thing_ Consider t hat your >ouJ i, ." imaSC_ Ikfore daubing on the
true color of the Spiri1. the bad habi" which ha". t..come implante..l in
rou. , .. Th. bath takes .way the sin .. but you mmt oorr«t the habit, '" that
after the pigmonto hay. t..en daubeJ on and the roy.1 im,ge , hin", forth, )'011
may neyer thereafter btot ;t out or cau .. wounds or sco" on the beauty whicb
God ha5 gi\'en
The comparison that both Athanasius and John Chrysostom draw
between the salvation of souls and the work of an artist suggests that
they (unlike Eusebius) see a value in the making and appreciation of
images. If anything, Athanasius's argument insists that all of creation
rewals the natur{' of it s divine creator, although the incarnation makes
it present in a unique and dramatic way. But the artis t, of course, cannot
reproduce this divine glory. which infinitciy transcends its own image in
its full glory and is fundamentally distin<;t from it, and the artist must be
content with representing it in some kind of symbolic fashion that c.1n
speak to the heart and mind as well as to the eye. Or, the artist might
chooS{' to represcnt a br{'akthrough such as the transfiguration, in order
to show that such \'ision is fully in certain circumstances. So,
171
FA{( TO FA«(
"'" ort" not ...... n. to "" tru.h but only 0 ......... of 1TY<>li"llo
tNlh .tu.. C;m"'" "" """ rained .., it, any .,.,.. tho" . ho b<>dy of J .....
rnuJd cirruml<,ih< tho divil'l< IllIlu",. And yt1. I""" In!> "'81!'" ,ho,
P'''''' ;'' -... ,.,,, d ...... «1 h. "" .ny 10 .........
Th. coio<idrntt of th< . pp< ... _ of po",. il i""'P" of Christ . nd
Itt. .. in" " tho end of . ho fon"" onJ .h",,,,,,, ,ho <oily fifth """'uti«
wilh Iho over tho "'-'u ... of Chri .. ;' ..... ioon'. Ti><><
brgan to iipp<'Ol ju .. " tl>< ....... im< .lul ,ho <i<boIO '>VCr lho
mtion ."d ilii.ti"". ioon of til< di.ill<.nd h""",n IUtU'" in Ih< inc"lUl<
witb itI full i"!tmily, n.. Thon<of Leo I, I'o,uorn·
pl<. wIIi<!> _ 'PI'''''''<d ., ,I.. C:>nncil of O"I<w\<,,, ;n 451 .nd "",.
tribu, «I m",h to .ho <1'<'«1 p",mnlgot<d th<n ..... rt • • hot tl><
dUti..ru...n ... of both ""n'" and ... !»tan.,.. .. p ..... I • ..! in ' ho ina,'
..... .,.., ·w""""" It!< InvUiblo ....... h;modf .;.ibk .... c... •• inly '10 ....
11>< "dk.1 ",Itural .nd . h«>Josi<&l d<v<lopm<n" .hot .««1«1 tho
<hurdt from tl>< mid· fourth ' o . ho mOi;l ·fifth ""'''''1 hod. profound
infllK1ltt On 11l<.ut.;<ct and "ylt of Ch,i.,i.n.". Tht ,hif. r",,,,.
a.,milUn« of ,ymbolic . nd n .. n.i .. art to .h< <m<rgon« of.nd
<mplwis on.ho port"i' 0' iconk irrNvo must be c:o.pI.oin«l by ,Itto>=
""""'1 ....... 1 .. cultural and poIiliuJ fotCtO tlut >hapod.ho """t< and
f"."", of CJ>riotuni.y .. .., «tabIW><d mip>n of tl>< Empir<, Tht ka,
of J'OI'ID idolatry and migiorr _ no ion3<r 10 """",urt<cd in • ....oJ
tINt wu rapidly """omi"1 domin. n'ly (h, ............ i .. "'" lo"go<8< of
._ n,'u' " uniq.<Ir .nd 1""""""n'lr j<oin«l into """ I'<roon (.mh
.".. ..... n.o, r.. .... l ,nl'P',«I , ... , ... "." ,." ..... ;fi<oOO', ....... t ......... ,
fOr su<h foollianins of.ho portrait of Ch,ist 1Iu, ..... , form or mo<kI,
fi .... lly. could b< <"-'01 AI AuS",,'" oaid. .1>< ·f.." of . ho lord io pic •
... 1'«1 with infiRi« .. rirty by rountloa ;-,"",10"" . hough ............
i. _IiI:< h. ttn.inly oRly h.tJ Ont,'" And .... althous/l tho beor<l«l
i .... go co .... '" tho for< and ...... "'td . ".ndard for wbo<q .... t ""' •
• uri ... ,h .... , u ,ion. con,ino«i (and ItiD do. <V<1I in modan ti ..... ) •
.... ilt: n<JncIhd..., ,nd in on oJ"..,.. ml"1MoLIS ...-.y. yi<1di"3 ,tillr«<>!!'
oiubl. i""5'" of (h,io<,
SIX
Early Portraits of the Saints
and the Question of Likeness
AS THE (H V RC H grew and buam{' securely csrabJish{'d, the
threat of idolatry from the outside (polytheism) along wilh
Christian reticence about making portraits of holy persons. By the
beginning of the fifth century, ponrairurc was becoming a dominant
type of iconography and, while narral;"C art continued to be
for illuminated books or for d<'Coratiw programs on church walls., saints'
likenesses wcrc c'.crywhcrc, often as rclali,'cly inexpensive items t hat
might he mass produced. The portrait frescoes in the catacombs were
joined by etchings in glass, carvings in stone or m(.'tal, and the insides of
bowls or plates with images of martyrs and saints. As portraits, theM'
images usually lad:cd a larger narrati,'C frame that would "tell a story."
Instead, the physical reprcsmtation of the saim, solll{'timcs with simple
props or spedfic attributcs Ihal as.sislcd in identificalion, an aid
to devotion and inspired veneralion. Saints, of course, were not divine
beings, SO Iheir images could not be attacked for trying 10 drcumscribe
an infinit{' nature or dil" inc glory. At the same time, the saints were exccp-
tional persons, thought 10 be filled wilh th{' Holy Spirit in a special way
and sanctified in bolh body and spirit, so Ihallhcir images were still dif-
ferent from portrdits of ordinary individuals. '
Almost as soon as saim,' portrails appeared, they began 10 playa sig-
nificant rolc in the devotional practices of the faithful. Portraits were
nOI seen as edifying alternativcs 10 written 11:..'1:15 or lessons from Scrip-
ture, bUI rather a means of focusing Ihe ";ewer's attention on an indi-
vidual whose life was particularly holy and who, though no longer alive
on earth, was still spiritually present. These images achiewd this by rep-
resenting physical appearance of a saint's or martyr's face and body,
ofl<.'n with few ddiniti\"{' background or associated narrali\"{' dements
apart from the helpful inclusion of Ihe sainI'S name over his or her head.
173
FA« ( TO FA(E
How<"', t"' .. im'g", _f< .. mo« da n m,,,, ,rcord. of
p/>yti",,1 ' p",,"""". ,nd .. ",dI thq b<&>n to f«.civ< ...... ,,,;00 0<
hO<naj!< ..... y mud! lilt pq>Ill po,uaillolthe sods'" I"'.m"""" IIad.
!'<opl. m'ld< ... ,ood t'" ",n""l" 01 olf<rinB li@.nsof<ep« •• Iov. • • nd
.... m'IC< '" . n inus< .. . tn<an> of ohowing .-...... toUm to it>
rnod<L Soon .udI i"",1I<" beam< , «:nt,.! "'!'«loll"" dcvdopi<>s <WI
of I'" au·itt"n .. in" .nd marty ...
The ",roun' ol l}'<Om«l .. • dtvo.ion to his po""it ol ,'" ' pootk
lohn i •• n <o,ty ,umpl< ol how ,udI ""I> .. io, _ uld haY< _m«l
idoLotmu. to on •• rI .... IIrnrr..,ion.' had obtain«!. po" .. i'
of John . nd up in his b«Iroom. hu"ll it with I!'rl.nd;, and p!ac«I
lamp' on on . Iu, 1><1<>« i,_ '" Niod ·""""nilfll.lo.inlio .nd offcri",
,",,,n,:. '0 i.: ""'n', ",.-:twn -,'0 "1'"di ". Ii", t'" practk< 01
""' ..... ion.nd.hm .'" po"',i' ito<lf ('" objKt<d ,hat p"", ... it>rould
no' br "truro ,nd "'8I<'t<d that sood .. rollu mod<. brtl<l poin' box
th.n.n ."is" •• ," .... 1 """"').' Th;, "'" y .,!fe< •• ,,"'" ;ndi<.oh' '" , hal
... ,1 .... '.bn.,;,,, both r<octicrd and cri,ic"'" .uch .......... ion. which
may m .. n tha, it> ,«m'rgrna in th.11,. fO"rlh . nd early fl lih om·
,uti« _ no1 .. 1>oI1y unprect:dffil<d. Showing ........ ""'" 10 "",ll'Oi1>
.!moot e<t1.inIy .. ,,,«I with ,br lot< kl8rth.un,u" run.",!, pot" .i ...
whir:h ""'n 1«1 to th, drcotali<>n of u,rill<O Ih .. hdd III< tr!ir:o of .. in ..
to which ,,;III,im' a.r\'I< '0 r ... y·
For . .. ,.pl., .h. 'OIly lifth . «n,u'f _0 from ,h. eo .. ",,,,!> of
San Gm ....... in N.pI" that ronnY" bull of til< Pr<>arl ... is
... ,,,,und«l,lik< im. 01 John. by prla"'" .nd .. nd ....
Wh«hrr ,h. prrJ<n« of weh hono" indica ... tlu.t Prrxulu . .....
<Iran«l ... int 0' ... hrll><r 1>;' ..... 'imp!<: memorial "",Init is diffi-
cult to "" .. min<. Th. diff ...... " brt.«n .n on:liruo,!, fun<nl po""i'
,nd an offu:i.aI .. int', imag< w" n01 d ..... tII;, ... rIy ''OJ!<, olthollf)r
.h, inc!"";on of .. in"· imol!'" in.1l< ",t>.romI:o& ... 1"" of t'" Ift'<""
drrontion of .n OIdi",'1' pn-son', tomb wu b«oming JDOH <ommolL
In Proculuf, .... , t'" image iudf «II, .. thool hi> f<I1liin' W<1'< n."
hi. PO"'"". 1.0,,,, 011, ,'" port"i" of .. in" _It .nywll .... ,
with Of withou, bri"ll """imat< to mir:o. In that 10m. Nopi .. "' .. .
<omb. in , diff«mt arwoolium, ,.... "'n "'" th< """8' .... !.rin' I.n .... •
iu, him,df, ".nolin8 briW<e1> t_li, condl .. in ,'" 0'""" poo,;.ion. Hit
lu.Io '""0 .... ,'" ehri>l"l"'m (wi. h aIpIur . nd """P'), and, over h;' head,
.oldi,ir>ruoI tou·tI1o appea', ""n, witll ,'" O«Ii" ' Q'!' inocrip.
tion " s"""", M.rt,... Ion"",",' (/is. n .... p. SO). Allhough J.n""i",',
",lies...,.", to N.pl .. . oo d<po. il«l in 'hi' c".comb in ,h •
.. rty «n' u,y. tl>< bod;" octu.dly buri«! in th;, tomb . rr oflb.
'''''' r., ..... I .. "",,"n '0 <ir.hcr of ,'" .. ,child .. ...,«1 Nia';olo
.nd id<n. ifi«l .. on "info"'" and , h. _ man Cominia, butt. of ,"'m
i" /NK'"
EARLY PORTRAI TI OF THE IAINTI
A slightly earlier example, a fresco beneath a tomb in t he coofessio
adjacent to the church of Sant i Giovanni e I'aolo in Rome, shows two
individuals bowing low before a standing figure who appears behind
two drawn curtains, his hands outstretched in prayer {fig, 88}, Since the
posture of the two kneelers is one of veneration, the orant cannot be an
ordinary person or deceased famil y member, as in earlier catacomb
paintings, Above this image is a small opening, which may have given
access to the tomb or served as a means of communication with the
remains of martyrs buried inside. On either side of this opening are the
partially preserved paintings of two additional standing figures (with
missing heads). On the two side walls are rare and unusual KentS that
haV<.' been identified as the arrest of three holy persons (two men and a
woman) and their beheading. This latter image shows the three figures
with their hands tied behind their backs and their eyes blindfolded.
Below these scenes are standing portraits of four addi tional fi gures
(two on each side).' One other rare, early representation of martyrdom
by beheading was carved in relief on a ciborium column found in the
subterranean basilica of Saints Nereus and AchiHeus, built over the Cat -
acomb of Domitilla in the late fourth century, which shows the behead-
ing of Achilkus.
According to one legend, prior to becoming a church the site of the
confessio deKribed above was the dwell ing of saints lohn and Paul, who
were martyred under the Emperor lulian in the year 362 C.F.. and buried
175
88. f r=o d Saont ftcom
tho
iII>d Paolo. Rome (Photo:
Graydon Sn)<l«").
176 FACE TO FACE
inside their OWn home (or, according to a different version, in the house
of a Christian named Byzans). In addition 10 the remains of John and
Paul. however, tradition claims that the bodin of three other martyrs
were deposited al this place, at a later time and by a lady named Ruffina,
a sister-in-law of Parnmachius, who built the first basilica on the site.
The identity of all the figures in the iconography is therefore somewhat
problematic. The two «headless" saints might he John and Paul, while
the two kneeling figures have been identified as Pammachius and his
wi fe Paulina. The standing orant has been identified as Christ (wit hout
a halo), as one of the saints associated with the place, or some other saint
altogether. The three martyrs are variously identified as Crispin,
anus, and Benedicta; or as Cyprian, Justina, and Tl1e1xtistus, depending
somewhat on the dating of the different martyr accounts as well as the
dating of the painti ng itself. '
As we noted earlier, in t he third century, a sect ion of the Catacomb of
Callistus was set aside for burial of the bishops of Rome. The remains of
as many as nine Roman bishops were either buried at this place or trans-
lated at a later time (identified by their epi taphs as Pontian, Anterus,
Fabian, Lucius I, Stephen I, Sixtus II, Dionysus, Felix, and Eutychian). In
addition to these popes, three Afri..:an bishops (Urban, Numidian, and
Octatus) are interred here. Adjacent to this of the popes" is the
tomb of Saint Cecelia, which may have originally contained the martyr's
relics (prior to their ninth-century translation to the basilica named for
her in Trastevere), as well as the remains of those who wanted to be
buried near her. This chamber was adorned wi th mosaics and paintings
in the fifth and sixth centuries, including fresco portraits of the martyrs
Polycamus, Sebastianus, and Quirinus (their names appear above thei r
portraits)./ust to the left of a modern copy of Mader no's statue of Saint
Cecilia (ca. 1600), a small niche contains a painted portrait of Christ
with a short dark beard and long dark hair, probably dating to the late
eighth century. He has a jeweled, cruciform halo and holds a Gospel
book in his left hand. With his right hand, he makes the traditional ges-
ture of speech or blessing. Just next to the portrait of Christ is an even
later portrait of Saint Urban (identi fied by name), and above is a
restored figure that shows Saint Cecilia hersel f, in the orans position.
Farther on in the Calli.ltus catacomb is a chamber built by the Deacon
Severus for himself and his family, apparently with the permission of
Pope Marcellinus at the beginning of the fourth century. Adjacent to
Severus', chamber is a small cubiculum with a fres.::o of five figures, tra_
ditionally thought to have bo.>en martyrs, each standing in the orans posi-
tion and surrounded with birds and garlands, and each identified by
name (Dionysia, Nemesius, Procopius, Eliodora, and Zoe), with the
addition of the epithet pace." A sixth epitaph, «Arcadia j" pace,"
appears below the figure of Dionysia and just above the image of a pea-
cock. The five figures are all clearly intended to be recognizable portraits,
EARLY PORTRAITI OF THE IAINTI
and their hairstyles, clnthing, and body size vary according to their gen-
der and age. Almost nothing is known about these individuals, and their
customary identificat ion as is difficult to substantiate from any
documentary evidence. Perhaps the only reason to assume that theS<.'
were five martyrs rather than members of a single family is that their
portraits were all apparently painted at the same time, suggesting that
they also died together, perhaps in the Great Pers&ution at the heginning
of the fourth century.
The cult of saints was stimulated in Rome at the end of the fourth
century, largely through the efforts of !>ope Damasus (366-384) to iden-
tify and restore the burial places of the saints and to provide itineraries
for pilgrims' visits (along with verses written by the Pope himself,
engraved and inserted along the route). Port raits of the saints began to
replace biblical figures and particularly as ordi nary burials in the
catacombs hegan to end and these places became destinations for pil-
grims who came to visit the shrines of the special dead (fig. 89). As early
as the late fourth Or early fifth cen-
tury, relics were even brought to
the catacombs from elsewhere,
despite the attempts by secular
powers to prohibit the transfer-
ence of such remains. ' Chapels
soon were built into the catacombs
with altars for the celebration of
masses at martyrs' tombs, and dec-
orated with portraits that dis-
played both the saints' images and
names. Since ancient Chr istians
desired to have their own remains
buried near a martyr's tomb, those
sites were in high demand and
probably only granted to individu-
als of wealth, power, posi tion, or
influence. One example is the
crypt of Veneranda in the Cata-
comb of Do mit ilia, which contains
the only exist ing material evidence
for the cult of the Saint Petronilla.
Veneranda's tomb, probably built
at the end of the fourth century,
lies in the area behind the altar of
the basilica of Saints Nereus and
Achilleus that was filled with
tombs of those who wished to be
buried near the saint's relics. In a
177
Fig.!I'./. s.. cyprion ....d
St<phefl from tho Cat.ocomb
of Cali<tus. f\o.me (CThe
lotemat»nal c.u.:omb S0<>-
ot)< Photo; EsteIe
178
F" 90."""' ..... """ ",\11 S""
PetoOf" COIo<Of'"Ob of eom;..
\010. Rome (em .. Itttema-
Il00'' C>t>corrb Socioty:
Photo:
FACE TO FACE
lunette fresco in a small cubiculum is the figure of Veneranda, identified
by name and date of burial. The deceased is shown as an orans figure,
being led into the garden of paradise by Saint Petronilla herself (also
identified by name: "Petronilla fig. 90).
Another painting of a distinguished person with patron saints is in a
crypt at the oonom of the main stair of the Catacomb of Commodil!a,
in which lie the relics of Saints Felix, Merita, Nemesius, and Adauc!us.
In the early fi ft h century. a fTt's.:O was added portrayi ng Christ,
enthroned on a globe and holding the book in his left hand, handing
the keys to Peter with his right. To Christ's left is Paul, holding scrolls of
the law. Both Peter and Paul are identified by name, and on ei ther side
are the martyrs Felix, Stephen, and Meri ta. A larger sixth-century fresco
dt'wrates the rear of the crypt and shows the Virgin seated on a t hrone
with the child Jesus on her lap. To her right and left are Saints Felix and
Adauctus, the lat terwith his right hand on the shoulder of a rather sim-
ply dressed woman who is merely identified as "Turtura
D
("turtle
dove") in t he accompanying inscription and who probably was a
patron of the shrine and perhaps
also buried nearby in order to be
dose to the saints' holy rdics. She
holds an open scroll in her hands,
perhaps an offering either to Mary
or Jesus.
As this example demonstrates,
in addition to portraits of saints
whose relics were nearby, fift h-
century catacomb frescoes also
showed Mary or even Christ with
his apostles. An example of the lat -
ter was found on the ceiling of a
chamber in the Catacomb of Peter
and Marcellinus, where Christ is
presented enthroned between
Peter and Paul. Directly below
Christ is a small lamb, standing on
a rock from which spri ng the
four rivers of Paradise. To each
side of the lamb are two saints,
al together the four martyrs who
are especially connected with this
catacomb and ident ified by name
-Gorgonius, Peter, Marcdlinus,
and Tiburtius. A similar composi-
tion , in the Catacomb of Callistus,
shows five saints (fig. 91). Like
EARLY PORTRAITI OF THE IAINTI
the saints' portraits in Commodilla, the style and composition of these
images easily distinguish them from earlier paintings in the catacomb
and mark them off as later additions for the purpose of enli vening
a place of pilgrimage, rather than recording an ordinary place of
burial.
179
Fig. 9t , >aonU from tho
c:.t.comb of Col istuo, f'Dme
(C The IntematioNl c:-.
Pi>oIo; Estelle
....."
Descriptions of Saints' Portraits in Literary Documents
At the beginning of the fi fth century, Paulinus of Nola, who had com-
missioned artists to decorate h is basilica dedicated to Felix, commended
the value of paintings on the walls of churches-sacred scenes as well as
portraits of Christ and the saints. He did not believe that the images
themselves contained some kind of sanctity and, in fact, called them
figures." All the same, he thought that contemplating things
would the believing mind with representations by no means
empty." Accordi ng to his description, his art program induded narrative
scenes from the hero stories of the Old Testament, as well as portrayals
of the saints' deeds "performed in Christ's name." 0ver these paintings,
he noted, were captions that identified them. Paulinus admitted that
some might think his decoration · unusual," but he defended his artistic
program both as a means of competing wit h the continuing attractions
of pagan idols and as a way to draw pilgrims into the church and away
from the martyr's tomb, where the customary feasting and drinking
might get a litt le unruly;
This was why Ihoughl il o,dullO hou ..... of Feli x wilh
p. int i"!!, on ".cred them ... in the hope Ihal they would = ite the interests
of lhe ,"'Ii« by their ,lIr.oclive .p"" ..... """, for Ihe ' ke1<hcs a", painted in
'"
F .... {( TO FA«(
... , ..... """ ... 0... ""'" . t< .. ;""";""on .. "" _ .... .......
............. _ ... ,. '..,. .... p;oio ... • ....... S._oI .... _
folio ...... ' ... ,o.l ..... .,... .. """ ""'" "" .. ti "I, po;n1.,j ...,. , ....
_ -,..,:ht .. to offood. ...... .... i\tuo = .. ....
............ _ .. ""poioo .... b<PI<_ ",-._ We ... -,
.......................... ' .... Ih<m . • . • ...,._. __ •
.. and....,. """' .... Ioocioa Io._ ..... !
In , I .. , .. wri ..... to hi> fri<nd s.v..u.. Pouli n ... diocwon . "",brr <u<
<>i in ... io. dmJo-. tion .... , p .... ,,'od. diffcrmt probk", .ho:
. pptVptiotrnda of in<iudi", tho: f"",rorl of .1ivitIfI individual. Ii< Iw
k.,n«l !Iu! s. •• "" .d<><n<d Ih, "'I'I'''''Y h. Iud "",,,,,,,,IN . t
PrimoWo,m w;,h pon ... i" of Soint Mon ;n .... Thu ... (ditd Yl11 .. wdI
.. of ... hiJru<lf. Ahhoogh. Paulin ... arp1<l. At.,..;,,", portrait;'
"""'P,obk for sud> • '1'0<0<,";1>« ' I>< boo: ,I>< I .... I!< .,( ,he
man t.,. hi> rnf«' ;miMion ofChtU, lO .. hM men '-r uido l""oId 'III"
'" Ibm earthly imag< in ,II< Np!;,nw ro .... tho portrait of • h • ......Jy
..,... .. ""'by of Im .... ';.,n w<...w ........ tb,;,.,..... II< "'" 10 ..... """"'
,II< ",iubili'1 ofJu. own Iil<rn<o< 00"11 .h<r<. H. OO:Ii .... 1O briio<v< .1\0,
hi< .... n imofpt ;. _,tty ofbonng in<1udrd in Ih. dtror:
did ............. "'" Iood bod thio 1""',,;, don< -.p..-
,..I of l"'" ............. 10< .... I "..&d doufo' "'" wid. <Imouo ... 10:0. L
-.Id _...,j ..... ..,..s.,.;.:'"'" __ ... iL,... bod __
...-... ....... .......... " ' d .. _ .. ..... "'·. hoIy .... ·
""" .od ..... ..,.-' "' ,.... bod ODIytwa ond_ .<o<o, .. _ of
Ackn."..l<tlsinS ''',n Scveru,', sat ... """ in'pir«! by uuo . lfeaion,
Poulinu, VO<M>uoIy off .... f<w ' ....... to Il" IIlonJI with tl>< twin por-
t .. i" thot <I<mo .... " .. tlori. fun<. ion-lO "healthy fonno.ion" to
oil th.,.. bopU=! in Ii ... , ro .... Si"", th<y look up . o ... bo>th Mo"in, ,I><
..,.,.jd of .. inli)' COU"l< . nd n<>bil;,y, .. .....e .. Poulin.,., tho< mod<! of
one ""'" m<li,«I (0"' ......... by me . ... of bi> ptt>llipt< cl!..ily, ,hey
ho", b<f01< .h<m two dialin" ......xu. on< of virt.,. .M the <>1M of
.... II · d .... V<d humility, 0., OC<OI1Ii nS to Poulin . ... wl>< .... M . .. in',
pO .. "it "c.t<hcs tilt <'« of 'he bkoocd.- hi' ""'n fa« iI ,I><", f<>. ,I><
o:;>mfon of tin ...... •
Num.ro •• d .... iption, of .;. •• 1 " I" . .. n' ........ of .. in .... ilt in
an<imlli!<,"'l' _roes and ptO"'idt tvido_lor, pi<1nti.ol "odi,,,,,,
,Iw hu noooonl<1plrt in ,I>< .. ioti .... "",1<1io1 ............ apMt from ,I><
.. Sain" Gi<wanni and Paolo tJo.t "'-an oa of ....... ytdom
.. .....e .. OIl 0<, of Ro,I>cf tlUII only '''''''m'i ..... he ..... ;.,
EARLY PORTRAITS OF THE SAINTI
of the martyrs' passions, these interesti ng texts also describe the por-
tr ayals of these passions as they appeared on art objects. A textual
descri ption of a pidorial subject (ckpllr/Isis) had a rhetorical purpose of
its own, of course; it may have been nOt only to describe an
act ual visual image but, e,'en more, to recreate the "isual experience and
emotional reaction of a viewer who may have been simultaneously
hearing the story." The audience (or reader) of this description is thus
invited to imagine what it feltlikc to sec the artv>'ork and experience its
emotional impact. However, in almost all cases, the works in
these documents hal'e disappeared (or newr existed),and so we have no
basis for comparing a verbal description with an actual object. At the
"cry least , we may assume that authors elaborated or enhanced the
images they described in order to achieve a particular literary purpose,
even if they did not make them up entirely. "
The value of these images lay not only in their accurate and edifying
illustration of particular individuals' couragrous deeds but also in their
ability to instruct viewers on the nature of sanctity itself, something
that might be attained by gazing upon the image of the saint, while call-
ing to mind the fort itude and transcendent aims of the hero. In time,
the face alone could serve as an emblem of hoJineSlS, and gazing on a
portrait would offer some direct knowledge or aWareneSl; of the char-
acter of its model and would thereby edify, inspire, or infl uence the
viewer to imitation. This was the case made by Paulin us, at least with
respect to Martin's portrait as it was seen by those being baptized in the
font at Primulacum. In that inst ance, the image, al though a simple por-
trait, revealed far more than a mere externallikeneSl; since it bore wit-
ness to Martin's entire character and called to mind his many
wonderful deeds. Another example comes from a homily of John
Chrystostom's in honor of Saint Mclctius, Bishop of Antioch
(360-361 ). He pointed out that parents both named their children after
Melctius and reproduced his likeness in painted portraits that were
etched on rings, seals, and bowk Thus, Chrysostom notes, the faithful
not only hear his name repeated frequently in their community but
can take additional consolation in seei ng his traits" on an
almost daily basis.
In many of these literary descriptions of martyrs' images, the art-
works described seem to focus on the acts of the hero, more than on his
or her external appearance, and so arC not portraits in the strict sense.
Many of them supposedlYl'rcsented scI"Cral scenes in scquence and Wilh
extensive narrative detail. perhaps somewhat embellished by the writer
in order 10 give a dramatic, pictorially oriented presentation, character-
istic of much rhetoric of late Ant iquity. Still, the vil'idneSl; of these writ -
ten descriptions provide important data about the significance of saints'
images in the devotional life of the era.
181
182
FACE TO FACE
One such example comes from a homily thai was apparently deliv-
ered at the martyrium of Saint Barlaam in Antioch, which has been
3uributcd to Basil of Cacsarca. According to tradition, Barlaam died al
the beginning of the fou rth cenlury during the persecutions ofGalariu5
and Maximinus Daia. He refused to drop incense into the sacrificial fire,
allowing his hand 10 be burnt instead. The author (perhaps John
Chrysostom, sinc .. the homily was delivered at Antioch) describes a
"j,ual depiction of this s<:cnc (and includes Christ as the pre sider o,'cr
the possibly in the shrine itself, and praises the work of the
artists who skillfully presented it:
Ari$< now, 0 spkndid p.inter of tho f.ats of martyrs! Magnify with )'Our art
th< g<n ... J's mmil3t<d app •• ranee. Adorn with your cunning colors the
crowned athlet. whom I have but dimly dOKribed, ... Ma)" I behold the
struggk 1><1",,,,n tb. band and the fire. <!<pictro more .crura,./), by you; may
I behold th. wrestl .. as h. is represented more splendidl)' on )"OUr image .. ..
Let tho burnt y.t vjc'oriou. hand b. ohown to th.rn (In,. again. Let Christ,
too. ",ho pre:s.ides ""cr the rontesl I>< d<picl<d on Ih. pand."
The indus ion of Christ in the picture, as the judge or presider over the
conK'St, is similar to a tex! ascribed to Basil's friend and contemporary,
Gregory of Npsa, whkh describes an extremely complex scene of mar-
tyrdom in Saint Theodore's shrine at Euchaita (near Ama.seia in Pon-
IUS) . Gregory praises the anisl for induding the deeds of the saint, his
resistan,;c, lorments, the "ferocious faces of the tyrants.," the insults, and
the dealh of the martyr himself. He goes e\"en further, making a com-
parison benH"en the vivid portrayals of the martyr's passion as
in documents and the image as portrayed in visual art, credi t ing the
painter with portraying by means of colors if it were a book that
uttered spec<:h . ,. for painting, evcn if it is silent, is capable of speaking
from the wall and bdng of the greatest benefit." " Gil'en the many
aspects of the artwork described, it apparently had many sequential
scenes, showing the trial, mocking, and tinally the death of the saint.
The powerful relationship we see here between storytelling and
visual portrayal as lauded by Gregory of Nyssa above is also affirmed by
Basil, in a feast -day homily he delivered in the Caesarea church that
housed the rdics of !he Forty Martyrs who died under licinius, frolen
to death on a lake near Schasle. Proclaiming that the words of orators,
like the visual images of artists, are equally able to make dead hnoes
vividly present and excitc both courage and commitment in listeners
and observers alike, Basil observcs: parts of the story that a ser-
mon presents through the hear ing, the silent picture sc\s before the eycs
for !he sake of imitation.w" Here Basil, like Grqlory, parallels the hene-
tits of rhetoric and image and claims an equal \'a1ue of seeing and hear-
ing or reading for the inspiration of the fai!hful.
EARLY PORTRAITS OF THE SAINTS
A more detailed description of pictorial imagery in a martyr's shrine
comes to us from Asterius of Amascia, who claims to have Decn capti-
vated by a painting on cam'aS of Saint Euphemia on a visit to her tomb.
Asterius provides a brief account of Euphemia's Story and the establish-
ment of her cult and then goes on at great length to describe the visual
ponrayal of her passion- a vast nanati'·e image that included a huge
cast of characters (gm'ernment guard, soldiers, secretaries, magistrate,
and executioners), as well as the saim herself in a number of episodic
scenes including her torture, imprisonment, and death by fire.
Throughout this dcscription, Asteriuscommentson his own reaction to
the imJgery. For instance, Euphemia's expression at her trial showed a
mixture of modesty and courage. Astcrius praises the artist for being
able to combine both these affections in a single expression and adds
that, although the virgin was portrayed as quite beautiful, he (Asterius)
also perceived the "virtue that adorns her soul." Asterius even compares
this image with a famous first-century paiming of Medea and
announces that, based on his viewing of Euphemia's passion, he has
transferred his admiration from those painters of classical myths to the
artist of this Christian story, who "blended SO wdl the bloom of his col-
ors, combining modesty with courage, two affections that are so contra-
dietory in nature.""
Perhaps the most impres.sive of these descriptions of martyr's images,
combined with a verbal retelling of their stories, comes from the poctry
of Prudentius, a Spanish ascetic who was a slightly older contemporary
of PauJinus of Nola. In his cycle of martyr poems known as the Peris-
lepilallol1 (meaning "wreaths" or he teUs the stories of four-
teen renowned saints, including Peter, Paul, Lawrence, Cyprian,
Hippolytus, and Agens, as well as more local Spanish saints from Caha-
horra, Tarragona, and Saragossa. In most cases, these poems arc more
than hagiographies in verse, sin<;e also evoke the space
and dcror of the martyrs· shrines and e\'en describe liturgics and pil-
grims' activities at those places, making the work a valuable record of
the cult of martyrs in the late fourth century. M
For example, in his poem dedicated to Saint Cassian of Imola, the
speaker presents himself as a pilgrim on his way to Rome, stopping
along the way at the shrine of Saint Cassian. Lying prostrate on thc
ground in front of Ihe martyr's tomb, he tearfully looks up 10 the por-
trait of the saint, "depicted in colors and bearinga thousand wounds, his
whole body lacerated and his skin torn by tiny punctures."' " According
to the image, the link puncture wounds were inflicted by schoolboys
wielding sharp styluses. These schoolboys were on<c Cassian's pupils,
who became his executioners when the judge handed the confessed
Christ ian over to them for torture in revenge for his harsh lessons.
In a later poem, Prudcntius describes a pictorial imagc-apparently
a mural of some sort- that showed the sufferings of the third-century
183
FA<£ TO fA(E
Soint Hipp<>lyt .... tom 'p"n by wild _ Ii ... hi< nomnak< in G=I<
ID)1holog¥. in " .phi< ..... (10'1 ktoil:
A __ .... n . "".-ollt!.. b .. ,,01-. ... _ ..n..t <010 .....
ou, .... """"' """ •• """" __ .... _ ok '"""'" tIut _ .... _
..... <>1 ... d,-.J ...... -.. -. , _ ohm ............. ,... .....
",,0. 010 ..... of r.. ........... ,lot potpk ... ,h .. tbt b""" ..... " ......
uill<ol .. ,bot ""'" thl<krt ...., """,.,.... tbt .......... '" tbt
\>load -..lib _milboo f'OiM. 0... a...Id ..." out tbt bo>dr _ .Dd
,;"""- """ _, ...... """"""Y"""" -... ....... ,", ............... ...
"""Y'" ....,.,., .... faithl\Jl ...,..... &,Uow"" ..."., ... "", ..... poth,
St .. ""..! otith j:tid ood I<M<hina _ tIorit.,.. .. "'" _ ...... ,hq
""' .. "4 .......... _ ill .... """"01_ pot .........
11>< po<rn SO<I on to dco<,ib< til< O<m< moo: lull)<. indudins tb< mor·
tyr', fOIlowrr. "",hm", up hi. rei", (includi", hi< !><ad wilh ..."..,.
.. hit< h. i, ) •• nd d",p' of hi. I",m III< du .. wilh •
""""". n.. ."",. of ,II< fi .... i"ll of. a .. in .. hkh to ""'1 ,bot rnno,;",
.1""'" til< po<! '" .<1,,1< til< dnaiplion '" It.: ""uul ,luin ... il "as in
hi.< do)'. comp .... with .n oJ", ..... ' h> ,I>< " 'nl·, ,,,,,,b pooitio""" in •
'p«",1 <M!",I .doI.,.,. with nuo,bl< .nd rr«iow mOlob. 11><
fo"""'" <i<to:rip1i"n 01 ,hi .... , ".Inlins. .... coton<. boo. ,,",ul«l """'"
od>oI.>n lodoubt thlll'" ."work 0<1.,.u.,. .. ist.od .... """,Id ha .. l:«n ..
compi<>< .. Prud .. 'i ... ·• d""riptio .. WOtlId ""kt it. bul p<rhapo lhat io
bnidr ,t.. n.. w,;",r •• im ..... "'" '" .,....id<.n """"" .. -.I
of, pic,.,."1 comp<>oition. bou, ,,,""'.., brins imagt ,nd ,\(Iry..,..11«
.. ' tinill ..... h<ok .. On .1>< nth .. Iuond ..... if FNdy<W>.
0,,,«1 in po«ie or ",,",nie aJPO<i.ion. ... know .Ito, .... :11 pain.in!!,
",u$I ",i"cd, n .. mbe' ...... ri .... ' ''''mon''' I" tllnn,
Angu>ti ..... lor nompl<. rmrr<d ..,. pl<.u," <iSo;n' Steph<n', $!Oni"i
in. ><mlOn ,Ito, h< o. Steph<n'''''''n< in Hippo. Ii< I"'lI"".
Lorly P<>i,,'cd out SOW in .hio '''''3<, ... ndi", by ,nd lw>Idi"ll .1>< dt>oks
of .hote .hrowinS ,II< "'On", , h ... _kin! .IIi< imo8< in .... I<_n
.boUI tt.: .fWllio",,,'ion 01 . pcN<CtI"" in'" "" ,,,,,,,k ond Mint
pi/Fi .... o";,.;.,s" Toun to'-;';, tho >h,in< <>ISoin.
Marlin {as .-.t.uu. >lIt.: IUln 0I11to, ""tury byG"W"YnlToun) .....
.1>1< ' 0 ... ....u po.inl'''3' .ho. dtpO:t<d """ ..... Morrin', min-
<I<$. <Iob(lrat<d by po<Il< "pt;" .. , "" i" ... by Fono" .. 1'1< "'-'y
"'UTn< .ho •• 10,,,,,1 01 Soi .. t Monin. p<thopo Ii ... ,II< One in
s..-nuo', !'rimu""",,,,, olto .ppe.red" tII<.iI<. AI aboul
lluo, 10m< .im •• Gr<gory tho Gr. ... in hi< (omow 00 ..... of i ...... in
<hu""' ... odmoo .......... ,"'''''' GoJI ..... """"" S<t< ..... <>f M.m .. illet,
for ""'''oyin, on til< walb. lin« ...rn . hins> ..... ....lol lor
in"nICI,ns til< unl<omcd and in"",,,,, 'h<m ... itn,ut< lit< «>was< md
.. ti'u.J. Molicol ""' .... nd 0"""'0 ono,,_'
EARLY PORTRAI TI OF THE IAINTI
Without any doubt, these visual had their OWn pagan
parallels in the fi rst - and second-century wall paintings that showt'd
mythological scenes of heroic suffering and death, such as the punish-
ment of Dire ... , the sacrifiu of lphigenia, or the tlaying of Marsyas (fig.
92). As noted above. Asterius of Amaseia mentions having seen power-
ful images of Medea (probably copies of a first-century original) and
compares them wi th representations of the martyr Euphemia. Th .. dose
relationship between story 31ld image was, in this case, far older than
this Christian tradition and provided a still- recognil.ed prototype for
the figurative cycles of the Christian saints. At; we have noted, in time the
emphasis shifts away from narrative types, and the portrait becomes
more prominem, with the saint's face rather than the saim's deeds as the
focus of devotion. Thus imag<J begins to replace hisroria in Christian art,
insofar as it invites veneration and prayer.
The narrative images do not disappear, but even as they continue to
visually re.:ount the stories of Ch ristian heroes, their function is dearly
different from the portraits, and their power more latent than active.
The face, much like the relic of the saint or even the saint's name, is the
point of attachment between devotee and object of devotion, whi le the
stOTY is n{'(essaTY backgrxmnd to that point of contact. John Chrysos-
tom, in his homily praising the sainted Bishop Meletius, comments on
the importance of the holy person"s physical appearance on small
domestic items (r ings, bowls, etc.) in t he formation of personal piety
and inspiring his flock. Also im portant, however, was the fact that many
of their chi ldren bore Meletius's name, which gave them a "double con-
solation" after the saint's demise."
But just as the tradition of honor ing and even venerating saints by
means of their portraits was being established, it was also being criti -
18 5
FI- 92. t1N!y;o, 1« '" 2nd
bund
l.oo.Me I"1u>eum. Pan.
cized (additional evidence that I
f
't was actually occurring). We have
f
'
noted earlier that Epiphanius 0 Salamis ,"ndemns the making 0
images of the saints, which he says were meant as a memorial and even
worsh iped in their [the saints' ] honor. In his crit icism, however, he gives
some information about the pract ices he abhors. For instance, he claims
that some of his readers "dared to plaster walls inside the house of God
and by means of different colors represented pictures of Peter and John
and Paul, as r see by the inscription of each of these false images.
M
Here,
he may be referring to the pract ice of inscribing the names of the saints
over thei r images. And then he adds: "BU!, you will say, we contemplate
their images so as to be reminded of their appearance.·'" In response to
what seems to him a useless claim, he reiterates the traditional argument
that paintings of external appearances from life are dead and speechless,
whi le the saints themselves, although now dead, are still living, con -
formed to the image of God and adorned with glory- like the angels.
l ike Lycomedes' John, he scolds those who would venerale a dead like-
ness of what is dead.
186 FACE TO FACE
Specific Exampl es of Holy Portraits
Fig n Gold--&!- d
Pew w>d P ..... Votocoo
Museun, Vot.:an City (0 The
"temotoonoI Sod-

PETEII ASD PAUL
Epiphanius's condemnation of them by name indicates that portraits of
Peter, John, and Paul were the earliest recognizable saints' portraits to
appear in Christian art. Eusebius likewise had mentioned seeing por-
traits of Peter and Paul, paint...:! in colors, which were being accorded eer·
lain killds of llOnor5.'" Augustine mentions portraits of Peter and Paul
with Christ in a passing comment on misattribution of books to these
apost les, baS«l on such pictures:" And extant art historical data show
that while konographk representations of all twelve apostles, often
seated to either side of Jesus, are relatively common in the mid-fourth
ct'lltury, those of Peter and Paul begin to show particular, re.:ognizabl{'
fadal featur{'s from that tim{', The other apostles are not easily rewgniz-
abl{' at this early stage, and it will be some c{'nturies before their facial
likenesses are established ao;ording to tradition. Peter and Paul , howewr,
are not only {'arly to appear but frequent by the late fourth century,espe-
dally on Roman sarcophagi, where they often are placed on either side of
Christ giving the law.
In addition to Peter and Paul being p.:rceived as the repr{'sentati,'{'
leaders of the two of the church (j{'ws and Gentiles, respec-
tively), another obvious explanation for their particular popularity in
Rome, as well as their being frequently shown in double portraits, is the
Roman church's claim to have a double apostolic foundation and to be
the site of the martyrdom and burial of both saints. Rome's
Christian id{'ntity is associated with these two in par-
ticular, and their portraits are widespread by the
beginning of the fi fth century. Mort'<Jever, in
addition 10 painting and sculpture, their
likenesses appear on ivories, gold-glass
(fig. 93), metalwork, and pottery, as
well as mosaic {fig. 94) ."
An interesting iconographic
transformation of the mid-foUTth
century is the assimilation of Peter
and Moses into what w{'re for-
merly representations of Moses'
striking the rock to provide water
for the Israelites in the wilderness
{hod 17: 1-6; Num 20:2- 12}. In
these scenes, the Israelites are simi-
larly changed into Roman soldiers,
wearing short tunics and fur caps.
Although the t ransformation of the imagery
may be based on a play on Peter's name (petros
- rock), or- more likely-an earlier (no longer
EARLY PORTRAITI OF THE IAINTI
existing) version of a later (perhaps sixth-century) insertion into the
apocryphal of Peter that describes his striking the walls of his
prison in order to baptize his Roman jailers, the typology of Peter as
new Moses was also known in the literature. Augustine, elaborating on
the text of 1 Cor 10:4 (which cites the rock-striking story and makes
Christ the rock), continues Paul's typology by making Moses the figure
for Peter. Moses doubted the Lord's good will, just as Peter denied
Christ during the trial and doubted that he would be resurrected as he
promised. '" Such a typology makes sense out of the frequently com-
bined sarcophagus images of Peter's arrest. the rooster, and the striking
of the rock (fig. 95). The iconography also confirms that Peter, particu-
larly in Rome, is the new leader of God's people, taking the place of
Moses in the "old dispensation."
187
Fe. H F'o<voot of joe!u' "'th
Pete.- ¥>d P ..... latc 5th 0<"
....ty 6th C<fI. CL in
tho d-..p<I of tho Ndoiovosco-
,.. (Photo:
\M1iom T.tt>eo , .ee).
Fe. 95. Pete.- the rod:.

Mv<eo Pio CM\WIO, VO\>CIo1
City
188
r" 96. Coon W>d Ab<I. ""'" the
.....,.t of Pew ond the
CI"O$I, I...,.,.. • 4th <:en C!.
''1'"",,,,'' s.n:op/..gus. I'1useo
Pk> Crist;' .. o. V.6un Gt)'

FACE TO FACE
Elsewhere, as on the Junius Bassus sarwphagus, Peler's arrest is jw..
taposed with that of Christ's, since i1 is in a parallel niche on the upper
register (fig. 14, p. H). Paul's arrest appears in Ihe lower register in the
far right with a Roman soldier drawing his sword \0 suggest his
beheading. In the cenler of the upper register, a youthful Christ is
enthroned with his feet on the head of the god Caelus. On either side
of Christ stand Peter and Paul. On another, single-regi ster, sarcopha-
gus from Rom ... of approximately the same date (ca. 360), the compo-
sit ion shows the arrest of Peter to the left of a centered triumphal nos>
surmounted by a chr istogram within a wreath and, 10 the right, the
arrest of Paul (fig. 96). On the far left, Cain and Abel present their sac-
ritkes to God, and on t he far right Job appears with his wi fe. The par-
allels with the Junius Bassus sarcophagus are marked even though the
latter is of superior qual ity. However, on the single- register sarcopha-
gus, the facial types of Peter and Paul are more dearly delineated, per-
haps because they are not as likely TO have been resTored by later
artisans. In the s«ond sarcophagus, Peter has thick hair that comes
down over his forehead and a trimmed beard, while Paul is balding
and his face is longer.
A simi lar presentation of the two apostles' facial types appears on a
tomb carving from the late fourth cenlury. In this case, both apostles
are identified by name. Peler's hair is curly and thicker and comes
down over his broad brow, and his jaw is quite square. Paul's forehead
is more prominent, his hairline receding, and hi s beard slightly longer,
making his face appear more narrow and his features finer. Between
their two heads the christogram appears again. The two apostles also
appear with Christ in the apse mosaic of Rome's Basilica of Santa
Puden"liana, dated to the turn of the fifth century, The maj estic Christ
sits on a jeweled throne in the center of the composition, flanked by
the apostles. Immediately 10 Christ's right and left are Paul and Peter,
identi fi able by their facia I types. Two female figures. offering crowns 10
EARLY PORTRAITI OF THE IAINTI
these two "chief" apostles are usually identified as personifications nf
the Church of the Gentiles and the Church of the Jews. Although the
mosaic has been much {hanged by restorations over the centuries, the
central figures in the composition appear 10 be more or less original
(fig. 97)."
In addition to the tomb carving above, possibly the earliest
known example of a double portrait of Peter and Paul is found on a
mid-fourth-century terracotta bowl, now in New York's Metropoli tan
Museum. The exterior of the bowl has four circular stamps of a chris-
togram enclosed in a wreath. The inside floor of the bowl is also
stamped, but with an image of Peter and Paul, each identified by name.
The two are seated facing one another as if having a conversation, and
Peter extends his right arm, pointing at Paul, while Paul's own right
hand is raised in the traditional gesture of spe«=h. Here, both Peter and
Paul are beardless, and Peter's hair appears to be shorter than Paul's,
which curls and covers the back of his neck. Between their two heads is
another christogram inside a wreath." Other examples of the paired
portraits of Peter and Paul appear on gold-glass, as well as one on a
fresco in the Cemetery of Severo in Naples (ca. 350-450}.'" In most of
189
Fig. 97. Owist wrth ...-.d
Pool. <JetoiI of op>< .... ,ii<:.
Bask. ofs.rn. f'uder,,,., ..
P.c.-n. (f't>oto; .....
190
FACE TO FACE
these cases, Ihc christogram is placed between thc heads of thc two
apostles, or Christ appears to orfa them both wreaths of victory.
The traditional facial features given 10 Peter and Paul bcwmc even
wnsiSlcnl and pronounced through the next (Century. Peter's face is
broader, his hair thicker and curling owr his brow. Paul, on th{' other
hand has a narrower face. somewhat pointed beard, and balding head.
Their appearances arc so marlc{'d that identification does not depend on
thc inclusion of their names, as in most sarcophagus presentations as
well as others in i,·ory. bronze, or mosaic: for example, the late fourth-
century dome mosaic of thc baptistery of the Naples cathedral; a latc
fourth -century lamp in the shape of a ship (thm is, the church), with
Paul in thc stern and Peter at thc helm; a fifth-(cntury ivory beh bucklc
showi ng the meeting of PelCr and Palli in Rome; or the sixth-century
portrait medallions of Petcr and Paul flanking JeSU5 in the main arch of
the basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna."
Such convcntions may come from oral tradition or brief references in
apocryphal texts, since there is no extant canonical descript ion of either
man. For rxaml'k, the Acts of P<lul <111<1 Tiler/a (3.3) describes Paul as
"small in stature, bald-headed, with crooked legs, in a good state of
body, with eyebrows meeting and noS<' somewhat hooked, full of friend-
liness; for now he appeared like a man, and now he had the face of an
angel."" This description apparently influenced only the common
iconographic presentation of Paul with a receding hairline. No wriuen
des.:ription of Peter exists, apart from a thirteenth -century history of
the church written by Niccphorus Callistus that describcs Peter as being
of moderate smtu re, with a pale face and thick, wooly, yellow hair. It goes
on to add that he had dark, bloodshot eyes, raised eyebrows, and a long
flat nose. This same author describes Paul as ha\·ing a small frame,
CUTVlxl shoulders, high forehead, narrow nose, and long face." A differ-
ent theory, howl"\·er, propOSe> that the portraits of Peter and Paul, as rlOC-
ognizabk as they were, were based on collvcntions that rc\·cakd thc
model as a philosopher or teacher." According to Paul Zanker, Paul's
face is modeled on Socrates', while Peter's is baS<'d on the typical appear-
ance of a Cynic or itinerant philosopher:"
The compositional pairing of Peter and Paul with Jesus giving the
law and/or the keys (traditio /egis <"I c/IlViwrl) \ · a r i ~ s somewhat accord-
ing to geographical region. Those images that come from Rome tend
to show Peler rc(eiving the law from Christ's left hand, while Paul
stands in the place of honor to Chrisr"s right (sec figs. 14,62-63,67,
77), whereas artworks from outside of Rome (for example, a number
of sarcophagi found in Ra\·cnna) often show Paul recei\·ing the law
from Chrisr"s right hand. This variation of placement and of which
apostle is given the law rna)" reflect a tradition of rivalry between the
two apostles or the churches claiming their foundation, or it may be
EARLY PORTRAITI OF THE IAINTI
nothing mOre than a variance of traditions between Rnme and other
regions." In some of the images. Peter and Paul are given equal stature
and, moreover, appear facing one another in a composition often
identified by art historians as the concordia aposlOlormn." In the two
dome mosaics of the Ort hodox and Arian baptisteries in Ravenna,
Baptistery of the Arians-Peter and Paul both show up at t he head of
circling procession of apostles, each iden! ified by name. In the earlier
mosaic, both apostles approach one another holding thei r crown of
martyrdom. In the later, Arian, baptistery however, Peter and Paul face
each other across an empty throne surmounted by a jeweled cross,
Peter to the left of the throne, holding the keys, and Paul to the right,
holding a scroll (fig. 49, p. 124).
MARY, TIl E MOTlIER OF IESUS
Prior to the Council of Ephesus in 431, which officiallydedared Mary to
be the Mother of God (11'£OtO'\:05), little evidence exists to suggest that
the Madonna had a specific iconographic tradition or standard portrait
type. Given her centrality to the art of both East and West in subse{juent
centur ies, it may be surpri sing to di scover t hat Mary did not playa
prominent role in early Christian ar!. Several mother and child images
from t he catacombs have been identified as Mary with Jesus, but lacking
any dear evidence, they are more likely portraits of a deceased mother
holding her child (compare fig. 31, p. 49). Similarly, a scene of marriage,
sometimes identified as the wedding of loseph and Mary, almost cer-
tainly port rays only a traditional Roman wedding." Mary's earliest and
most certain appearances in Christian art are in scenes of the adoration
191
of Ihe magi, dating from the late third or early fourth century, in both Fis- 98.Ador.uon ofth< M>&o
catacomb painting and relief carving (fig. 98). Other images of a woman rom • 4th <"" u.....,oph.o.
seated wi th a visitor have sometimes been identified as early representa- r-beo Pic Cn5tj..-.o.
City (Photo<
192

.1'
99.Annur.ci.oon. from !he
c.t.corrb 01 f'n><:iIk Rome
(C The If'ltemMOnaI c.a-
comb Photo; 8teIe
...... ,
FACE TO FACE
lions of the annunciation or of the Virgin and child with the prophet
Balaam (figs. 99- 100).
Shortly after the Council 's dedaration in 431, however, Marian
iconography blossomed and incorporated images from both the canon-
inl Gospels and the Apocrypha. Empress Pukheria dedkated three
dlurches in her honor, one of which was later said to possess an image
of the Virgin painted from life by Saint luke, reportedly sent to her from
Jerusalem by her sister-in-law, Eudocia. luke, of course, had provided
the fullest picture of Mary in his infancy narrativ<" and, according to the
legend, luke included this painting (blessed by Mary herself) with the
text of his Gospel, which he sent \0 the "most excellent
(Luke 1 :3). The prototype.lik .. the imag .. ofth .. Mandy/ion of Abgar. had
been reproduced and known under the name of Hoo..gilria Cshe who
t he way»), to which miraculous were attributed. "
Christian iconography soon b .. gins to present Mary in narrativ ..
sequences, beginning with her youth and marriag .. to Joseph, continu-
ing through the annunciation, visitation, and birth of Jesus, placing her
at the foot ofth .. cross, and- by the sixth century-at the , .. nter of the
apostles at Pentecost. A late fifth-c .. ntury ivory Gospel cover in ,h ..
treasury of th .. Milan Cathedral portrays th .. apocryphal stories of
EARLY PORTRAITI OF THE IAINTI
Mary as a girl in the temple and the annunciation to Io.lary at a
as well as scenes from the birth and childhood of Jesus. " Around the
same time, the nativity and the flight into Egypt also began to appear
with some frequency in Christian art . I>erhaps the earliest and most
monumental program of Marian narrative imagery were the mosaics
in the apse and on the triumphal arch of Santa Maria Maggiore in
Rome, often dated as early as 432 C.E. and dedicated by Pope SixtllS III
(432-440). These mosaics must have been already underway some time
prior to the Council of Ephesus's affirmation of Mary's status. The
original apse mosaic of the church portrayed the enthroned
with the child on her lap, among a group of saints presenting their
crowns. (The present apse mosaic, showing the coronation of the Vir -
gin, dates from the thirteenth century.) The three registers of the tri -
umphal arrh in front of the apse depict scenes of Jesus' advent, birth,
and infancy, in which Mary appears, perhaps along with her prototype
or precursor, Sarah. "
The now-lost apse image of Mary enthroned with the child on her lap
was nndonbtedly widely copied, and its parallel appeared in later works
as reconstructed nave mosaics of the Basilica of San Apollinare Nuovo
in Ravenna. S<:t here after the reconsecration of that formerly Arian
basilica, the Virgin is shown seated on the red cushion of a high-backed
jeweled throne, her feet upon a similarly jeweled footstool. She wears a
dark bluish-purple hooded tunic (maphorioll) with gold oonds, and her
head covering is adorned with a single white star o,'er her brow. Her
193
F;g. IOO.V<"V' OM D"Id wM
!!aIoom Cmcomb of Pri<ci l..
Rome Int<rn.oon.l
c .,.,-omb 5oootr: I'hotoc
.......... ,
194
Fig. 101. Madonna ;nl child,
W, cent'-')' CL "" ' '''', 5or!
~ N " " " , , ~
(Photo: """""'}
FACE TO FACE
child WearS a white tunic and palli .. ", with similar gold bands. The
mother has a simple halo, while the son's is cruciform. Both mother and
chi ld make the sign of blessing with their right hand. To the right and
left stand archangels with green haloes that match the green ground on
which they stand (fig. 101 ). A similar composi tion can be seen on a
sixth-century Coptic tapestry, now in the Cleveland Museum, in which
Mary sits upon a very similar high-backed and jeweled throne, her fei'!
upon a large jeweled foolstooL Her mantle and veil are the same dark
bluish-purple. In this artwork, however, the mother has a golden halo,
while the child has none. Her hand is on his right shoulder and he holds
a scroll in his right hand (fig. 102). Her name and the name, of the
archangel" Michael and Gabriel, are woven into the border above her,
which creates an upper panel that shows a smaller figure of the
enthroned (and nimbed) Christ within a blue orb, held by two angels.
Surrounding both scenes is a floral border that contains medallion por·
traits of the twelve apost les, also ident ified by name."
The transit ion from narrative image to icon is clear here, and one of
the traditional modes of present ing the l>lother of Christ is established
in these compositions. A sixth-century ivory diptych from Constantino-
ple also shows Mary with the child On her lap, flanked by the two
archangels, and a seventh-century encaustic icon from Sa int Catherine's
monastery in Sinai portray:; Mary and her child between the saints
Theodore and George, while the archangels stand behind the group of
four. As in the other images, the central figures all face forward, and,
except for Mary whose eyes look to her left, all gaze out at the viewer.
The two angels, by contrast, are gazing upwards as if at God ( w h ~
hand descends into the composition). As before, Mary is garbed in a
dark purple maphorioll. This icon is one of the three important early
pre-iconoclasm panel icons at Sinai, along with the famous icon of
Christ the Teacher (fig. 59, p. 138), and one of Saint Peter."
EARLY PORTRAITI OF THE IAINTI
The early image of the Virgin
enthroned became, in time, only
one of the traditional presenta·
tions of Mary in art. Sometimes
she is shown chcck- to-check
with her chi ld expressing compas-
sion and tenderness; sometimes
shc is shown standing, with hcr
child in her arms or in the orans
position with a medallion contain-
ing the child over her breast
or womb, indicating the incarna-
tion. Although Mary almost never
appears wi thout the child in por-
trait icons, she (of course) does
in the narrati,·c icons (showing the
annunciation, the cruci fixi on, the
ascension, and her dormition). She
almost always wears the dark
bluish-purple robe that appears in
the earliest images, usually with a
star over her forehead and one on
each shoulder.
Her centrality in post -fourth-
century art, of course, has much to
do with the defense of art in gen-
eral, since the incarnation of God
in visible human form formed the
essential argument in defense of
Christian devotional images. The
declaration that she be properly called "Mother of God" was a key part
of the Orthodox christological position (proclaimed by the Council of
Ephesus in 431 c.!:. ) ratified by thc Coullcil of Chaiccdon in 451. For
these reasons, her image is key to the theology of images in the Eastem
church. The traditiollal liturgical hymll (koll/akim1j in the Orthodox
church for the Sunday that celebrates the restoration of the icons after
iconoclasm (t he Sunday of the Triumph of Orthodoxy) is addressed
to Mary, Mother of God, alld asserts the associat ioll between the
icon and orthodox Christology: "The indefinable word of the Father
made himself definable, having taken flesh of thee, 0 Mother of God,
and having refashioned the soiled image to its former estate, has suf-
fused it wi th divine beauty. But confessing salvati on, we show it forth in
deed and word."" The invisible God became visible by means of
thc flesh of this woman, and so her visiblc image is as essential as
Christ's.
195
Fie- I02.1cc<> 01" the V.-gO'\
Egyp<. ~ " " peo ¢d, 6th
=.-y CL'" MId cIo:Mo
uj i<d-t>pestry _ . v.ooI.
178 x 1 10 em. (QTI>" Ct.-..-e·
land ~ m cf M 2003.
L.eor....-d C. Kamo )": 8eque<t.
1%7. 1 ..... ~
196
FACE TO FACE
The Question of Likeness: Conclusion
The qUCMion of actual in all theoe port raits is a thorny
one, particularly since actual ufrom life" do nOl (even
including any that may haw been painted by Lukcj . Morro\'cr, in the
ab.cn,c of contemporary wrinen descriptions of most of the .aints
(with the possible exccption of Paul's descript ion in the Am of P'lIli mId
we have no way of comparing dcsuiptions with portraits. Yet
portraits of Peter, Paul, or Mary arC clearly recognizable, and they in
turn contribute to the established tradition of how these individuals
"looked," alicast in their artistic representations. Through time, subse-
quent artis ts drew upon the early t raditions, and SQ, in time, their
images oc.:am .... wn more standardized. Even so, names were still plJc«l
above or neJr thc faces of most other saints, and particular attributes or
objects were includcd to aid in their identification (like SJint Lawrencc's
griddle or Saint Catherine's whed).
However, if the of the port rait is based Jt some le\'cI on its
purported likeness to its subject , then a likeness based merdy on tradi-
tion might be challenged, and the basis for an image's legitimacy would
then bc open to question. At least one early critic, oppos«lto all kinds of
religious images, may have used this problem as a way to
discr«litthcm. Epiphanius. the renowned opponent of heresy, wrote a
letter to Emperor Theodosius I, urging him to tear dowo curtains that
bore images of the saints in churches. martyria. baptisteries, and c'\'en
private homes, to whitewash owr walls witb fresco port raits, and- as
mucb as possiblc--to remove mosaics wilb sucb figures. He claims tbat
sucb tbings bave no autbority from antiquity and a"uses tbose who
crafted tbem of im'enting falseboods and tberebydishonoring tbe saims:
Furthennore. thr)' lie b)" ,epre .. nting the app"ornn"" of ",int. in different
fornl> .ccording to their whint. ",mdim"" Mtineating the sallie person>.'
old men. sometim., OS )'Quth" [ond so) intruding into thing, which the)"
h.w" not «<n . .. . Th""e impo'te" rep,,,,,ent the hoi)" 'po<tle Peter as.n old
man wi th hai r and beard rut ,hor!; some repro .. nt 51. ra"l .. a man with
'eceding hai,. ot he" as being bald and bearded. and the other apo"[" as
being dosd)' aopf'<d."
Clearly, Epipbaniu; doubted tbe validity of anytbing out of the
imagination of artists, and he would have dismissed any claims of inspi-
ration as m .. re "whim." However, he was not so mucb worried tbatthe
artists got tbe likeoeSIJ "wrong" 3.\ that they to make portraits at all.
But imagination was not always seen as a merewbim of all artist,since
images (teated from tbc mind might also 3.\ impro\'ements o\"cr
those seen with tbe erc. Since cxte'rnal pbysical images We'rC ever-chang-
ing in any use, tbey could nC\'cr be an ult imate truth. This was an old
EARLY PORTRAITS OF THE SAINT\
idea, elaborated by the Greeks as far back as Aristotle, when he argued
tha! the imaginative work of the artist had intrinsic I'alue and was not
merely a mimetic act i"ity, trying to reproduce an exact The
artist's vision, according to Aristotle, was guided by divine reason and
reflected an ideal image known by the mind. When this guidance was
incorporated into the final product, the outcome was an improvement
upon the original, eliminating natural defects and enhancing beauty.
Li keness "''as not lost in this process, but rather more closely achieved."
Nearly six hundred years later, the portrait-shy Neoplatonist philoso-
pher Plotinus elaborated on this aspect of artistic uinvention," contend-
ing much like Aristotle that true artists do not simply imitate what they
see, but instead transform their bodily vi sion through the work of the
mind or soul. Thus, the product is made more perfect than the model
(in nature) because of their inspired awareness of the perfect form, In
this case, a work of art is no mere imitative of a skilled or
unskilled imitator or a mere physical appearance, but the result of an
aim to achieve the perfe" likeness as it in an ideal realm. For
example, when he discusses the figure that the sculptor Phcidias made of
Zeus, Plotinus regards the artist's imposition of a form seen in the intel-
lect but not in the senses with approval: "Thus Pheidias wrought the
Zeus upon no model among things of sense, but by apprehendillg what
form Zeus must take if he chose to boxome manifest to sight."'" Such a
statement recalls Apollonius ofTyana's defense of the manner by which
Greek artists fashioned images of their gods:
Imagination ",rought th ... work>, a wi .. r and ,ubtl.r arti't by far than imi-
tation; for imitation <an only ",;ate as i,. handiwork ",hOI it ha ... <n. but
irnaginJtion "'luaUy ,,·hat il has not ""n: for it wiU roncei," ofi" id.al with
ref ... nce to the reality, and imitation is often baflled by terror, but imagina-
tion by nothing; for it ma"hes undi ,mayroto the goal ",hi<h it h .. i,.df laid
down: '
Although Plolinus's positi,'c regard for some kinds of artistic produc-
tion may seem almost ironic givcn his general suspicion of the material
world and external appearances, he is joined in Ihis by another unlikely
advocate. Augustine, although not a well-recognized defender of the
value of visual images, took a similar line in his distinction between
sense-knowledge aod art. For him, art is judged as Iruthfuilhrough the
faculty of reason, although the senses arc the intermediaries in this
proce&s. The standard of truth is perceptibk by the mind and absolutely
uochaogeable. Becau.sc of this, the humao mind is also able to recognize
error, and even to suffer it to some degree, but yet to distinguish the
,rcpaney between the ideal and the actual as wdl as the degree to which
the image represents the world. For Augustine, however, good judgment
is even betler than artistic skill."
197
FAU TO fA(€
Rdip,'" pO,hoi" WC,,"'" hold to in.:o,!,,>n" .hi> <l,m,n' of
."is.ic <kill ,nd .tamp. bu., ,_tu.lly, ,h.,. would I>< -..1"", O. 0
product of ;m.g;n .. ion .lun of in.pimion ond "'_ion, .in« .i><y
__ in,..".«1 to I>< ......rul ttJ>n,J"",iono. Ila<il of c-."" dn.:ribod
poin." ... poin'ins from 0''''' ,,, ..... n.1y lonki"S" 'he
mod<!, and doing .h<i, bn, to i" Ii .. ,,,,,..,,, '0 ,h." own
"",ri.. .. Th<Odu", tit< S.udit<, dc(rndins til< iroru .goin ... 11< ><rond
....... of icQnodosm;" the nin, h "",wry, colt.d on I\,WI .. on , ntim •
• uthority, In.d quort<! hin, .. s;oy;n"
,. _" "'" .. ,if.:i.j ""-' - 1 , d olin i<o ..-yp<' ....... "'" b __
,."" P'-"< "n ........ ...J --... ...... '" i<o"'" br -.... of"'"
""""'" 01""' ..... ........ 0.1"<10 oIhio buo.Io. Thio ;,., .. 01 .... poiMH,
"'" _ '''_, .... "'" _ who _____ ,........J........,_
<ala ........ Ioob at obt 'Mot> tbt imprilll of ..... ..;,;a, t><
_ ............. ...t_ itliU ........................ •
Th< .... " is h ...... und of ''';';'rw-y, on< wbo .. « ;,e; ,n i"""" and
,,","w'" .. gun'..! til< ability to ' .. n,1rr tII<;dto in.., vitiblo f.><m.
Th .... th< <i ,II< .. int ... mlity tlul aU" 'p.o" from til<
pu", ''''''sinoti<>n of til< .ru ... wbKh would not haY< I><rn d«m«I •
'" ....... adtqu.ot< ......... of .lUin;", a "likrnm" by i"""f, Th<
doim fu, lil=.<oo I ... <l th" i<I a mirotulo\l ..... rteeiY<d p",..OIy ... (fo,
.nmplo. ,II< c( A!>go,). in the .ndition (which .... y roW:. •
daim f<>r.n o.i",,,.) "r""", lir," r"""'rr< "' . n <}TWit" ... d<1<,ir-
lion). ,It in the limplr: ....:osnition c( til< devout beholder. In II>< end,
tl>< truth Ii ... in . h. O(<q>t.,,« o/" . h. im .. I nd in ilS.fficocy ... n
obi«' of whkh....,. h . ... nothi"3 in ,h • ..,d.o" .. i,h
abooIul< doi"" to ICCUratdy r<pf<$rn' tl>< plIy$i<.aI ........ . """ of .1I<
.. i"I-o, ""'" of Chriu. Aft .. all. ,h. r<pmrn .. ,iom of the .. In< .. in,
do ohow < "",rked ... i<ty.jWl .. , ... of _'''''' l'c''OI')' 1'"""",."". of
,he . .. , .. p"...,n migh'. without n«<">i.Irily ,w"lI doubt. <boot ,II<
"'''''h" ", ..... ;mav. io """" not only on ot<mal <It<aih
bu •• fin. lIy. on, who:dc compla of .almoot inupiicabl< .igr<' th;r.. odd
up '0 id.n'i'y . nd .lIow the yi<w<. to .. aim: "I'd kno... h .. /him
.,,)_he .. ,'"
D<opit< .h" truiom. til< nod;,;"n of .. int>· por1roiu pro .. t ...
• .... "'gIy hrid bd;.f , ho, .. in'" -.. liti.hfui ..".....,..' .. io'" ol
' hrir act",1 phy>icol Lat .... in,,' I .... <>f."" .,..,,;.,.. ,hei.
for ,heir 1""'"'''''' in til< co>< <>f Sain' lhootIo", c( SyUon in
,he """,'h ",,'my. wht, I hk l'Io1i<1 ... ) ... tift'" . Dd had to II< poinl<d
,u,tq'titiow.ly." -roo.. .. in" who hod di«l " ithOt.l' hoying 1m W<h
prnm.«I. <haI1mtt<, In ' .......... n"·
.P ....... """ Iqa" to ""'"limn. hdpfully. to ,heir For <urn_
rio. ,,,- ..... teI«I 'r",rit;.,.,. c(.11< BI<oo<d Vorsin g<1ImoIly d<o<rib<
EARLY PORTRAITS OF THE SAINTS
her in terms that match her representat ion in popular portraiture,
which only makes sense. How else would they identify her? Epiphany
depends, after all, on rewgnition. Gi lbert Dagron cites many cases
where the !;lint's appearance to a visionary was authenticated by refer-
enec to its wnformity to that !;lin!"s portrait and wndudes: "I recognize
the !;lint from his image, but this image prefigures the vision I shall have
of him. This is more or less the vicious circle in which we arc caught and
which givcs the world of the icon its perfect And thi s
autonomy, as Dagron points out, is based in the same claims that the
ancient philosophers made about the portrait- that the of an
image never lies in its external accuracy, but rather in its ability to
inspire the ,·iewer to.see more than the surface image and to re<:ognize
the transcendent ideal to which it points. On a more pmctical level, the
!;lints were recognizable according to the way that tradition had defined
them, which might hal'e \"Cry link to do with the definition of likcnNs
ill the purdy external or mundane sense, and, when traditions differed,
as thL]' did later from the E35t to the West, the portraits might not be
unil'ersally recognizable."
And this point returns us to the one that Augustine articulated in his
treatise on the Trinity, that the faith of the viewer was not shaken, nor
the quality of devotion affcrtcd, in the end, by the external likeness of
any portrait:
An)'one, .urd)·, "'ho has read or hoard what t ilt apo.tk Paul ""rot< or what
"'as wrinen .OOuthim. will fabricotc a f.(C for the '1"),11< in hi. imaginotion
md for e,'oT)"body d .. whost name i. mentionN in tM" texIS. And
one of the "." number of I"'0ple to whom these writin&, are knOW" will
think of their physical features and line.me"" in a Uifferem w.y. and it will
quite impossible to tell who,. t houghts are nearest the mark in this
r •• pect .. , , Ewn the phy.i".1 foce of the lord i. pi<:tured with infinite variety
by rountl"" in.agination., though wha te"er it was like he ctrtainly only had
one. Nor a. regard> the faith we h"" . in the Lord lesu. Christ is it in the I .. "
relevant '" <al,,"tiun wlt.1t our imaginatiuns picture him like. whkh is prob.:!-
bly quito different from the reality. , .. What does mattor i, th. t ,.,.o of
him as a man; forw. h.w embedded in '" as it "'ere a ".nd"d notion of t he
natu« uf man, ... Nor du we know what the "irgin Mary luoked frum
"'hom h. ",,. marvelou.ly oorn ... nor hOI" wr .. on Lazaru. and ,.,.hat kind
uf figure h. had . .. , And $0 without prcjudi"" to fait h it i, pcnni>$ihk to
"Perhaps ,he had. face like t his, perlt.1p •• he ilid not,""
199
I. Ronald l.«'Uw. <d .• "IN L",", of Vi""", "'" Gq:h, "" ......... Porn""", llotldon: p,".
guin. ,99<5). 394-95. I p'''''''''sIy pubii>hed • ponion of this preface in , sl ighlly differ,nt
form: "Image, Saoctity •• oo Truth: The PUC< of lh. fur,,,;, in Ori,,;'" T"dition; ARTS I l.1
(2001): 2<>-ll.
Notes
Preface
I. Visual Art, Portraits, and Idolatry
L /I.! 9.1 2: tiber """" 17.
2. Tho Imn "catacomb" rom<. from m orKi,", "('«IK. to th. ' ''POS'' phy of th. I .... ol
!In' ttl< >it< of. shrin< for P<ttf . nd P;",] Mif th. B .. ili" of San S<b"" iono, nOl for from tho
.... of tl>< Callistu. «mel.')". oontaining . bo 000n«i J"""">b III or lufo quuri<> t 0., ""'Y h, v<
mod. i l •• • i", l<J oonOlru<l ,h. ,ubtm'""" on.l;' ",.I oflh. ""locum .. (.d """'''''m_
b.u i . JOTi" ed from th. Gm:k 1o,. t um/"".0<1 "",ghly m<On! ' n<>r It.: h<oIIQW>").
J. AII"",,gh ct.ri"i, ,,. W<r<: .mong th, f"., g.rwp. '" "'or.""''' ""'''''m\os, ,h. proch,. of
tomb dec.,..., ioo wa< r>OI ;""'"ltd byo.,i"" .. Of' practicrd u"Oq ... ly by th.m. ' ..... 1 p.inlingo
. 00 .dorn«! the burial dumbers.oo <" acorn"" of non· OI, i>I" n Komins. both .,.gan •• oo
10W<..00 .... known f., back ;nlo .nl"uhy. !ljbliogr.phy on , " orom"" and non· a.'''I''n
Rom.., lomb <lw>r1lion (in<luding Irwi>h lOmb ", .. rom"") i> [lOW vw. Inlrodu<lo<y worb
in<h"k Graydon F. Sn)'!<'. A."" n,,,m: EvUj,,,,,, o{Ch"rch Lifo 11</0'" Qms,"".
'io<.,...... «I . (Mooo,," G •. : M"<<I" Uni •. p""" lOO}): Vi"",nro Nicolo;' Fabririo Bi«O<lli •• oo
[);oni., M.",,>I<,,;, Theo.,im.:" c.r".«) .. b, of /41"", IJuw".O<"''''''''n. Inl<rip<"'u, 100 «I ..
Ir''''' Crill i", Com! Sl<I".nd l<>ri "' ,on Thud.-". (JI<-g<nsburg: S<h""II . oo Sl<i"", 1001);
1'>."1 Corby Finn<y, The Im,;,ib" G"J, Th< /i4,);'" 0.,-;"",,,, o. A" (N<w York, Un;' ,
Pr_ 1'/901). F,b<i ro M .... d,..lIi. The ealaromb. of 14>"" and rh. ong,'", of Chris·
u,,"ily (Flo .. ",., Sc .... 1931); I.rn .. Steve",o,," TIl, G.rla(omb, Rnli«<>WmI: Mo""m"," of
Early Chr;"io"ity (London, Thorn .. ,nd HooKln. 1978); I.udwi& HenHng .nd Engelb""
Kir..:hbaum. Tht Rom." ea,,,,,,,,,", ""J Their ,If."1"" ( MiJ .... "x«: Bru«. 1'66).
The ,,,umplion th.t Orri,ti,,,, were r<licent .bout .n h<c.UK ..... [<Wi,,), p"""ipt io'"
_ up ",;ddy in Ihe Qlder (i t",tul'<.'oo Mary Chula Murny .ummor"'" m.ny ..... Ihe><
"gum<"" in M' "m;""I . "i<l., "Art.oo Ih. Church." ITS Z8 (1977), JOJ-6. Wilh
"!I'N 10 In. "ull« of ooci:ol d .... g<oo.r, rdu,,"Iion, '" .ulhorily .... , for ... mpl,. Snyd<r,
p.,um. 16-4-<;8, wn'l"< h, "", ,,, .. n ru ral · um.",y" (,..hri,,;'", .00 Ih.
urban elit<. bull 001. lhal ;n hi> r<Vi><d «Iition, Snyd« 10k<> . morf cautio<u 'pproxh I"
Ih ... dj"i""iom and 001" Ih. probl.m of ",idmc. and chronology. Also .... Margor"
/""'1' .'/"'igh' (Bo.loo; Il<aoon. 19S5). Js, wh.r< II>< 'UlOO' . rgu<> Ihat · l"<ligiou. im:rg<ry
ddighl' in sp«iJi< to Ih. ".g<' of women', life '.<p<ri<n«" '00 Ih'l Ih. ' uni",,,,,lily
201
202
NOTEl TO PAGEl 5-16
of ph)'i<aJ .xi"<I><'. ankubt«l by inug ... ;. ill ff'l'<nt from uni "" .. lily of t ... u bj«.;.. ron·
><iou<nes.. .,,;cul.ted by i.nS""S<: Hm, l.ngu,og< ukr> indud, t),roiogi.n. who or, .nt"SO-
ni"i< 10 . , .... 1 irmS"'od d,mon",,'<, "fund",,,,",,1 dj><!, in fur tho vm ""'pity ofhum.n
W<>m<n .ad m<1l, woo>< w .. b.u<d on tho <xig<n<i<. of phy>'",1 ui>lrnc<.
in oth<r WON. ['" lh. «I"<"",nally und<rprivil<g«l who h.d no! b«n ",;oM '" id<n'ify
,"<m .. I .... wi,h inI<U«,,,,,1 act ivity."
5. Thi. 'rgum,nt wo. mad. by M.ry A.., ... Mu,,,y, "Art.nd th. f..,ty <-hutch."
but . 00 in mo .. rrornl 'ut> iocloding Finn<)', The ,"",;bit Goa, tOo;...!.
6. fur • I .. , of th ... "",4 "" Ch,IIn Mu,,,y, "Art and tl>< Early CbUfCh.· lO3 n. 2. s..
.ro Finr><y, n", /""iiibl< God, \19-1<14. A fairlY'«'''' n:ampl< can .. found in an introduction
by M''1!''''' hU<f in Ku,' W";IZrn>nn, <d, n.. A,g< <15r;n",.li'r O""kogut c{ ,he Exhibi,;""
a' ,he 1>1"""", OrA". Nv",,,,O<r j 9, /977- ftbr."'Y 11, 1978 (N"", Yor" Mol",·
pol;,." Mu><um Qf Ar" 197<1),51': 'In Ih. f'''1 r...u""''''g o. ,i "'. d,,'h. Ch,io'''n''
;n '",)1'.1>.,><, with ,h,;r I ..... W. h";'age, did oot US< I'<ligiou. ;""'S ..... mo .... of proo<lyt;z,
;ng ,h.;r )'OO"S I'<ligio":
7. f.r",' K;"",S'" IIp.lnli ..... '' in ,II< .\Iaki"l (Combridg<: H,,\". I<I Un;., Pr..., 19&11, 19.
3, H.nry a.odwid, J'Ir<> Ea'ly a..,a. (l!arlIlODd,worth: Progui", I <lIil),ln. S«lbomo.
F. J'Ir<> C/",h of God" ... R,;n<"I''''.';'''' of fArly Chri";on ...", ,", <d. (Prin«<on;
Princ<'on Un;., Pre .. , 1m), I J.8--.II, wh<1'< h. ",sse." lrun >om. Ori>ti.1n arl ffi>y h,,,,,
rom< from Gnootk ""mmun;,; .. or rcfk<,<d a ·womon'. v;,ion of a.ri,,· in ord.r 10 "pt.;n
,n. 'pl"'",n' • OOrogyny of ,h. iro,"'!l"' phy.
9. 1h,ull;'n, l'uJ. 10 ( .... ..., 7) .
10. I"n ...... II.",. (Ir''''' "'NI' Soo O><l>y • ... k un. nO" l
dell< ;nugini Co!pOC.nion< di c.,,,; RAC (1 931) : 35-41.
II. Tmulli.1n, Idol , 8 (' " .... /tNF 3:M) ,
11. o.m.n1, Prot. 4 Itrans. LeL 14Q..43). Her, a,m"n' ref", to ,II< prohibi' io" of idols
•• f""nd in Deut 4: 19: ' and bcw. 1'< 1<>< )"'u up )'OOr <)"<' '0 h"",n, . nd wOrn )"'U >« lh •
... '" ,00 ,h. moon . 00 the "or" all the 1>0.1 of h .. , ·,,,, l"" be drown , w' y .00 """ship tll<m
.00 k"'" th<Tn, thing> ,hot lh. Lord )'OOr God ha •• 110,,«1 ,be p«>pJe. un<kr th, ."th,·
5« al.., dO""'l\t, Strom. 6. 16.
13. a.,,, .. ,,, 1kttJ. 3.11. S« P:ml Co,l>y f'inn<y, "lmag< on Ring>.oo f.arly O d ...
li.n ... " .. lUI' 41 (1 937): 18 1-86.
14. Ckmrnt, Strom, 5.S ... NF 2:451).
IS. Ibid .. 6. 16,1 2, Thi, J'I"og<;' dl>c""ed by M.ry Clurl .. Morny, • ... rt in tho E.rly
Ou",h: Jlo.21.
16. Pliny, N.,. __ 7.
17. Origen, C c.I. nj (l ... /tNF 4:510).
13. IbKl., S« .1.., C. Cd>. ,,""cr< O'igcn attock. lboo< who 'h .... n '0 '",trk •• nJ
wo.-.hip ;""g<' or ,0;",.10 .. d;v;n" ... • • • ';n .. nt· ,00 lboo< woo f""ion .uch im.g<> , .
boins p<rsoru of woft hJ.ss ",d wkk«l char""'<t.
19. O';g<o, liom &.>d. 8 . .l-t.
20. S«, for in"oIl«, T.nuil;'o, Idol. 15: :rnd -'1>..-r. II.
21. Tr.d, Ap. 2.16.
22. For, so<><! d;Ku"ion of th;, .ub;"". K'< Robert M. Grant, God, .od , .. 0,,< God
(Pnib<klph;" W ... m; .... ,.', 19&;). ch'p •. '.nd 4, 1'1' 45-61. '" rich p,....,'''io'' of ,I>< . i ..... 1
cul,u", of tho tim. i. found ;n 14 11",or, 1001'..,;'11 /10"", d"d C/Iri""," Triumph, Tht /or< of ,ht
/10m"" t'mp;" AD 100000SQ (OJford' o,fo,d Univ. Pr..., 1m).
13. MinoeL'" F,lix, 0«. 3.4; T<rtullian.ldol. 11.7, So< G. Clark,', h.lpful footoote in h;,
lra.w.tion.nd «I;,ion, 171. (kr.o";", ofM.re", Mi"",,;., }9 (Now York: N,wman.
1974).111 n, 110. Comj>11'< ,II< rabb .. ' "milar i ... lruction to I<w> dooc, ibod below, II. 39.
H. T<rlulli.1n, M.<1, 2.
25, CWr"'" u.p.. 28; £p. Ep. SS.9J , G. Clar'" hr ..... , nd 0lUl0t01<>r. Th<l.mm of
St. /)"pri." .... CW 44 (I'"" Yorl Newmon. 19841, 1'" n. 'l) ohouU.th • .-..dcr', .tkn,ion
'0 ..... of fJvi .... ",non prohibits ell,",i.1,,, froon .nooo;ng pagan
16. "'th.o .. C. ('..,.,.. !l-24.
27. I" oddi,ion to t ho ... n, p'" '00'" (Oon><ot, Pro,. 4; Origon, C. ('..<1< UI: T.rtul·
lion Idol. 4.2) .... abo T"nilliID. M.",. l ,ll: 4.21: .00 Sp"', 10.l. Also 5« Finll<)", 171. /,,";r;·
,I< God, IOI_l.
18. So< Robert M. Gronl. ' Th, o.-c.logu. in F .. rly Ou-i>ti",ity: HTR 40 (1947) : 1_17,.nd
.... mmory diocuuion in M.ry Ch .. ko MUIT'Y' "Art in ,n. E.rly o.urth," )(17---3, "" tho uk of
lh. o.-c.)ogu< in ."Iy Ou-illi. n lc>ching.nd 'h«Jkogy.
NOTES TO PACES 16-20
19. On the D<ut<fQnomK ,<form.nd . nironi"" ... /o"ph Gotnunn. "l:>.uteronoml"
Rdij;iow R<f ..... ""tion or kono<l .. li< R<>'<lluhonr in The I_t<.nd 'h< Wo,d. rd. J. Gutm.nn
IMi"""I • • Mont.: s<ho"-,," I 5--1S.
On Jowi'" . nioon;'m .nd D<ak>gu. proo<riplion, >« T. N. D. M<11ing", MJ er"","
i,".:g<? "",t/i" An;""';,,,, ;n ,,, ",...;"'1 N"" f ... ,,,," Co.""" (S'ockt.olm: Aln"!u'" .nd W)).·
.. II , 19115). «p«i:oJly hiola<! ,h' pl<r, W«I S<mitK An;eonism '0 1s .. ,l il< ]oonod •• m."
wh,,,, he ro""lud" 'hot ",.,Iil< '''Koni,,,, em"s" from. long cul,u,,1 hi <1ory 01 W.,.,
S<mi, ic ",iron;,m .nd i ...... unique '0 br.d i1><lf. nor u i, ba>rd on I"nirularly J ..... ish the·
oIogical rdlro.ion or uaching. 191-97. 5« ,I>< old" "'" k oflo.eph Gu, m,mn. "D<ul<rooomy:
Rriij;iow R<fonnat ion", .nd i<i<m. "Th, S«ond Commandment . nd thr lmag< in Jud.um."
in I\\:> GrGV<H /mag<>: S,udi<, n "" .od ,'" 11th .... Bibk. ed. r· Gutm.nn IN,w Yor\:, "to"
IWI), J-H, wher< "" ")' ,h. t D<uteron<>my, n\<)f, ,h'n '11)' <>ther """" in the Bible, "m.>e$
,he • .«I .. i", "">nhip oI'.n invisible deity,.nd he <it" Kho"-nhip ,h., <I.im. ,h .. I",cii"
.niooniorn <an ..... !>< ,",,<d befor, t .... ' igh'h ''''tury • .c .• , Abo, C. II. T. I'",il<r-louis. "The
Worship 01 Divi ... lIurnanity ... God·, Im.g<." in nu- kwi>lt /InoI, iJf Chn·"ol. giad M"",,'n.-
I,m. cd. C. :-: ..... ""'n el>l. (!Liden: 1999). 111l-lS, Rega,ding ,h. nulter of ,h. invisibili' y
01' God. 5« dilClWion below. ) . nd 4.
)1 , 5« A.,. 3.195 (on Solomon); ond C. lop. 2,71 - 78 (Oll the Rom. n imp<fw
ruh ). Compo'" T. dt"" 1/i". 5.5. which .. th" Jew. '" up 00 .... u •• in their
01' thd, king> or to thr Roman emperor.
n T .... oonfli<t i><tw«n J'ws .nd Rom.", i, d;",w.O<d in <ha p_ 1, fuller ",,">I cia·
'io .. (M'_ 17_H; /l.}. 1_9_ll-
n _ Phik>. ,,,,,," C. D_ Yong<, The I"",*, of Ph ilo, N<w .. d EOi,""
(Peabody. M ... ,: H<ndrick.oon. 1911)). 514.
).4, Philo. Corru'"pl 1.7.
35, Philo. Gi."" 1 3.5.!-59. ' ran., Yong<. TI>< IIbrks of Philo. 15<1 .
.l6. "Th, ...... mption tha t lud, i.m w.,.n .ntirrty .ni<un;' ,ci igion w .. ",.n"rd with
'he diKOv<fY of thr 0." Europ<» Syn.gogur .nd thm fu"h" undrrminO<! by the finding
of u«ora' ive p,ve,",nt mo .. i" in thr ",m. in, of .n<;'nt .yn.gogOe> in ], .. ci. figu"ti",
p.in' ing> in the J,,,i,h catacomb, of Rome ,,,d 'he like_" Among 'he e"lie11 ' 0 dire .... ,h, ..
n" Uer< "<Ie Erwin R_ (".ood,"",ugh, i""i,h Sy,"ool, in ,I., Grmo-Romon P<riod, I l vok
IN,,, Yo,k: P,n,heon. I9SJ-6lI): .nd 1_ Gu'm.nn, rd., No {mag<' _ Abou, ge"". 1
. .... mp'io ... ,h .. rud.;'m "" •• oomi>"ntly .nironK " Iigioo ... t he ... mm. ry ch.p'" in
M'rga'" Olin. The Notion £<ami"i"l Mod,rn DiK()ur><> "'" I,wi,h A" (Unooln:
Un iv. 01' Neb ... ", Pr .... 2001 I. S-J I. 5", 5'""n Fin<', =y h.lpful w<>, k on Jewi'h .It .nd
.n;<oni.m in Lot< An'iquit y, including "I<un,-",Iurn .nd tho Ar! 01' Lo te An'iquo P.le"ini'n
in F",m '0 5tppho<ir; S'udie, i" / .... ish A" S«i<ry in Lot<
rd, Let I. L<'"inc.nd Zo·"" W,i .., Joum.l "r Rom.n Suppl,mrntory Seri" 40
lfu" .. mout h; R,t.; lourn. 1 of Rom.n A"ha",l<>gy. ,001). ISJ-.904.
37, R. Ak.,. allow<d )owi>h ",isan> '0 OOtl tinue in 'I><i, ".ft. <ven making idols lor the
Genti" trode.1IO long .. ,h.y did not practice idobtry , hem .. tv..: f<ru<a!ern T. lmud • ..... bo.Ioh
Z.,.h 4:4. 5« R"hd HachliJi. "Synagogue> in , .... LoI><I 01' 1 .... 1." in s..<rrd Iw!l .. , Tht fmt,--
l'"'" of'hI! Synagug'" in ,he A"cit-n, IV.rW. <d. S, Fin< IN .... YorL: O.roro Univ, P ..... : yoo ...
Uni",,,ity Muo<um, 1<19111. III - N. fo, . h<lpfuJ di><u»ion of lewi.h . rr ..,d "' it""" tow.rd
vi, .... l o" in Lo" Antiquity_
)3_ Jo"",lo'" Tlln' ud, ..... ""dah J :), 41d_ 5« ' h' n,u<h 10", r<d><tion of ,h. Ta,·
g"'" 1's<u.io·","",""n, which i, . n "". ",.i< 1""1'""" of lev 26: 1_ Thi' "''''''' ' he prohi.
bition of idol> but , llows p>V<tn<n1l wi,h im. ge< . nd I))'." .. , '" .. 'hry .", I>Ot 00;.<11
of""nhi p.
}9, Comp. ", r."",lern T.lmud. <Abod"" Z"",h l.l; 42b·<; Rabbi Yohanan explain. ,hat
0Il,5hou1d .mid looking .. the idol> exo:pt when th..,. r.U to ,he ground, crting I'> )7:3t, while
Rabbi l..d. h .. ,.. th .. 0'" 5hould "",Iook.t them.t .u.
40, 5« di ....... ion in Gront, God, .nd ,m, 0... God. ,h. p. 6, pp, 75--3),.100 Finney, The
i",,;,;bl< C.od. 26-lL
41 , Thi, last ident ification can be lound in D.vid C>tt lidS' ,00 Keith HI""t. "", and ,h.
Ch,;".." Af'><'Who (Loooon: Ro<Jrlrdg<, ZOOI ), 36_
42.5«. fo , «amp". Lac"ntio" d<><' iption 01' t .... murrh at Nioom<di • • d""orro on
ord ... of !)joel .. i", .1><1 G:oJ,riuund drscrib«l ... "lofty «Iifiu." Mon. 12.
4l, 5« Kurt W.itzm',"tl . nd H..,!><rt L K...t<r. nu- F"",o<' of ,I>< Du,a S"""fOK"' a..J
Ch, is,j.," A" (W .. D-C-: o.mha,tQn o.k&. J 9\1(1), for. 'horough p"",nUtion or
Wci wn. nn·, . rgument.
203
204
NOTEI TO PAGEl 20- 28
44. o,uOOI of Elvira. GUlOn 36. tut. oo , .. noIa, ion in K. rl Jooeph H.r.) •. Hj".ryo!
,I>< Chri"jdn eolUla"ls. ,,,"" 1'/, Cbrk (london: T. &< T. Cbrt, l89t), 151; :J« . 1"" loot Vi,....
Gmfi!;", < J/i,/'Ono-iIo .. "nQS, &p.1U ,,;',io"i •• Text'" I (Bor(don.: Conkio Sur<-
riod d, i n .... 'iS";,,,,'" Cirntifl<OT. 1963), 8. Tron.I, tion vori .nl • • T< di""SKJ by Edwy-n
il<van, lIoly J"",f.'" (I-<>ooon: (:ootg< Alt." 11< Unwin, 1940). 114-1" . 00 M"y Chi,1<> Mur_
.. y. -An .nd .h, b. rly Church," 317 n. 2.
4S. Cd"". n.';'H.
46. Gr<gory the G .. " to Xr<nWl Ep. 9.105 (t ... "" NPNP [).H). (s«. oo fl" 11.1 J NPNP
1l.53·\.4.) (For oth<r ,,,timoni .. ,o ,h.",", dimas<> in dlUrrn ....... Gr<goryofNy><a, 110m.
19.2 (u.u<lo,;" s. Throaoril, wh." h. d<><rib<s th, p.intingof m.rty,,' images: "", p>int lng.
,.,n if it i •• iI.:nI, is eop>bl< of .puking from Ih. ""U ""d bcing of lhe S,-.:>I<" I><""f,'" Ur.n •.
in Cyril M.ngu. An <I{ rio< BY'''''';'''' Empi", JJ1-HSJ, Sou"" "oJ D<><wntn" iToro""" Un;" .
of Toronkl Pre.., 19&;), )6-)7), ,nd diKu .. i<Jn in ,h.p. 6.
47. G.-.gory to s.,,"u. Ep, J 1.13 (mn<. NPNP 13.5). tr",<I"ion >oJ'pt«l <l ightly) , s..
C<lia a.. .. I .. , "Piet u, ... Iloo4 and th. JIlit«. 1<: 1'01'" Gr<go<}' 1', 1.<11 ... to s.",nu. of Mar_
Word OM Imo!, 6 ( I 'IIlO): 138_53,
48. Stt Herbnt K< .... r, -Pi"u,.,. .. Scriptu", in "in Sludi" in Pic-
rOTiol No" .. i"" (london: Pindar, 19901). 357- 79.
The oId<>1 " i"ing ioon. at. »und 11 Saint Grthc-rir><', M0na01<ry on Mount Sinai; >«
Kun Wri,zm;rnn, Tk M"""'1<1yofS.i"' a' MD"nI 5j",,;, Tk mI, I (Prin«<on;
P,inc<ton Univ. Pr<so, 1976). 5--{;;.nd P"id nn,,.,, Ri".oo To"",,,, nlbot I""" 4M
Tltti' {),"'"8 (l<:>nOOo, Th."....nd tllkl""n. 1976). TO. icon of Ch,;" Pan""'","" ,,<I'inly is
on. of th. oId .. t , nd do ... to the m;d·,i"h "ntutf·
so. s.. dOOmion of th ... fu"""ry imag<> in dup. 2.
51. Tran<. uk." from Dani.1 Sah ... fron OM UJso" Sou .. ", in E'gh,h.ernl"" /coood.,m
(Toronto: Un;v, of Toronto P ....... 19116). 1)4. bas«! on ,n edition of the A", of the O>uncil of
787, origin. Uy puNished by G, [), M"ui in 1867 {S«ro,"", Crmcjli<wu", ""'" <I .",plj»,,,,,,
Coil",;'" vol Ill.
52. 1-'rom Mong<>. 10< A" of ,Itt Br.a""'" £mp'r<. 17, whi'" provide> • iongcr ",r>ion of
thc leu". I1k.n from 1. "- Pitt>". ,oll<ction of frogm.n .. , .'ipitikgi"m .'io/""""", 1 (!-\I, i.,
1852) . s.. PG 20:1545-19, wh;d, '<prod",,«h< """" of F lIoi.in (<>. 1700) , For , hri<f, help.
ful d i"uoOOn of the ... t",,1 tr.dit;"" ..... St<ph<n G<to, "TI>< TN< Im'g< of 0';,,:
l<tt<r to Co",,,nt;" R<oomid.red; rr5 J2 (l9Ijj ): 460-61 n.2.
53. Mongo. Tk Ar, of ,Itt lIyzomi'" Emp''',
54. Eu ... biu", II,,,. 7,18 (tran .. NPNP 1. l{)4), 0100 v" , Co"". ).48. where Eu .. biu.
d<oeribe! """,,""I "",'," gf Danjd . nJ th< Go<Jd SIo<phrnl th.t u.n.1.nli"" ><1 to >oJ<Jfn
f""n,. iru in Con",nlinopk. A«<><ding 10 NPNP ( I. p. »1,00]., 2 fn. I), b.>ttt Sowm"", HE
5.21 . M l'Itilo.l<.>rg.iu> 11£ 7.3, ."" ref .. to thi. ' 1""", "hi'" (.«<><ding 10 I· K l. Gi<s<"r·"
u k!. I/j". ) might h • .., be<n originall y "",ed to hono, . n .mI"O><'oo to<n ..,· i<I<n, ified by
aui>! ;'"" 1>«111 .. of the posoibl. G"",k ;nsct ipt",n in<: luding .ith« th< \«1m """,i or thto.
55. 1" .,,,,u,,lIa,,,. 1,2 5.6.
56. M.ry a..rl<o MullOY, "gum""" . ,, m<»t l""\I»i'" but " "If hove b«n oon.;dcr«l
>in'" 1>" 1977 "Art ""d the Early Church," the 1'181 r"pons< of G<ro, "The Tru<
1m. g<." Schol>r> hov< ITU inly r<p<' ted th< text of Eu5Cbiu. without noting th< qu,," iom ,.i><d
.bout i .. ,u'h""ti, ity or ,Iu, il is fO\>.oo "nly in ,h. "" .. of tho ",,,,,,th !>:um""", 1 Cou",il
. 00 tho jIv,;I,,;um of Ni«pl>otu. of eo",1>ntio!,1<. who "'pied "ul • {'<"ti"n into. "",..
known .. ·Con' ", Eo.5Cbium ., I',piph.n;d.m." Stt 00,,,,,,, fot,." of Ni"'l'horu ••• ]i>led .nd
br;.fly diKusoed in G<ro, "Tm< Im.s<." n, 1.
57. Epiphon;us, T,,, .. tnt . 00 tra",- in M.ngo. Tk A" Df ,Itt B.I=",j", Emp'''. 41. from
Georgi;' o>trogoruy, «I .. SIW/inr 'Ut =/r;o:/", de, by""" N" ,«/r, B;ld",,,,;,,, (B ",.I>u: M",_
""'- 1929), Stt di ....... ion "SlIming the .uth<nticily of thi> .00 Ih< "' hn frosm<n l> of
Ep ip/l.niu. in <hip, 6, n, 48,

59. s.. g<"",,1 J i",u .. ion in d"p. 1-
60. G"",tiQl 'r< ".1 ... ",d .. «1 with .. rly(lor'<1;"n i""'g<. making by s.. Mot. ·
Clo"h ofC.od,. 138-39, or the old".oo probl,m.otic ""ork of w. I1<' l.ow,"" A,,;. ,Itt
fA,ly C/r"felt (N ..... York: Norton, 1947). 12_13.
61. J\l1, of,\>h" 27.
Am of,\>h" 2S--19. >l ightly odaptro from EdSllr H.nr,«k N<w Tm"""", Ap<Kryp/la.
ed. Willtdrn Schn«md<ttcr, 'r."' . Rob<rt M,l. W,],,-,n (PhiJ>oJdphi" W<Stmin""', 19591,
NOTE S TO PAG ES 28-40
1:11G-21 , Th. u>o<iotion of . po int.,'. colon with emain vino .. ,f'P< ... . 1so in ,,, .. o.tis·
ti.n b""tuf<. for <:umpk, in Gr<gory of NY">, A'I; ... <I r<f .. and John Chrpmtom.llom, 1
e;". 13.3.
63, Lomprid iU>, 11;>< A"S- A ..... 29.2.
64. s... dioco"ion i" dup.l.
65. 1/;',. A"g .. 'Xv. Altx. 29.1.
66. Porphyry. Vi< PIo,-. found i" S«p .... " M.ch ... na, 'ran •.• PIo/;n"" T'" r<vi«d
by B. S. "'gf (N.,. York: Fw.r Ind F.l><r. 1956), I.
67, Frg. D. in B<ntky I.oyton. 1M GrrMi<- Scr;ptum (Gord.n Ci'y, N.Y.: Doublro.y. 1'137),
2J7,
68. So:< th, """'pli'm' fo, "'im ""nf .. red by '<S'I d«T'«$ '" eo,..t,nlin<. eo.:b: 110",,-
IH.I ""d I H .2.
69, Eui<biu>, Vi" (bn,< 3.49.
]0, IJbn Prmf J.I.9 . nd II (Sylv<>",), «1. Lou;' DIlch •• <><.I.t Ub<, Prm'ijifiI)i, I (J> ...
I!occord, In. 174, s... FngJi<h 'ra ..... by Lou;" !lop<> l.oomi>. Libt, Prm'i/i<oJi, (Now
Yo,k: Octagon. 1ll<lSJ, 47_'>0.
71. k,om<. eo", ... me)" 405- ll
72. So:< mud. mor< <k1.ikd of the", dev<!opm<nl> in ch.p. 6.
n. II fuji di!<u»ion of'h< pom.i, foIio>w. in d.'p. S.
74, Di>c1lM<'<l by Gro'l!< M.A. Honf""'n ... "Th< eont y of a....i<al An: CoI,u«, Myth,
.nd Foi'h; in I\gt ofSpiri,"miry: /I Symp",ium, «1. Kur' W<i"",'''" (N<'" York: M"""",I;"n
MUO<Utn of /1", 198()),35-3(;.
7S. 1'<>, ... ,oed a.,;" '''',,<\1<, ... Moth.w., O",h .f God" 12'" Joo,,,,,., K. 1«>11",;, ..
"Problem. d .. th<od",u.nisch.n Kurut Ronu," RivAC }<l (1 Il<IJ): 111: and B<" Brenk. "Zw<;
Reliefs d<o 'p"te" 4. lorhundert .. " Ac'o 4 (1%9): \-I_55, Lowri. <iaiou thot ,hi. W:l.lik.ly.
Gno" k production. implying ,hat ito f,mini ..... ttributeo """,Id .... ,p id<n'ify U ouch. in Af'
i. 'h< wi, 12- " ,
76, So:< tl>< di""",ion of .. "J«I.nd bc-.rdk>o Ch,i" in <h.p. 4
n. Augulli".. S<-nn, 198,17, ".no, Edmund HiU. 1M ",,,ri;s of 5< AuS"'';'''' pl. I. vol. ),
( N<wly [lisrov<r«l Se,moM), «l J. Rot<U, ( /lmoI:lyn' 1'1\17), 191-94; ...
,hap. 4. pp. 109-1()' for mor< d;"'u .. io".
205
2. Image and Portrait in Roman Culture and Religion
I. PliO)'. Na,. 3S.2. 1- 7 LCL 'l:263--<iS). AJ_ tho: wllok of 6<><;k JS i, de<!ieoted to
lh< .is .. 1 "" .nJ a hSlingof f.mou. .. inci..ding tho ,,,Ii,,, G,ook porl",it 5«,
f.,,- iMt.nc<, JS--l6, <Sp«i"ly 98----'1\1 <on the ""int",, Aristides, woo "., tho -firS! to depi" tho
mind .nd <liP"'" th. f""'inSS· of hi. mod.l,
1, Ibid .. 35" . 11.
J, Plu"rch, AI." 1 (t ........ LeI. 7,1l5) , 1'0' .not'" ,xampl< of bngwtg' port"i'u"" with
compori..,... '0 da>si<al ."tuory. s« Luci, ... Pro ;""'lI' .nd 1","8'
4, j . ma Br«k<nridgf, Likm .. <' A c;""up,u"1 H;"<><r of A""jm, !W,,,,;,u,,, (mn.ron. IU.:
North .. ,,,t«n Univ, Pus<. 1%3), ISl-S6,
S. ll<'prod,,<oed in B, «k.n,idg<, Uhnw, 16(;, M. So:< in Su»" Wal.«, ".-uk
o.d Ro""," Rl"",;" (LunJoo-t: Briti", Mu .. u", 1'1' ... , I99S), ,hap. 7. "lb, I(o<",n '''''g';
7H12.
6, On th. luJio.U",du.n pon"''' in gf",rol "" 0..00 B,U,n Roo<, Dyna"i, Co",,,,,,"o·
""ion ond /"'p,,;o) Ibm.i,u" in 'h, /uho·Cloudion Prri04 {Camb,idg<: Cambridg. Uni.,
Pr .... 1'1\17). On tho inug<. '" Augu"u" "'" Poul bnko" 1M _,oflmal" in ,h. ,oil' of
/luS"""S. ","' , A, Shapiro (Ann /lroor: Uni •. of M;,h;gon P,a., 1'138): 100 lal U,"<r,
· Inv<n!ing Imp<rium; T<x!>.nd II>< P'''I'.gand. of Mooum<nb in AU8" ... n Rom,; in J"
Ehn<,. oed .. A".nd Tex' i" 110 ..... er.hu.-c {CambridS" Cambridg< Un;., 1'1', ... 19%), )2- S3.
1'0< , mor< g<o,,,.' "udy of Roman ",ulp,ul< ( .. ><I port .. i,,) during the f."pir< .... I)i ..... f.
KI<in«,/W".", S<r<ip'"r< (N<w H.ven: YaI< Univ. Pr • .., 19111). with full bib/iog"phy.
7. On ]>O<t"i" of ""m<n i" Roman a rt .. , Di.n .... E. E. KI<in" , nd S .... n B. Moth""",,,
«1>., i Claud;" 1/, l\\o""m ;" Ro"",. "-,, altd soo.". (Au.tin: Un;". ofTnu 1'1' ..... 10(0).
S, s.. Richard B, illiont. A" from ,ho R</,ubli<: '0 Co",,,,",;,,,, (London: Phaidon,
1974), 17"-30.
9. So:< \""Ihr. G.-uk oltd /lQ"O" I,,,,,,,;,,, ,h.p. 3. "B<>rdoed ,nd Il<.rdl"" Men; 8J---93.
206
NOTE) TO PA CES 40-47
10. jJ . P. [Orang<. "111< Origin of Medi<val fur, .. ;,u«." in h .. Li'",m .nd [am; &/",,«1
S,udic> in C/.,,,,,,.l ""d fA,1y M<du...-I Arr {Od."", Odrn« Uni •. PreM, 1973), On ,hird -
crn,ury Romon po"";lo,,, in Fn<"b« SU"" Wood, /lQ .. on """",it 117- 2fiI/ ltD
(LriJ<n; Bril l 1966), .nd E", !)'Ambr .. A" Idcmj'r i" ,/0. /Ic"",n I""'d (London; c.J -
m.nn and King. I_I,
I I. On tho Plot i"", PO'''';' from 0« 1:0 ... ,,&<. HknI<<<.nd /""'. 32-4"
Il. Kki,..r, ,<;n.Ip," "'.
I l. Ibid" 'lS-lOl. Not<.ll< 'luo",ion from Pluta",h S« 01>0 N.,. 11.14S.
14. KI<il><'. /10m,," Sculpt""', 34J .... US.
IS.lbid"Ul.
16. On 'hi> particular point,..,. P."I Zo..u:..r, rl« Ma,l of 5« .. ,,,,, Th< Im"1I< c{ ,'" ,.ttI·
kauOU" A.'iqu;'1; '",n'_ A- SN.piro (Borkd<)C Uni •. ofC.lif"",,, p....., I'I9S).
17. I{ . P. L'Orong<. Ap",h""i, in Aft(i .... ' PO"""'"" (Comhridg<' H.,,,rd Un; • . P,,,, ..
19(7). 19. Thi ... mi"",1 "llilydiscu .... tn. im.g. at kngln .nd indud«.xampl .. from .",,;'nt
li",atu .. t .... t uoo.rsror< t hi< a.<p«t of A1.uoo.,'. r<pu .. tioo.
18. Ibid" 2&-29.
19. L'O"ng< ha> much to .. pbout th. h. ir of th.", fisu,e>. )0--102. S.., 01>0 Doroth<.
Mkh<1M"",,,,",, ah VO,bild fo' ea."". u"d M.m<,"'"t""iu, u"",-
• ..rnungm. CoUcdioo Lotomu. 94 (Bru .... i>: Lotomu>. R<vu< J 'ttud<. Iati"" .. 1%7).
20. S« Ji><uo>ion I>rIow of tIr< imp<fw pon"its . 00 th< rel.tionship of the>< image> to
In. !,>"tMul god<.
21 . z," .. " .\I",k of5« ... , ... 202.
22. [t>;d,_.
23. It>;d .. , .... 1'. 5, "Had,ian', &ord."
24. Pliny. Nat. 35,2.1-'1 (t"',," Lel 9:26 .... 7).
15. fulybiu,. Hi". 6,53 loCI. 3:3-89) , u'mp'" Ovid, H". 1) , 153, .nd SaDWI, &1/,
JUK. "<minen' men of oy, "",ntry had til< h.bit of .. )"ing ,n" wn<",ve, th<y <On'em-
pl>ted the im.Ki." oyf tneif a""<>t,,,>. theif"",," bumtJ with tho: m"" ",h<ment <lnirc k..
vi,tu<."TIr"", tutU,e <ited .nd t"nsl. led by Michael Koortboji.n, M'.Hi"g; .",; M..., ·
"'Y"" /10m"" s,,"'''Phogi (1I<,lt<1q Un ... of C. lifOfn;' "" .... 19115). 122_26. s« .1>0 Il<in,kh
Dr<fUp, · Tot""m .... u,><I Ah..,OOild b<i <kn Mm.",," Ml.MI (R) (1 980): RI, I W-29",.nd
Anni. Nirokt" Jit ... Now".1 f\),,,,,i,,,,, in /10." .ruI ,10< A ... of th< loa"
Crn'"'y "rJr< &public (Am""dorn: Noord IlolbOO.rn<. 1
26.5« Nancy Il.1mog< ' OO Il.1mog<. Rom"" Arc Ro","I,,, to Con"".,,.,. 3d cd.
(Uwu Saddle Riv<,. N.J.: P"ntic< HalL 2001). 141-4l .00 fi!l". 4, 1 ..... 16 of tire rolumborium
of Vigna Codi"i.
27. Pliny, No,. )S.H.
211.5« J. M. C. Toynb<e, D<a,h •• J Bu,u,1 in ,Jre R""",. \\i>rlJ (1l.1Itimo", )oI,n. H<opkin.
Un iv, Pr .... 1971).51 _52.
19. Augwtin<, Mo,. «<:1. 34.75, Sff diKUWon of .. ints' pot"'"" in ch.p, 6.
30. Ric .... rd K,ilI " nt. "·Wh .. u Dut h. TIr .. I Should Fu, It?" A'I'«I.< of th, Konun
Reopon><." in I""'t" An';'1";'.';"· <t ifimOS"'pJri< d" .... ",;< "'""';'" .,dong<> "jJm, A
Rc«ft Tu","", cd. Nioo;' Dt.", .nd Andrt Bui",," (1',,;'" D< 8oo;ord, 1999). 145.
)1. 5«. fot cump!'. the " ' '''I'h.gu> ofTitu. Adiu. Eu.ng<l .... in Guntrom Koch. Ro.,on
Fu_ • .,. s<"Ip,""" Co,o",*u, of ,Itt CoUt<t"'" (M. li bu, C.li f. : I· P.ui G<tt y MU5<um, 1 'mI),
2 ..... 27. fig. 9", RoI:><rt C." ",,,,,,i. d •• t l"hi,,,,i,, (I> .. fum", . ,",", 19IIS). do.p. I,
TI>om"",8" des i, n.s" 'u' mort>." 17_) I, U.n, Il<lti"g. iik",,,,, ".d P,,,e_: A lfi'''''r of
tlo</.,0I,!HJort rio< E,a of Art. " ..... L lephcott (Chicago: Univ. of Q,ieago P ...... 19114).
711-101.
l2. A gen .. .r .umm. f)' in Toynbtt, D<ath ond B",iaI ,. rio< Roman World. , .... p. 6. "G .. y ...
>lone> and Tom b Fumituf<" HH I; 101 FJ>n<r. I ",pmol Ro ... 0..J Ch"";.n T "u..".1o: Tht Aft
of ,Itt Ro.,,,,, Empi" IolJ lOO-45O(O.foni: o.ford Univ, Pre». 1'196), dup. 6. "Ar' . ro! De_'k.·
It5-{.S,
33. S<. U' Amb ... "Mou,ning .ncl th, M.ki,,& of A"c"to," on th. ·I'<".m.ntum
R<litf," AlA 911 (19115): 667-111.
}oj. 5« Su .. " Wood, "Ak<Sti. on Kom." s,.''''I'iuti," AJA 4'19-5 10.
lS. Koonbojion. MY'". Maminl, On Dion»lan ,h,,,,,,- 5« Friro,kh M. tZo Di,
diony"«"," Sorl:ophagt 4 (Bulin: M.no. 19(8); Rol><n Tu" . o. u. ""'''Phop' ,omai",,,
'rpffl<-"'o';"", dicnY'idqun (I> .. Boccard. 1'166); ' 00 Korll<htnlnn·lbnl<b<".oo ErlinS
C. Ol«n, D;""Y'u., 5<>""1''''''; in !Io I""",,, (B. lt im""" W.ltm Art (;. lI<,y, 1942).
NOTEI TO PACE\48- 54
36, Th, lOmb of Prorulw in t-:.pl ... "". <Drub of Son G<nnaro, is. ""'<WOrthy .xc,ption,
.11"""gIl il doted 10 lhe f,fth «nlury.nd " ... probobly. pilgrirn.s •• il<; 5« di",,,,,ion p
)7, Th. f>O<". i .. of .. in" in ,h. ""ooomb •• nd o<h<f buri.is.f< mor< fully di"",>k<I in
chap. S.
3.'1. R.pt.!ing the goId. gl>. .. po",..it" which .... &<1m< of the ."Ii ... im..g .. ofthe ellr;'·
t i.n .. inu, ... br;'f d;"u .. .," by EI,n". Impmol nl_33,. 00 the o ld" wo,k by
a.., ... Rllfu. Mo'ry, l"ItL C.oId·(;j,,,, (;,,11«1",. V.,k"" t,brory, «i G. "'"ori (Votia n
City: Biblioteco Apo>toli,. V .. iGl.IllI, 1'159).
3'1. So< IIelt ing. Lib'''''' o'ld Pm",,,", "p. 81 :utd fig, 32; . 1>0 H.fIS Ach.lis, Vi<
/(a,.l:ornbrn "'" iW.l1'<"1 (l<ipzill' Hi .... m.nn. 1936). -48, 61-63, and pi'" l7. Prorului. imag<
;, di",usocd opin in ch.p. 6.
iO. On the imp<ri.1 cu lt in g.nenl, ... r Pric., Rj,u.I; • ..J fu""" 1'10< Rom""
1...".,;,.1 Cul,;" A';. Mi,.,,- (Comb<idg< Un<--. Combridg<, 1934); Gk:n W Bow",,,,, ..
-n" Imp-<ri11 Cult: P<r«p'''''' . oo P<r>i".I\C.; in,.......,h.'Id Ch,;"io" s../f. IJ.fin;/i"n, vol. 3,
cd, S, f. M'Y"'oo E. p, Satol", IPhilid<I[>h;': For' .... 1' ...... 1'11t2). 171-&l; !'aul?.." .. ,. "Th.
fuwe, of Imag..," in Po"lotld Fmp;": RLlipm aoJ /-\»W, in JIo""", Imp<ri.zl Sa<k<y, cd. K. A.
Ho<s1ry {Il. "isburg. Pa.: Trinity, 1991),72-86; Robert Turc.an, TIt.God,o{ .'000<111 Ro_: Rdi·
,i"" i" E,..,ydoy Lifo f'o", .'on;!w;< '0 1"'f'<Tiol Timn, Ir ..... A. t-:.vill (london: RoutlM!!"
20(ll). 134-4S ("The [mp<,;'1 Cult"); and Duncan Fl>hwi<k. Tit;, l"'l'<"'ial Cuh ;" ,It;,
Il<idrn: Brill, 19371.
41 . 0. the 'p<>In""i. of 1" I; u. Co ... , . 5« $u<1oni .... I"L iii, Pliny, Na, . 2-'1"'; and [>i<> Co. ,
. iu. 47.13.$.
'f2. lti>1ori.". who vi"", tho ruk:r cult i" ","" of """;., 1""",," 1><>1" 0.:. inclOO. ,h. ft>!,
lowing: p,ice, R;,ual, and "''''"'' Iohn fl, W, G. Li<b<s<Mt>., Con'in"ioy and a.ong.;n Roman
Rdi,"'" (Oxfo,d: a.reooon. (979); Lilly Ro.o T.yIo,. Tn. Divinity af th. Roman Emp'''''
(Middletown. Conn.: Am<,kan As>oc;' tion. 1931); .00 DunCln Fishwick, "Th.
[):v<lopm<n1 of rro.in,;'1 W,..hip in 1h. W,,'em Romon Emp;"'." in .'oNRW 2.16,2
I J'fI8). On imp<,ial po,l.-.i" in g<TIeTOI k<: Niru 1I'llI1e"od. Rom." A" o",J Imper;ol "'Iiq
I .... .... ,hu. Uni., Pre», Im);.nd Brilli.nt, Ro""," "'", 1_7,
U So< 1Io"",,,,,,k, "'n.. Imp<,,, 1 Cult," on this di>tin<lion.
« . An "'''''pk: ofthl> is the ,io! in An,,,,,-h in 3117 c .•. wl><n dtiz .. " d.""'fcd imp<ri>I
i,,,,8<' .ft" 'Th«>dQoius I ,,;cd to impo .. . n<w tH. '1'1>< .mp<ro, ««u,M.1I hold r .. poruibl.
aOO punishcd tl1< <nti« city by mnoving its metropolitan ".hI •. So< Llboni .... Or. 19_1,.
pin for <km<ll<j'o, rKONid.,,01ion, s«.1>0 a.ry.o.tom, S'"'.2, 1_3. wh.", he .. id II>< whol.
city.oould fm lik< lob on hi> dunghill, l>m<n1ing what had l><fo[kn 1h<Tn. In add ition, Codrx
'/10",. promulg>led in )9) C . • , • .....,.. to "","" . b<I_n "",lcdi<lio", of the
<TnPO"'r' . n.m. uu<.-w in levity.nd lho>< sugg<sling O<1u.1 oed ition OT ...:,iJo:g<. On III< k:gaI
'!>Iu'ofthe emp<rot'. im.se, 5« Thorn •• !'<bry, D.t, 'omis<he /(ai",j,iiJ"i, i" 5,,,,,,, /(uj,. u'ld
G<></I<ehaf' (1I,,(in: M. nn, 198$), II<lti ng. Lim.." .'Id Pot"",,", 105-7, 1'0' an iUu",.,ion .00
.oort disruuion of,hi, k. f of the Itoooano Goopob ... Kurt W.i"""nn, u.u An'iq",otld f.o,ly
0.,;"",,, Book lIIum""''-'''' (New yo,k; G«>rg< H,uiU .... 1977), 9()...93, pis. 30-31.
PUll)', Ep, IO ..... S (To T",j.n), So< D.nid TIt;, Emi""',a"d ,It;, God" Imog<s
from ,iI< To"" ofTrojon, HDR 2S IMint".poll>: Font ... r"",. 1993). <>p. 4---t>,
46, Thl> qoototion . pp<." in El>rl<r, Imf'<Tial Rom" S4.
47. ,... T.<itu .. /fi,l. M2 ... n "",,,0,,10 (the d.f ... of tho &i""'"lh Rom." I.gion by the
G'uis) .
..a. ",,"I Corby fin,,,)', TIt;, Invi,ib/< God, Tit;, f.otliel' 00,;"i4"' "" "'" (t-:ew Y",k, Oxf<>rd
Univ, 1'''' .. , 1994). M"iw"h<, S'Il11t. "Ilow W." Impe' ''l Por". i" Dl>tributcd
thIOugbou, the Rom1ll I'.mpi"'!" AlA 43 (1939): 601 _17; P.ul Za n ... ,. Prov;"zi<ll< J(j,isn·
"","ills. z.., R"'fI";on iI<r Sd)md""u/lu"t d" Prin<fI" (Munkh: Bay<f;"hrn Ahd.mi. der
Wi"",,,,,,han.n, 1983),.nd idem. TIt;, _. of Images,
Se<:T. cil"" H;", l.J6 and Se<:.150 Tob. S!I; and Coda '/10"" 9.i4. which
gi ... ,h"... I'<,"on, " '00 11c, for .. "ct""y to. "otu< oflh •• mpo,or <on .... "'d d.Y' of
>«mi1y.
50. f'ro",,,, Aoi M. r .. ",. 4. 1! .4 (tr. m. In. 107). <itcd both i" Imf'<Tiol 11<>"". 54,
.00 in 1'u=0, l"ItL Gods of And.m 11<>_. 1.36. Not. ,hat • .,,, o"i"i." .mp<rors promu's"cd
. n <diet tha1 prohibi1ed imp",;'1 imag .. from!><ing .nnoively bnutiful, , ,,,,,.inS ... ,h Slory
fcor "p ..... nt1tiorut of the divinity, God", Thm I S.4. 1.
SI , So< Codrx TIt",. 9,40.17, which .u,ho<iz .. <lornn"';" in tl>< co", of Eutropiu. "" that
,o<h imag .. m.y no< poIlul. the ¥i.ion Qf lho>< woo ... tn,m;.oo Ebn<r, Imp',i.1 111;_.
207
208
NOTE) TO PAGEl 54-63
ll_lJ. On tho pr""'" of d.", •• ,io ",,,,,,,,;.u in . n ",d .pignphy ... Eric V,m<f, <d" from
c"liguJ., to ec""" .. ,i".,, r""",,, ""J r",",-jo.",.,"" in /W""," 1I:>"",iM< (At","'" Mich ... 1
C. Carl,," MU5<Um, 2000).
52. ju.'in. 11op<Jf. 17 (l ,u",ItNF 1:168). SO< """ I Corby Eml<)'. "1h< Robbi .nd ,h. Coin
""n,..;' (Marl: 12. 15b, 16): Rigori>m M''''lul," /8t 111 (1993) : 619-1._
53. ""ulli,n, Apol. 111-35 p_im.

55. Minuciw Felix, Or"29.S.
S6·loo<rhu .. Ap. l.77_78.
57.los<ph"" 8.1. 2.9.1_3 (16'>-174): romp''' A." B.ll_16: On I .......... d"'l> with
;m.s<' of the emp<"'" '« Ctcil Roth. -An Ordin."". ' 8";"<1 Im.S'" in 1"", .. 1<",," lin 49
(1956) : 169--76; . nd c.rl H. Kr.><ling, -The EpiO<>J, of III< Rom.n SI'nd>rd! ., le""".,m,·
IITR JS (1942), 26J.-39. Al.., =T"it .. , A""_ 3,36; .r.ll/i,,_ HI .. _r<es on the Rom.n
... oo ..
58. Ibid, RI. /. '0. 1_5: romp''' A.,. 18,8.1-'1. Tht "" in fl.1 . • p<wof mor< th.n "".
''''"'. whil. ,I>< '"01.0,,' in A." "",olio", only" .....
S'I. ",,",ph" .. "'P, 2.77- 73 ... citro . bo¥<.
60. To.du. 'loboJah Z.,.h S, I, r,k"ini"" Tolmoo. 'J\bodah 7 .. ,ah II (42b); B..byIoni.n
T.lmud. ')'bodah z"",h I •. Th<>< " Xl • .,< dtro in Bow<r .. od. "Imp<,i.1 Cult," nn.
•• nd r<f<mr=l1O Eph"im E. Urbodl. "Rabbin"' l Law> o()dol.itry in to< Sewnd.nd
Third Centu,i« in Light of At<h.<Ologi,oI ,nd Hi$lo,,,,1 h<!$," If! 9 (1959), H_5 ,nd
22<>45, <sp. 152-51 ,nd 1)$-19. Ali<l s« 'h, "'","' t=nt worl: or G,,..k1. I. RI;J",in. " R.
Y""',,,n, ldo>btry.nd !'ubi;" Privi l'S'.- 15/5 (1974)' 15-Hi1.
61. Hippo/ytu .. Rtf. 9.16.1. This ,<x, is _N by Fin""y. "Ft.bbi ond Co",: 636.
61. Cyp,;'n. Ep. 61.1,1, tr. M. G",m, CIoru. 1M L",", ofSc C:,pr;',," ,"01, 1. ACW.f6
(N,w Yorl:: Now""n. 1984).93. s... 0100 I Ckm"" 45:6-7: Tmulli . n.s.:o,p. 8.7:.nd Idol,
15. 10; Cyrr''''' I'ort. 2. 11;.nd Ep. SIS.S.I;.nd 67.IU .nd LII/'" 19; I<rom,. up! D.". ) ,13;
OU]'>05Iom. SI.,. 4.6.nd 5, 1 t; G«gory of Nui.nzu>. Or, IJ,,,. 7t.
63. s... Eukbiu,," Vi,. eo.r". 4.60 .nd 71; <Om!,," .1"" tl>< ATi.n hi,tori." Philo.torgiu ••
11;". 3.1, GCS (1971 ), 28, who ".imN tlu, Ch,i"i, .. pray«! to (".o", .. n,;". .. ' 0 0 gOO.
Phil""''''lli", i, ootro in IIoW<tSO<k, "Imp<,,, 1 Cui'; 181.
M . .. mu .. Vi,. c.m". 4.15 (tr.no. NPNP 1,544); com!"" 1.3. I:O" n&, doubt. tnat
Con, .. n,;",·, ron";" . dually ... "..nc.vn in 'hi' pooition. with . rr", upral""- bo><d on the
coin im.g ... 00' ,oth" only looking h" ... nwOfd; "'P"'""",i,9}-9t.
65. On the , .... tion of '""';r.c. ...... Co ... " Thro. 16.10.1; Ell....,i .... iii" CO"", 4.25.
66. Ek:>w<:r""'" "Imp<riol o..lt.- 182.
67. Ath." .. i .... C. Ar. J.n,s (NPNP 403%).
611. B .. il, Spir. Son<!. 18,45 (1ron<. NPNP M7). Thi. t<x' i. dis<u..ro .goi" irt ""p. i . On
th, o,h" h.nd. Cyril of 1,,",,I,m. C.,. 1!o5, "gu" ,h., .;n« th. m""iol im.g< of ,h.
<mp<ro, .. bonor«L why oot '" mLKh mot'< the rational i""'g< of God (,n. human b<ing)1
69. I"d"d«l in ' h, ""'to of 'Il< Sev,n, h f.cum<nicol eoonc il: Sot",,"m ,,,,,tilio,,,,,,
"""''' ""'ph,,; .... roIImiIJ (Flow", •• 17S\>-1798) 12. 1()1}-IS (If. n<. NPNP 14,S3S).
70. ThrodOf' tn. StooL«. Rif. 2, I I. 13.
71. So< Ern" Kitz.ingrr. ""Th, Cult of ' h, ]m>g< bcfor< lronod.,m.· DOP 8 (19S4) : 116-13.
72. So< m","' di",u"",,, of 'h' 'i,uoll"'''royal of gOO. ;" ,h'l'- J.
73. So< d;",,,,,,ion in ,Iu 1'- I.
R Tho"",. h ... rguro , lut po "'" p.;n ting> of the gOO. ,.." ,100 I'roJu=l, ",m.
with oIiding .nd w<r< th, forerun", .. of icon<. port;rularly b<caus. of 'heir rompooi .
,ion (front f.ring.nd half Of lUll length). s.. Thorn ... F. Mathe .... T'" Ckr,h iJfCOOr: A Rmr_
"'P'<I"'iofr of Eo,,,, Chrio,;'n An, ,<y, «L (Pr;nceton: Pri"""", Univ. rre.., 1_). 178-S1,
75. D>o 0.')_'010, H - 46, Com!,,« ,h" miern« ,boot ;ntlo",t;"n 10 th< !.trr
a.ri<ti.n i",,,, 01.11>< ""''' (dr. p. 61,
76. Philwoor ...... Vi" ApoIL 6.19,
77. Elsn" d;"'u....! ' h, "",nie, b<tw«n o",nip""""" .. >oJ 'J"t,:tlly 1oc,1i1.<d divini'y ,n
,0<;'''' I"' Iy<h'i<m, ""ng tn, ,,,,mp" of t h, .. "n ArI<", is,lmpn;'llWm<. 2<14-5.
78. Plu",,,,h, Mo •. 167 I) (Sup'''''t;''n).
79. lulion. F",! , Ep .• ;\9}-294 leU:) 10-11).
30. Lucion. J/,,"d, I.
31. s.. diKu .. ion 01. ' hi> imag< ;n Mothew .. Ckr,h ",God>. 131-3).
32. s.. dis<u"ion in 'lup. 6.
NOTES TO PACES 64-76
S3. Augo"in., 0., IU3-14. tnns. H.n,y B<t""""n (10000n: Prnquin, 19M), 330-37. On
tho m.tt<r of tho Hmn" i, t .. dit"'n ",d tho rol< of im.g<> in Nropl.toni< th""'gy. 50< tho
bricl' di><uS>ion in ch.p. 4.
Si , l .. rdm, 23()..)8.
85. s.. ' ture.1\, God, of Ra_. 14t-lL
$6. Kl<i""r, /10m"" ."'"/P'Uff. 243-14 .
37. tb.:!.. 17&-n.
8$, Ibid., 23(}..33,
89, l ... nk<r, TII< ""-oflm"en; KI<in." Rom"" Srop.","" 326-29,
90, s.. Moth ....... Clod> <jGod" tOO, fig. SI , . nd 20S n. 16, which helpfully I .. d. tho r .. <kr
to two ul<ful"",rcesQn th< h.1<> in pr<-Clrristi>n tim" .. nd tl>< heal" .. o<I.."t«l by Rom>n
""'per<><' M>rth, CoIlin,t-Gutrin, ]/u,,,, .. du Nimh<, dtl ""X Itmp' nood"""
N""",,11e! £dihon. I"ines, 1961);.nd Andru AtlOldi. "In.igni.n und Trocht Jer romi;.:h.n
I(o;"r; 11M '>0 1 ..... 12: M-4 1.
91. s.. tl>< dirrusoiclO of,l>< irooosraphy of Christ in dup. 6..
92, I>.ul 0,&'1>.-1... p .. mi .... i>ioo d. Co",a,,,tin (310) '" I< .. mpl. d'Aponon.l Nin .. <;
B .. n Roy /kJ (l94S); 179ft"., ond tl>< occount in Lact. ntiu>. Mort,
9), H.I." ",,";m.
209
3,The Invisible God and the Visible Image
I. Min""i". 1'<10.. O<'t. to.l-S. t"n •. Gro.m, o.,k<, The ('<'0";0' of Mo"", M'."d",
FtI;:c. ACW 39 (New York; N,wman. 1974), 66-67,
1, Ibid., 32, 1_1 (tronl. >lightly ad' plN, 11 1_ 11).
), 1bid. IS.&. whe .. h. ""flU to b< relying on T<ftuUian'l , pology or OIl the writing< of
<>th<r « .. Ii<l) .po\osist, who u>< only n<goh ... t<!"m. 1<> dncrib< God (a.rkr, 260 n. 2H).
Ibid" Se, d"ke', .nnol"''''' on lhi. porti"" (" ,h'pt<l, dio<u"ing the th.t
Minu<iu. 1'<10. """ th< v.now rhilosophm.nd tn,h", he 1><", u,}-72, nn. 2)O--tiI ,
Ibid., 14. 10. Minuciu. I'< li, .1", .Ik>w, Octaviu.,,, brand pog' " d.i'; .... m".
hum.n •• only I.,,, mad, int" gods (Euh"" ....... , .ft .. th, fourth ""tury • . c". philosopl><r
who oon1<nd<d that th, goo. w .... m ... 1y kings ,,><I h.",u): 0" . W-ll . Compo«
d ..... " t, Prot, 2.20)..-21: Tmuillao, llpoL 10000011,.nd Athan .. i"" C. c.-.". 15. s... diKu»ion
b<low, pp. S}--S4.
6, Just in, I Ilpo<. On the .pologi.,,· critiqU<' of Grro>·Romao on .nd poIyth<istk
><IoI.Iry .... P.ul Corbr Pinn<),. The I",,;,;b/c God, The Cion,,",","" Art (N<w Yorlc
o.ford Univ. Pm.<, 1m), ch.p<. pp.
7. Ibid., 9 It",,,- ANF I; 165) ,
8, Ibid .. 10.
9,lbid .. 63.
10, )u" in,DlaJ, (,""" .... ,,' P. 11lJ).
11 , Sin« the "xt tlut Just in dte> i> the s.p"'oX'"' (LX"), II< DOt" the "'" ofth, Gr«k
"",r,1> ly.-io' ("lord") for God .nd 0"8'/Oi (".og,b") for tl>< visitor>.
12, JU>1in. Diol,
1'- IISd .• 56 conI. In luk< 2lJo4J. J<su. cit .. thi' P"lm t<-<t. Ac,. . 1", <lo« to tho
.. m< PO'!"'''·
Ii. Ihid .•
Ibid., III (tra"" IlNF 1;163).
16, lren .. "" H.", L1O.3,
17, Ibid .. 4.m.S.
IS, Ibid" i.2M.
J9, Ibid" i.:WS- 12. s.. .00 2.<i.J .nd
20, Ibid" i.:W.i-7 (tran" IINF U8S---90).
11, Thi. fulf, [t«I ,night b< roml'3t<d to tho in"'l''''''ioo ofl ..... h'. vi""" ... .,,,,.
sight of Chd" in th, "" of Inhn 11:39·41, wh ... [",i.h i, qoot<d . ... ying "'h. h ... hlind<d
their.y«.nd h.rd.t>«! th.i, h<art, "" tJut th<)' might DOt look with their .y« .. . ' h<aus< h •
.. w hi, glory."
21, I""",,,,, II.". 4.M.8-IO ond foII"""ing. 1",..,0l> con,inu .. with thiJr th.m., citing tho
viJrions of Daniel and tl>< Book of Fl<v<lation. s... olso flo"" 4.32.10)..-11, where h< again "f".
to I .. i.h. Dani<L .nd Zech,ri.h. Nol" tl>< b<lief Ih .. Mosd vili<.on of Clrri.I " Ih. I"",f,gu-
210
NOTB TO PACEI 76- 85
.. ,ion wa. the promi><d .ight of God .100 'Pp'u, in Tm"U;an, M",,- ll: .... ol Pm:. 14; .. _ ll
.. in Orig<n, 1/0", U<>J. 12: .nd Co .. "," (Am. 2. Il.
l). ImlKU>, H", •. 4.20. 11.
24. Ir<m.<" .. fJ>id "" ..... 5.

26. I"", .. ,... 11.,,_ 4.1.4 H70)
17. Ibid.
18.11,,". 4.22.2
29. Tmullun, ApoI. ll_ll M'F ):23-9).
30. Tmulli>n, Idol. 4.1 ..... , quoting r. II S:)·8.
31. T<rlullian, ApoI. 17.
l2. Tortulli.", AI""_ 2.27 1'r>n'_ANF ) :)18- 19). Thi. deocripl"'" of Ih, Word rd1''''ing
the p.r1 of human priof 10 tho ;nc>rn.'i<x1 'pp<>11 ,Iso in l'T"", 16. H< odd. h<" 'h.t hu""n'
can mol'< ""dily ' «<pi tn., God b<cam, hum.n in the inaomation. >inc< &Orn<1hing "milar
h>pp<D«l on ,h.s< .. rli<r
33. Tmullun, Mon", 3.9 (trll .... A.NF J;)18_9). In '''''''is<, Co,". Cltr. (6..3). Tmull;'1\
"gil'" .g.;n>! «Ito;n di.dpks of Mamon who tough, ,ho, Qui>! might hav< hunun firm
without boeing born . ilK< 0118<1. h . ... 'I'J'<"r«I in tho Iksh 'w"hout tho in"rv<ntioo of the
womb." TmuUi>n , <10 , 1> th .. tl>< diff,rcn« brtw«n Q"ist .00 tht .ng<l. is th .. o,rist
d.>«OO«l into Iksh ,.ith th, intrnt"'" of dying. Angt]' did no< h."" to di,.<><1 th,rcfor. did
""t .... to I>< born. But to br c'p.N, of dwh, o,rist h,d to I>< born.
) •. Thtulli,,,, (A,". em. ,.
lhtulli,,,, M.".
36. Tmulli>n, Pr= I (t,,1U. ANF 3:597).
37. Ib;d .. 14 (,""", ANF 3:6(9).
J.8.Ib;d,
)\I. Ib;d. Thr lro nmtion of I Cor I J: 12 th'l I h.", .>Cd h,rc i, oot Ihe trodilion.1 "",dirlj!
bul ;, b.>rd on , TlK'r< L""I rc.ding of Ihe t<Xl, .. "'gg<,,«1 by my I<>cl.rr, Ric",d NOHi •.
N",ri. roinl«i 0'" 10 m, thot th, "" of the t<fTn "rnipno" or "riddir" wa •• f.irlyoommon
trot>< in • .,.,;"nt ,hetoric.
-1(1. I b;d., 15 (tran •. , :6 10).
41. Ibid" 1+-15. Compm (Jrn .. "t of AI< .. od,;', ""«I. 1,7, in "nkll th, instructor i. tn.
"f.« thot l>rob .... ,.
41. Orrn""t, Pro,. 4, I.
43. Ib;d .. 4.1, oonl. (t" no.ANF 2:18-1).
H. Ibid., 6. Qu<>I'I"", from Eu,ipides, Pr. 1129. Sr< P.ul Corby Finfl<f, Th« Im",ibl. God,
Th« £,Irlj.,. 0.,;,,",", ""A" (N"" York, Oxford Unj •. P.-- j 99-1 ), H.---'l7. Comp. rc Ckmrnt,
S'",m. 5,12- IJ.
45. Orment, Strom 5.1 (h. >lso cit'" Exod 11:20; .. w.1l" I Co, Il : 11"nd M,tt Srr
,JooSt", ... 1.9,
46. jb;d ..
47. !'-or " ,hm.8""" "8umcnts regarding th, t""hing> of th, phik»oph<I>, "'" '-':\:, 6.
48. Ib;d .. 17.
49. Ib;d .. IS.
5Q. Ib;d, 17.
51 . C1rm<nt,S,,<' m. 1.1 5 (<<->no.ANF 2:JI Thi. i, qU<)trd birr l>y Eui<bi .... PR"'!'. E¥.
410.
52. Pluta«h. Num. 8,8. Th, .... nrial .rriclt by Lily Roo" Toylo" "Anironic Worship .mong
thr E. rly Ronuno." in a.,sktiJ Stud .... in H""or of Joh" C Rolf<, rd, G, D. H,dz.<jl> (Philadrl·
phi>: Uni •. of Penn>yiv>n" Pr< ... 1931), 30';- 19, provid .. m.ny of th, .. pri mary oou« ...
53. T<"ulli>n, ApoL 25,
Ausu"in<. C;v, 4.31 , '''))5. Henry B,ll,noon, Th< City of God (london: Penguin.
1972), 175. 1hr tr':ot"" ofV.,ro in whi<h thi ...... "surd, "'""' "
dm""r,,,,, lib'; h" brrn 1Mt: 0« Ci •. 6.1. Both 1'o:u,,.. .nd \'" ro.rr mrntio.-.rd by IItnobiuo,
hut in his It,,,tis< "urn. is <r«litrd with intmJudng""'w fo,,,,, of "".-.hip 10 th. Kom.n.
with 00 on,n!io" nf ito I><x nf irn.grs, Ad". N ... 2. 12, 7.2<> on th, ."ioonism ofv"to ... Ad".
Na.7. 1.
55. AugU5tin<. Civ. 7,5. in Betteruon. CiryofGod, 261.
56. T.y!or, "Aniconk Wonhip," cbims lhot the <>,Ii"'t t""pI .. on ,I>< Copitol thot hod ruh
i,,"S'" d.tf< '" the f,rSt U"""," kinp. T'''1uinjus PriKuS .nd Srrvlus TuUiuo, 306-7.
NOTE) TO PA GES 86- 96
a«ro, Na', d. 1.36,101_2. dted by D, Bak!t. "TIl. Al'f<lpogu< Sf><K1>; An Appeal '0 ,n.
S,oic H"'ori.n p.,.i<loni", "l!>in" Lal .. S'oia ",d Epiou,,,,,..." in Grffl;,. 1ID","",.oJ
C/"i"w." £>sa,., i" Ho"qr of /. Mal,,, .... «I. D. &kh <1 .l For1r<>S
Pr .... ,9'OO),Sl- 79.
5.'1. ll.akh. "A<Mpogu, S"""h; 67_'J<J.
59. l'Iutarch, StW. "I'. IOl. H (' .. ID. [Mord/;" Il .ll . 23). ("..ompo« a ...... "" Sirom.
5.11,'00 .to(}"'" llakh, "Areo",gu,Sp<<<h;67-68. fOf. d;"',..."", of,he p • ...u.k w;th p,ur,
.-.
6/), l'Iot;nus. En". 5.3.1. Ir ..... S«ph.n MKunlU. Plali.u, Th< En ... ",d, (1oooon: F. b<r
. nd F, b<r. 1'162). 422_23. , ...... "Iion ;ocludf'd;n AI:un Il<oan,on. TI.- FoTbiddrn I"'"g<: "".
1'1<11",,""1 "f 1","",,/0, ... t .. J. M T<.>dd (Chico",,: Uni,.. of Chico"" P..- 2000).
50-5] .
6] . C<;nf Il,S.7- 11.6,S, t .. n •. )tomy ChoJwick. S,. Om/<"wns
(Oxford: Oxford Uni,., i>r< ... 19111).124,
61, Yoch.""n l.rwy. CMId""," Otorl<s a"d Th",'lY' MY'ti";,m. Mati< and I'.,t""i,m i. 'M
1",,1<, I/om." £mp'" (Cairo: I""hu, d"orclllologi< or"n"'. 1956): "xl..,.. br;rl dis·
<woion io r ... ForlliJJ", I""'g<. 54-56 wi,h good not",.
6). S« Io"'ph Bid, .. Vi, d, Po'p,y'" It: philosep'" "&,pla,,,.k;""
19M). ' I'I"ndiJ: I. 143-57.00 til, <lire of " . ,u<>.nd im.g<:>. 5« Porphyry. Mar<. 14. 16-19.
64, Augu>tin<. Civ. e.n. t!ll .... Iktt<ruoll. CitYDfGoJ. )31 •• nd .i,«I in '''''p, 2. Rcg>rdLng
t">li",. of H ......... ll"i'megist .... "'P. "'«kpiu, 2}-H,..,.. dil<U$Oi"" of _= in Andrt r<on
/.4 <Mar;"" d·ll<,mh, vol. I: tr I", """,I,.., (P.ri" Lo<nff ... ,
195(1);
For .nmpk ..... S"om. 11. and A.Ioo ... ru>t;n. I ...",,1. .• nd , h •
• ,."nymous wri .. r of th. " .. ,i>< form,rly . .. igo'" to ),,";n. known .. the "Add" .. '0 'h,
Gr""lu."Th"d.;m w .. also ""d< byTati. n.nd Th«>prnlus . nd (;In b< found in J<wi>h .polo.
get;' wri'iog" well (5« b<1ow), whi.h p"",nt> Pbto .. <itll". >!<.>dco' of Moot. (h.-iog vi,·
i'''' Egypt) 0< mrr<ly urn""i", from him, N«d on his (1'1.,,,.,) r",ding of tour<eo.
66, )uotin. I Ap<R, 63. S« the di"", .. ioo .000" 1'1'. 72- 7l.
67. )"<1in, mol. I I ('<:0 ..... 1:151;).
68. C "'1' .• 1.191 _192.
69. 'i1I<i'us.lfi". 5S
70, PhID. v.c.t 66-72. Cornpat' hu,in M. rtyr. I ... poI. 10.
71. PhID. Po". 4. s«.1>0 Fut , 141.
n. Philo.Comf 1).4..140.
n Philo, Opif. 2M9.
74. EUioC Il Wolf""" Through" Sp<n<lu", ,/w, Shin"" Vi,,,," ond /""'gi ... ,;.,., i. M,d;., .. J
/<w;,h (PrirK<1on: PrinWo" Uo i,.. Pre<>, I il'H),
75, M,I:/riito d. · Rabbi Shi ..... 4. quoted in Wolfson. SpttW"m. 3.\_ ).4,
76, \'"' lfooo. Sptor/um. 39--10.
77. Th«>phi1us. ... uto. 1.1.
78, Ibid .• U (, ...... ... NF 2:N-90).
79, lbid .• l.22.
BO, No .. ,iao. r,m, 1>-7.
81 . Ihid .• 18 (t,.. ..... ANf·
$2. Ihid .• 18-19
83. Ihid .• 18 (tt ..... ANF H23J.
804, Orig,n. Prin<, 1.1.4_5; rompo" w;,h Minudu. "'Ii.<. who pnx" im> ,lut God " "noth·
ing bu, mind. r<a>oD •• oo >piri'." CH 19,
Orig<o. Prine.. 1.2.7-3.
86. In C. uk 6.4. Orig<n off, ... «itiqu, of Iheory .. """<mplatioo of ><n,ibl<
l<ad.. lO the , ... "",..1<0« oflh<m '0 loo.r lhin&, tlu, ." oomp..n • ..l«l by til< in,d·
leet '",n<,
Sl. Ibid.
Orig<n. Pri.,. I.H .. tr.n. G",'X. I'>,Ui.m Hutt'rw<lftll. Orig"" 0" fi", Pt'"ripl"
(GIo.,.",. M .... ' ""'« Smitll, 1973), 21 _21. 'I", editor po;n" 00' til .. I.rom. "t" ,tf", to
this po"'g< in lip. JId Milum 1,
89, lbid .• U.S.ront.
90, Ibid.
91 Ibid .. H .J.
21 1
2"
NOTES TO PACEI 96- 107
92. Ibjd" 1.4.J, ronl" If.,.., Btl ",,,,,,,, .. onE"'. 98-99 (.mphos" miMI.
Q).lbid.
qt. Th< Gr«k ¥«bo (o,"koowtng in thne 001 <xK1ly "In<. 101m ,,18 n .. ,b.
""rb. for II« ("'''''I.nd interpm or n,,,,', iai'groma,)' whik in Joon It:9lh, p.ir i. >«
(h.m>J).nd kr.ow (gi,.;,kol .
0";&<1\, I'ri.c. 2.U, '",n •. Kut""""". O,ig<1l. 99.
'16. Ong<n, I/o", C", ,,- t . In I'<S'rd to hi. in1<'I'r<ta' i.:m of 'h, pi"" n. m. "M. ,nb...," m .. n_
ing "v;"io"," "'" Ronald E. H,in<', ong"", flom'/;" 1m ern,,", .IUi Exo.:i", o.c.:
Gllboljc Un;v. I'r .... 1'>82) •• pp< .... i12, J9()..91.
97. Origrn, Com ... Com. 2.4.
9S. lbid,2. ll-
99. OriS"" 1/0"'_ Grn. I, D,
100. Origrn, c: QI,. H .
10l . Origtn. 110m. em .. J 3,4.
102. Orig'n, I'ri.c. 1.& 4.
10J. Orig'n, 110m. Grn. !lA.
104. Origrn, I'ri"<. 1.6.4, t .. m. Butterworth, O';Km S7.
4. Seeing the Divine in the Fourth and Early Fifth Centuri es
I . .... h.n .. i..., /"'_ It (It,,.,. NPNP 4:4l) .
2. C Ghol. 2-) .. 11' ..... NPNP Olh., O,;"i." wril.,..",,",I"'" I .. w<>,k
of Ih •• lti" 10 Ih. gr. dual p",I«li"l\ of th. soul 0< , ... ooIon 01 .n . rt i. l'. !"I<11< .. b<ing
mod. up of virtu..; ... G"goty of NY"", Ani"", " m .• and lohn Or)">O'lOrn. Hom. j Co,.
B.3: Ca,,,,h. ilium. 1.3.: Hom. Hm 17.1: .. woll :IS th .... m of /<!lIn 1!1-19 quot«l .bov<. Mar·
g.>T<l Mil"'<U provKkJ m.ny of lhe.< , dmr>«> in o., . ,,;.k. '""Th< Ar''''"'Yl''llm'g<: lohn
O")'>05Iom', I'<l<I"i" oyf I'>u l; /R 75 (1 995); lHJ. <>p- a-19 ,oJ 1Ul. 5S-S7.
l . Orig<n. PN" . ioU .
• . .... /",. 1 H . ronl.
1$.
6. lhid., 16 (,,.."'- NPNP NJ_H).
7. s.. ""gm'in.-. nu",e«l on • .,.,i, oyf Ih< vi.ibk".."rb of Oi,i>I " >hewing forth tho
invi>ibk ""Iu"of God, T"",. Ev. /<J. l4.1 _1. In thi".m< homily, "'uglUli,.. rontr ....
... ing piclUT<> wi,h Trading t .....
3. Arnobiu .. ... .t.-. "at. 6, 16 (''""''
9. B"iJ of u"s,,, ... Spi,. So",. 18.45 NPNP M 7).
10. Ibid., l M 7.
11. lIa.il. Ad". Eu ... 1.14. f.piph.niLa, in hi> "fuulion. quot .. FAlnomiWl .... ying ' hot h"
b ...... (,,00 in rompl ... d"ily' oo in f.M did not know hi"....llb<tl<, lhon he kn<w God: II,..
76.4.1.
12. G, rsory oyf NY"". Ad fun. Lib. 2 (I"''''' NPNP 5:3Q8-9).
13. G, rsory Tioto. 0.-. 2.4 NPNP 7:23lHoO).
14. Ibid .• 4.20 (" ..... NPNP 7:311>--17).
IS. G' rso'y of NY"", Vir" Mom 2»-)6, I,.." . . ... h"h'D' Mol .... , ..... OJ E .... ",ll F<rgu,",,,,
Gt<g<>ry of Nrts," Th« LiI< of 101""", CWS (Now Yo<" Poul; ... 1978), I 101-15.
16, J<>hn o.'Y"""''"' /"",,,,. J.. s.. t .... ;"t.oo"",ioo of I".,. '" I .. St>U<M (i.mi·
.""" «Iition ollhe>< (Ann< Molingr<y . OO Robert .. , j"", 0."..,,_,
iU,rwomt'"".",ibiIiUiI< Dino, \001.1: 11.0""'1'" I N , SC 28 bU (p.ri.s:F'<u liorudu urf, 1910). as
well ... n.lpfuhnalyoi.< 01 , n. ... mnon. in Tho""", K.opeul. ... (urn·
bridg<; Phil.dc-Irhi. Po,,;"i< Found.tion, 1979), SoII----t2 . s.. .00 tl-.< <-"'<tkn' (forthoomi"lll
oyf R""", U Chrisu"'n. · W .. , D;,J Ezd:itI Serl" .. " Qf&.hd', Vi"""
of ,Ioc Cluu-i<J, from /"""",, '" m< c..", (Boston: Still USA, l OOS). Chri>tm.n". worl<, " il l
.n unpub/ish<d m .• nw.e,ip' " Ih. tin'" 01 Ih i, wriling, p!'<>I-id<" d ... a<d <>:>.milUlio,. of p.olri <-
Ii< .us..;, of , h. I""",,"",nies . oo v;oon<of God in Ih" lhird.oo fourlh CMlu,i ...
17. J<>hn Chryso>lOm, 3.7I1-11l.
18. 0.-. 66, I .. ".. lohn E. &mt>«srr. E""gnu, J\m,iro. Til< Prabikm and Cllop-
'''' on Prayt"l" (Kalamaroo, "-Ii"'.: Ci<lmian. 1981),66.
19. S« Chriotman. " I<"",, Did Emr.inS«?" for, disru"ion ofTh<Odord. wriling on Ihi>
>ubi«\-
NOTES TO PACES 107-11 8
10, s.. Andrew loulh, T .. Orig;", of'''' Chri,tian MyJli<a/ r",d;,""" from Pia'a '" Lt.""
(Oxford: O<!"ord Uni •. P=s, 19a1), ch.p. Il, ' Omy> the Am>p.g.il<; 159--78. N<>Ie .J." th ..
lohn of !)om."",. <il'" I'><udo-Diony>ill> 0 ....... r«. mmm.ririllj!' I""'g< from 'he CeL
h"" '0 .. y Ih.t .i.ibk 'hing> .r< ""J'O,..,.I mood. th.t offer. vogue 'pp,d>:nlio" of i".i5ibl<
.!>d ,oootl"'",, 1 I h'oS'. I Ap.>L 10· 11 .!>d J Ap.>L 21. C"",!"", ' f'lI<odor< ,I>< 11'1- 2. 11,
woo q""''' f.«, hi<,. 4.3.1, "' Irulh is ,n 'he I,k< ..... ,h, mh<1yp< in Ih<
' ''''g<o .. eh ,n ,h. ooh" ='!" fot Ih< d,ff",,,,,,, of ....,,,,,, .•
11 , 1'><udo'));oo)"U'. MY'" Thm 1.1000 C-1001 A. In g<n<roL bu, "J'f<;"ll yon thi. "" of
tho Moo .. p..-adigm. "" P.ul Ror<m, ·Th. Up lifting Spiri,u. li'y of .. • in
CII,;"ian Sf>;r#""/;'r: Or;,;n, '0 lit< Tw.lfrh Ce",ury. «I. B, McGinn <1 aL (I' .... York: C...,..,
ro.J, 19a71. ("p. 14J----441.
11. Poeudo-Dion),. i"" D'" nOm. S.H1159 C----!l72 II, ,,, .. ,,,- 1»0.,11, Ori:\:;n, if{ ,'" ""ill;."
M".;.,,/ l6!1.
n. Soc"t.., IIi". 6.7. s.. M.rk D<kogl;"no, "s.itu.otin& Arapion'. Sorrow: TI>< An'hropo.
mo.phi" Con'l"OV<rsy .. tho Hi"orkoi and Th<Ologkal Con"" of c.""'n'. "I<n,h Conr,,·
.oc< on I>u", 1'''),<.,' CUS, 38,4 (lOCI3): 377 .... 11. kI •• n .. "lion, diKucioo of 'his t"Pic.
14, Ib,L also. Ep iph ........ Pan. 7O;."J krom<. 110m,", I', whidt ref ... '0 the anthropo-
morrhi .. pooition II> ' t ... foolish ",,<>y,"
15, lohn c.. .. "'n, CeIL 10.3, , ....... C<>Im Luit>lldd. John C«IS;.", um/<rm«>, CWS (N ...
York: P.uliot. InS), 127.
26. s.. d,,,,,,,,,,,," .bo"" p.
17 . .'.uguSl;n<, Sn'm. I 'J/!. I7. lidm"nJ IjjJI, Th. IV"" .. of Sl . D, .5<" .. ,,,,,
(I',wly j);o<o""ed S"mon.). "I. I· E. ROl,II. (Broo,lyn' N<w City, 1997). Th<
oolumrn 10 wh ich Augu>'in< ref .... ", a bit mY't"io"". Hill.ugg .... lhat Olm.;.,,,. may t\a, ..
"""" ki .. ing th, oolum". .. Ih<y .ntmd 'h, churdi.
l S, Ibid., 31.
19, AuS""i"", r"",. Ev. "" 14.1,
JO, AuS""i"", Ep, 91 ,
n AuS""i"". Ep. 110,7 (.n .",wer to Ep, 119).
32. 'bid., "_13.
33. Augu", ,,,, f-p. '47.l{}, t <>lV_ Rol.!>d I. -r",,<, S.)., 1·1t< \\-orb if{S";nI Au!"";",, 'Ll. ILl·
''''' '00-'55, «l H. RaInS<)' (HyJ< I':>.r\:, N.¥.: N,w C;IJI :100)), 329.
M, Ibid. '8. T.sk. "" .... , )17_18.
JS, Ibid., 20.
:\6, Ibid., 2J-15,
3? Ibid., 37, Tes\r, Ita" •. , 339. Th< p.ragr.ph con"i", • ,umn"'y of pre,io"" <h'l't=
iluguslin<.1>0 cmli!> Ambro>< for SOm< of Ihi< ,,,,ching, Ik r<f,,' indir«tly to Ih. ' n,hropo-
""'rphit< OO"'I"OV<"y in ch.p, 49.
}S, AUS""i"" r""". E ... jo. 17_19.3. Com!"" Hd. 'ymb. 7.'4,
3'/, Ew<bius, D<,.,. Ev, S.9.
040, Eu"bi.,.. Comm. /, •. 41. s.. Mkha.1 Eu,.m", of {}usa",,', Comm","'ry'"
/",i.h: Ch,;,,"," I:>ws;' i" ,'" j,g<cfCo''''.nt'., (Oxford: a.",!>don, '9119) ,
4' , Euocb iu •• Lt.,.,. Ev, S. '4 l,lt< mti", book, how<v<r, odd r<»« this mat"rl.
41, Augustin<. Tr;,,-. 2.4.10--21, Ir.",. Edmu!>d Hill. Th< hlrls if{ s,. Aut u",,,,,, I,S. Th<
Trini.y, "I. I. b. ROo«II< (Bmol<lyn: N<w aly, )991). 'I I.
43. Ibid., H.l2, l1ill t,,",-, 120. 'n 'he "''' P"' S"Pl\S, A"3"";'" .... h .. t<. [J.n;')'. vi.ion
of tho Anci<n' of l)ayo.nd ,I>< 5o<t of M.".
oW, Augustin<, C;'-. 22.19, Ir: .. " , Uenrr !\e"e"",n. Augu,,;n<. a,y of GOO ( Lo!>don: Pen·
guin. 19721. '087.
4S, A .... n .. i"" 1",- '.!-19.
46, s.. flatu Bd'ing, 1"'.S .. "d I'mnr«; A lIiJ10rycf , .. 1""'1:< b<fiJ'" ,10. E .. of A", t .......
E, I'phooll (Chicogo: Uni., of dti<agu Pr=, ,m), 19S.
47, Eul<bi"" D<m, E ... S.9, t ....... William I. Fer ..... , E""6;",, Th< r.wj of'''' ""'/'<" vU. ,
(G"nJ I!ak<., '9111). 2Sl-I-I. Th< t«t «rt.;nly ... "" to ",""ad,<1 Ew.<biu,', p",.
,u",«1 ro,.,.;,,'n .... 'ion of ;m.g .. (&« ,hap. ',pp. lJ-lS). In J.-\poL 16. 101m off,,... d;",,,,,,1y
J ,ff",n' vi<wpo,n' from nm.'<v<r: "M .. ha", did nnI ... ,h. divin< fUtUr<, klr no
p<rson """ t"VfT)"fl Ken God, 00' II< >ow.n im:tg< of God ..-.d fell down a!>d "",ship«!.'
-IS, Euocb i"" Dtm, no. S.9.
49, Su","""" Spoin. ' ·Th. Prorni><d Bks,ing': Th< l"moll"Phy of th. M .... i'" of S. M.n..
M.ggio",,· .'01161 (1'179): SI8--40. s.. Ji"""""'n of Ihi. in ,h.p. 6.
213
214
NOTES TO PAG ES 119-132
50. Jbid .• Spain t ho. identi!i<. It>. worn. n in gold who .1'" .... four ,im<> on lh.
" iumph.1 " .. ;n mo .. ic> (,b, .do .. ,"'" of 'ho m.gi. 'he .nno"ei.bon. th. vi.ion " '0<
b<1ro1h.J of M.,y ,.-.I J""l'h .nd ,n< m«<ing of D .. id. boi,h,.nd ctui>t) ",ith So"h. ,,'hrT
,h.n M"y in Inu< P"'!!"'''''' .od "SUe> ,h. t Ab ... h.m Otis f. « bodl, """,ml) ",nd. with
nor throughout.
5 L s." Il"b<rt L ", .. I". Sul"g: Pk'U""t (".oJ', Invi,ibil;'y in M,di .... 1 Art
(Philad<lphi., Uni •. of ... nnsylv;&ni. V ...... 1000), 3-6, f", 0It.., ",. mpl« of th. hand of (;c.j
in Dllution . nd 1<Wish .",
51. Grtgo.y of N)"", [)<it,. tr ..... in C. Mongo. Tht An 0['"< Br .. n'i .... Emp;" 311_1453:
So."", .".. [hu""",, (Toronto: Univ. <>floronto rr.... 197n 34.
5). Although 'he h.nd i. "",.Uy in,"'J''''.,,! OS Ih< hmJ vi' God, tho: b;bi;ool '<.<' ..,tu'Uy
s;tY' lb., .n .ngel 01" IIl<U<1W'r >poke ,<) Abr.h.m. '<llinS him"'" to >l_y hi. "'n. if Ih.
ioor-.>jlr'rhY "'= (.rg""blyl mor< d".ely b.O<J upon It.: text ,h.n Gr<gorf. in'<rp",.'ion,
th. ""n,;&ation of , t.. h.oo !><rom .. mo ... rompUciI<d.
1-1. VI.w .... oft ... remark on , t.. Tr;ni"'''n 1<p«U of ,h. ="" of I.",,' bap'i"" in the
dorn< of ,h. Ar;"n H'p,i>t<ry in ""-"'''n>.. who ... tt.. impo<lng figur< of ,h. riV<I god ... m. to
5Ugg<" 'h, P""""" of ,h. !'a'her.
SS. I'>ulin"", Ep. 32, 10.. ' .. n>. P .G. Wabh. ut""s "Nola, vd 2,ACW 3<\ (W<5I-
men5l«, Md.: I'rwm;o ... 1%7). 14S. Comp ..... ,t.. <kKrip'ion of ,h. i"",8'ry in 'h, N.ilica it
fuooi. ["trr in <h. k\trr 32,17: 0 .. mb (for o. r"'). "'hi,h i. bring "halor<l " by • dove' (Holy
5pitit),.00 ,town«! by tl>< ",'''h« fMn • ",.My doud."
56. O in.oo Al><I ",.,..nting 'h.-it to (",ad 'PP<" on <)th« •• rly o.';>li'o .. , .
"",h'gi, including 0'" thot ,I>ow. tl>< .". .... of P<1«'OO P.ul (oe< lis· '16, p. IU ).
S7. s..e Robin I ......... "TIl. Trinity.oo 'Il< f.rooomy of S.h-.tio ... " lEeS 7 (1_): S!7-46.
fo, "gu"",n" .bout d iff.«", jdf" ,i,i .. of , hesr figu«"
\08. Thi> i> , t.. in«rpm"ion of INn""", Ho.r, 1.2 ..... S . nd
S9. s..e And'" G"bar, 0..,-,,"," """'f,.plJr: .-I 5/"ay of Its Vrili"' (Prin«1on; Pri"""'n
Uni •. P"",- 1%3), I ll. who ,il" 50me .ncienl S.mi';, I'g<nd. th., I h ... been una"" 10
k>;"e. Th. idenlity of tho r<""n mndi"5 behioo M"y i.'roubk>om<. "", ba>«l upon'
sim;l" in",1I' on • ru"""ry pI"'!"r in , I>< M,,>«> Pi<> Oi"; • • ",, it &«m, ..... """"'" '0 id.ntify
him ... tWa.m.
60. s..e the Atm.nian Infaocr ch.p. 1 I. 19-:ro. ' ... nch " ..... 1-'.,,1 F.voniP/t,
.-I/'OC'rP"" /I: C/!"'"gi/t d. I'Errf."" A. Pica rd, 1911_14). 14l-<14, in lhorn .. F.
M.<h ..... " Th. Ck"h of coo" A Rfi"'''P''''.'io" of E«rly O";"i.,, Art, «I. (Prin'rton:
Prin«1on Uni •. Prno.. 1_), 139,.nd nn, H, 203, SIKh. "XI i> .imila, to ,I>< M,naI.Jt",n.
"h;eh 0 Ies<nd in which """ of 'h, ""'gi .... Chri" .. a boby, Ihe O«o!td ... 'hi r'y-
y<,,-<>k[ m>n, ond ,h. Ihird ... n oIJ ""'n (th., ,h. "'hr« 's<" of man" 'rodition ), Th ... i •
• ;mi l" to Ih. lr>dil.",.1 inle'l"'eloli<xt thot II>< gifl.< of the m>gi (fI"Id for roy,olty, incrnl< f<>r
high pM .. ' 0' god,.nd myrrh for th .. uff"jng , nd dyingo".) projr<t ,hr,,,,,p"" of o,,;'t_
= I«nor". JlMI'. ) ,9'. O'is.n.llom, Nrml. I 1,S: J.ro, Sr, ... ll.l-I, 36;.00 fulg.,,'h .. of Ru'p<.
lip. Im.nau, :ro. s..e.bo Robin ! ..... n, , h. Divi,..," HJI (2001 ): 1 .... 3 I,
John of 2 Apol S. 'n,.., Aoo rrw Louth, 1M" of Da"",,,",. Thm: Tmlr; ... on
,II< Divinr Im.go> N,Y.: S,. Vladjmir'. 5rmjn.ry Pr_ 1003). 61---'2, Ilo« Iohn
ci,,,, Gregory N.,"'nz<n; Ho ... 28.13.
62. Ibid., 2-7-3, tn"'.
S. Portraits of the Incarnate One
I. Compv. M.tt 11:27 . nd luke 10:2l.
2. Not. I'>ulinu. of Nolo', dr>erip'ion of hi> 'I"< ".,....'" .nd ,I>< frequent "-'< of
Ihe I>m" .. lbe . ymbol of 0.';'1 in the or' of tl>< horth 10 ... ,h ernlu,;"" AI tl><,nd oftlx ""'-
<nih «nl"", ( ... 69(1), IIx eighty-><OOn<l anon oflbe Council ofT",1Io (the Quini,ut Coon<il.
MaIYj 1 1.977-80) fuullydUoou'-'g<"h.",", oftl>< l .. nb .... symbol 10, o" i" ,inc< tn. h"",an
inuS' of tl>< .. vior ..... """" <ff«tivr in rommunica';o& tl>< illv;"" in"",,,tion '00 "'p,"";ng
Ct., ... ', Ijf. in tl>< fkoh. 5r-r , Iso Throdo ... , I>< SHodi«, 1 Jlq. 38, whi"" ,<1'..-. to ,hi. canon.
1. From Cyril M. ngo, Th. Arr of''''' By",",;", E"'pire JI2_145J: So""", and Do<"m","
(Toron, o: Uni •. ofTown, o rr.... 19S6J. 16-17: fo, di=ion of os. I"'"'iblr hrgery from
<h"jgh,h "n'ury .... dup. l.
Justin, D;al. H.
NOTEI TO PAGES 133-138
5. Orig.n, C. uk 6.75-77 (tm ... ANF 4:607). Com.,.", t o. " ... ofa.m.nt, fWd. 3. 1 and
Justin. I Iopoi. 50, whi'" 01>0 <i" P""'g< from h.i. h. d<nt<'Ilt oJ", <'I'", ill> hfr< ,h.t 'N'
o..u'r i> no< to ,0. <y<.
6. John CItry>o.tom. bip. h. ".J (PG 55:185-86) .
7. T." and d il<u .. io" in E.n" von l)ob><hn1Z. Chri,,,,,Mld,,, U.",,,«hun8<n ""
rIori"lkhno L<g<od< ([.<ip';go lIi", icll$, 1899). ,up!'l<m<nt 308-29, wi, h <ritk oJ J iscu..oon 0(
th, "" (I..tin '<xt on) 19) , r<fming to J. A. r""",x (lI.mOOrg. 1703) , lot
po", 30I _l.
S. Epiphoniu>. T", .. t<xt and tran •. in Mango. Art of 'h< Bp.nli., E",pirt. 41-'11, from
Grorgij< o.lrog<>nky, «I .. S,udi," ,u, G",hid", d" Bild""",itr, (Bromu:
M."u>. 1929),67, I .. gm.nt 2. Ao M. ngo poin!> out, 10. .utl><:nti<ity of Ih, Epiph.ni ... I .. S-
m,nt, h .. b<.n qu"tion<d. 51:< di><u .. ;"n in M"y C"", I,, Murny, "A,t and th, E.,l y
Church; rrs 28 (1977): J 36---38.
9. This i. bA«<! on '" ... ty v<r<ion o(th< " orr" r<roYnttd by Eu .. biu. in I/i". l.l J,
wh,,,, on< mar'l>o r<ad . ", .. ion of t o.l<lt .. from Abgor to I""" it .. lf. f.uS<bjLU cl. im. to b<
trm<laling from . SyTia.c docum,nt. AnoIho. m<nt ion of b<tw«n Abgo, . nd
Ouio! oom« from Eg.n../'erq. 19. Ndlho, Eusebiu. nor Eg<rilI m<nliom a ro"rail trad it ion,
001 Eusebiu. lor hi> ooutc<) do<> 50y ""t Abgo, 5OW. "wond,nul vision on 'h, fa<. of'Th><!-
d ..... (Hi".1.I3. 12) .
10. 111< .. ,Ii ... V<f.ion of lho kgmd th .. m,nliom • mira,ulow imog< (and d.s<ril><>.
p.inl«l ro,l,.it ) i, "",toin«! in the 'p' ><')l'h>l .... of A.!<I. i (co . 4(0), I"t , nci t r>"'-
G«><g< H"",,,d, Tht T<4dtin;<: of AJ.i.; (Chiw. 0.1,1.0 S<hobrS, 1991). <>-1 1, .1", • • "Th. Abgo,
in Ws>, It.nn."""'kw T",'.""'n' Apo<trph<1, «I. Wilh.lm 5d", .. mo\ch<r (Phil>d<l·
phia: We>lmin>t<r, 1964), 1:437-+4. A ia1<', .""h.« otory ,.. .. ion, d.im. lh .. Christ ... shtd
hi< fa< .. nd .. Ii hl> foc;"l lik<n ... on lho .. e 110, Nt> 1I01y APOifk in
NPNP 8:55!!-59. John of D"""scu. l<co,d. Ih. <I<1.il "fth< difficolty of p.aint ing I"",' fa<.
IFid, 0"" 4.161, which i. ,,"nded in ).oobu. d, Vor.gin<. Gofd,. /.eg<nd. ,,, ir.clud. the
<pi""" ",-h'r< I .... tbm ,.k .. 'h, pointor'. <Om'>' .nd po" " '0 hi. f.c< to I .... 'he imp,in'
of hi. 'pp<. "r.cc--h .. ing good <)">. • "rong brow. and. long fo« wi,h ""'igllt I .. to".
indOc>.ting "",turity; tr.",. G .. ngo: r R)"n . nd Il<I."ut RipP<'l<r. Th< Gold", 11!I"'d 0n.rob",
d. Voragi'" (I.ondon: l.(Jng"""" ,Gr«n, 1941 ).61_1. s... al><> G<rma,..,.. .';"'m<m b<p'" 11<> 'he
(I'G 110:920),0'I . n <v<" ia". trodit;"'" (t""th ""O\t ury) from the rour! 0( C..orut>.n·
tin' I'orphyrog<nitoo (I'G II J:4H_S4): t<n ",d English t ra"" in ian Wilson. TI>< Shroud of
T,,"" (G"d<n City. N.Y.: Dout>l<d.1y, 2J!!-)9 (Apprndix C).
11. Th. bibliograrhy on the M.ndylUm and the Ahgot Ieg<nd .... teruiv<. 0 .... ""'1 consult
Dob&<hU' 4 o.,i"onbild", Il{>-96, .. ".J< of .. , Ii<.II ' hodi", of Ih. ' <>1",,1 t"dition .nd
thm A'·,ril o.m,ron, "Th, HiSlOt)' of Ih. lmag<of Ed<s,o., Th. T,Uing of a Slory; in ah.",,,
E''''r> 1'rm" ,.,J 'Q '- Har","! Uknini.n 51..<1i", 7 (o.mb1' idg<: H .. ",td Uni ... Pms.
19IIJ),80-94 : ..., H.", 1l<lt ing. W·""" •• d I'r<,rna; A I/i"',,), oj ,I>< 1m.!" b<prt ,he Em oj
Art. troll<. f. I.phcott (ChicaJlO' U"iv.of dok. go I'r<os, 1994).103-24: Ilerb<rt L K""""Spir.
i'"ol Sni.g; Pi""n'nt God', I."i,ihili'y in M,di",.I A" (Philad.lphia: Univ. of P<no .. yt....n;.,
Pr .... 20(0), 7(}-37: Strphon Rundmon, "Som< Rrnurb on Ih, 1""g< of Edeooa." c"mbridgr
Hisro,ical /ou",ol) ( I n S---S2: H.Il> J. W. Drij=>. "Th, h,ug<of [ ok ... in Ih. Syn.< Tra-
di,,,,,,.".nd A .. ,il o.m,ron. "Th. M. ndylion and Byzontin< loonociaorn." in Tht Holy Fa"
.nd ,iIt f\>nJdox ofR<p...-'.'",", «I . 1[,,..,.,, G<r-h>td Wolf (Il<>k>p: Nuov> Alfa ,
1m). U- 5-I.
12. On< ,.. , h" ;0" ..... i"3 theory l Ugs"" that Ih' ",,,,,I Mo"d,,;"" lat« UI' i"
Tu,in .. lho 01,,000-... "'{!lson. Tht Shroud oJT,,"", R. D, ..... In s.",.,h of'h< Shroud of
T""", IWw Ut h' IJtI l u Hiif"'Y0tul o.;,i., (Tot"""'. N.].: Row""," & Allanhdd. I_)"nd tho
critique of .um, theory in A, .. ,il 00"",, <><>. "110. x eptic . nd the Shroud," [na usura) I.<cruro,
King'. ColI<g<. londo.-. ( 1960), in C<m'i"" i,y and C"""!" ;" Si.>:Ih-Gm,,,,, (lon-
do.-.: V'OOrum R<p,inl>. 1ge1l.
13. s... 1l<lting. Lit ,,,,,, and Pm""", 21!!-H; I. H. mbu<g<r, Tht Vi,ual • .d 'h< Vi,.",.".:
Arl .nJ "'malt Sp;ri'ua/;,y i" I ..... M,d;",,1 C .. "",,"Y (""",· yo, k: ll> .... , 1m ). d .. p. 7,"V;,io"
.00 the V,,,,,,ka." G«h,ro Wolf, M, »<lyI ;"n to V<fUnic.; in Wo lf,
«1&.. lIo1y Po", and ,iIt i'l!,.""" oj IItp"""'o';"". 166-79.
14. IT,,,,,,,,,, Han 1.15.6 ..... diKwo;"'" in do' p. l. Not< • p.aroJl<I .tory , <s>ro;np noto.,
mirarulo", im.g. of Ch,;'t, Ih. im'll' of o.mul;""" ;n A" if 'h< B""nfi", fmpi""
11 4-15.
215
216
NOTB TO PACES 139-151
15. n-q"""io .... . f'< namin«l in K«>i<r, Spi,;,,,,,, S«jng. map. 4: 'Configuring tho I",,;' ·
ibk by O:>pying ,I>< Holy Fa« ," 64--.87. S«.OO lronid Ou'p<n.ky • ..J Vbdimir Loosky. 1M
of /",os, '''''''' G. E. H. P.lm<-r md E. KodIwb<Jv>ky ICre5I,..""J. N.¥'; SI. V!.dimir'.
5<min. ry Pr<>S, lnQ), )7, "fl= Ousprn>ky I,,,,, up Ill< prubkm of ",,;',ion. in oopin of Ih •
.. 'n< chiming til< "d<1«1 of ........ bLa"" .. 00.. "'" co ..... lock of con,"""ion with
'"' p"""'fP<." .. lod: of ""''''N,ion ,ow:llds him it .... int portr>y<dl .·Ot><p< ..... Y ....... qu<>, <i
'11>.0000'< tho S' .... it<, lllLf 3.&«. 5: "V,,,.,..,;oo .. "'" >hown 10 an iron ;"""'HId>.S it f.11s
>hon of .... mNing th, protOlyp<. but ina>moch • • it r<p .... "". lill"", to it,"
16. A<rording to kgmd. this imag< .... , mod. by Nkod<m..., """"" 5rulptur< ofth< <c rud·
fi<d au;" .va> miraculoU>ly fin;'h«l by It ,..shod up on th< co.,, of Italy n<ar UK ..
• f'ef ';shlh-century Iconoclast> I<>U«l il into tho ... n<>f r."""krn. So:< """, diKu .. ion and
b;bhoS"phyon ,hi. imago in B<i'ing, Li...,,,, .nd /'rtHna, »1-5 n. 37. So:< . 1", N.il M,,-
Gr<gor, Sm"n, So"",,,,,,, lnoag<> of O,r;" ;n ... " (I'e", 1I''''n; y.k Uni •. Pr= 2(00), 96---n,
. 00 • I'<p«>duc';"" of ,h. two<> im'g<s. fig. )(), M. cGr<got .Iio d iscws<o , .... Mand.>l"'" .00
V.ronia imag« in hi< work.
17. AUgu>lio<, T,;rr, 804.7. ' .. f.dmuOO Th< II'",., ofS,. Aug"";"', pl. 1M
Tri.ity, nl. r, E. Rot,Ue New City, 1991),24647.
18 . ..trn of 1'<1"," lO. ".n •. from Henn«k< .nd Sdtr>«mrkh<r, N ... T""",r ... " 1Ip<J<rypIra,
2:){)2- l
....... ISl
20.. M., of 1M", a7-1S9. Iron .. Il."n,d, .nd Sch"..,,,,ldt<r, New T",,,,,,,,., Iop<><ryph.,

21.It>;d
2l.JIpo<ryph ... of /ohn, 1.4-3,
23. Origen. C em. 1hl (, .. "', ANF 4:4,7). Comp.or< hi. ' rgum,n" in 6.77: "But 00", (1n
C<l"" . nd , .... ,nemi .. of the divi ... Word. and ,ho.< ",00 t... .. not ,,,,,minN ,h. doctrines of
Christi. nity in the .piril of ' '''Ill. know , hr m<.n ingoflhr difl"=nl '1'1''''''''''<> of r"",.1 And
I "f.,. . 1", '0 Ihedifl"em1' 'loge> of hi, lii<..nd '" 'ny ""io", p<rformed by him hrft>r< hi •• u{-
kring>.nd .ftcr hi. """'r«lion from the d .. d."
U . Cyril of kruoal"". r ... < 10.5, 'r>u An'Oony A. Stq>h<ru.on.OO 1-<0 McC.uley, 110< 11'0,.,
01-0;.,;., of }m"";'",, >01. I, (W .. h;nglon, 1).(;.: Catholic Uni ... 1'1"< ... 1\l69). 1911.
'S. It,n,i S" ,n. "1.« """"'"<'''' d, rOgli« de .. in,,·(".on ..... :< l. Ro • .,.; 001' 12 (19)8):
157_2I S.s.. th, r«rn' «<o",truct;"" oftlWl monument..,d ito mosaic> by R. R<m HoU"""'l'.
Co .. ,.nri .. •• d RiJ"", (Ne", H.ven, Yok Uni .. rn;ity Pr .... 2(JOo1), Io.J, and K.B. Ra,mu ......
"Tradition 1<gi<," Cah,Arch, 47 (1m). 5--37.
26. R<g.rding lhe ""<Xi'l<n,,, of bolh 'J'P<S (hr.rd«l .nd hr. ,J r....), "'" Friedri,h D<i<:h-
m.nn, di< clo,;"I"Io. Am,4Qlogi< (P"m""lIo WilJ<n"h. flliche Buch-
S,,,n,,h.n, 1983), 149 ,nd 1M, .nd Erich Din. ler, 0",,", "nd ... ,I;tkp''''' SIIAW,PIl
(I!<id.ib<'g: Win .. r, 19lIO).18--29,
27. Th;' "' ,h. "",in ' ..... i. of Thorn .. E Mathews. Th, CIoJh ofGotU: A lIIi"'''1''''.'iotr of
&rIyCh,;,,;,m A". «v. «l , (V,in, .. O": Pr inwon Uni ... V ..... 199'1).
28. Ckmen'. PrOl , II; ",d >« ROOin r,m,,", Under"."","! t.,Jy CJtri";.n A" (I.ondon:
Routlodg<. 2000), 42 ____44. Proboblyunrel>t«l. bu, inte","insly. tll< im>g< ofSol olio ' pre'" in
the rodi. , ",hoel ofth, 'rn"googu' povement .. H. mmath
29. "TWo I'monin,o' "'<pI;"o. to tn;'.r< th,I.,,, m_ia in ,h. 1Wt> Ito .. n ... b.opoi.,.. i ..
(= di"u""" .... 10"). "'",'''''', Ch, i,,;'n or' Joeo &how bo,h Adorn and Donie! ... nud<;
[nni,( esptci.11y 'PP<"'" t .... d ... ic h...,.,Yf><. A8"i"" ,h. """"ation of I ..... with "'1",110
i> Po ul Z.nkff, 1M M.,l ofSomu,,: 1M 1""'8<ofll" 1"1<'I1m",,1 i. Ant;quity, t ...... A. Shapiro
(Berkek y: Uni ... of Colifom;' P ..... 1995), 299. Z. n"', argo .. thot Apolle" bnuty i> 1><"
ohown in hio nude body (aud 1<>.,. io not .nown nud.). Z.nk" op .. in> ... d fot"tl>< tradition
of romanl;;i=! por1roi" of l""'''S men wilh long hoi, of lh< >«ond «nlury A. D,·.nd >p«i-
r." 'hr hrroi< im.g .. of AlUllnde" "'hilks,.nd 'he imllge of Ihr (Omi., Rom".,. H<
.bo"'gg<S1' (prob;.bly h.,.ing lr<n1<u ..... lemenl in mind. 001 ""nlionins"" p.o rli<ubr evi-
d."", f"" thi. urumpf<>tt«l ..... m.nt) thll' ,h. b<.u,iful l'""h im. g< ....... n in .... ntion of tho
Gn",'ics,299.
3(). lust;n, J ApoI. 21-23 (t" ••. I, 1_71); ..... Iso rusti n, 1M!. 69.J . For mol'< di ...
cu .. ion on th, probkm of p.or<lk i> b<tw«n i,..uo and th. ":ron.of lupi' ,," in th, ""Iy Cb,;'"
lio n p<riod, ... on impott.nt on;';k by Dovkl Au"'. "H.,acl ... nd Ouist : 11". <1., IJNgery in
tb< Oui>tolOSY of Ear ly Cbri>tionity," in Gn-el" a,uj EssaY' ;n 1-/0.", of
Ab",""", 1- Mollo...,., «l. D. .. .t. furl""" p""" 1990), }-19.
NOTEI TO PAGEl 151-170
l I. s.. thedisru .. ion of Old T .. ,am.nt typ<s in I.n>rn, Und",'ond,"t forly Chri,,;o" "",.
6&-77.
n s.. In"in, lApeL 26,.00 M"h.,..., C/",h "fr::.xb, ,h.p.), "11" M.g>;i.n." Si---91 (w, 'b
bibliognophy"" tb' uubj«l).
Jl. On thi. g.<1u«,..". I,ud." Dt8,u)"", "[.';ml"'.i'ion d .. m.;n. d.", 1' ... ch,.,"n
.nc;.n; R;,AC 20 (l ... l), 11l-166.
M. Th ... p.i,.. I.,I .... not«l by lu"in, j 1tp<>I. 11.
J5, s.. Zank,. Ma« ofSot:m". 18"-91. althoog.h h. _m, '0 '" 'his ioonogrophic 'rr<
(Oo,is, as philo>oph<r) "mol'< <".n,"" ,h. n I do, and h< ««nd. i, 1o th. I>Onb .. ,d«l
"eaeh.," typ<s as .... U •
.l6. Math<,.., a",h "f GIIdJ. 69---72.
)7, Ibid .. 109-11 , s.. .\;0 Un ... , MoA .fSot:"""" )1('- 11 ,
33. Thi. i. 'h< ,h",i'of M"h<w .. a",h "fGod"..". "'P. Ch>pl«), "L"'g« Ih>" Lif<.·
91_11 4. Not. obj«'ion to ,hi. id.n,ifica,ion. whkh h •• mibut .. to ,h. work of Din·
kl« .nd oth .... MIJk ofSocra,,,. lOO, n. 51 (J91).
J9, I .... n domo"""' t«l by M. ,h<WS, CIaJ/o ",God. 9S-lOl,
40. T.k.n from Mango. A" of ,II;: Byz."t'"e E"'p;re. 40--11, who give. ,he "'"'" a,
Throdo,u. Lec,o,. Hi". 1.15 (PC 86:17)),.nd ,h<n .. quot«l by lohn of Dam .. ru. (J>G
86:221). Also ci,«I by Moth"" .. nuh "fGod,. 186;.nd Gilb<rt D.gron, "Holy Im.go> .nd
Lik<n",,· DOF 45 (1991): 2'1-3(1, I, Bm;knridgc dofin" this "authm'i<" 'Yp< .. ,he Semi,ic
t yp<, .nJ """w. it> Jiff."nc .. i" •• rty B)'1;O"'i'" ,,,; .... S.· s.. j' m« TIl. N",,;,·
... ,1< of I"H''''"" 1/ (635-<S9S) (705-711 • . 0.), NUmi'mat;c No' ... nJ Mono·
gr.ph. (N.w y""." "'mer;"" Nomi''''''i< Soci.ty, 4(Hil.
41 , Iwgu<tine, &to,,,,,, I'<. 13) ,6, Comp.ir< a.m,n' of "'I .. :.nd"". P,,,,I. l.ll , "hich abo
d,es thi, Ii ... from'" 13l. wh." h. urge< men not to WI'<. beard. gil'< ,h.ir foe .. dig.
nity.nd "p.itemal .... 1",,:1." Aloo not«l by Zanlr<r. Mo,l 190,
42, s.. the di><u"ion ofthi. progres>ion in Ri<h.nl Brilii>n'. lIemo""'n fro'" 'M- R<r"blit:
'" eon".",,", (London; PIl.iJ"", 1974), 179---<!2, .nd Ji""",ion in <h.p. 2, Pr. 39-W.
4), An <»en, ,,I,tudyof,h< Christi>n TTK>numml> of Ita",n", w., by Fri<Jrich Driehm>nn,
u""""",: 1f""",taMJe, 'pl'".';!;'. Ab<nJ..nd" J >'<lIs. (W.i<bodo" S1<;"". 1969-198\1).
« . !'or. g<""'] intrOOuct"", to to. p<>l i'ical and «Iigious ron"" of I(,j",n". in this , im.,
..". M .. k I, lohruon, 'Toward • • mlto<y of 'Th«>doric', lluildiog i'mg<.m; [lOP H (1988):
73-96; . nd Otto "'" Simpson', now ew.;< wod. Sot:rrd B,.,-."';","''' S,.,"'.ft
,. RawtI"" (Prioc«"", Prine«on Univ. Pm .. 1987); and Carl Ot,o NordMr<Irn, ROI'rn .... ".mrn:
u"d i/;xmOf'.phi",1I;: tht,,,,,,,,hu.t<'" di< M",.,m. t'01t Rmmn. (Stod·
holm: A1mqu;st .".;1 W',):. .. IL 1
i5, On this building..". GiukJ'p< Bovini, Sam'Iop<>I!'''''" Mo."" ;" R . ... " .... (Mil.n: Sil-
....... Editori.l< d'.n<, 1961) ,
46, ".il MocGr<gor', .".mpt '0 'his wu u,,,,,'i,helmy. ,inc< I>< d'M N<>to,,,n
Oo,i<101ogy ,ath., ,han Arion Ch,istology.nd argu«l 'hat ,h. l><.rdI"" o.ri" r<pr<><nt«l
mor. tl>< di,i"'lUtur< (>loc. h. wa> working wond .... ,>oJ mi",d.-.). whil< ,h. h<>.nl<d Chris,
,h<>wM the hum.n ".'ur< (.inc, I>< ,uff<f«l in his hUmin natur< o.coording to N,,!Or;"'); s..,.
'''gSaIVllrWn, 79-Sl
47, On th< bopti"<fY of th< Ortho<l<>x. I« the boric """k of Spiro Kmto( TIl. Onhod.>x
801";'''''' of R."",,,,, (N.w II.",,,, V.I. Univ. 1965) .
i!l. s.. !W>in I ....... ", 'Whol "" RiV<1 Go<l. l)(Iing.t s.. ..... of J""" 1I>I""m'" 8U
9.1 (1993),35-41,5+-5).
49, Koo,of. TIl. 0,,_ &p"'''?" 87.
50, Orig<n, wmm, Man. 100 (PG 13:756); ... ... m <f }o/m 90; /u'n "fPot," 10 .. well
51 , John Oor)'O'l0m. Hom, M.It. 56, Thi. Wii.! 01", tho mom.nt when Mooe, finol ly " .. w
God," """"min;! to IT<tlll<U$, T«tulli>n,.nd ><CO di><uMion in ch.p.),
52, So< ,he ,.:rr int<f<Sling.nd hdpful di""",,,,,, ofllti. mo .. ic ",d the """if <!l,h. t .. ",-
figu,.t"'" in l>l 8",«, Ion o"d ,Ir< lie ... ,," V;""'r: -n.. r .. ",fo''''';'''' of An fro'" ,o. ""goa
WO,jJ '" a"i,,;.,,;ty (C..amb,idg<' Cambridg. Uo iv. Pr..., I 'I'J'i), 99-1(14, Ill_H.
53. G"go<'}' )'!,;;o. Oro,. l7.l (,,.."'. NPNP 7:ll9).
5-4. Ek"", "f." 10 ,hi. im.g< .. an -.",mplum of ,h. w of 'pi,i'ual v;""' i"s" .nd • 1""_
t rayal of my>tiaol vision,"''' OM ,hi: lie."," V,.......,.. 11 2_14.
S5, Epistk of EUS<bio, '0 Co", .. ",i. , 'rans. Mango, ... " <f,h. Byza"';'" E"'pi", 17.
56, So< o.ni<l Sah..,lron ."d Logo£ "'","'. ,. Eigh,h.Gm,"?, 1"".".:/ .. ,,,, (Toronto; Uni.,
of Toronto !'r<>.s, 1986), IH- H .
217
218
NOTEI TO PAGEl 170-1 84
57. ",lunaol.,., 1..-. 8.
Ibid .. I " (,,,,no. NPNP '!;H);.oo cited in ch.p. t.
S9. Ibid" 17- 18.
60.10110 Chry>o<1OfTl. c."",h. i/j"m, 12.2:>- H. W, H,rli"" lMrucri<ms,
ACW J 1 (I..:<w York: !'I,wman. l'I6l), 17'>-SO. An ;nt<r",' ing diw:u";on on 0010" .00 t n,
.,.;,,', work of mi, ;,,& tn.m .00 '" fort" .pp .. " ... in Gr<8"'Y of r-iywo, An;"," ,,"',. (in ,,'PNI-'
5: .. 5).
61. L<o. To ..... , J .
62. S« not< 17, p. l!6.
6. Early Portraits of the Saints and the Question of Likeness
1. 101m of Dam...,,,, Ius 1n i"t<"Sling d.f."", of .. i",,' portraits .. oddM 10 im.!\<, of
Ch,i" or M.ry. I !IpoI. 19. For ,n "",I lent . nd g<n, ... 1 int rod""tiotJ to this topk. = Cynthia
Hahn, "S<<ing ..... tl<li<ving: 11>< Construe'io" of San<1ity in E.,ly, Mtdi<.a1 Sai",,' Sh, i, .... "
Sp<rolum n (19\17) : 107'>-1(16.
2. Sec ,h. p. I. PI' 27- 28.
l. On th< "" of <010" • • • ymbol. for virtuC'S, 0« <I,,!, I. n. 60.
4. Sec 1l. ",Achdis. Di< K",.tombrn "'" """I'<'I(l<ipzig: Hi<r><m.nn. 19:16).6, 48, 68,.nO
pI. Th. P"",u)", ,,,,,,",,, iurn ;, dil<WO«l n ...... "'" 48. 6Hi3, ,,,J pL 17. So< >I.., Umbe<1o
h",b., L< <"<11"",,,,1>< Ji S. Grn",,,,, C.y><><ii""'nrt Ed;,>I; •• 7l 'nO 93; .nO d; ..
<u,.i"" by It'n, II< l'iog. LikL;eu and "'mn"" A /lil1o')' of Ih. /",all< btfc" Ih, /inf of /\tl.
, .. ,... E. I<phroll (Olicago: Univ. ofOlk ogo Pr ..... 1994). S2.
5. Th. ".ntiti .. of >II th.ligur .. in these fr=:o<> or, much di>puttd. So< di>rus>ion of.il
th ... pain'ings. with h.lpful f_no< ... in B<hing. Lit"",,, arul Pn><na,
6. Th. diffKulti .. wilh id.n'i fi .. ' .... of,ho: Iigu.-e> in ,n. p.inting> . r. ,",,,ho:d by ,ho: oon-
""''''''y over ,n •• i,. iudf. So< ,h. hdpful >urrumry of the probkm in L..ey Crig', forth",m-
ing work. MaJ.in& Man,..., in u.rt Anli<jui'Y (london: Du.kwooh, 200i). 'hop. 6.
7. "" <dOct of {;,..t;'o. V'''n,i, .... , old 'IModooiu, 1 forbad. ,h. 'ron,f" of. buri<d body to
' noI h" pix" along wi,h 'h< &<lIingof. ",.rtyr·' .... Ii«. ·flt< Um< <dOct ,nroo .. g«i tho: build_
ing"" ,I.bo ... t;"" of. m"")Tium .. tho: <it< of . .. .,t'. bu,i": Cod,x 1'""," 9. 17.7.
S. r.u.linus, C., .... 17.54,. P",id G. nw, JWm, of"""h""' of Nola. ACW 40
(N"" Yo<k: N<WmlI\, 1975). 290--91 .
9. r.u.linm. Ep. 32.2_3. t.-.,... Pmid C. W.lsh. L",", ofS.. "'"lio", of NoI<!. !lCW 36
(West",i","" N.Y., N,"'m. n, 1967). 135---36.
IO. lbid.,H.
Il . On Ih, P'-'o:1Oc. of ,kphm'i' in Ih. "",;"n, ""'Id . ... loj EI.ner, A" ,,"J ,h. lIo",an
v; ......... : nw, T",o,fo''''.'"'o of lIt, from the ""gO" v.<>,1d to Chrisriao;,y (C. mb,idge: Cam_
bridge Univ. P ..... 1995). 21-1S, wi,h bibliography.
12. So< ,h. fo"hwming -...ott of Crig. Mabo& M."rn. for an imPO"'''1 d"",... .. " of thi>
'[Kimt p,><' i«.
13. lohn Ol'p"'''om. 1/0m. .""' ... ,n M,I« (PC StHI6). aloo oj,<d by Cyril Mongo, Th<
A" of ,It< Bpam,", Emp'''' 311- 1453: 50".-.-" anJ Door""",, (Toron.o: Univ. of Toron'o
p, .... 19l!6). 39-40.
14. Po. \»., il, /10m. 17 (PC 31 ,.89). t.-.,... M'''go, Tit< Aft 'f,1t< 8y",01;'" limp'''' 37. I"
'noIn" pb.c" On< ",110 i, ,",,,,,'0 be p<tf«t to &'-" UPO" ,I>< Ii"" '" .. in" >, if
upon living , nO moving ","u ... nd imitate th.ir virtue; fp. 2.J .
15. Cregory of NY"". r..",,". TIwd. (PC -16:737). ... ,... M'''go. Att of,1tt Byz""';'" Empir<,
36-J7.
16. S..il. Hom. 19 (PC Jl;S07---.s). An .i.gh'h- or nin,h--o<n , urr w.1I p.inting d<pi,ting
'h<>< "",rtyr';' in . n ",,'ory '" lho: church of San .. M.rio M'iGUO in the Roman Fonorn.
17 ....... ,m... .. , i,«1 by M.ngo, At! of ,It< By..,",;n. E",,'r<. 37- ).8.
18. Prud<n, iu.·, ""rL ,<>1 .. "J ' .. i" CCSI. 126, ed. M. P. Cu"ni"gh"n (Tu,,,bou,,
1961;), L 0" Prud<nti .. •• """k ... . h ... h< lpful "n,.. · Mari. I'> lon«, f'r"a,,"';"' "" tit<
MartY'" (N,w York: OxfotJ Univ. Pt<,., .00 Mieh.dl . i't><',), .nd ,It< C"I, of
,'" Marryrr: Th. Lib<r Ptr''''plu,"oo of Pr"J<n""' (Ann Arbor: Univ. of Mich igan Pre ...
199J).
19. Ptri
20. Ibid , 11. 125---3 • .
NOTEI TO PAGEl 184-190
11. s.. diKw.>ion in Rob",,>, ""try.M Ih,OJI ofth, Ma,.".. 1].8 IL 14; also ... th. d is·
"""ion of Grig. Mo ,;,S M.rtY". ,h.p. 6.
11. A"'gu>lin •• &"". lI6.S, . 1>0 ooIed by Robor .. , fWt'r ",a ,n. 0.1, M",,,,,, ))8,
n. I i.
n . "'"unot"" c.:"". 10.6.91. s.. "'y",ooci V.n Dan" Sam" ""d 1'1t.i, Mi""k< i. I .. "
A.,Iq", Gaul (Pri",."",: Prine<ton Un i •. Pr.,.., 1991). l .lO-S; .nd lI"""'rt L 1;<..1«, 'Pictor·
ial N",,,iv. 000 elm«h MiWon in Sixth.{'.<ntury Goul," i" hi< S,uJ;', in Pitro,i4J Norr.,,,,,
(London, Pindar, 19'>4), 1_>1.
H . Gregory [, lip. 9. 105; 11.13.
lS . ..... d ted .00ve. 001. Il; lohn a"J'K'Stom. Hom. """''''. in !.kl«
26. Epiph. niu" Ttsr .• te.t .nJ '"n, . in Mongo, A" 8y,""';"< Emp;", i i, from
G«>rgij. o.trogo ... y, ed., S'"ait" '"' Gt..-hirlo" d" byt.>"'ini",/wo 8iJdt",«i", (Dr<,I, .. ,
Mor< .. 1929), 67. S« JiK""K>n b<:1ow or Ihe qu<'lion of .uthenli';ly of tho frogmon" of
q,il'iuni=
17. EuO<b ius. IIi", 7.1&: ... ciis<:UMion in ,hop. I, p,lS.
18. Augusti .... Co.,. '"". 1.10.16.
29. On tb<doubk . pootoli, foundllion of Romo. 5« Ir<""<us. 11 ..... ),3,2. A f. irly Irngthy
,tudyofti>< 'oonogrophyofl'rt<r.nd l'lIul .... published by I. M. Hu,l<in>O<l.
,%,"m: a."-"ia" PrOf'"S"'';'.' Rom< in ,'" fuurrh.nd Fifth e",,",;..,-. BAR Int<r".tionai
Serie> 14S (OJord: BAR. 1932).
30 . ..... g .... i .. , Stt'm. lSl.4. A otudyof tn;, i,..."io<1 into I". Am <f ;>"",(",,,.nd ito "'. ,,..
,,,;.,;0.,), ''''''8 w;t" its ""r;.,u, probl,m" "...yb< f""nd ;n i\<", ApollO""'", i\pd<t'rph4 I, ed.
R. A- Lip.iu. (Ilild<oh,im, 0In-... 19S9), 1-22. s.. '00 ROOin J ...... n. Im's.ry ;n J'w,
ish . nd DIri>'''n Nt," in SBL Stm;"", AlP<'" 31 (1 '191). 3116-98.
31 . Th, identifiwion of ,1>< two women in th, '''"'' as th, frck<;" 'x c;..",;,,", and frcJe·
,;., '" Cj""mciJiont is SIlWO"ed by parallel m<»ai« in th, .. of Santa Sobi"" in Rom ••
which an b<: dat«i to tho early fifth «ntury.
ll. S« K",<), Pelmo" entry no. S<l6. in TIot: log< <1Spi,j'uality: CoI.Iog ... <f'n.
Exhibi,"",., Ilr. M'''oro/j"" of Art. 19, 1977- Fdm .. 'Y 11. 1978, ed.
W,itzmonn (N.w Y""lc Metropolitan MLl$<'1I'" of Art, 1979). '>1;9.
3l. On tho S"kI . gJ ... p<><tr.i ...... Clurl .. Rufu. Mor.y, l'ltt (,""d·G'", CoII""io. of 'ht
Lib,ary, ed. G. f',,,,,i (V>linn Citl" Bibliot"" A"",totic. Vatic.no. 1969), .n"i ..
49-76; ond forthcoming. Lu<)' Grlg. 'ron" il>, Pontif&..nd the DImtia""'tion of Fou rth·
Ontury Rom ... P8SR 59 (2004), wh". t " . ut ho< ...... the rou"h-.c.ntury gold .gia .. port" it>
• • • co .. study to • .,mi"" the v;"".1 cultur< of Ll1< Antiqu ity ",d comp .... the ro""it> of
Or''';'n .. tnt> k> the <if""" "f Pop< Da"...,u. to .... bli.h the ""I< of Ronun bishop<.nd
mortyn. A bri<f, r=nt diKu"ion of ti><>< ro,t .. it> i> i""luded tn D, .. id Cortlidg< 'nd Keith
EllioU, ,\r, .nd ,lot: eh,;',;'" .-I1"'<'J1'o. (WOO""; Roolledg<. 2(01), 1).4-48. Ai", ... E Bi.·
,""ti. 'Pietro. P>olo, L'inv.nrio"" d.n. b ri<><>c1Z;"'" d.ll, ,tori •• lo go ..... d.ll.
t<Of"'i: in Pk>ro, l-Iooio, fa "orio. il ""I,,,, .. mamorio, ",i primi ,«OJi, .d. AnS.1I Do"'ti
(Milan: £I«:tra, 2000). 4} .. H
)4. On the ivory bu,kk .nd the trodition of the mming of 1'<1 .. ;uid P.ul . 00 its r'Pr<'
><11 .. ,100 in ioonogrophy in go"'''1, >« ... "11l< Mwing of Pet" ,nd l'lIul in Rom<; in
hi> SI"din in PwrioJ No"""w. S29--48.
35. Tra" •. 1I<nn«k. 'nJ Sehn«mdeh<r. N<w Tt"omtn' .-1"",,11'0. nY<. Fo, m<:>« "n
thi, d<l<nplioo, ... R. M. G, .. ", "Th. D<o<''t>1K>n of f'.ul in th' ""to of P,ul ,nd Th«lo," 1-1::
J6 (1962), 1-4;.nd Ab""'m I. M.lh<tbo,"A Ph)"",,1 [)<"'riplion "f P. ul; IITR 79 (1936),
170-75.
}6. Nkephona. Hi", 1.2.}7. The d,oe,ip<ion of "'tn: i, quoted in auistoph« M>1th.w.
'Nicerho"", CalIistu,' Ph)"i"" I:>.sc' iption "f 1'<1<,,, An Originol Component of the Act> of
I'<t"'l' 7 (l9961:1 4HS. M",h<ws "SUe> thot Ni«phorw', descnptK>n wu ba.ed
on. mi ... "S vcnio<1 ofth< Act< ofP."". moinly b«."", h< do.rly boO«! hi> o<><rip1ion ofP,ul
on, t<at""] ,nt«edont. th< P""'S" frum th< A", of nr .... cited ,00-.'<. but , I",
b«.us<. d.>cnption "' .... ',,.,><I.>rd f .. tu" of GI'«<,· 1I0.",,, blogrophy" (140). S«
• critk" ... ILUt;"n of .. rli .. ,,,,,,,,i«ofl-'<1n ... po" .. itu" in o.,tlidg<'OO onJ ,ht
eh,i""", Ai"'<'J1''"', 141.
37. S ... Hu.k;n",n. Co,ron/ia JIpo,lOlo,"m, .nd F_ D ... m.nn. Paul", i, frllhchri"'i,'"
Fn'lmmitk';1 KJ."" W .. tdrut.rner V.rIag. 1 '!!!2 ).
].8. r.ul Zan"'r. 1'Itt M.,k of Sot,."" 1'Itt Image of ,'" In"llmuaJ '" A"li<j"i'y. tron" A.
S".p'ro (B<rkd.y: Un;' . of o.lifo,ni. Pr< ... I99S). J.Oi .
219
220
NOTES TO PAGES 191-198
39. s.. Roth W. SuUiv:m. -So,"" Pet .. and ('.ill: Som. h"nK A.!r«" of T1l<ir Imaging,"
Itll 17 (19'<4): "I' .. 7--11: .M C.rtlidg< ",d A ... "a rOc 0."'-,,1." !op«"pAA

to. S« C. "Gunooroi. Ap<><tt>k>rum <I Rm",..'jo MUll 13 (1%1):
Huil: iruon. Cotorooii.: .4;>">10/0,""" .00 "" .... " "Th" M«tin& of Pt,« .00 Pou] in Rom<_" A
, •• :tnt « ;';que of tru •• i"w " off ... d by Gri8, ·Po",..its, Pon,iff .. . nd tn, <l,.;',;'" ... ,;.," of
kourth.C.otury Rom",'
41. s.. tn. dtscu .. "'" of JO",. of the« images (ir.cluding tho proc .... ion of "", .... n from
th. Dura bapilit<ryl . nd lb.,. in"'1''''''ion • • Moria" in Ca, tlidg< . nd Eliio", Art and ,h.
e",j,,;"" AP()<rypila, M-
H. On t.;' .ubj«t "'" V"'-iimir Louky, "Th, H<.><kgifria. • in L- Ou>pen!l<y . od v. Lo&ky.
T/o,< M<"nin8 of ' ronS- G. E. II. r . lm<r aod E. K. JIQub<J ... ky (Ctt"WU<>d. N.Y.: S •.
IlI.Jimir'. S<min>ry Pr= 19$9), W-SI, on Ih< kgrnd of SI. Luk< I"inling. p<>rlroit of M>fY
. 00 the child I..., .... ""U os. limil" leg ..... ,ho, tho th..., " .. gi produ'«l 01>< • ..., Il<h ing,
Uk",,,, and """,,<C<. wilh bibliogr.phy. Th< hi<lO,ic;ol oc<ounl of Eooocu', ..
Ih< im.g. to Puleh«i. from l"u .. l<m. wh<t •• h< h. d 1>«11 on pilgr im.g<. rom« from
Throdorw Lmor. H;" • .,. <I 'Ir< Chun:1r u rcporlM in Ni,<pho, u. Coilisl'" Xonloof""J1os
(PG il6:16SA). ond Ir."" in Mongo. An .f ,-.,. BY'''''';'''' ["'P;". 40, Tod.y, a 10UrUt mop«
one ou,h poinling in 10. B .. ill .. of Son,. Mario Maggio« in Rom<.
43, Th< .pocryphal >c<r><. m<n,ior><d hm'l< found in III< f'ro,,,,,,,g</iu .. 7- 11.
Th< mo.!·,ixlh·«nwy;v.:,.-y Ihron< of).!ui m"n in R'V<M, .1", """",Ih. ,"""nc:;"I[on. Ih<
lri. 1 of Ih, "''''l'h', ci,,,,,,", til< .. tivity, the M:>donn. wil, <b;k! (""M), . n.l ll>< night
into "'y!", t,", «""bi"ing Go",, 1 '"""n18 with the .poc,yph. 1 "<>tin.
44. s... diKus>ion (dup, 4) ofth. MoryiS .... tyrologies in this program .. "SUM by
Sunil'" Spain, ·'Th. Promised Bi<Wng': Th. leonography of the Mosaic> of S. Mori> Mag_
gio«: AB 61 (1979): 51s-40, !<am .. De.I>< Si<g<r, in h<r onicle, ·Visual M."phor ,. Thool_
"I!y: Leo the Cm", So,mo,," on ,h. I .... 'n>lion . nd ,he Ar,h Moo.i<> ofS, M.,i, M.ggio«,"
G<;". 26 (191!7): 8:1-91, d i""S""" bow...-r,. 11<1 b.><> h" "S"mrnts on 'h, ,ent,alily of Ih •
• nnun,iOlion ill Leo', ><,mon, on Ih, n.tivily, On S,"I, M.ggio",', d="li ..
P"'Il"m in g<"".I, >« It.in,ich K"pp.I>i< frllh<hri"&h",, aM m""I.I,,,lirlt,,,, Mo",ik""
i" 5.",. Maria MaU"''' ZI' /Il>m Illld.n· Hod<n, G, imm, 1%6): .nd Ilut Hr<nk, ,,;,
frah<hrio,lithnt M01dii:Lrr ;" S. MaN< M_g.("," ZI' Rom (v..,.ob><i<Il' St<"""
45, s... So Boyd', <ntry no. 407 in Kurt W";,un."", M, Tht Act ofSpi';,u.li". Sll. which
ill<lud .. >om< bibfiogr.phy on 'his obj<a,
46, Kiln W.itl"",nn, Tht Mon.""" o(Sa;m C.,,,",n •• , Moum Tht '"'''' 1 (Prill<<-
wne Prin"'on Uni'. p",.., (976), 18----21 .
p . Tron,bl;"" .. kn from OUOp< .... y ,nd Lou'y, 110. M",",,,:!, 0( [«ms, ) 1.
4S. Epiph.ni"" T", .. texl .nd in M,"8<', A" of ,he Empi .. , i 14 2, from
O>''''Ilot<ky, M .• S,ui&rr mr G<Khitlr/<, 67. p.nlyb<cau>< of th.;, ineluoon in the JIo,iklium
of the ioonocb," ,,:>d " tl>< Synod of Hi<,;' ;11 754, ,I>«< writings ... .., doubtful . uth<nt"ity
fo, O<' rogor>lj'---both 'hi< l<tIer .,>OJ other f"sm<Il" of indooing •
portion of . ktt<r '0 Bishop lohn of Icru..l'm ","",ming .notll<r • .. int" cumin in • church
at ,I>< .it< oflkthd, How<¥Cf, ,in«, ",,,ion of ' hi< <Il,,.i,, <piJod< .... pr<><r«<l in. chrooo-
K>g;"'Uy oon'<mro'-'ry 1«[<, of I,rom< (Ep. 51.9). , ... , docum<nt, .. ..-rll .. 'his or>< . nd th<
T","_", qU<}IM >00"", h."" ""'" I><'n g<n<,;tJly . c<<pIM .. . uth.ntic. For mo,.. cii .. u""1Il
of thi< "",It" ... M.ry Charl<s • ... ,t .r><! th' r:.>rly Ou"h; ITS (1977),)(lHS,
"1'- ))6-)9: .nd (mo", Pie,,,, M"",;tJ, ·fp;ph' n<, doc,.." d .. i"""",,!w .. - in NW<
II, dou" ,ikl" d'i_g" ,d;li",,,,, <d. F,.n,io>lIoe'pHug ... d Nicol .. Lo .... y
(Po,io; On, 191!n
49, Ari>toIi<, 1«" 145b. llili t<xt is dixuooed by ALoin Beo..",OIl. Tht Nrlojdllttr I"",g<: An
'n"/kc,,,,,ll1i,"''r <lIcon"d,,", .. , 1.-.,,", 1. M, Todd IOias<>: Univ, ofo,ias<> P.-- 2000), il.
SO, PloIiIlu>, £Om, S,II, I" I,.n'. S, M,K<n"", TIr;, br"...d, (LorHlon: F,b<, .r><!
F,b<" 1962), 422- 2), .M .Iso di""">«l in Ileo.ln<;on. Tht I'<>rbidllttr [",as<. S<l-51 ,
51. PhiJo., ... Vi,. ApilU 6.19, let 1, N. s... p".iou< diOCllS>ioll of Arolloniu, on Ih<
god<, du" 1, p. <10.
52. Augu";",,, I'a.
53, 8;"il, Ep. 2,3,
54, Th«><lo" th, Studi«, R<f, 2,lL ci'ing Po, f\uil, C. [un, 5 ( PG 29:724); t,. ... , Cot"ri",
Roth. 5" Throdort' 'h, S,ud;u Holy ImoS', (C:r .. _, N,Y, : St, Vl:>dimir', S<millll'y
Pr-no, 19I!1I,i9.
NOTES TO PAGES 198-199
\\. s.., th. 'I«>,k 01 Hrn'}' •• Th, /(011' ojThn, Bod"", Sai"" a"ti Th<j, I""'gts i"
B)'<M"ium (Pri11«1on; Prin«1on Un;v. Pr_ 1996). <sp. ch' p'<r I. "Lik<n"" ond Dffln;,.,n"
5--i7. M.guin: hm di><o ...... int" port";,, from ,h. lot.,. p<,iod. bul hi> di><Uooion i. moil
helpful to mud. of ,h •• bo¥< .• ..J i. <»<n,io.i to any fun"', >loJy of .. int" imoW" ;n
I!yJ. nti "" ,,,.
56. s... M.tui". 1"IIL ffl"" 7-11. lo"hi .. "" "'h<r ""''''pl«.
57. (;;[l><tI I),sro", "Iloly ImaW" , nd l.ik,n«>." OOP 4, (1'191), U _33. hm 31_31.
sa. 'Th< >!oryof. young monk from Sin.i. wOo r«:<>gniz<d ;;";nt PI .. o of ArK)'ra ba>«l on
hi. 'pr<a"n« in portrait im.g.., "' .. r<",untfd by NilWi of Si no. PG 79:SBO-SI; .1>0 in
!>bng<>. Art oj '''/ly.:'""Ii", Emf;". 40.
59. Augustin<. Ih ... 8 .• . 7. Edmund lIiJ l. TI« Worl, o[S!. A..gu"'n<. pt. 1. "<01. 5. Th<
Trinity. ".I. j. E. R""U. (II"""'-lyn; N .... City. 1'191). 2464 7.
221
ankonie. HOYi ng 1>0 v;.",1 imas", ,,]>« " lIy no fig ... ' i •• im.g .. or 1'0"")'11. of living
beings (animal. or numana).
ap ... II ",micif<ub, or polJ'S"",,1 building r«<S>. oo""rcd by. Gom< or ..... 11 • ..J """"Uyat tho
end of ,ho: ,11;,,,,,,,1 "" of. <hu rd ..
,,,,,,,oIi"m. Buri.1 nich . .. "hill. ,h,rnb<r in , o:.'.<om;'" m,rkcd by an .. ,hed op<ning, into
which . ron,.' n" for ,be body i. "had
b • • ili.c •. K«t>ngubr building d<s;g.>«I to hou .. &<Cub, .... mbli .. or (::lIt;,,,;,n """, munit;"
.. "",oIIip. '11>< ;"'<Nor...,.« ...... ""ual ly divi<kd into til...,. or """'" .j<leo by fOWl! of "'p_
porting roumns, .00 •• opo< ..... often rl",,«Iat 01>< rnd.
b .. ,if", vi,ion. Th< vi • .," of God thot i. uitirno .. ly g .. nt«l to tho .. vt"d or the di,«=!
or vision of God, wbj,h off ... ,""",.ion to too.. who rre.;...., it.
<>""" mb. Unci",!;""'''''! bur;.1 pl. ", oomprikd of tunnd . and ,1I'mb<rs, ' ''''''m",<><Lotios
diffmnl ki nd> of "'mM, ind..ding narrow <>p<nins< in tho g>lkry .... U .. or group buri,1>
i n kp>r>" "",.11
,hri"ogram. Th. fir.' 'I«> G"",k ].ttmofth. name a.,;., «lIi..,d rho). form«l into , m.ono·
gram. of"n within . d",1< or . w ... th.
Coundl of. a.aI«<Ion. Th. Fourth Council c .•. ) ... p«ially "gnific. nt lor ito
dclinilion of. til< - Y' th .. tho t"", natur<> of a.mt W<fO to be un<kr>too<l by o<thodox
eIl,;,ti • ........,.. di>tinc. (I",. oonfu><"ll). oot or tho .. m. t im< ","'parol>!<.
Council of FJ.ir>. I.o<al Spa"ish ,huroh OOYncii (lOS Co • • ) . which ruolv<d • ",ri • • of diKipli·
nary l',obI.",," ind..ding ",non 36. ,,"""'h N."r>«! i"»go. on .h. ""II, of
Cou",il <Jf ... " •. E<u ,n<"""l h.ld in . 3 I c. , ., wh" h d.d.r<d .h. Virgi n M"y to be
(God·bo.«,) .
<n.dform. H. ving tho m.p< <Jf. C",,", ....... Uy with the croso N.r 01>0\.., tho «nt<rof .1l< longer
.m.
",,,;,,,/0. Small cbomber within an underground burial 0' .. t .. om!>, probably used by •
• ingk f. mily or g""' p.
dormiti"n. from tho Lotin do .. .,;,;., m •• ning"to s!«p".nd .... f. "i ng to tho death .nd
. .... mpl ion of the Vi"in M. ry. often .hown .. m:umbent on • bi" whik ChriM T<e<iv<.
h .. which i. <kpict«l .... n inf. nt in , ,,,,.Idling
jI"";'";,,m. A 0011«1;"" of from a.ri"i.n dO(!m>tic writings, in pa rticular tho docu·
nltn" of tho ... Iy 'hW"Ch, w;ual ly u><"ll to pm"o"i.d. t<"uaI .upport on 01>< or . noth .. , id.
of . th<OJO(!ical <kbate.
font . A ba,", holding ""tff o,r tlK """,,,,,nt of baptism. in .. fly tim ... usually d«p enough
to . crommoo" . adul t immmion and ;"",,,«1 into th. Aoorof . room built for t ho ,it< of
ba pti sm.
Glossary
223
224
CLQIIARY
fl'<'1<<>' A type of wall pointing. ""'.Uf rapidly don< with wet paint into fr .. h p""'" in order
to produc<. p<' !Nnrnt mural.
h.gK>gnophy. The writing< of .. in'. Iiv<. md ",,,,on" of thri< mi,.d", .... well ... d<><rip-
,ion ofth<ir heroic dc<J...ro! d""ru, of,," .. m."y".
""0;,.",1 ... from th. (jr«k word for ·p«p .... '"'";.n imago of .n <ml"Y tnro .... on wh;"h •
<f<)O' Of GO.p<l book i. pla«.!. In 10m. "" .. , . do.., ""p, ... n' ing Iloly Spirit .1""

lIi"",,;o"_ long. 1000< tuni"""rn by both m<n.nd W<>lTlfn in tho .. "er" Rom." I'.mpi ...
Hoa<!;lria. An imag< of lb. Virgin M.ry .... ith lh. Dl,i>. mild, b<li<Ved to haw b«n pain'M
by !.uk. and sul»«ju""liy oopiN . .... wid<lydi>tributod.
ioon_ Any im'g<. but ",,,,,lIy u"'! '" ",f" '" ",,,II P'"" p<>rl"i" of. hvly per.,,", including
o.ri,'. the Virgin M>ry, Of tn ... prod ... .,,! f<x d""",;o". 1 pUTJ'<>'<'$- Sum. i<ons . 1",
1<'1'"'''''"' par1;""I" 1""", of lho: <huron ""h" Ih." portfOilO (fur n.mpk, Ih< noli.ity)
.00.., Or< call<d "f,,,.1 iron •. "
;"oood. ,,". Th. act of t.r..k.ing or d.ilKI)'ing irons, usually by ,t.oo< who , OCU><d ,t.oo< who
u...J ,hem f", d<VOl.,...1 pU')Xl«S of prwicins idol .. ry.
From , I>< Gr«k 101 "s<mrnl of im<g<>,· mOlTing to • p<15OIl who offrrs Y<Il<I" ion
to the imllg<>.oo P"'f<' to II>< .. int> "'pr<><nlod in Il><m,
Kor.ogr.ophy.11" >ludyof m .. ning in vi>ual . rt, <'p.d.Uy by loot.ing for l<'CUlling .,.mbol>.
molif .. 01 ",mpo>ilion •• nd trying 10 inl"p' et lhe mconing in II>< im' g"y, dlh"
in"nd«ll»' . "i$l 0< p<l'<' i,'«I1»' ,I>< vi",,'''_
in p4«. T",J;rional <1' ;"]'>11 in ,I>< • .,Iy o.';"i.n "a, m<>"in3 .;" p<"' _.
I."",u"," " R",,,,,,, m;lil"y ."oJ.,d .d:.Iplod by eo.."",'i"e '0 ;nd..,Je . eh""OS"'m pio«<!
i",id •• w,wh .nd ..,,,,,,im,, ,Iso bearing 'he po"",i" of Ill< emp<ror.nd Iili sons.
1"",li. Small horizon,,1 op<nings. cuI into the .... U. of ,." comb gall,,;'" "hert shroud«l
bodi" we" pla(<<I .00 th. n rover«l wilh >10<1< '" poIl<ry <labs.
""'fir"';'" A I'rge ",il -lik< h<..d "'¥<Ii,,!! worn l»' "",men in the !'.osl .00 u,.,Upho,," in
KoD>of Ih, Virgin M .. y.
martyrium. ShIm. t..oil l 10 home the "Ii<> of. Chri>,i.n .. int or ",,,tyr. or" • holy . ir ••• "'-
. lly luving a =t"li,.«I pi," (for .. ampl., d"'."r. ",ragonal, or uuciform)_
"Y<. from Ihe .. atin ""'"" ... "iI. "",.ning >hip. ,,,,tor ,;<1. of a Iu.ili", 0< main ",,. of .
churd> t..o ilding. u...J fo .. Ih. gath"i"& of tl>< I' ;' f .. oppoo«! to ,h .......... ,;':,«1 '0
clelgy.
"imb«!. lI.ving • halo 01 .ul<Ol. of ligiol bfhind the h<ad indic.t;ng >an<1ity or power, ., ;n
the "pr<><n"tioru of o.ri" 01 ,bf ..
circula, op<ning QI wiooQw, oft.n pla<t<l in. 00m. 01
""'tory_ Sm.U ch'pd, <Jft<n pri"'" kt . p>rl (<>r pr.)'!:r <J, d.""Kon.1 p"<li",
po«;"'". " wide m."Ik. LlSually ""'n l»' Rom.n me" 0'" a" unJerlunK:.nJ Ioo><ly drop«!
around 'h, body . nd >lung over tho .. rn .
.... From tho G"",k woods lor "1I<r.h.'''<I; a ,,,,'.ngula, 0< lub. shap«! .ton< roffi n
u...J [0, inhumation (depo>;' of a body) .00 of"n .labo""iycarvM with ,,1><£ Kulptu".
S. ... ",h hum.ni",1 Coun<il. Al>o known a, lhe Sewnd Coon<il of t;"ioa .. (787 c. .. ), <alkd
l»' th. iconophil< I'.mp.-... I"".. be>< known Iof .ffirming the orthodoxy of i<Om.
Syood o(Him. , Coon<il supportod l»' th. ;cono<l.". in 754 c, ' .. "h;m ",nJ,mnC'd the mak-
ing or ... of iroos f<>r demrion>l !'utp<»<$- Overtum«l hy the Sev",th fAUon.n ;", 1 Coo,,·
ei l (t;"i",call) in c _. _
,".-roo. Combi".,,,,,, of the t"", G, ... I." .... t". '00 thb in'o • &ign '"ot migh' b< in<ludeJ
in Ih. word • ... u""· (,,00» and .uggesting a h"nun bodyon • ""'"
Ih<oph. ny. Th, m.nif""tion of ,be Di,i"" to . hum", !><ing. eilhe, .. a n.tural 'pp"""""
(oo"",;m .. in hwnan fo<m) or os •• "ion.
T"_ok"" Th< litle ,IIi""n 1h,Virgin M.ry in 1h. """,neil> of Eph""" (t l1).oo o..kC'don
(45,), lil.,-,' Uy me.ni"!!·God IIc>m," 001 ...... Uy tr""lalod "Mother of God."
"""'gr. Summoning Divinc or djyinc power I»' m .. n. of m'SK:, i"""n"tion>. or fi l",l ..
<>p«i>.lly in .HI of i"dividual ..
L"in t<lm "" "hoooing tho I.w," ... ferrins to the p""ing of ,ulhori'y or
(. It<rtu,,ly) giving of gosp<l to the .po>ll ... U<u>Uy$hown in ", by (lorist I"""'g
• ",rol l '0 , itb<r p"" 01 Pow.
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1<."", RoI);n. So""';'y,.nd T""h, The Pioc, of 'he Po" ... ;, i" O""i." 1l'>d;'''' n.·
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229
At>g;or, king of Ed.,..., 135, 1)6, 192,

Abrah. m, ... M.m", 72_73. 78-79. 93.
%-97. 116. 111. ojf<ri"g I ......
111.112
M"ajJoh",I40
Ac" of Paul a"d Th«/<>, 1'10, I""
.'.<"a/I'<I", I40
.. Il"" IS9
....... od" So"",.., 28
....... 0><1., th' C .... t, 4243
Ambro« of Milan, Ill. II,
""', iOOll>' 39,65
An,ioch.,.IV f.piph>noo, 16
AI11oninu. Pi"" 39, 43
,o,pouyph<m of 101m. H I
ApoUoJSoI, 62--{j), 65, 67
Ap"Uon iu. o(1)'> .... , 60, 197
Ari." Il.apli<1.ry (R.",,,,,.). 12l. I U
(figA9), 159, 16.J-6.1 (. 00 fig_ 81 ),
'"
Amooi"" IQ3
_kpius, 61. M. 88, IS4
.... I<fiu. of Am_ia, 131--.eJ, 18S
... th'''''' i"" I S, sa, 59, 10 1- ), lOi, I 17,
1)0,1",170,171
Ath'tugoras.
Augu"i .... , 34, "",1>I-li5, 85, 87-&.
10'1-15.138-)9,158, 171, 184, 186,
187.197.19\1
<mp<ro.,}S (. 1>0 fig. 16),
40. S I- S2, 6l, 6S
/lul<>iy.:uo, 91
s..Ibin"" W
!l>rl .. m, 132
lla>il of Ca ........ 5&-59, I04-S, 130.
182. 183,197. I'I!!
II<dwith. John. 7
Ikli>ori ..... I S9
Bow<r>OCl. C,W .• S8
Br«I<noog<. lam<>, 7
I\rilliant, lIith • ..!....,
c.. .. ". Pnilipp;,)(1
Caligub.. 51, 55
c.JIUtu., cata.comb of, 1,1 (fig. 1). 3
(figs. 3--1). 4 (figs. 5-6). 5 (fig. 7).
176,178
C. ...... U •• 40.41 (fill-H)
c.rpo<rot"""8, 25, 27, 28. 1 J.8
(:..si. n. Jolin, 109
(' ..... i. n. Saint. 18)
(:"",l i .. 176
a.odw;d. H.nry. 7-3
a..ktdon, CoulKiI of. 171. 195
ac<ro.Sl-36
Cl.uJ iu., l8. )9 (fig. J7). 52
CIo:mcnt of A1cnnJ ri •• 7--8, 11--11 . I+-
IS. 17. 30. 81-33, M. 87. 89, \10, 97
Comin". 174
1.66 (fig. 39)
Commodil"" "".""mb of. 31 (abo fig.
11 ). U8. 178. 179
Comtm,io,2l, 132. 145.169.170.
nuusokum 0(, 145 (fig. (4). 146
(fig. 65)
CO""."ti .... I'tJO'pnyros<n;1<:". 1)5
Index
231
232
Co". .. nt;". •• mpero<. 20, 22.11 • .lO,
31. il. 4), S7- S'!, 67, III
Coom • •• oo D. mi<n, a..ilia of
(Rom<), [2)
Cypri.n, 14,56, 176
Cyril of )<tu .. l<m, 14 1
Dogron. Gilbert, 1_
o.Jna>W.,l'op<. m
Dio a"J"O',um. 60
DiM),>",176
Dion)'> .... the Ar«>p' Sit,. 107--8
Diony>U$, p>g.n god, P, 6'
lJorn;,;'n, 52. 66
[)om;';I .. , catacomb of (Rom<). 168.
175.177
DIl,. 6, 17. 19--20, 22 (fig.
10).121
E«b""bisbop.1M
67
!J;j.oh, at tr."sf'gut>h"", 76
Uio::><Ion. 176
Eph .. "" Couocil of. 191, 193. 195
Ep iphmio. of SaLomis, 15-.'6.18.
I l-I_J5, 185, 186, 1%
Euh<mm ... S)
EuoomiU5, lOS. 106
Euphemia, 182--.8), 185
E'-uo, n - /5, F,.lO, Ill. 131,
169,170,171,
E .... gtiw ofPontw, 107, los, 135
Finn<y. P,ui Corby, 7
Fonun. tus, 1M
hunto, M",u. Corneli""
G.I.,iw, 182
G.I .. P!ocid;', 159
G. lli<nu>, 4()
G.nnadh .. of eon.untinopl<. 157_58
Giooorr<>CoIonna.1l4
Gn.,.tiu, 8, 2S. 74, 76. 9a. 1 n
Grrgory of "'"zi.nz .... IOS-6,
Gtrgory <>f Nys.i'I. I I 06, I 07, 12 I ,
18$
Gtrgo'y<>f-!bu .... IM
G,rgory'" G,eaUl_ll, 1M
Hadrian. 39, 65
H.gi.Sophia,117
H",oub, 63, _7
Hin' on SI. M .. y, 32
II i P I"'lytu<. I, 55. I $-4
1I0,"",'i1l<,159
11"';00 Ihv'.d CTh< .... mi<a), 157, 169
Inoou"' 11 1, f'op<, 136
I«",rus. 8. 25, u_n, 91, %-\>9. Ill.
11-1, I.II!
INDEX
J. cob, .. "'";'1, 73. 79. SO. 93, 94
I. nu"iu .. 5<Htig. 33),
I<rom<, 31
I",u. Ch ,i5l. <or fy po<tro it, 3 I, )2, foe<
of ell,ixt, 31 _32. """"kol 'w<'"
.n«, U 4-J9 ••• Sol, 147-4S, ..
' ''''"''' l H-I5 •• , p.gan god<,
149. I 53. 156, as h"],,, 151
Iohn Orrys<>otom, 106-7, I 34. 166.
171.18 1. 182,185
John vl'Do.rn. O<u$, 129-30, 157
16--17
luli. n the AI"""I<, Ernp<ror.
M. 175
lulius Cae .. ,. 43
Juniu. s...us •• omb of. 31. 34 (fig. I
IH.IM
lu"in MlrI)T, Ss. 77. 8 1. 89,
91. 93, 10., I H. I J,4.
ISO-51
lu,li na.176
lu"in;'n, 1,9. 165
Ki lrlnger, E,nst, 7
rOrange. H. P .. 40
La' ".n llapl i"ery (Rome), 30
Leo 1.172
Li,ia, 65, 66
!'ud. ",6J
!'udus C<cilius lo.:uoJu .. .II! (alto fig.
",
Luciu. V"u .. 39, 44
Ludolph .h. eaTlhusian. I J.4
Lyrom ...... 17_1S, 185
Mar«l li m", p<>p<, 176
Maroon, 78, 79
Mlrrus .oJ M.r«llinwr. ","comb of
(kon",).56
Mli.rrus Au«liu. I. J9. 4)' 5)' 66, 159
Minu,iu. F<lix. Mn ru.>, $4, 69-7(),
71.n,81, S)
Mm., 62
M."in ofTh\l,.., Saint, ISO, 181, 1M
Math."... n..-.m .. F_. 157
M .. irni.n, 159. 165
Maximinu. D. ia, 181
Mnimino. Thru. 40
M<khiL«l<k. 119. 110
Mddiu .. ISI, ISS
Mil. n. Edi", of, 10.
MOO<!., 5C<ing!he bod; of God. 76, 8(1,
90, 95-96, 97, 99, 10!i, III , 11 2 ...
. h, buruing bmh 72
Mu, ... y, S,_ M .. y Or"., .. 7
Mush <k l'Arl"AntK]u" 125.126,
'" Mmw Pio Cri"i.no (Rom.). 114,

N ...... ;,u. 176
N""",IS9
N.ro,S2,6S
Ni",I;oo"
NOc.., Co".dl of, S7. 170
NOcq>horu. Ca lli"us, 190
No"'ti.". 9J-.9.4, 95
NUrJ\ll, 84, 109
Origen 11_13. 1 S. 28, '10. 94-99, 1()1_3.
108---9, j J(l, IH- Ji, Iii - H.

OrlbuJox B'pli"ory (R .... nn.), In,
I S9, 163--64, 163 (fig. 83). 191
J>.nunlchius.176
parowi.,6
Paul. apo .. k. on I Cor. 12- 1), 3Q, a2,
on Am. 70, 32. a7--.88. on CoL

Pauli"", 0>1' So",- 21, 121- 22, 17')..31,
,.,
"''''' Ir>d M.ralh""" ",,",,,,onb 0>1',
'" Petronilla, Ill, In
Petronius, 55
Ph il ip Ar. b, 40
Philo, 17,9(>-91, 92, 107
Ph il"'I .. 1>0
lOll, 112
Plato, on doc!rin<of ", ;on .. ;" 19, 81,
$2-83,86-87,94
Pliny til< llId<r, I I, 36-37, 45
Pliny til< Young<'!, S2_53
Plot inus. 29, J5, 40. 37..u, I
,n
Piolorclo, )7, 42, 61, M, 87
Pt>lybiu., 45
Pt>tycomus, 176
I't><phyry, 29, 87, 8S
Pr .... 79-80
Primub<u1tI, 130. 131. 184
Procopius, 176
Pronolu>,174
13)
I\ol>li ... l;enluhu, I J-I,
I\old .. ri>,l91
Pythoogor ... SI, 84
Quirinus, 176
R<mono Go>p<t.. S2
Rubl 0>', Ar>dr<i, I 16 (oJ SO fig. i 2)
Ruffitu, 176
Soint Cath«i,,". of M'. Sinai,
Monaslfryof. 1J.8. 167
Soint Prt<l, &lillica of, 136. 147
Soint Throdor .. t IOud",i,..
m>rtyrium,18l
I NDEX
San Aj>OIli ..... in CIa ... , B",ilico of,
121,123, 12S, IS'), 167
San Aj>OIlin ... Nuo,"" lJ,;"ili<o 0>1'
(I!.a .. nllll), IS'H;S, 19)
Son Aquila"". ClI'p<1 of (Mib. ),
Son G.n""ro, ""t>oombof (Noj>l .. ) . '>0
(fig. 33), 51. 174
San Gioy.umi in Fonl<. l\op';'I<rr 0>1'
(N.p"') III
San Lo .. nzo. Basil"" 0>1' ( Milan).
JH- SS
So" M"tin, jS9
Son Vit.k, 0>1' ( R.""n",,), 120
(.Iso fig. (5). In (I lso 411),
1M 165, 190
Son .. MOl;' """iqu •• S .. ili" of
(1Wm<), ISS
San,. M, n. Ln Co.m<di>, 164
San,. M.ggiorc, 1\,,,"",,, 0>1'
(1Wm<), li e (ol5o fig, 44). 119.
120, 123,19)
SIn .. ?>do", .. "", B .. ; Ii", of (Ro,,,. J,
1,7,11ll!
San,i Giov.nni < Paulo. QlUrrn of

San,i N".u •• Achilku>, l\oo.ilj", of
(Rom<),17S,ln
S,uri ... 8'
s.N5Ii. nm,176
S<ptimu. s"V<ruo, 44
s"rap;on,IOIl
s",.pj .. 4J (0100 f,S- 26), 61, 157
s"rrnu. 0>1' Mar><ilk, 184
S<v<nth I<um<nical Cour.ci!, 25, S9
S<v<n.n 0>1' Gol. b.. 5J
s",o<ro, O:"'et<ry of 189
S<v<rus. <k,oon. j 76, 161)
ShrouJo>I'Turin,
Sixtu. Ill, I'op<, 193
Soc,,, ... 81, U8-, 154, 190
Sl"in.SUun ..... 119-1O
SI<j>h<n. Soint, 184
Syr'O" Am o/n.omo,. 140
Toeit"" 89
I,,<1ul lil", 7..../1,"On 1.!oI' lry;9, 1 I, 14,
1" , 4, 5S, ll-8 I, M, 91,9),94, 95,
W4, II J, 114
Theoct;'t us, 176
TheOOo .. of Syi<oa, .. int, 19@
Throdor< ,h. Studil" S'),
Throdom 0>1' C)TII>, 107
Throdoric, IS'), 160
lbeOOoru, ILeIOr, I
lb<OJosius, Emp<ror, 134
'lb<OJosiw 11, Emj><n>r, 191;
Th<O<Jo.iw of Ammorium. 59
Throphilus. 91_93, 9lI
Throphilw 0>1' Al<nndn.,
SS
233
234
T,,)an. 41. 52
V,.,n,;n"n III , 159
2\0-3(1, 74
V,."i:.In.40
V. rro, 8S
V"""ie., 136-39
V"I"' ... ",}II, J9 (fig. 18)
Vi> An,!",> "",."""b uf 15i
Via utin>, "",""""bof (Romt), 117
(fig. .3), 115
INDEX
Vktor 1. 1Ii5hop. I
Vis"" 4<>
Voito $onto of lu=. 1)9
Wolr." .. , R .• 91
X,nov""n,81
Zank<r. r , uk 4.>-44. 154. 1 '!O
7..,.." 82. 116
Zq>/Iyrinu" I, 2
Z«,176
HOW EAIUY (HRISTIAN! ENVI!IONED THE DIVINE
-n" .... bnJJo,.i .. bool 01 pr ... ......1 ....J ........ ,"" ..,..,.. ...... , , .... nrh- " ... "h Wf<'>lI<J ... oth Iht
probItm.'II ,.t ................. 1ft 1bM....n..-"'I'f<>"" _ .. 0I1h11 ""'AIr. II>
I. ............ , ........ 0.1 .......... ....to .......... d. _ "-'I. _ IAn .. _ Iht IW;o fin
<I<po<'.",.,,- boNo.lI ....... _ OIl 10 ,10<._ rnru..-.h ...... _nod n,"" "'" hI' <br roa.,.. .
.... ................. ... _ ..... Iht d<>u/:O, ""' ...... """'" -0. ... _ '" "'-" ,toe-... _ t -..
.............. ,Jw..IlIdI{'iIIL·
HITER WENOY BE<kETT

• r,.'
"" 'H' PB' ""'" ... W. ,.' " p" "",'
"rh" 0001. It''''' "'"' V'"'r> (If ,..><l<n .. "I, ,i><>", ","" 1>",,11'" • ,n'" ,I>< ",I> (1),,,,,.,,
m,.,) '""1"''''''''''' ,1>"", woo "",J, ,,, """" .. ",J ,10< """ I>o<1.F""nd ,,, '''I\y>.II'' ... Ioo<>o<I.o" ..
c,,"U"".,,', ,104, .... ,," In "" .... , ," ,II< h'>I"" of I h ... ,,," .n. Inu .nd r<,h.1" ""'"
<>f'<' .. U •• ,ho<o: 10M muD 0I"Cf , .. "" . " ,,' , .. 1<" ....... , ," "'It "w" .... Iol , .. , 1« m,.,rJ '"
...J I"''''''''*""..u. ,I>.o,.".l<l<po<o-.,..- ,II< ...... <1.-
ROIERTA 10NOI
I' .. 'n ..... 011 '" .u' It
"
W"h _. ,1>.0" ..... ".0.1..-.1 ",,",,<>v.ph. '0 ... 10. ..... h<t ..... " .. ,""'. 1m .... <>r<rtl-t ........ b
"'* l.od .0.1 1-". ......... p"""-' on •• mUo"" .. n '" I" ""'"' .... Imo<n II", nJ*orn ....... _
M """ ki.'""'''''r iwI,......, ........ ''''''''''''', , .... S .... .-. -..u •• 001 .. '-'I!"riw ...... buw ,II<
0..""*,,,,11 .""'" ........... ,"",IN ,10< ( h,,,'
R081N MAR<:AllEl JEN5lN •• 1»<.u,,1'<Ci
lor', ,.,......,.._ of '''' II,,,,,,, ..- Urut,," \I'",.llIr'Dol An
",· • ...It,I>,I. l'"''''''''r lh"not. .. 1""'''''''
"",,", ,,,,hod< f.,,," ... An llOOOl
Mol 1Iw .. < .,n .... :.-'::ooI',
FORTRESS PRESS