INTRODUCTION Automobiles are synonyms for mobility and freedom.

An amazing increase in the growth of population in this world leads to the rapid increase in the number of vehicle being used. With the growing number of vehicles and the consequent shortage of parking space, there is haphazard and totally unregulated parking of vehicles all over. In densely populated areas they are real challenge for city planners, architects and developers. The need to offer sufficient parking spaces is a task for specialists. This situation calls for the need for an automated parking system that not only regulates parking in a given area but also keeps the manual control to a minimum. Automatic car parking systems is the sole solution to park as many cars as possible in as little space as possible. Automatic car parking systems are based on the most modern technology of storage systems. Our demonstration facility presents a miniature model of an automated car parking system that regulates the number of cars that can be parked in a given space at any given time based on the parking space availability. Automated parking is a method of parking and exiting cars using sequence detecting and sensing devices. The entry and exit of vehicles are facilitated using a totally automated gate. Status signals indicate whether a car is currently in the process of entering or leaving the parking space. After the initial installation, the system requires no manual control. It requires no attendants, is more costeffective than conventional garages, and allows more cars to be parked in less space. The automation technology is used to typically double to triple the capacity of conventional parking garages.

. After the maximum number or cars have entered the parking space. the gate is automatically disabled for vehicles seeking entry into the parking lot. A logic circuit distinguishes between the cars and persons or two wheelers.SYSTEM OVERVIEW A gate has been provided at the entry of the parking space. which consists of status signals and a display showing the number of cars present in the parking space at any point of time. so that persons and two wheelers are not included in the count for cars. A display section has been provided. which opens on the arrival or departure of a car.

SUBMITTED BY: o MUHAMMED FAISAL T o RAKESH KP o SARATH T S o SHAUN S SEKHAR S6. Applied Electronics And Instumentation .

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This sequence is given to the up-count sequence detector. The working of the sensors is based on the voltages across collector. down-counter and display sections. . the count is either incremented or decremented. which generates a high output only if the correct sequence has been detected. which produce an output of zero volt if the beam received is uninterrupted and +5V if the beam is interrupted by a car. it generates a fixed sequence.count sequence detector. which is given to the down. receiver. Depending on the sequence detector that generates an actuating signal. The outputs of the up count and down count blocks are given to the display section. and base respectively. The transmitter section comprises of two light emitting diodes which transmit high power light beams. de-multiplexer. The down count sequence detector generates a high output only if the correct sequence is produced by the exiting car. emitter. it interrupts the light beams in a definite sequence. These light beams are incident on the receivers. Whenever a car enters the parking area. These receivers are the Light Detecting Resistors which are arranged in such a manner so as to detect the light even after the obstacle between the sensor and receiver passes through. The display section has a counter and a 7segment display along with its driver IC to display the count. Similarly. up-counter.BLOCK DIAGRAM The block diagram presented earlier consists of transmitter. when the car leaves the parking area.

The different status signals include: 1. The display section also consists of certain status signals. 2. And also indicates the current status of the parking lot. Thus the circuit functions regulating the number of cars that can be parked in a given parking lot at any given time based on the parking space availability. 3. be it full. A green signal to indicate that the parking lot has not reached its maximum capacity and that space is available for the parking of a car in the parking area. Based on these outputs the actuating signals are used to enable the different status signal.The outputs shown in the display section are based on the increment and decrement of the counters. A red signal to indicate that the parking space is full. The activation of this signal coincides with the disabling of the green signal and consequently closing of the gate for vehicles trying to enter the parking lot. A yellow signal to indicate that a car is currently in the process of entering or leaving the parking space. half -filled or vacant . .

DISPLAY INDICATION CHART LED INDICATION Car in the process of YELLOW RED GREEN parking No vacancy Parking Space Available .

Sensor 2. seven segment display driver CD4511. Sequence detector 3. Gate control. it has got green. two transmitters which are high power LED’s. NAND gate IC 7400 and NOT gate IC 7404. In addition to these. 500 mA dc motor. . 74LS74 D flip-flops.THE CIRCUIT The automated car parking circuit primarily uses two LDR’s. it has been divided into the following four basic sections. 1. 74155 2:4 decoder. yellow and red LED’s and also a 6V. up/down counter 74193. miniature motor driver L293D. Counter and display 4. For easy understanding of the circuit.

which must be eliminated. The signals of which are received by the receivers of the sensor section. Thus the collector voltage is low and the output obtained is low. .resulting a high output. which results in the passage of current through the base turning the transistor ON. For this we provide an electrolytic capacitor that is connected between the output of receiver and ground. The +5V dc level occasionally drops to zero. But once the signal is cut the collector voltage level increases . This may lead to the false triggering of the circuit. we use two transmitters(LED’s) which generates high power light beams . The output of the receiver is obtained due to the fact that when light falls on this circuit (Fig:-) the resistance value is reduced. The receiver section consists of two identical light detecting resistors. When the signal from the transmitters are received . But once the signal is cut . due to very high sensitivity of the receiver.SENSOR SECTION In this section.the output obtained is at logic high. a low dc level (logic low) is obtained at the output. even when the signal strength is quite low.

A low Y3 line indicates that both signals have been blocked. The logic states of the three coded output lines are inverted because these are active low. The low-going Y2 line indicates that only the second sensor is blocked. The four output lines act as control and decoding signals for the remaining circuits. A Vcc signal is the input to the first flip-flop. we give the Y1. the Y1 lines goes low. The other decoder is not used. It consists of a 2:4 decoder and flip-flops.SEQUENCE DETECTOR SECTION This section is the heart of the entire system. When the first sensor is blocked. Thus the sequence generated states are 10. The Y0 line is connected to the clear lines of all the flip-flops. which are used for sequence detection. The sequence detection logic circuit consists of three flip-flops for detecting the incoming as well as the outgoing vehicles. the receiver before the entrance to the gate is connected to pin 13 of 74155. The output lines of the enabled decoder are active low. For identifying the states and the order in which they occur. Refer truth table of the IC 74155. . The 74155 dual 2:4 decoder receives its select signals at pins 13 (A) and 3 (B) from the receivers LDR1 and LDR2 respectively. making the Y0 output line low. each receiver is active and inputs zero to the decoder. necessarily in that sequence. For convenience. Y3 and Y2 lines after logical inversions to the clock inputs of the three successive flip-flops. 11 and 01. while the 74LS74 D flip-flops are triggered by the rising edge of the clock signals. The vehicle entering the parking area must interrupt the first sensor (before entrance). In default state. which gives zero at their respective outputs. then both the sensors and finally just the second sensor (after entrance). while each subsequent input is the output of the previous flipflop. respectively.

and at this very instant. necessarily in that order. The output of the third flip-flop is given to the counter and display section. Any other sequence will not allow the transfer of high signal through the series of flip-flops. In this case. Thus when the vehicle enters the parking area.Only the proper sequence of logic states will cause logic high at the output of the third flip-flop. the final D flip-flop output is given to the counter and display section for decrementing the count. which increments the court. Hence the clock signals for the three successive flip-flops are derived from Y2. the Y0 signal clears all the flip-flops. Y3 and Y1 lines respectively. the count is incremented. COUNTER AND DISPLAY SECTION . This occurs at the instant when the outputs of the flip-flops are cleared by the low going Y0 signal [The details of which has been explained in the counter and display section]. An identical circuit is used for detecting a vehicle leaving the parking area. The working of this circuit is identical to the one for detecting a vehicle entering the parking area. In this case however states generated by the vehicle are 01. 11 and 10.

which gives a high at the otherwise low anode of the red LED. yellow and green). This happens because the output of the binary 9 on the lines makes the extreme lines high. display driver IC 4511 (to drive a common cathode 7 segment display) and three LEDs (red. The counter IC 74193 is capable of handling up as well as down counts if configured for the same. which when passed through an inverter. The green LED is activated when the count is less than nine. The four BCD output lines of up/down-counter (74193) are fed to the corresponding pins of the decoder / driver 4511. The count decrements in the same fashion as the flip-flops in question are those used for detecting the vehicles leaving the parking area. The output of the NAND gate is fed to the anode of the green LED. causing a transition from the high to low logic state. The output of this NAND gate is then inverted by an inverter gate and then fed to the anode of the red LED.This section consists of up/down counter IC 74193. BCD to 7 segment decoder. thus turning it ON. . The preset data pins of the counter IC are connected to Vcc. provides a rising edge. The count is incremented by one when a rising edge is encountered on the up pin (pin 5) and decremented by one when a rising edge is encountered on the down pin (pin 4) of the circuit. which indicates that nine vehicles are present in the parking area and there is no further space. The MSB and LSB lines of the outputs of the counter are NANDed using the NAND gate. Thus the active high outputs of the decoder are connected to the corresponding pins of the 7 segment common cathode display. the former occurs when the vehicle has entered the parking area and the line Y0 clears the output of the final flip-flop. The logic circuit inside the driver IC converts the four-bit BCD input to the output which are active high suitable to drive the common cathode indication.

Hence. GATE CONTROL SECTION . this LED must be ON when at least one of the sensors is being cut. The yellow LED indicates that the vehicle is entering or leaving the parking area.indicating the availability of space for at least one vehicle in the parking area. For this reason. When no signal is being cut. the Y0 line of the decoder is given at the anode of the LED. But as soon as any of the signals is cut. The LED indication for various situations is depicted in table. the Y0 line is low. the Y0 line goes high. turning the yellow LED ON. keeping the LED off.

the motor does not rotate. whose output is given to enable pin 1 of the L293D motor driver. When the maximum count of 9 is reached. When the car has completely entered the parking area. causing the motor to rotate such that the gate begins to close. thereby causing the barrier to move such that it opens the entrance. In normal condition. Now whenever the input to the motor driver IC is 10. the output of this logic circuit is high. thereby disabling the motor. and keeping the gate closed for all vehicles seeking entry to the parking area. Similarly. the IC gets enabled. thus opening the gate. the motor rotates in the opposite direction to lower the barrier. the output of the logic circuit becomes low. when a vehicle wishes to leave the area. the movement of the gate is controlled on the arrival or departure of a car. The output current capability per channel of L293D is approximately 600 mA. we use a simple combinational logic circuit consisting of NAND and OR gates.The gate control section consists of the motor driver IC [L293D] the OR gate and the two D flip-flops which provide appropriate logic used for controlling the operation of the gate / barrier. The truth table of L293D is given in table. However. the input to the L293D is 01. thereby closing the gate. it causes the motor to rotate. when the input to motor driver is 01. When the input to the motor driver is 00. COMPONENT LIST . Assume that the lower position of the barrier is the default position. Thus. In order to disable the gate from opening for a vehicle entering the parking area after the count of 9. The table gives us a crystal clear picture of the working of the gate control section.

74LS155 DUAL 2:4 DECODER .74193 4-BIT UP/DOWN COUNTER .3 KILO OHM .3.100 OHM .4511 SEVEN SEGMENT DRIVER .7404 HEX INVERTER .74LS74 DUAL ‘D’ FLIP FLOP .R6.IN4148 DIODE .1.L293D PUSH PULL FOUR CHANNEL MOTOR DRIVER IC12 D1-D2 DIS1 R3-R4 R5.1.7400 NAND GATE .R8 R7.R6.LTS-543 COMMON CATHODE 7 SEGMENT DISPLAY .SEMICONDUCTORS IC1 IC2 IC3 IC4 IC5-IC8 IC9 IC10 IC11 .1 MEGA OHM .100 OHM RESISTORS(1/4 WATT) R1-R2 R3-R4 R5.330 OHM MISCELLANEOUS .8 KILO OHM .R8 .8 KILO OHM .NE 555 TIMER .R9 R10-R19 .7432 OR GATE .

. 1A REGULATED POWER SUPPLY .FLEXIBLE WIRE MOTOR UPTO 600mA OUTPUT CONVERT CAPABILITY CONCLUSION .5V.

Modifications can be done to work on pay–and–park scheme. which we are glad to bring out. company parking etc.This project in which we have involved ourselves for the first time features a lot of facilities. TRUTH TABLE OF 74155(IC1} . This circuit is useful for underground parking. Also it reduces the unregulated parking with this has encouraged us to try out new circuit ideas and implement them. The counter part and display part of the circuit can be modified to count more than 9.

PIN 13 (A) PIN3 (B) ENABLE PIN1 E1 PIN2 E2 OUTPUTS PIN7 PIN6 PIN4 Y0 Y1 Y2 PIN5 Y3 0 0 H L L H H H 1 0 H L H L H H 1 1 H L H H H L 0 1 H L H H L H .

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