MODUL Teknik Mejawab Version 4 | Temperature | Force

2011

NAME:................................................................ CLASS:.........................

MODUL TEMBAK 32
@Version 4

Modul ini mengandungi 2 bahagian iaitu kertas 2 dan kertas 3. Diharapkan selepas menggunakan modul ini dengan bimbingan guru, pelajar-pelajar akan dapat mengusai teknik menjawab soalan SPM FIZIK (4531). Berusaha la dengan gigih bagi memastikan A+ Dalam Genggaman.
“Pecahkanlah Kepompong Jadilah Kepupu, Pecahkanlah Ruyung Nikmatilah Sagu”
1 |Modul Tembak 32 - SAKTI

Mohd Ahir Bin Samsuri Mazlena Bt Murshed Guru Cemerlang Fizik SM Sains Kota Tinggi 18 JUL 2011 (019-7356656) http://fizsakti.blogspot. com

OBJEKTIF MODUL INI • • • • • Understand construct (Memahami konstruk)) To know the questions with their construct (Mengenali soalan dengan konstruknya) To explore sample question based on the construct (Meneroka contoh soalan berdasarkan konstruknya). Understand the method of answering the question. (Memahami kaedah menjawab) Error done by the candidates (Kesilapan calon)

What is construct? (Apakah Konstruk?) Anything that is tested or assess. ( Perkara-perkara yang ditaksir atau diuji) Type Of Construct BIL 1 2 3 4 5 6 CONSTRUCT Knowledge(Pengetahuan) Understanding (Pemahaman) Application Of knowledge (Aplikasi Pengetahuan) Problem Solving (Penyelesaian Masalah) Conceptualized (Mengkonsepsi) Decision Making) (Membuat keputusan) SCOPE CONSTRUCT Facts, Concept, Principle, Theory, Law Translation, Interpretation, Extrapolation Concept & Principle Qualitative & Quantitative By using qualitative and quantitative Scientific Investigation (Penyiasatan Saintifik) Based on common characteristics (Ciri Sepunya) Relation of variables (Hubungan Pemboleh ubah) Based on specific criteria (Berdasarkan kriteria tertentu)

2 |Modul Tembak 32 - SAKTI

Physics Examination Format ITEM Type of Instrumen Type of item KERTAS 1 Objectives Multiple choice 3 Options (6 Items) 4 Options (36 Items) 5 Options (8 Items) SECTION A 8 QUESTION SECTION B 2 QUESTION (CHOOSE 1 ONLY) SECTION C 2 QUESTION (CHOOSE 1 ONLY) 100 MARKS 2 HOURS 30 MINUTES KNOWLEDGE 11% UNDERSTANDING 16 % APPLICATION 18% PROBLEM SOLVING 22% CONCEPTUALIZE 16% DECISION MAKING 17% ANALITIC (Point) SECTION A: 2 Q (Compulsory) SECTION B: 2 Q (Choose 1) 40 MARKS 1 HR 30 MINUTES KERTAS 2 SUBJECTIVE SECTION A STRUCTURE SECTION B ESSAY SECTION C ESSAY KERTAS 3 Written experiment SUBJECTIVE & ESSAY

No.Of Option

No.of question

50 Question

Total Marks Time Of Examination

50 Marks 1 Hour 15 Minutes Knowledge 28% Understanding 40 % Application 32%

Construct

PROBLEM SOLVING (EXPERIMENTING) ANALITIC & HOLISTIC

Marking Context area (Cakupan konteks) LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY

Dicotomus 1 or 0

ALL TOPICS ARE TESTED LOW 60% (30 Q) MEDIUM 24% (12 Q) HIGH 16% (8 Q) LOW MEDIUM HIGH 38% 35% 27% LOW 50% MEDIUM 30% HIGH 20% Q1 Q2 Q3 (16 m) (12 m) (12 m)

Q 1 : Knowledge, understanding & application (4m) Q 2 : Knowledge, understanding & application(5m) Q 3 : Knowledge, understanding & application (6m) Q 4 : Knowledge, understanding & application (7m) Q 5 : KUA and Conceptualize (8m) Q 6 : KUA and Conceptualize (8m) Q 7 : KUA and Problem Solving (10m) Q 8 : KUA and Decision Making (12m)

3 |Modul Tembak 32 - SAKTI

3 Difraction of waves 1.3 Specific Latent Heat 4.2 Inertia 2.4 Lenses TOPIC (TINGKATAN 5) 1.1 Pressure 3.1 Linear Motion 2.4 The Gas Laws 5.1 Cathode ray oscilloscope 4.3 Electromagnetic induction 3.4 Nuclear energy RATING XX X X X XX X X X XXX XX X XXX X XX RATING X X XX X X XXX X XX X XXX X XX CATATAN CATATAN MSG/VC 4 |Modul Tembak 32 .SAKTI .6 Gravity 3.5 Transformers 4.3 Total Internal Reflection 5.4 DC and AC 3.2 Measurement 2.2 Refraction of waves 1.6 Bernoulli Principle 4.3 Momentum 2.2 Radioisotopes 5.4 EMF and Internal Resistance 2.5 Electrical energy and power 3.TARGET 2011 BIL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 BIL 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 TOPIC (TINGKATAN 4) 1.3 Gas and Atmospheric Pressure 3.5 Impuls/Impulsive Force 2.4 The Effect of a Force 2.7 Electromagnetic waves 2.3 Transistors 5.

Konstruk yang diuji dalam bahagian B adalah seperti di bawah: QUESTION NO. F = force. x = extension of the spring LATIHAN [KNOWLEDGE] 1.KERTAS DUA-SOALAN ESEI A.What is meant by electromagnet? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan elektromagnet? [1 mark] 3.SAKTI [1 mark] . What is meant by elasticity? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan kekenyalan? [1 mark] 2. Menulis formula dengan simbol dan menyatakan maksud setiap simbol.What is meant by refraction? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan pembiasan? [1 mark] 4. where k=spring constant. SOALAN BAHAGIAN B. What is meant by thermal equilibrium? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan keseimbangan terma? 5 |Modul Tembak 32 . Contoh Soalan i) What is meant by spring constant? [1 mark] Contoh Jawapan: Force perunit of extension of the spring OR k = F/x. 9 10 ELEMENT/CONSTRUCT KNOWLEDGE ( pengetahuan) CONCEPTUALISE (mengkonsepsi) UNDERSTANDING (kefahaman) PROBLEM SOLVING (penyelesaian masalah qualitative) MARKS 1 5 4 10 KNOWLEDGE 1. Menyatakan definasi dengan ayat penuh dan beserta syaratnya sekali 2.

6 |Modul Tembak 32 . [1 mark] CONCEPTUALISE (MENKONSEPSI) 1.diameter of the spring in diagram 9.2.extension of the spring in diagram 9. Nyatakan satu faktor yang mempengaruhi tekanan dalam cecair.2 . Menyatakan hubungan daripada persamaan/perbezaan atau menyatakan prinsip/ hukum Fizik yang terlibat.1 is smaller compare to the diagram 9. compare the mass loaded by the spring.5. Membuat & menyatakan pemerhatian – Kemahiran Memerhati & Berfikir secara Kritis.2 show two springs M and N.1 DIAGRAM 9.mass in diagram 9. State one factor that affect the pressure in liquid. justeru perlu beri isi sekurang-kurangnya 5 isi.Relate the diameter of the spring and the extension of the spring with the spring constant.1 is equal to the mass in diagram 9. 5.1 and Diagram 9. the diameter of the spring and the extension of the spring. Using Diagram 9. 4. Both springs are of the same material and same wire thickness but have different spring constant. 2.2 (a) Diagram 9.2 .1 and Diagram 9.2 . [5 marks] Contoh Jawapan: .1 is shorter compare to the diagram 9. Membuat perbandingan iaitu menyatakan persamaan atau perbezaan 3.the bigger the diameter of the spring the lower the value of spring constant . Jawapan ditulis dalam bentuk ‘point form’ Contoh Soalan DIAGRAM 9.the higher the value of spring constant the shorter the extension of the spring LATIHAN [CONCEPTUALISE] 1. Markahnya 5.SAKTI .

2 Based on Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 10.2 bandingkan pengaliran arus.2 n = 1.1 Diagram 9. Hubungkaitkan indeks biasan dengan sudut biasan dan indeks biasan dengan nisbah sinus sudut tuju.SAKTI .1 and Diagram 9. i to the sin of the refracted angle. compare the refractive index. r to deduce a physics law that is involved.2 (i) Using Diagram 10.1 dan Rajah 10. n = 1. bandingkan indeks biasan. the refracted angle and the density between medium A and medium B.r bagi menghasilkan hukum fizik yang terlibat. Hubungkait pengaliran arus dengan kuantiti serbuk besi yang tertarik kepada elektromagnet dan kekuatan medan magnet.2.2. the amount of iron filing and the magnetic field strength of the two electrodes. [ 5 marks ] 2.8 Diagram 9.1 dan Rajah 9.Diagram 10. [5 marks] 7 |Modul Tembak 32 .1 Diagram 10. sudut biasan dan ketumpatan medium A dan medium B. kuantiti serbuk besi dan kekuatan medan magnet kedua-dua elektrod. Berdasarkan Rajah 9.i kepada sinus sudut biasan. Relate the current flow and amount of iron filing attracted by the electromagnet and the magnetic field strength. Relate the refractive index with the refracted angle and the refractive index with the ratio of sin of incident angle.2 compare the current flow. Menggunakan Rajah 10.

2. compare the connection of diode to the dry cell. (b) Using Diagram 10.SAKTI . Hubungkaitkan nyalaan mentol dengan sambungan diod kepada sel kering untuk membuat satu kesimpulan tentang hubungan antara arus yang mengalir di dalam litar -litar itu dengan sambungan diod kepada sel kering.2 . the lighting of bulbs and the reading of ammeter. [5 marks] 8 |Modul Tembak 32 . bandingkan sambungan diod kepada sel kering. Menggunakan Rajah 10. nyalaan mentol dan bacaan ammeter..1 and Diagram 10.1 dan Rajah 10.3. Relate the lighting of bulbs with the connection of diode to the dry cell to make a deduction regarding the relation between the current flowing in the circuits and the connection of diode to the dry cell.

justeru perlu beri sekurang-kurangnya 4 isi. Kenalpasti konsep 2. [ 4 marks ] 9 |Modul Tembak 32 . [ 4 marks] Contoh Jawapan: . the spring return to its original position due to the force LATIHAN [UNDERSTANDING] 1. Terangkan konsep dan kaitannya 4. Jawapan ditulis dalam bentuk ‘point form’ Contoh Soalan The springs in Diagram 9.SAKTI . [kalau boleh beri 6 isi] 6. Explain why a softball player moves his hand backwards while catching a fast moving ball. Terangkan perkara selepas konsep 5.when the spring is stretched attractive force between molecule acts . [ 4 marks ] 2.when the forces is released.1 and 9. Markahnya 4.the forces between molecule are attractive and repulsive force . Explain how the forces between molecules cause the elasticity. Terangkan bagaimana penjana berfungsi untuk menghasilkan arus ulang alik. Terangkan kenapa pemain softball mengerakkan tangan kebelakang sewaktu menangkap bola softball yang bergerak laju. Explain how the generator works to produce alternating current.UNDERSTANDING (concept explanation) 1.when the spring is compress the repulsive force between molecule acts . Terangkan perkara sebelum sesuatu konsep berlaku 3.2 (page 6) will return to its original length when the load is removed.

Bagi setiap aspek boleh bagi lebih dari satu alasan. Kalau 10 markah. Menulis jawapan dalam bentuk jadual 6. Mencadangkan kaedah Penyelesaian 5. [boleh bagi lebih dari 5 aspek. density of motorcycle parts engine power spring in suspension system size of tyre [ 8 marks] Contoh Jawapan (i) – to absob the shock 10 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .S A K T I . [ 4 marks ] PROBLEM SOLVING (Qualitative)-Modification 1. you are required to give some suggestions on designing a racing motorcycle of 500cc. Explain your suggestions based on the following aspects . Terangkan mengapa bumbung sebuah rumah terangkat oleh angin yang kencang(ribut). pastikan lukisan dilabelkan atau ditulis apa perkara yang berlaku. Mengenalpasti Masalah 2. (i) State two functions of the spring in the suspension system ? [2 marks] (ii) Using the suitable physics concepts.3 (c) Diagram 9. JANGAN BERBEZA FAKTA] 7. Explain why the roof of a house being lifted by strong winds.3 shows a spring of the suspension system in an ordinary motorcycle. Contoh Soalan spring in suspension system DIAGRAM 9. perlu nyatakan 5 aspek dan penerangannya. Jika soalan memerlukan lukisan. Mencari kaedah penyelesaian masalah 4. Penerangan atau alasan yang dibuat mestilah berkaitan dengan konsep fizik.3. Menganalisis Masalah – Kemahiran M/analisis 3.

explain your suggestions based on the following aspects : Anda dikehendaki member cadangan untuk mereka bentuk glider untuk tujuan rekreasi. Bahan untuk struktur seperti rangka utama den 'safety bar. Pemasangan dan pengangkutan. cadang dan terangkan pengubahsuaian atau cara yang boleh dilakukan untuk meningkatkan keberkesanannya berdasarkan kepada aspek-aspek berikut : • Size of the sail. • Materials use for structure like masterframe and safely bar. [10 marks] 11 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . Bahan yang digunakan untuk layer. • Supporting cable.reduce pressure LATIHAN [ PROBLEM SOLVING (Qualitative)] 1.S A K T I . Saiz layer digunakan. Kabel penyokong. Menggunakan konsep fizik yang sesuai. • Assembly and transportation. • Material use for the sail. Using an appropriate physics concept on motion. You are required to give some suggestions to design a hang glider for recreation.– to make the rider feel more comfotable – to reduce vibration Aspect Low density of motorcycle part High engine power High spring constant Wide tyre (ii) Explanation Lighter -To produce high ecceleration -High resultant force -The spring more stiffer -Less vibration -increase stability . forces and the properties of materials.

S A K T I .A car needs an efficient hydraulic brake system for safety purposes. based on the following aspect: Sebuah kereta memerlukan sistem brek hidrolik yang cekap bagi memastikan keselamatan di tahap yang tinggi.2. Suggest and explain how to build a hydraulic brake system which can function effectively. Cadangkan dan jelaskan bagaimana untuk membina sistem hidrolik yang dapat berfungsi dengan cekap berdasarkan aspect berikut: -The type and characteristic of the brake fluid Jenis dan sifat bendalir brek -The size of the master piston and slave piston Saiz omboh utama dan saiz omboh kedua -The material used for the fluid transmision pipe Bahan yang digunakan untuk paip penghantaran cecair (10 marks) 12 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .

SOALAN BAHAGIAN C.S A K T I . daripada haba yang tinggi (ii) from breaking up on landing daripada pecah sewaktu mendarat [ 10 marks] B.QUESTION NO. cadang dan terangkan pengubahsuaian atau care yang boleh dilakukan untuk meningkatkan keberkesanannya berdasarkan kepada aspek-aspek berikut : (i) from extreme heat . Menggunakan konsep fizik yang sesuai. 11 12 ELEMENT KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING APPLICATION DECISION MAKING MARKS 1 4 5 10 3. Perkara ini adalah disebabkan oleh tarikan daya graviti dan rintangan angin. Using the appropriate physics concepts.An earth-monitoring satellite falls into the earth’s atmosphere at a high velocity and reaches a high temperature. This is caused by the earth’s gravitational force and air resistance. Konstruk yang diuji dalam bahagian C adalah seperti di bawah: 13 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . suggest and explain suitable designs or ways to protect the satellite and its equipment: Satelit pengawasan bumi telah jatuh ke dalam atmosfera bumi dengan halaju yang tinggi dan mencapai suhu yang sangat tinggi.

S A K T I . [Muatan haba tentu minyak ialah 2000 J kg–1 oC–1. Liquid Y of density 1200 kg m-3 is poured into 14 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . m. Diagram 12.KNOWLEDGE Sama seperti dalam Section B UNDERSTANDING Sama seperti dalam Section B APPLICATION (quantitaive) Menulis maklumat dlm btk simbol + unit S.3 shows a manometer with arms of different cross section.I/gariskan… Memilih dan menulis rumus Membuat gantian dlm. 1000 W. rumus Jawapan akhir + unit betul Contoh Soalan Sebuah kuali elektrik mempunyai spesifikasi 240 V. Anggapkan semua tenaga elektrik digunakan untuk menaikkan suhu minyak sahaja dan tiada haba hilang ke persekitaran. dengan betul m =ρxV = 800 x 1000 x10-6 = 8 x 10-1 kg Menyatakan hubungan haba yang dibekalkan oleh pemanas dengan haba yang diterima oleh minyak Haba dibekal oleh pemanas = Haba diterima oleh minyak / pt = mcθ 4 5 Gantian dalam rumus yang betul 1000(t) = (8 x10-1)x 2000 x 90 Jawapan dengan unit yang betul t = 144 s 3 LATIHAN [APPLICATION (quantitaive)] 1. ketumpatan minyak masak ialah 800 kg m-3] [5 markah] Contoh Jawapan 1 Menukar unit bagi V dengan betul 1000 x 10-6 m3 2 Menghitung jisim. Hitungkan masa yang digunakan oleh kuali itu untuk memanaskan 1000 cm3 minyak masak dari suhu 30 oC sehingga minyak itu mencapai suhu 120 oC.

Gambarajah di bawah menunjukkan litar yang mengandungi transformer. The reading of the ammeter is 0. Diagram belows a circuit containing a transformer ammeter and two bulbs.4 i. Rajah 12. (i) (ii) What is the output voltage of the transformer? Apakah voltage aoutput transformer? Calculate the efficiency of the transformer.4 shows the condition of liquids when another immiscible liquid. Paras cecair Y didapati sama pada kedua-dua lengan manometer.3 DIAGRAM 12. X. Explain why the level of liquid Y in both arms of the manometer are equal. ammeter dan 2 mentol. X.3 menunjukkan sebuah manometer dengan lengan yang berbeza keratan rentasnya. [3 marks] 2. ii. 15 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .5 A dan dua mentol tersebut menyala dengan kecerahan yang normal. [2 marks] Diagram 12. Terangkan mengapa paras cecair Y pada kedua-dua lengan manometer adalah sama. Calculate the density of liquid X. Kira kecekapan transformer tersebut? [5m] DECISION MAKING 1. dituang ke dalam lengan kanan manometer tersebut. is poured into the right arm of the manometer. DIAGRAM 12. Bacaan ammeter adalah 0. Hitung ketumpatan cecair X.5 A and the two bulb lights up with normal brightness.the manometer. Rajah 12.4 menunjukkan keadaan cecair apabila sejenis cecair yang tak bercampur. Mengenalpasti ciri-ciri yang diberikan.S A K T I . The level of liquid Y is found to be the same at both arms of the manometer. Cecair Y dengan ketumpatan 1 200 kgm-3 diisi ke dalam manometer.

Q.2.2 shows an ice cream container used by an ice cream seller using his motorcycle. R and S.3 shows the specification of four types of ice cream containers P. 3. Memberi sebab mengapa bahan itu dipilih. 16 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . R and S. Bright colour of outer box LATIHAN [DECISION MAKING] 1.3 You are required to determine the most suitable ice cream container to carry ice cream. that can be used by an ice cream seller to carry ice cream.Size of ice cream box . Study the specification of the four types of ice cream container based on the following aspects: . Box P Q R S Kotak Specific heat capacity of ice cream High High Low Low box Size of ice cream box Large Small Small Large Material of outer box Colour of outer box Copper PVC plastic PVC plastic Aluminium Dark Bright Bright Dark Table 11. P. Menulis jawapan dalam bentuk jadual.Specific heat capacity of ice cream box . Q. Smaller size of ice cream box. Menentukan bahan yang paling sesuai berdasarkan ciri yang dinyatakan menggunakan kaedah ranking . Plastic PVC. 5. Contoh Soalan Diagram 11. Diagram 11.Colour of outer box Explain the suitability of the aspects Contoh Jawapan Aspect Low specific heat capacity of ice cream box Smaller size of ice cream box Plastic PVC Bright colour of outer box R is chosen Reason Easy get cold // becomes cool quickly Easier to carry // easy too become cool Poor conductor of heat Does not absorb heat from surrounding quickly because Low specific heat capacity of ice cream box. Menerangkan sifat setiap ciri yang dipilih dan sebab dipilih. that can be used to store water in a housing estate.S A K T I . 4..Material of outer box .2 Table 11. Table 12 shows the specifications of four water storage tanks.

Bahan yang digunakan The density of the tank. Kaji spesifikasi keempatempat tangki penyimpan air itu berdasarkan aspek : The material used. R dan S. Bentuk tangki The height of the tank from the ground. Study the specifications of all the four water storage tanks based on the following aspects : Anda diminta untuk mengenal pasti tangki penyimpan air yang paling sesuai.Jadual 12 menunjukkan speksifikasi empat tangki penyimpan air. Sebagai seorang penyelidik anda ditugaskan untuk menyelidik sifat bahan yang digunakan untuk membina kuali yang berkualiti. 17 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .As a researcher you are assign to investigate the properties of the metal in the table to be used as the material to make a quality frying pan. Ketinggian tangki daripada bumi Explain the suitability of the aspects.S A K T I . Q. P. [10 marks] 2. Terangkan kesesuaian aspek-aspek tersebut. Water storage tank Tangki penyimpan air Material used Bahan yang digunakan Density Ketumpatan Shape Bentuk P metal logam low rendah Q concrete konkrit high tinggi R concrete konkrit low rendah S metal logam low rendah Height from the ground Tinggi daripada bumi low rendah high tinggi high tinggi low rendah TABLE 12 You are required to determine the most suitable water storage tank. yang digunakan untuk menyimpan air untuk sebuah rumah dalam suatu kawasan perumahan. Ketumpatan tangki The shape of the tank.

You are asked to investigate the features of cooling material and the design of a car engine radiator as in Diagram 11. explain the suitability of the properties tobe used as a material to make a frying pan. Berikan justifikasi di atas pilihan tersebut. Bagi setiap sifat bahan di atas jelaskan kesesuaian bahan yang akan digunakan untuk membina kuali.S A K T I .Metal/Baha n P R S T U Specific heat Melting capacity /muatan Density/ketumpatan point /takat lebur haba tentu kg m-3 o C –1 o –1 J kg C 450 880 510 398 377 1540 660 1620 961 978 7873 2698 7800 10500 8400 Rate of Rusting/ kadar pengaratan High High Do not Rust Medium Do not rust For every metal properties in the table above. 18 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . [10 marks] 3. Hence determine the most suitable metal to make the frying pan. Give the justification for your choice. Seterusnya memilih bahan yang paling sesuai.2 Anda dikhendaki menyiasat cirri-ciri bahan dan rekabentuk radiator enjin kereta yang akan digunakan.

[10 marks] SOALAN STRUKTUR. 19 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .2 and then determine the most suitable car engine radiator to be used.Explain the suitability of each features in Diagram 11.S A K T I . Jelaskan kesesuaian cirri-ciri yang dipilih dan kemudian memilih radiator kereta yang paling sesuai.Give a reason for your choice. Berikan alasan di atas setiap pilihan anda tersebut.

................................MODIFICATION .............2......S A K T I ... Jarak d1.......................................................2................. nyatakan hubungan antara ketumpatan dan tekanan cecair................................... ……………………………………………………………………………….... d2.......... state the relationship between the density and the pressure of liquid...........MENGKONSEPSI ............................. Terangkan mengapa tangki air diletakkan di atas burn bung rumah................................. Rajah 5.... . Perhatikan Rajah 5... Tekanan yang dihasilkan oleh pancutan air dan pancutan minyak itu......... Compare: Bandingkan: (i) Density of water and oil.2 menunjukkan suatu pancutan minyak keluar dari satu lubang pada satu bekas tinggi pada kedalaman yang sama sejauh d2..................................................... ............. dan d2. Berdasarkan jawapan anda di (b)...1 shows a water jet spurts out from a hole in a tall vessel at a distance .........MAKING DECISION CARA MENJAWAB SAMA SEPERTI SOALAN ESEI ............................................ d1.......................................................................2 shows an oil jet spurts out from a hole at the same depth in a tall vessel at a distance ... [1 mark] (iii) The pressure produced by the water jet and the oil jet.. Rajah 5.......................................Terengganu 2010 Diagram 5.........1 dan Rajah 5........................ (a) What is the meaning of density? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan ketumpatan? ........................................................CUMA LEBIH PENDEK DAN MUDAH Contoh Soalan Menkonsepsi ........................ Rajah 5.......1 menunjukkan suatu pancutan air keluar dari satu lubang pada satu bekas tinggi sejauh di............ .................................................................3 shows the location of a house water tank...5/6 7 8 ..... Ketumpatan air dan minyak........... [3marks] 20 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 ........1 and Digaram 5................ [1 mark] (c) Based on your answer in (b).. ……………………………………………………………………………….................................. [1 mark] (d) Diagram 5....3 menunjukkan kedudukan tangki air pada sebuah rumah..................... [1 mark] (b) Observe Diagram 5............................ Explain why the water tank should be located on top of the roof...... Diagram 5.... [1 mark] (ii) The distance d1 and d2..................................... .............................

Nyatakan kutub di X.………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………[2 marks] (ii) Explain your answer in 7(c)(i).Contoh Soalan Modification .………… (c) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Cadangkan dua pengubahsuaian yang boleh dilakukan dalam Rajah 7 bagi menambahkan daya tarikan antara gegelung dan rod besi. nyatakan satu aplikasi rod besi bersama gegelung dalam kehidupan harian. Jelaskan pergerakan rod besi..[1 Using your answers in 7(c) and 7(d).[1 mark] Suggest two modifications that can be done in Diagram 7 in order to increase the force of attraction between the coil and the iron rod. When the switch is closed. Dengan menggunakan jawapan anda dalam 7(c) dan 7(d). ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. (e) ……………………………………………………………………………………….state one application of iron rod with the coil in everyday life.. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….S A K T I mark] . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. mark] mark] ………………………………………………………………………………………. Terangkan jawapan anda di 7(c)(i). kedua-dua rod besi dan magnet bar tertarik kepada gegelung. Bateri kemudian ditukar dengan bekalan arus ulang-alik yang berkuasa rendah. Rajah 7 menunjukkan satu gegelung yang tetap diletakkan di antara sebatang rod besi dan sebuah magnet bar. ………………………………………………………………………………………. Jelaskan pergerakan magnet bar.. Apabila suis dihidupkan.[1 Contoh Soalan Making Dicision .………… (d) (i) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………[2 marks] The battery is then replaced by a low alternating current power supply.[2 marks] (i) What will happen to the iron rod and the bar magnet when the connections to the terminals of the battery are reversed? Apakah akan berlaku kepada rod besi dan magnet bar jika sambungan kepada terminal bateri diterbalikkan.Selangor 2009 21 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . (a) (b) State the polarity at X. Describe the motion of the iron rod. both of the iron rod and the bar magnet are attracted towards the coil. Suis dihidupkan. The switch is then closed.. ………………………………………………………………………………………….SBP 2010 Diagram 7 shows a fixed coil is placed in between an iron rod and a bar magnet.[1 (ii) Describe the motion of the bar magnet.

[1 State the energy transformation that occurs in both bulbs. ………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………….S A K T I .1 dan 8. 20 W Mentol berfilamen 240V 20 W tenaga 240V 20 W Diagram 8.1 Filament bulb 240 V. What is meant by electrical power? Filament bulb 240 V. Mentol yang manakah lebih jimat untuk digunakan ? Berikan satu alasan untuk jawapan anda.8. Rajah 8. Name the wasted energy released by the bulb? Mentol berfilamen menggunakan tenaga 75 J dalam satu saat tetapi cuma mengeluarkan 11.………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………[2 marks] KERTAS TIGA Construct. Apakah yang dimaksudkan (b) dengan kuasa elektrik ? mark] ….………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………[2 marks] (d) Name one electrical appliance used at home and state one way to make it more efficient.…[2 marks] Filament bulb Energy saver bulb Mentol berfilamen Mentol jimat tenaga Energy consumed per second 75 J 20 J Tenaga digunakan per saat Useful work per second 11.2 menunjukkan mentol berfilamen dan mentol jimat tenaga. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………. Namakan satu alat elektrik yang digunakan di rumah dan nyatakan satu cara untuk meningkatkan kecekapannya.[1 (ii) Calculate the efficiency of the filament bulb and the energy saver bulb from Table 8. Hitung kecekapan mentol berfilamen dan mentol jimat tenaga dari Jadual 8. Namakan tenaga yang dibazirkan oleh mentol itu.2 show a filament bulb and an energy saver bulb..Problem Solving (Experementing)-40 markah 22 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 ..………………………………………………………………………………………. 75Wer bulb 240 V.25 J 10 J Tenaga berguna per saat Table 8/Jadual 8 (i) The filament bulb consumes 75 J of energy in one second but it only delivers 11. Nyatakan perubahan tenaga yang berlaku dalam kedua-dua mentol. Diagram 8. 20 W Mentol berfilamen 240V 75 W tenaga 240V 20 W Diagram 8.2 Mentol berfilamen menggunakan kuasa sebanyak 75 W.2 Rajah 8.25 J of useful energy per second. mark] (4 marks) (iii) Which bulb is more economical to be used? Give a reason for your answer. Kedua-dua mentol ini menghasilkan keamatan cahaya yang sama (a) The filament bulb uses 75 W of power... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1 and 8.1 Rajah 8. These two bulbs gives the same amount of light intensity. 20W er bulb 240 V.25 J tenaga berguna setiap saat.

.....................................0 cm............ 80.0 cm............ tengok ulangan yang dibuat pada soalan................ The set up of the apparatus is shown in Diagram 1........ 60............... 3......... Ɩ of a constantan wire and the potential difference across it.............. Untuk menjawab 3 soalan ini.. [1 marks] (iii) the constant variable ....... V.................. 40.............................................S A K T I .................6 below. Diagram 1........... A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between the length..Contoh Soalan No 1-Section A-16 markah Trial Selangor 2009 1.. Jangan menggunakan perkataan type(contohnya type of wire/type of power supply) 23 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 ............5 and Diagram 1......................................................... 4............... 2............ Diagram 1.........3. Bagi fixed variable kadang-kadang dalam soalan ada diberitahu tetapi jika tiada ia memerlukan sedikit knowledge tentang eksperiment ini....... 2 variable telah diketahui dan untuk menentukan manipulated V..................... The readings of the voltmeter are as shown in Diagram 1.4.. The wire is connected to a steady direct current power supply provided by an accumulator.....Ulangan tersebutlah manipulatednya dan variable yang satu lagi atomatik akan menjadi responding.........2............. [1 marks] Note: 1.......0 cm and 100.. Diagram 1 The jockey is placed at the points where l = 20. Diagram 1........................0 cm........... (a) For the experiment described above........0 cm.... [1 marks] (ii) the responding variable .. identify (i) the manipulated variable . jawapannya berada pada soalan yang diberikan seperti yang digariskan...............

0 cm and 100. no tidak ganjil 4.0 cm. pastikan dalam ruangan tabulated the data ada 2 tempat perpuluhan.Begitu juga kalau satu tempat perpuluhan.1 2 0 Note: 1. Tengok tajuk graf yang diberi. perpuluhan sama) Pastikan sekala seragam. Tabulate your results for l and V in the space below. Garis mesti sentuh paksi Y 24 | M o d u l T grafb a k 3memenuhiTkertas graf. 40. Biasanya responding 3.S A K I saiz kertas graf) . Jika alat pengukur boleh membaca 2 tempat perpuluhan.0 cm. buat besar-besar(2x2 value.l =20.0 cm respectively. Perkataan yang dulu adalah 2.(70% 7.primer value. Plot titik denga tanda X. Pastikan tempat perpuluhan yang betul mengikut alatadalah paksi Y dan pengukur. Lihat betul-betul skala bagi setiap alat pengukur. pastikan (c) On the graph paper on pageperpuluhan of V against lhampir lurus. Pastikan setiap column ada simbol dan unit paksi Y dan seterusnya paksi X. Lihat khendak soalan apa yang hendak dijadualkan. [5 marks] 5. nilai tempat 25. 5. 80. 60. 2. Biasanya lurus. Seperti Note: soalan di atas hanya 2 sahaja l and V 1. manipulated adalah paksi x 2. 6. 4. Saiz e m mesti 2 .0 cm. Jika column yang seterusnya adalah secondary kotak kecil). [5 marks] Note: 1. Pastikan setiap column consistency yang sama (tempat 3. 3 (b) Determine the voltage. Setiap paksi pastikan ada simbol dan unit. plot a graph lebih satu berbanding gunakan Garis guna pembaris jika nampak freehand jika lengkung. Jangan Buat kecil. V when the length of the constantan wires.

..S A K T I . (i) What happens to the voltmeter readings when the jockey is placed at l = 20 cm? Assume the current that flow through the wire is constant.. y x y y increase linearly to x x y x As y increase x also increase y y is directly propotional to x y x y is inversely propotional to x x y decrease linearly to x (e) The experiment is repeated using thicker constantan wire..................... Kadang2 ada soalan tambahan seperti ini.......... 25 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 ..............(d) Based on the graph. …………………………………………………………………. state the relationship between V and l ………………………………………………………………………………………[1 marks] Note: 1. ………………………………………………………………. Gunakan ayat seperti yg telah diajar berdasarkan bentuk graf yang diperolehi................. ...……………… [2 marks] Note: 2....………………… (ii) Give a reason for your answer.

S A K T I .LATIHAN 1-Q1:SBP 2009 26 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .

Diagram 1.0 cm and 20.1 A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between the object distance.0 cm from the lens.S A K T I . 30.) 27 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . 1.5 and 1. 1.4. v.1 Diagram 1.0 cm.0 cm. u.0 cm. v. The image distance is then measured by using the metre rule. The apparatus is set up as shown in Diagram 1. 25.2. image distance. 1. the object is placed at the distance of 40. f. the measurement of the image distance.3. The above procedure is repeated by varying the values of u to be 35. of a convex lens. and focal length. The screen is adjusted to find the sharp image.6 show the end of the metre rule when the image distance. ( Note : For each diagram. is measured.1 At the beginning. v is started from the zero mark of the metre rule.

........................S A K T I .......6..............…………............ [ 1 mark] (iii) The constant variable ………………………………………........... [ 1 mark] The responding variable (ii) …………………………………………..…....... 35 cm...........5 and 1.......... Tabulate the values of u... v when the object distance. u...... 1.4.... 30 cm..... v...............……….......…………….......... determine image distance............ is equal to 40 cm....3.............. 1...(a) For the experiment described above.2.... [ 1 mark] (b) Based on diagram 1............ 25 cm and 20 cm....... u v [6 marks] (c) On the graph paper.... 1........ plot a graph of 1 1 against v u [ 5 marks] 28 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . identify: (i) The manipulated variable ………………………………............. 1 1 and in the space below...

........................................ ……………………………………………………….........................................………… [ 1 mark] (e) State one precaution that should be taken to improve the results of this experiment............................ state the relationship between 1 1 and v u ………………………………………………….…… [ 1 mark] 29 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 ..........S A K T I .(d) Based on your graph.....................

Graph of 1 1 against v u 30 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .S A K T I .

Contoh Soalan No 2-Section A-12 markah Trial Selangor 2009 2.1.S A K T I . An experiment to investigate the time taken. h was conducted. t by a metal sphere falling from a height. The graph of h against t 2 is in Diagram 2. 31 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .

.... Pastikan ade garisan yang dibuat bermula dengan h=44 terus ke garisan dan kemudian ke paksi x.....(show substitution) 4........ [1 marks] 32 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 ...... Show on the graph... soalan relationship based on graf pastikan gunakan ayat seperti directly propotional. [3 marks] Note: 1...............(a) Based on the graph h against t2 on page 29............ b) Calculate the gradient of the graph..... 3.. Pastikan Unit ditulis............ how you calculate the gradient... u is given as 1 (i) State the initial velocity........................ INGAT..............S A K T I ...... 2...... (c) The motion equation of a falling object with an initial velocity........ h = 44.................................................. Tunjukkan nilainya dalam kertas graf.... Tuliskan jawapan berserta dengan UNIT......... Tulis nilai t2 dalam ruangan jawapan dan Kira nilai t dalam ruangan jawapan juga........ .... increse linerally dsb... u of the sphere. Ayat Penuh 1 (ii) determine the time taken.............................. t by the sphere when dropped from a height... Pastikan ada segitiga bersaiz sekurang-kurangnya 8 x 8 cm 2................... 3..........................0 cm......... Tunjukan koordinat pada hujung segitiga.. Tunjukkan jalan pengiraan mencari kecerunan.... (i) state the relationship between h and t.. Show on the graph how you determine the value of t t = …………………… [3 marks] Note: 1... ..........[1marks] Note: 1...............

calculate the gravitational acceleration.. P atm = ………………………………...... 1...... Show on the graph. determine the atmospheric pressure.. [3 marks] Note: 1. Patm bila h = 0 m.1. Gunakan persamaan yang diberi untuk bandingkan dengan graf...Midterm T5 SBP 2011 2.. pressure P is determined using the formula : Tekanan P ditentukan dengan mengunakan rumus: P = P liquid + Patm Where P liquid = pressure by column of liquid X.………………….... 33 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . h bagi cecair pada aras laut. LATIHAN 1..... experiment . The position of eye must be pependicular to the scale reading to aviod parallax error(tak boleh guna kalau measuring instrument adalah digital stopwatch) 2.... P dan kedalaman.. A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between pressure.... Biasanya kesamaan yang perlu dicari adalah pada (d) Statekecerunan danshould be taken in this experiment to improve the accuracy of the readings in the one precaution that juga y-intercept.... then calculate the everage to get accurate reading...... P and depth. P atm = atmospheric pressure Dimana P cecair = Tekanan oleh turus cecair X.. tentukan tekanan atmosfera. Seorang pelajar menjalankan eksperimen untuk menyiasat hubungan diantara tekanan.. bagaimana anda menentukan nilai tekanan atmosfera.S A K T I [2 marks] ... h of a liquid X at sea level........ 2..……...... ………………………………………………………………………………. Patm when h = 0 m.(ii) By using the gradient of the graph in (b) and equation in (c). P atm = Tekanan atmosfera (a) Based on the graph in Diagram 2.. how you determine the value of the atmospheric pressure. Soalan ini lebih kurang sama macam soalan linear law dalam addmate. Repeat the experiment twice... Tunjukkan pada graf. ………………………………………………………………………….1.... Berdasarkan graf pada rajah 2. g ....……… [1 marks] Note: Gunakan 2 ayat ini sahaja...

.... k = ………………………………......... P exerted on the liquid when the depth of liquid.1..... [2 marks] (d) (i) If the liquid X is replaced with a denser liquid Y........... determine the pressure......... Apakah yang akan terjadi pada nilai k? ………………………………...........S A K T I ...... k bagi graf P lawan h.....4 m Berdasarkan kepada graf pada gambarajah 2...................................... kgm-3 [1 mark] (c) Based on the graph on Diagram 2............. P yang dikenakan di atas cecair bila kedalaman........ ………………………………………………........ tentukan tekanan......... Terangkan jawapan anda........ [1 mark] (e) State one precaution that should be taken to improve the results of this experiment..................1... h = 0..... Nyatakan satu langkah berjaga-jaga yang patut diambil untuk meningkatkan keputusan eksperimen..... Hitung kecerunan.....4 m P = ……………………………….. [1 mark] (ii) Explain your answer.................................... ………………………………............ [4 marks] (ii) Determine the density of liquid................ ρ Tentukan ketumpatan bagi cecair. h = 0............................ k of the graph P against h........(b) The density of the liquid can be determined from the formula Ketumpatan cecair boleh ditentukan dengan mengunakan rumus ρ = 0. what will happen to the value of k? Jika cecair X digantikan dengan cecair Y yang lebih tumpat......... = …………………………............. Show on the graph how you determine k.............012 k where k is the gradient of the graph P against h Dimana k ialah kecerunan bagi graf P lawan h (i) Calculate the gradient..........Tunjukkan pada graf bagaimana anda menentukan k....... [1 mark] 34 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .........

S A K T I .35 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .

(i) State the relationship between V and I …………………….………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1 mark] (ii) Determine the value of E. The result of the experiment is shown in the graph of V against I below. (a) Based on the graph in Diagram 2. when I = 0. I..0 A Show on the graph how you obtained the value of E .LATIHAN 2-Q2: Terengganu 2010 A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between potential differeence V across the terminal of the battery and the current.S A K T I ..…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [2 marks] 36 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .

=.... Show on the graph how you obtained the value of V.60 A... By using the value of E in a(ii).. Show on the graph how you determine r.60 A.S ayat 2.... R is given by the formula E = I (R + r) .. [1 mark] Contoh Soalan No 3/4-Section B-12 markah Note: 37 | M 1..(i) Name the physical quantity that is represented by the value of E in (a)(ii) (b) …………………. o u l T e m b a k 3 2 .. .. r of the graph.. ………………….. [3 marks] (c) From the graph......dPastikan menggunakanA K T I seperti di bawah... …………………... [2 mark] The external resistance. calculate the value of R...……………………………………………………………………………………………………...……………………………………………………………………………………………………. Bentuk dan susunan seperti di bawah...……………………………………………………………………………………………………..... [1 mark] Calculate the gradient. state the value of V when I = 0.. r in (b) and 1= 0. (d) R= [2 marks] (e) State one precaution that should be taken to improve the results of this experiment.

. Prosedur 3 markah dan variable 2 markah yang membawa jumlah markah keseluruhan 12 markah) CONTOH SOALAN DAN JAWAPAN. Aim 4.and……. Apparatus 6. depends on………… The higher the ……. 8. (j angan guna perkataan type) Markah 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5. Prosedur tulis semua apparatus yang diberi dalam soalan dan lain2 apparatus lukis gambarajah berlabel. Trial Perlis 09 Diagram above shows a plastics bottle containing hot water.. Arrangement of apparatus 7.S A K T I .the higher….. b) Responding V: ……… pastikan variable yang digunakan sama seperti dalam hypothesis dan juga aim c) Fixed V:……. pastikan sama dengan variable di atas Manipulated/Simbol/unit Responding/Simbol/unit 1 9. Inference 2.Item 1.… To investigate the relationship between…………. Variable Catatan ……….buat jadual dan pastikan ada symbol dan unit. Hypothesis 3. The found that the plastic bottle crumpled as shown in diagram 3.…… a) manipulated V: …….. Tabulating of Data . The plastic bottle is then put into a basin of ice.2 38 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . alat pengukur apa? Jika secondary value tunjukkan formulanya c) Repeated Exp....Analyzed the data – buat graf paksi y mesti responding dan paksi x-manipulated -pastikan ada symbol dan unit pada setiap paksi Simbol/unit 1 Simbol/unit TOTAL 12 M (ada 9 item yang perlu ditulis. – …ulang eskperiment sekurang-kurangnya 4 bacaan lagi.guna pembaris a) controlling manipulated V: … beritahu nilai pertama yang digunakan b) controlling Responding V: …beritahu apa yang diukur.

describe an experiment framework to investigate the hypothesis stated in 4(b).thermometer and other apparatus. Penjadualan data. In your description. State one suitable hypotesis.tall beaker.2 and using your knowledge of the gas law Based on the information and observation above : Berdasarkan maklumat dan pemerhatian di atas: (a) (b) (c) State one suitable inference. Senarai radas dan bahan Arrangement of the apparatus. Nyatakan satu hipothesis yang sesuai. [1 marks] [1 marks] With the use of apparatus as capilarry tube. Prosedur eksperimen termasuk kaedah mengawal pembolehubah dimanipulasikan dan kaedah mengukur pembolehubah bergerak balas. terangkan satu rangka kerja eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang anda nyatakan dalam 4(b) Dalam penerangan anda jelaskan perkara berikut : i) ii) iii) iv) v) Aim of the experiment. Pembolehubah yang terlibat. List of apparatus and materials. Susunan radas. The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable.tall beaker.thermometer dan lain-lain radas. state clearly the following : Dengan menggunakan radas seperti capilarry tube.S A K T I . Cara menganalisis data. The way you would tabulate the data.Based on the observation on diagram 3. [10 marks] vi) vii) Jawapan (a) (b) Inference the volume depend on the temperature Hypothesis 1 1 39 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .1 and diagram 3. Tujuan eksperimen. Variables in the experiment. The way you would analyse the data. Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai.

30 and 40oC 1 1 (vi) Tabulate the data T( 0C) 0 10 20 30 40 Analyse the data l/cm 1 (vii) l/cm 1 T( C) o TOTAL 12 Set 1-8. 2.mercury or concentric acid sulfuric acid.8. x is measured using meter rule and recorded 3.wire gouze.20.tall beaker. ruler and ice Arrangement of the apparatus 1 1 1 1 1 (v) Procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable.tripod stand. (b) state one appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated. 1 1.bunsen burner.(c)(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) the higher the temperature the higher the volume Aim To investigate the relationship between temperature and volume Variables Manipulated : Temperature Responding : volume/length of air column Constant : pressure/ mass of air trap List of apparatus and materials capilarry tube.strirre. The water is stirred until the water temperature fall to 0oC. (c describe how you would design an experiment to test your hypothesis 40 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .S A K T I .restord stand. soalan no 3 dan 4 section C Based on the diagrams in Questions 1.thermometer. Repeated the experiment using temperature of 10. The length of the air column. (a) make one suitable inference .

S A K T I . Diagram shows a worker using a piece of straight long and uniform wood to determine the depth of a hole filled with water. which includes the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable (vi) the way you would tabulate the data (vii) the way you would analyse the data [12 marks] Trial Melaka 09 1. Diagram 4 shows the telephone ear piece which receives a varying current from the telephone line. 41 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . The size become bigger as they approached the surface of the water. The permanent magnet attracts the magnet alloy diaphragm. The varying current in the coils of the electromagnet changes the strength of the magnetic field . The size of the air bubbles are smaller as they emerged from the air pump at the bottom of the aquarium. 2. Trial Kelantan 09 3. state clearly the following : (i) aim of the experiment (ii) variables in the experiment (iii) list of apparatus and materials (iv) arrangement of the apparatus (v) the procedures of the experiment. Diagram 3 shows air bubbles formed by an air pump in an aquarium.In your explanation.

both lorries start to accelerate with the same forward thrust.1. Diagram 3.1 Trial Mrsm 09 5. the bell in figure 4.The figures 4. When the switches of the two bells are on.2 rings louder than the bell in figure 4. when the wood is pushed further down as in Diagram 2 . 4 . he found that a larger force is needed.2 show the electric circuits which connects an electric bell to an ammeter and a power supply. he feel that a small force is needed.1 shows two identical lorries which are at rest when the traffic light is red.S A K T I . When the red light turns green.2 rings louder than the bell in Diagram 4. When the switch is closed.When the is pushed a bit into water as in Diagram 1 . Digram 3.1 and 4. 6. Diagram 4.2 shows the positions of both lorries after two minutes.2 show two electric bells are connected to the similar batteries. it is observed that the bell in Diagram 4. 42 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .1 and 4.

Trial sbp 09 8.2 Rajah 4. End Of Module GOOD LUCK LAMPIRAN 1 PHYSICS SPM PAPER 3 QUESTION ANAYLISIS SECTION B 43 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . The result is shown in Diagram 4. Diagram 3.Trial N9 09 7. Keputusannya ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 4.1 shows the interference pattern of monochromatic light after passing through a double slit.S A K T I . Diagram 3. Same experiment is repeated by using longer wavelength of monochromatic light.1 shows an aluminium foil which has been shaped into a boat and put into a water container.2 shows the same piece of aluminium foil that has been crumpled and put into the same water container. Eksperimen yang sama diulang dengan menggunakan cahaya monokromat yang mempunyai panjang gelombang yang lebih panjang.2.1 menunjukkan corak interferens cahaya monokromat selepas melalui satu dwicelah.Diagram 4.

S A K T I . Derived.2 Measurement 1.Variable C TOPIC FORM 4 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Based. Scalar &Vector Quantities 1.3 Scientific Investigations NO Responding Manipulated Fixed 29 EKSPERIMENT 44 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .

4 Pascal Principle 3.5 Archimedes Principle 16 17 18 19 3.2 Pressure in Liquids 12 13 14 15 3 3.1 Thermal In Equilibrium 4 4.4 The Effect of a Force 4 5 2 2.8 Work.9 Elasticity 6 7 8 9 10 11 FORCE AND PRESSURE 3. Power and Efficiency 2.1 Reflection Of Light 5.3 Momentum 2.S A K T I .S1-2007) time to stop acceleration( S2-2008) acceleration depth time taken height mass mass force mass height of mass weight mass length of jigsaw blade force applied mass force mass height 45 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .6 Bernoulli Principle HEAT 4.1 Linear Motion 2. Energy.5 Impulse And Impulsive Force 2.4 The Gas Laws 20 21 22 23 24 5 LIGHT 5.2 Inertia 2.FORCES AND MOTION 2.6 Gravity 2.2 Specific Heat Capacity 4.1 Pressure 3.3 Specific Latent Heat 4.3 Gas and Atm Pressure 3.2 Refraction Of Light 25 26 angle of reflection angle of refraction angle of incident angle of incident light intensity light intensity rise in temperature rise in temperature (S2-2004) rise in temperature pressure(2005) pressure/volume (S1-2006: Charles Law) time mass density material volume temperature time temperature pressure/volume mass of water time 20 pressure height of big piston weight/volume of water displace weight/volume of water displace water lavel time area og big piston mass/weight object density speed density of mercury force/area small piston density of water mass/weight object density of water depth (2004/2008) water distance length difference depth of water lavel area of metal block depth depth density weight density of water density depth of thistle funnel work done extension of spring (S1-2005) extension of spring (S2-2007) distance force diameter spring/wire/length of spring mass spring constant force/weight 2 3 1 accelaration period (S3-2006.7 Forces In Equilibrium 2.

2 Ohm Law 7 2.3 Total Internal Reflection 5.6 Sound waves 1.1 Magnetic effect of CCC 16 17 3.27 5. S1-2007) voltage across resistor voltage across cell power current speed vandegraff current electric current length/crosssectional area/temperature no of resistor(2 ohm each) time voltage height size vandegraff voltage length of constatant wire length/crosssectional area/temperature voltage supply(Siries Circiut) same baterry current mass load 2.5 Interference of waves 3 4 5 6 x distance/x distance/x wavelength wavelength frequency frequency colour(diffraction) a a a thickess 1.4 Lenses 28 29 apparent depth(2007) angle of refraction/reflection image distance real depth angle of incident object distance Variable size of an object density of block focal length TOPIC FORM FIVE WAVES 1.1 Waves NO Responding Manipulated Fixed 25 EKSPERIMENT 1 2 frequency(2006) wavelength/time taken same like form 4 wavelength depth density of water period frequency/length of pendulum size of spring size of spring/mass 1.3 Series and parallel circuits 2.1 Electric fields and charge flow 7 8 9 10 current(2008) temperature(2007) potential difference (S2-2006) resistance (S4-2004.5 Electrical energy and power 8 11 12 13 14 15 ELECTROMAGNETISM 3.S A K T I .3 Difraction of waves 1.2 Refraction of waves 1.3 Electromagnetic induction 18 19 20 strength of electromagnet strength of electromagnet distance travel/force distance travel/force(2008) current(2005) number of turn of coil current magnetic strength current speed current number of turn current magnetic strength magnetic strength 46 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .7 Electromagnetic waves ELECTRICITY 2.2 The Force on a CCC in a magnetic field 3.2 Reflection of waves 6 1.4 EMF and Internal Resistance 2. S2-2005 (Diameter).

2 Radioactive decay 10 5.4 Logic gates RADIOACTIVITY 5. will inflate during collision/to prevent driver and Air bags passenger colliding with steering wheel and dashboard.6 Generation and transm ELECTRONICS 4.3 Transistors 4.S A K T I .21 3.1 Cathode ray oscilloscope 9 4.4 Nuclear energy 5.3 Radioisotopes 5.5 Management of radioactive 25 24 current no of turn/magnetic strength no of turn for secondary coil no of turn for primary/secondary coil magnetic strength/ no of turn no of turn for primary coil soft iron/seloinoid induced current/voltage frequency angle of deflection magnetic strength voltage supply thikness of aluminium count rate radioactice source LAMPIRAN 2 SKEMA CHARACTERISTIC ATAU PROPERTIES BAGI SOALAN MODIFICATION DAN MAKING DICISION BI L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Chapter 1/2/3 (FORCES AND MOTION/PRESSURE) ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/MODIFI REASON/EXPLANATION CATION More sensitif/more accurate/suitable to measure a The small reading of scale 0. Seat belt to prevent passengers thrown foward due to it inertia Headrest to prevent head thrown back due to it inertia To withstand greater pressure at the bottom as the Thicker wall at the base pressure increases with depth The wall is constructed using stronger To avoid the wall from breaking / To increase the materials / Using reinforce concrete strength of the wall / To avoid leaking To avoid flooding / To channel away the overflow Equipped with the water overflow system water The mass must be high so that the vehicles becomes more stable the types of engine is diesel so the cost is low the diameter of the tyre must be bigger so the pressure is low // more stable Streamline / larus reduce the resistance of water/ kurangkan rintangan air Low Density /ketumpatan rendah higher buoyant force/ daya apungan tinggi 47 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .5 Transformers 22 23 3.2 Semiconductor diodes 4. to lengthen the time of impact so as to reduce Dashboard .01 cm small length Front and rear crumple zones to increase time of impact //to reduce impulsive force.made of soft material impulsive force.4 DC and AC 3.1 Nucleus of an atom 5.

S A K T I .15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Specific heat capacity high / muatan haba tentu tinggi High strength / Kekuatan tinggi Material made from glass Small diameter of capillary tube High density of shots/added more Big diameter of bottom bulb Aerodynamics / cone shape at top Small mass Less than half of the bottle filled with water(water roket) 3 or 4 wings Angle of projection = 45 degree Low density of an object Higher density High engine power High spring constant // stiffer spring Wide tyre // smooth tyre use a spring with a bigger diameter the spring is made from steel a larger k(spring constant) spring is greatly compressed slope of inclined plane is 45 degrees The melting point should be high The material must be very strong Shaped with a curved surface at the top and a flat surface at the bottom(aerodynamic) Run with higher speed Bend pole greater // jump when the pole is maximum bend Elastic pole // strong material // low density Wear fit attire Use mattress/soft material Made of concrete thicker wall at the bottom height from ground is high(dam) Wide base cross section area High volume of air space in the ship Spring arrange in parallel Spring with thicker wire Spring with smaller diameter of coil Rope with small diameter(parachute) Long stem(for hydrometer) Stem with smaller diameter Low rate of rusting Semicircular curve shaped(for slope) Smooth surface Synthetic material absorbs heat slowly/serap haba dengan perlahan Difficult to damage / sukar rosak Glass does not corrode with acid To increase the sensitivity of the hydrometer Makes the hydrometer stays upright/lower center of gravity To obtaine a bigger upthrust/stability Reducing of air friction Higher rate of acceleration/easy to carry Enough space for increasing air pressure/ Big buoyant force The stability of the rocket Increase the flight distance So that it is lighter/accelerate faster Bigger inertia/stability To produce high acceleration// high resultant force So that the spring is stiffer // motorcycle bounce less // less vibration To increase stability // to reduce friction so that k is bigger the type of material influences k produces a bigger elastic PE. elastic P E changes to K E so that elastic Potential Energy is bigger so that distance is maximum To be able to withstand high To be able to withstand very strong force To achieve an upward lifting force when moving at high speed To increase kinetic energy Increase elastic potential energy So that the pole can return to it original shape // So that it will not break // light Reduce air resistance increase time of collision // reduce impulsive force//increase landing time Stronger / Not easy to break // metal can rust easily able to withstand the higher pressure at the bottom to produce a greater difference in pressure So that ship can float//prevent from overturn // ship more stable // ship not sink deeper Produce air buoyant force// ship can float The spring sistem is stiffer/less extension/less elastic The spring is stiffer/wire not easily break Increase the stiffness of the spring//can with stand higher force Accupy less space/less mass Cover a wider range of densities Sink more and increase the sensitivity To ensure tha material last longer Exchange between KE and GPE easily Easily to move/reduce frictional force Light weight/air-proof material Chapter 4 (HEAT) 48 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .

BI L

ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/MODIFI CATION

REASON/EXPLANATION

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the lid of the pan designed to lower the air pressure inside the pan the lid of the pan made of substance which has weak conductivity of heat Made from material with low specific heat capacity Made from a low density material Made from material that is not easily corroded or oxidized The handle of the pot is made from material with high specific heat capacity The pot is designed to have vertical compartments which can be added or removed High melting point Liquid that difficult to compress. High degree of hardness Large numbers of fin blade Big size of fan High boiling point High specific heat capacity Increase the length/area of cooling coil A storage tank must be place at a higher level Pipe embedded in plate must be long The pipe inside the plate must be made of metal thermometer is made from strong transparent glass the thermometric liquid chosen is mercury the capillary tube is made narrow and thin the shape of the thermometer is round the thermometer is placed in melting ice the thermometer is placed in steam Low specific heat capacity of ice cream box Smaller size of ice cream box Plastic PVC Bright colour of outer box Use insulator behind the absorber panel Use an absorber panel which is painted black.

the boiling point of water decreased heat will not absorbed by the the lid,so heat will not lost to surrounding Temperature in the pot can be increased quickly when heated. This saves fuel / cooking gas. Pot is light and more portable Pot is more durable and will not contaminate the food with dangerous material The handle becomes hot slower and can be held without scorching the hand This makes the pot versatile because different food can be cooked at the same time Does not melt easily if there is an increase in temperature. Pressure will be transmited uniformly in all directions/ flows easily Can withstand great force / does not break easily Increase surface area // release heat quickly // engine cools quickly Can suck more air // more air can be blow to the engine /Can cool down a larger area Not easily to vaporize // the volume of liquid reduce slowly // takes a longer time to boil Takes a longer time to become hot // the rise in temperature is slow increase the resistance/Can transfer the heat faster to the surrounding To give higher pressure will enlarge surface area will absorbs heat faster Metal is a good heat conductor,so it will transmit heat to water easily/resistance hih so that it is not easily broken because it easily expands uniformly so that it is more sensitive so that it has a magnifying effect to obtain the lower point to obtain the upper point Easy get cold // becomes cool quickly Easier to carry // easy too become cool Poor conductor of heat Does not absorb heat from surrounding quickly To prevent the loss of heat energy A black surface is a good absorber of radiation so it will absorb heat faster

Chapter 5 (LIGHT) ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/MODIFI REASON/EXPLANATION CATION Allow more light to involve in total internal Small critical angle. reflection strong material not easily broken. flexible material. Can easily change the shape. fine diameter can enter small holes. High refractive index Total internal reflection can occur easily

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Optical fibre in a bundle Material with weak rigidity Material with great strength A plane mirror mounted on an adjustable arm Use a converging mirror instead of plane mirror Place the filament at the centre of curvature of the converging mirror // use high powered lens Use heat filter Electric fan operates during and after the lamp is switched on Shorter // smaller size of binocular Use prism to make the total internal refleclection occur Higher density Ojective lens with larger diameter Eyepiece with higher power Shorter focal length Convex lense u a bit bigger than f periscope 2 plane mirror/prism Casing to hold the mirror Convex mirror Optcal fibre with higher densities/ refrative index inner compare than outer ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/M ODIFICATION Build near bay

Large number of signal/higher intensity of light can propagate The optical fibre can be bent easily The optical fibre can last longer/not easily spoil Reflects light to the vertical screen, corrects lateral and vertical inversion Focus the light directly to the lens // increase the intensity of light. Light goes directly from the lamp and reflect back on the same path // increase the intensity of light towards the transparency // to get brighter image To absorb excess heat to the transparency Cooling system to stabilize the temperature (heat energy produced by filament bulb) easy to carry Produce upright image Higher refractive indeks More light passes through the lens Shorter focal length Higher power/increase the magnification Can produce real image Produce maximum magnification Cheaper than cctv Can reflect light from object Easier to handle periscope Wider field view To ensure total internal reflection occur

Chapter 6 (WAVE) BI L 1 REASON/EXPLANATION Waves are calmer due to divergence of energy/ Convergence of waves at the cape/The bay is shallower . The speed of waves decreases./The amplitude of waves at the bay is small. Reduce direct impact of the waves on the shore. To reflect the waves from the shore./Protect the area from large waves /avoid erosion Waves passing through the gap will be diffracted in the children’s area/the smaller amplitude of the diffracted waves causes the sea to be calmer there energy of waves decreases. To ensure the water not overflow. To withstand high pressure at the base Easy to diffract Diffraction more obvious Can transfer more energy

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Build retaining walls Concrete barrier structure with a gap in between Build high retaining wall Thick area at the base of the wall Long wavelength Short Slit Ultrasonic wave

Chapter 7/8 (ELECTRIC & ELECTROMAGNET) ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/MO REASON/EXPLANATION DIFICATION Allow each electric appliances to be switched on and off The electric appliances are connected 1 independently/Higher voltage in parallel One appliaces damage the another can still function 2 Fit fuse at the live wire in the fuse To stop the flow of current by melting when a high voltage 51 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I BI L

S A K T I .box/Use miniature circuit breakers (mcb’s) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Earth connection to the metal case of electrical appliances Use low power lamps / install fluorescent lamp Regularly cleaning and removing dust from the air filters of air conditioners Low power lamp High efficiency Long life span Low price/cost Smaller surface area High melting point Long (coiled) metal Low rate of oxidation Low resistance Low resistivity Low rate of thermal expansion use thin diaphragm Use strong material More number of turns of coil Thicker diameter of wire of coil Using more powerful magnet to increase the strength of the magnetic field Change slip rings with commutator Use stronger magnet Use more number of turn for the coil/ Increase the speed of rotation Diameter should be large The rate of expansion should be low Use capacitor Using concave surface soft iron Using a laminated iron core Thick copper wire Using soft iron for the core Winding the secondary and primary coils on top each other. To reduce the energy use/do not waste the electrical energy To make sure the appliaces function effectively Safe cost//electric bill The room looks brighter//high output power//less power wastage No need to replace often Save money/cost the resistance is higher not easy to melt to increase the resistance Does not oxidize easily / can be used for a longer period Current will increase / more heat will be produced To reduce heat loss in the cables The cables will not expand under hot weather Easy to vibrate Not easy to break Increase the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage // The magnitude of the induced current or is also increased reduce the resistance of the coil Increase the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage //The magnitude of the induced current or induced electromotive force is also increased To reverse contact with brushes so that the current flow in same direction in external circuit To increase the magnetic field strength Increase the rate of change of magnetic field/increase the induced current to reduce the resistance of the cables So there is less expansion and less sagging in the cables during hot days To smoothen the current produced/to store electric charge Produce radial magnetic field to ensure smooten rotatation Reduce Eddy current in iron core reduce the resistance of the coil Reduce the hysterisis loss. the fuse in the live wire will blow and cut off the supply. of electric current flows through the circuit // switches itself off very quickly if the current exceeds Earth wire connected to earth. so that when a fault occurs and a current flows through the live wire and the earth wire. Easy to magnetize and demagnitize Reduce Leakage of Magnetic Flux BI L 1 2 3 4 5 Chapter 9 (RADIOACTIVE) ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/MO REASON/EXPLANATION DIFICATION The half-life should be a few days This allows for the location to be detected and thereafter the long radioactive contamination is reduced The source should emit γ particles This enables the radiation to be detected above the ground/high penetrating power The detector should be able to detect γ High ionising particles like α and β particles are absorbed by particles (low ionising particles) the ground Has a long half-life Can be used for a long time hence save cost Can penetrate box and liquid and is less Emits beta dangerous than gamma 52 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .

higher inertia • To accelerate an object. they were thrown foward. • When the bus was moving. To accelerate 2 objects with the same acceleration. 6. • The value determined is accurate if it is near to the actual value • The consistency of a measuring instrument is the ability of instrument to record consistent readings for each measurement with little deviation among readings. • The measurement is consistent if the values determined are close to each other. which states that “an object will remain at rest or continue with a constant speed in a straight line unless an external forces acting on it 7.S A K T I • Therefore.6 7 8 Solid form Low ionising power Higher ionising power Easy to handle and contain. the passenger were also moving at the same speed as the bus. need to overcome the inertia first. Explain the statement. Hence. CHAPTER 2 5. • In both situations. • The concept of inertia also known as Newton’s First Law of Motion. • Higher mass. Does not change the state and taste of juice Easy for the medium to conduct electricity LAMPIRAN 3 SOALAN UNDERSTANDING TINGKATAN 4 CHAPTER 1 4. • The people in the car tried to remain in their state of rest when the car started moving. the heavier object needs a bigger force. the passengers were resisting a change in their state of motion and also known as Inertia. Can you explain why a maximum speed of supertanker might need to stop its engine over a distance of about 3 km before it can come to stop. 53 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . more force is needed for heavier object. • Accuracy is the ability of the instrument to give readings close to the actual value. they were thrown back. . Hence. • When the bus stopped. the passengers continued moving. Explain the differences between accuracy and consistency of a measuring instrument by using suitable examples. Can you explain why the passenger thrown forward when the bus suddenly stop and the head of the passenger were thrown back when the car started moving.

There are two types of force. • Fuel burns in the combustion chamber • Hot gases expelled at high speed backwards • A large backwards momentum is produced • The rocket gains forwards momentum of equal magnitude 13. explain the working principle of the rocket. 9. • When the solid is stretched. 8. When falling . • When the engine stop.5o. the molecules displaced away from each other • Attractive forces are acting to oppose the stretching • When the solid is compressed. • When the boy jumps onto the river bank. attraction and repulsive force between the particles of the solid. Explain how the forces between the molecules caused the elasticity when the spring is compressed and stretched. Terangkan bagaimana anda boleh menentukan ketumpatan bagi penyumbat gabus. • timbang jisim gabus • ikat gabus dengan pemberat dan masukan dalam silinder penyukat • perubahan isipadu air bersamaan dengan isipadu gabus • ketumpatan gabus = jisim perisipadu 12.(the frictional force is 120N) • Boy slide down when component of weight parallel to the slope is higher than frictional force Resultant force acting to produced acceleration Boy remain stationary when component of weight parallel to the slope is equal to frictional force Resultant force is equal to zero make the boy in force equilibrium • state of the plasticine balls when they hit the wood and the sponge. • The higher the time impact will reduce impulsive force. • A supertanker has a larger mass.Why the boy with mass 40kg slides down the flume when the angle of inclination is 30 o and remains stationary when the angle of inclination is 17.• A supertanker at a state of motions and have a maximum velocity. • So we will not feel hurt. • The soft ball player move his hand backward to increase time impact. Diagram (a) shows two identical spherical plasticine balls before being released from the same height. Gravitational Potential energy changes to Kinetic energy When the plasticine hits the surface of wood . the supertanker will continue it state of motions. the plasticine has Gravitational Potential energy . • So it take a longer distance/time to stop due to its has a larger inertia.Using the principle of conservation of momentum. It was observed that the plasticine stopped more quickly when it hit the wood. • A larger mass have a lot/larger inertia. the Kinetic energy changes to Heat energy / / Sound energy The energy / work done is use to changes the shape of sponge • • • 14. the molecules displaced closer to each other • Repulsive forces are acting to oppose the compression 11. Other situation: bend our knee after jump? • A soft ball has a high velocity. his momentum is forward.S A K T I . Explain why a softball player moves his hand backwards while catching a fast moving ball. • A soft ball has a high momentum. Explain why the boat moves away from the jetty as a boy jumps out of the boat onto the river bank. 54 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . Explain the changes in energy that occur from the moment the plasticine ball is released until reaches the position in Diagram (b) • • • • Before released. Diagram (b) shows the 10.

thus reducing the inertia of each unit. Pressure is transmitted uniformly throughout the brake fluid.S A K T I . Why we feel easier to pull the wheel barrow compared to push the wheel barrow? • The object on the wheel barrow has a weight • When we push the wheel barrow there is a force acting on the ground in the same direction as the weight. Explain why a balloon filled with helium gas rises u • • • • The balloon acted by two forces: Upthrust and the weight of the balloon The density of helium gas is less than the density of surrounding air Upthrust equals to the weight of the air displaced by the ballloon Upthrust is higher than the weight of the balloon 22. • So the total force acting on the ground is the weight and the force produced when we push the wheel barrow. 18. The momentum of lorry and load is very big when it is moving and produce a bigger impulsive force. Explain why the need of steel structure and the separate compartments to build in lorry carrying heavy load. Buoyant force < Weight of the submarine 21. Sea water flooded ballast tank The weight of water displaced is smaller. • • • • When the brake is pressed . • • • • The inertia of lorry and load is very big when it is moving The separate compartments make the load divided into smaller mass. • • • • • Buoyant force increase when the volume of water displace increase. Buoyant force higher than weight of block. The steel structure will prevent the loads from smashing into the driver’s compartment during emergency braking. Force is exerted on the piston of the brake pads Brake pads will press against the brake discs. • the car needs to slow down. • When we pull the wheel barrow the force produced is in opposite direction with the weight. The wooden block then float because the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the wooden block The concept involve is archimedes principle 20.Using the Principle of conservation of momentum • the total momentum before and after jumping is equal • The boat moves backward to balance the forward momentum 15. Explain why the wooden block move upwards and then float on the water surface when it release from the above of the water surface. 19. Exlplain how the brake system operates when 55 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . • So the total force acting on the floor is a weight less the force produced when we pull the wheel barrow CHAPTER 3 17. Boyant force pushed the wooden block upward.Explain how a submarine is able to submerge into deep sea water • • • • Valve release air from ballast tank. The toothpaste flows out of it’s tube while squeezing at the bottom end Explain how the toothpaste flows out and name a physics principle related to it.a force is applied to the piston and pressure is exerted. Diagram shows a copper block and a bowl shape copper sheet of same mass. • • • • Force is applied to the toothpaste (tube) Will produced a pressure The toothpaste carry the pressure and apply the pressure of the equal magnitude to the whole tube 16.

Diagram shows a cross-sectional of a wing of a moving aeroplane. Explain why the lift force acts on the wing of the aeroplane. the lower the pressure pressure inside the house is higher than the outside. Explain how water is used as a cooling agent in the radiator. The higher atmospheric pressure in the insect poison container will push the insect poison liquid up through the narrow metallic tube.S A K T I engine it can absorb large amount of heat energy • Once water reach the radiator. According to Bernoulli’s Principle . the strong wind above the roof is moving very fast While the air in the house is at rest according to bernaoulli principle the higher the velocity. a force is generated by the difference in pressure which is strong enough to lift the roof. 23. • • • Higher velocity on the upper surface and lower velocity on the lower surface Thus produced lower pressure on the upper surface and higher pressure on the lower surface Lift force = difference in pressure x area of surface Explain why the hovercraft moves with constant velocity in terms of the force acting on it •The forward force = friction // forward thrust = drag •The resultant force is zero •The hovercraft is in force in equilibrium CHAPTER 4 29. the pressure of the moving air decreases as the speed of the air increases .Bunsen burner burning with yellow flame . suhu berkurang . Water is used as a cooling agent in a 24. • Water has high specific heat capacity • When water in tube passes through the 25. Explain why. 26. • Di dalam air terdapat molekul yang sentiasa bergerak pada halaju berbeza • Dipermukaan air molekul-molekul berhalaju tinggi memperolehi tenaga kinetik tinggi • Ikatan antara molekul diatasi dan terbebas ke udara • Air kehilangan molekul berhalaju tinggi jadi TK air rendah. Explain how the vacuum cleaner is able to remove dust from the floor • the fan blow air out of the vent • produce a partial vacuum area in the vacuum cleaner • difference in pressure occurs/atmospheric pressure is higher than the pressure inside the vacuum cleander • forced is exerted in/pushed in the dirt.Explain why the copper block sink in water but the bowl shape copper sheet floats on water • • • • • two forces act on the copper block and bowl are uptrust and weight Uptrust small because small volume // vise versa The average density of cooper sheet is smaller than density of water. Cooper sheet will float. air is forced out through the jet of gas at a high speed. radiator. Block sink because weight > uptrust Sheet float because weight = uptrust • • • • High velocity of gas produce low pressure at the jet Higher atmospheric pressure pushes the air inside and mix with the gas Complete mixture of combustion will produce blue flame Enlarge the orifice to allow more air 27. Terangkan bagaimana proses sejatan mengakibatkan suhu cecair berkurang. Explain the principle of Insect Piston Spray • • • • When the piston is pushed. The wing of the aeroplane experiences a lift force. 30. The roof of a house being lifted by strong winds. • • • • • 28. Explain how a blue flame can be produced. the heat of the water absorbed by the fin blade of the radiator • The same time the fan in the radiator push the heat out of the car. 56 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .

• So we feel cool when evaporation occur due to the release of heat in our body. Heat is transferred from patient’s body to the thermometer. • Fish will release it heat until the temperature equal to 0 • Cold water not experience a change of phase • So just the process of thermal equilibrium happen when they in thermal contact. explain how a doctor can check his patient temperature during medical treatment.How does sweating helps to cool down your body? • When we do the activity using the movement of our body a sweat will poduce. Terangkan bagaimana ini berlaku. Thermal equilibrium between the thermometer and patient’s body is reached when the net rate of heat transfer is zero. Not to dry Finger? • Ice cube melt will absorb the heat • The heat is known as latent heat of fusion • When our finger wet it has a small amount of heat and it will absorb by the ice cube. its temperature remains constant because the average kinetic energy remains constant 33. The thermometer reading shows the temperature of the patient’s body.31. • takat didih eter adalah rendah • suhu tangan lebih tinggi dari suhu eter 57 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . Why the ice cube stick to the wet finger. The thermometer and the patient’s body are at the same temperature. Although it is losing its energy to surroundings. it loses energy to surroundings Its temperature begins to fall until it reaches freezing point 800C At its freezing point. We cannot use a cooling system of a refrigerator to cool the hot room. Explain the changes which occur in the liquid naphthalene when it is cooled until it changes from the liquid to the solid state. naphthalene begins to solidify. • • • • As liquid naphthalene cools. Apabila beberapa titik ether terkena tangan seorang pelajar. temperature and humidity. 36. Explain why? • • • • Cooling system of a refrigerator is smaller Less cool air from refrigerator flow out compare to the hot air flow in Position of refrigerator is on the floor The cool air does not flow upward 32. • The heat release from water cause it to be frozen. tangannya merasa sejuk. • In the process of evaporation the change of phase of matter from liquid to steam occur. Your body sweats when you are feeling hot. • So the ice cube and finger will stick together due to the frozen of water • Further more finger have a rough surface and it helps the ice stick to our finger 34. 38. • Acctually water evaporates from the skin when we sweat. • menyebabkan haba mengalir dari tangan ke eter • eter meruap//membawa haba pendam pengewapan • menyebabkan suhu tangan turun dan terasa sejuk 35. Jelaskan kenapa? • salji perlukan haba untuk melebur • haba tersebut adalah haba pendam tentu iaitu untuk menukarkan fasa pepejal kepada cecair . • • • • • Thermometer is placed in the mouth of patient. Cuaca yang paling sejuk dialami pada penghujung musim sejuk. According to the principle of thermal equilibrium and the working principle of a thermometer. • The lower temperature not to be 0 degree. Why we put the fishes in the ice cube rather than cold water? • Ice melts need heat known as latent heat of fusion • Heat is absorb from the fish. • The heat is needed to change this phase is call the latent heat of vapourisation. • Factor influence the process: air velocity. iaitu apabila salji mulai melebur.S A K T I 37.

i. the light rays is focused at the principal focus of the lens At the principal focus. • • • The convex lens is aimed/focused to a distant object (infinity) The screen is adjusted until a sharp image is formed on the screen The distance between the screen and the lens is measuredl 58 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . pressure (P = F/A) increase • When the angle of incidence exceed the critical angle. Explain how you would estimate the focal length of a convex lens in your school laboratory . • • • • The layers of air nearer the road warmer. • Refraction of light ray occurs • Light travels from less dense to a denser medium • The light will bend towards the normal • In the observer eyes. Explain why the tourist can still able to see the sun even though it has already set. Diagram shows a ray of light directed perpendicularly at a side of the semi circular glass block.While driving a car on a hot day.the land and the sea receive the same amount of heat from the sun Water has a higher specific capacity than the land The land is heated to a higher temperature than the sea The density of the air above the sea is higher than the density of the air above the land The air above the land flows up and the air above the sea flows towards the land CHAPTER 5 41.S A K T I . Using kinetic theory of gasses.r will also increase Keep on increasing the angle of incidence until angle of refraction is 90° The angle of incidence is called critical angle Increase the angle of of incidence more than the critical angle. 44. The light refract away from the normal Explain how total internal reflection occurs in diagram above? • • • • Increase the angle of incidence. then angle of refraction. The ray passes through the glass block to a point O before leaving the glass block. Explain how mirage occurred. In the morning feel hot at the sea . • • • • • Molecules moving freely in random motion When temperature increase. the light ray is focused on one small area Heat energy causes an increase in temperature. you may see a mirage on the road. The density of air decrease nearer to the road surface.• lebih banyak haba diserap dari persekitaran 39. 40. kinetic energy//velocity increase Molecules strike the walls of pressure cooker more frequently The rate of change of momentum increase Force exerted on the walls increase. the sun is still not setting as they can still see the image from refraction 42.Explain why a piece of paper burns when placed under a convex lens aimed towards hot sun rays.Explain why this phenomenon happens? • • • • • During the day. total internal reflection occurs 43. the ray will be reflected. The angle of incidence in the glass block is 30° . Tousrist at a beach observing the sunset. • • • • The parallel rays of the sun will pass through the a convex lens After entering the lens. the paper starts to burn 45. The light travel from denser to less dense area. explain how the pressure increase when the temperature increase in the pressure cooker.

59 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . Red has the longest wave length and the last to refracted during sunset. • Kedalaman boleh dihitung menggunakan rumus v = (2d/t) 49. Explain these phenomena. Light travel through this water droplet and undergo the process of refraction . Why? • • • • Air near the ground colder tha above air Air layer the ground more denser Sound travel slower in cold air/wavelength decrease in cold air Sound bend toward the observer/sound bend away to normal TINGKATAN 5 CHAPTER 6 48. Can you explain why the wave front of sea water will follow the shape of the shore when it approaches the shore? • The depth of the water decreasing as it travel towards the shore. Explain why strong double-glazed glass is used as walls of the observation tower in an airport. Descibe the movement of two similiar ships that are located at A and B. • All particles in a material/matter/glass vibrate at its natural frequency • The airplane engine produces noise which cause the air to vibrate • Due to resonance. The sound wave from the train(etc) can be heard loudly and clearly at night.Explain the advantages of parallel circuit in a house wiring system.• Focal length = distance between the screen and the lens 46. • The wave will bend and change their direction(refraction occurs). • • • • Light consisting of seven colours. 50.total internal reflection and dispersion of light occurred. Terangkan bagaimana kedalaman laut boleh diukur. • So. • kedalaman laut boleh diukur menggunakan peralatan OSK dan hidrofon • hidrofon boleh mengesan gelombang ultrasonik dalam air yang dipancarkan • OSK boleh menyukat masa pantulan gelombang selepas dipancarkan dan kembali semula kepada penerima. If one device fails. • • A parallel circuit can run several devices using the full voltage of the supply. the others will continue . A droplet of water trap in the atmosphere after raining acts a lens. • • • • • The singer sing with a certain frequency and produce sound energy The energy is transferred to the glass Resonance occures when the forced frequency made by the singer is the same as the natural frequency of the glass The glass will vibrate with maximum amplitude Increase in energy transferred may cause the glass to break 47. • The velocity and wavelength is decreasing due to the wave travel from the depth to the shallow area. the glass vibrate at a higher/maximum amplitude • Need strong glasses to withstand the effect of resonance which vibrate with high amplitude • so that it does not brek easily 51. wave front of sea water will follow the shape of the shore. It is known that the sky is red during sunset and the formation of rainbow on the sky always appeared after raining. Explain? • The ship at A will move up and down • Because constructive inteference happens at point A • The ship will remain calm at location B • Because destructive inteference happens at point B CHAPTER 7 53. How can when the oprah singer sing can make the glass break.S A K T I 52.

A failure of one component does not lead to the failure of the other components. More components may be added in parallel without the need for more voltage. Explain why a three pin plug is more suitable compared with a two pin • Two pin plug has no earth wire while three pin plug has earth wire • Using 2 pin plug. the current will be earthed • Using 2 pin is not safe to the consumer while using 3 pin plug is more safer to the consumer 55.Most of our electric energy comes from hydroelectric power stations and thermal power station.f. Explain why the bulb connected to two dry cells lights up brighter than one bulb connected to one dry cell. acceleration is lower 60. offices. 57. The acceleration of a magnet that drops vertically into a solenoid is much smaller than the gravitational acceleration. magnetic field is produced • Soft iron core will be magnetized • The scrap metal attracted to the iron core • No current flow soft iron demagnetized or metal scrap fall down 61. • Current flow through the solenoid. Explain the statement. the other devices will receive no voltage. Pembakar roti T bertanda 240 V. Each electrical appliance in the circuit has it own switch plug.• • • • running normally If the device shorts. Tentukan pembakar roti yang manakah mempunyai elemen pemanas dengan rintangan yang lebih kecil.e bateri lebih besar daripada voltan metol itu.m.e bateri hilang di dalam bateri/sebahagian digunakan untuk mengatasi rintangan dalam • voltan//beza keupayaan yang dibekalkan kepada mentol hampir sama dengan voltan kerja mentol CHAPTER 8 59. remains the same • The effective internal resistance of the two cells is smaller • A larger current will flow through the bulb to make it brighter 58.5V 0. Terangkan mengapa mentol itu menyala dengan kecerahan normal walaupun d. What happen to the candle flame when it place between 2 metal plate supply with Extra High Tension (EHT).5 V disambungkan kepada sebuah mentol 2. if there is leakage of current it will also flow through the metal body while using 3 pin plug if there is leakage of current it will flow to the ground • The person who touches the metal body will experiences electric shock while using 3 pin plug. • Magnetic flux change in the solenoid • Induced current generates in the solenoid • Direction of induced current always flows in the direction to generate magnetic pole to oppose the pole of the falling magnet. 840 W. • The two dry cells are connected in parallel • The effective e. Didapati bahawa mentol itu menyala dengan kecerahan normal apabila suis dihidupkan. • Therefore. schools and 54.3 A. • bateri mempunyai rintangan dalam • sebahagian daripada d. Sebuah bateri yang terdiri daripada dua buah sel kering berlabel 1. • • • • Candle flame spread into two Heat from candle produced ion Positive charge will attracted to negative plate while negative charge will atracted to positive plate Candle flame spread wider to negative plate because positive charge is more haviear than negative charge 56.S A K T I . These power station are connected by cables to transmit electricity to users in industries.g. 650 W dan pembakar roti U bertanda 240 V.g. preventing overload damage. Explain how the electromagnet crane can be used to lift scrap metal. • pembakar roti U • kedua-dua pembakar roti mempunyai voltan kerja yang sama • kuasa elemen pemanas = V2/R //kuasa elemen pemanas berkadar songsang dengan rintangan • pembakar roti dengan kuasa yang lebih tinggi mempunyai elemen pemanas dengan rintangan yang lebih kecil 60 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .

houses. Explain briefly the importance of the national grid network system in distributing electric energy to the users. voltage is supplied to primary coil. Using the concept of the magnetic effect of an electric current. 62.m. • The direction of the magnetic field on the left coil is anti clockwise • The direction of the magnetic field on the right coil is clockwise 65.Diagram shows the pattern of magnetic field formed when current flows in a coil. ie upward. causing the electromagnet to be magnetized. Explain why the magnetic field strength is greater at the center compared to the edge. The magnet produced varies in magnitude and direction. remaking the contact and completing the circuit again. An induced e.f. (alternating current will flow) and the soft iron core is magnetized.c. This causes a changing magnetic flux pass through the secondary coil. • The light spring pulls the armature back. 63.S A K T I • . • The magnetized electromagnet attracts the soft-iron armature. a current flows in the coils of the electromagnet. across the secondary coil is produced 66. • The movement of the armature breaks the circuit and causes the electromagnet to lose it magnetism. • When the bell is pressed. explain with the aid of diagrams how forces are produced on a wire in the coil of direct current electric motor? The (magnadur) magnets produce a magnetic field / diagram 61 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . This system is called the national grid network. • • • • • When a. although there is faulty in one of the power station The electrical energy from other station is directed to the the affected areas The electrical energy from other area is directed to the areas that need more energy The overall cost of production of electricity can be reduced • • • The current in the wire produces a magnetic field / diagram The two magnetic fields interact/combine to form a resultant / catapult field / diagram The motor will rotate due to the differences of force produce//turning effect from this two forces S N • 64. • • • • The electrical supply is continuous. Explain the working principle of an electric bell.Explain the working principle of a transformer. • So the magnetic field will be stronger in the middle. Explain how the generator works to produce direct current. causing the hammer to strike the gong. • As the result the magnetic fields in the middle of the coil are in the same direction. • • • • rotate the coil in clock wise direction the coil cut across the magnetic field current is induced in the coil the commutator change the direction in the coil so that the direction of current in external circuit always the same.

235.S A K T I . the thickness of the paper is too tick/ vice versa 70. increases and lights up bulb CHAPTER 10 69.7 V for Si) Ib increases and switch on transistor Ic. • • • • Neutron bombarded a uranium nucleus and produced three neutral neutron The new neutron bombarded a new uranium nucleus For every reaction. • Runut lurus kerana zarah alfa mempunyai jisim yang lebih tinggi 72. Describe how the chain reaction occurs in a nuclear fission of an atom of Uranium. 68. A statement of an expected outcome that usually states the relationship between two or more variables intended to be given a direct experimental test. CHAPTER 9 67. Jelaskan bagaimanakah runut alfa terbentuk dan mengapakah runut itu tebal dan lurus.Explain how radioisotopes can be used to detect the location of the leakage • Radioisotope is injected into the pipe • The water in the pipe flow with the radioisotope • G-M tube as detector is used to find the leakage across the pipe • Reading on detector increases when near a leakage • • LAMPIRAN 4 KNOWLEDGE/DEFINATION BAB 1 1 1 1 ITEM Derived quantity (Kuantiti terbitan) Error (Ralat) Hypothesis (Hipotesis) Inference (Inferens) DEFINATION A physical quantity derived from combinations of base quantities through multiplication or division or both multiplication and division. the neutrons produced will generate a chain reaction Diagram of chain reaction 71. Radioisotope Strontium-90 is used to measure the thickness of paper in a paper industry Explain how Strontium-90 is used to measure the thickness piece of paper? • • Put the radioactive source opposite the detector Detector is connected to the thickness indicator • Zarah α mengionkan molekul-molekul udara • Wap lampau tepu memeluwap pada ionion yang terbentuk • Runut tebal disebabkan kuasa pengionan zarah alfa adalah tinggi//zarah alfa menghasilkan banyak ion.Runut alfa yang diperhatikan di dalam kebuk awan resapan adalah lurus dan tebal. Explain why the bulb light up at night • At night resistance LDR increases • VBE increases (higher than 0. The difference between the measured value and the actual value. An initial interpretation or explanation concerning the observation.Explain how the green shadow produced in the CRO screen? • 6V heater supply produced electron on it surface • When 3 kV power supply are connected Cathode rays/electron acceleratel in a straight line.• The cycle is repeated so long as the bell push is pressed and continuous ringing occurs. • • • • Detector detect the reading of the changes in counts Thickness is measured with the thickness indicator If the reading of the detector is less than the specified value. 62 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . • Cathode rays carry kinetic energy and • converts to light energy when they hit the screen . Nuclear fission produces a chain reaction.

The percentage of the input energy that is transformed into useful energy. The energy of an object due to its higher position in the gravitational field.1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Physical quantity (Kuantiti fizik) Prefix (Imbuhan) Random error (Ralat rawak) Scalar quantity (Kuantiti skalar) Scientific notation/Standard form (Bentuk piawai) Sensitivity (Kepekaan) Systematic error (Ralat sistematik) Variable (Pembolehubah) Vector quantity (Kuantiti vektor) Zero error (Ralat sifar) Accuracy (Kejituan) Base quantity (Kuantiti asas) Consistency (Kepersisan) Displacement (Sesaran) Distance (Jarak) Efficiency (Kecekapan) Elastic potential energy (Tenaga keupayaan kenyal) Elasticity (Kekenyalan) Energy (Tenaga) Free fall (Jatuh bebas) Gravitational acceleration (Pecutan graviti) Gravitational field (Medan graviti) Gravitational field strength (Kekuatan medan graviti) Gravitational potential energy (Tenaga keupayaan graviti) Hooke's law (Hukum Hooke) Impulse (Impuls) Impulsive force (Daya impuls) Inertia (Inersia) Kinetic energy (Tenaga kinetik) Mass (Jisim) Momentum (Momentum) Non-renewable energy resource (Sumber tenaga yang tidak boleh diperbaharui) Renewable energy resource (Sumber tenaga boleh diperbaharui) Resultant force (Daya paduan) A quantity that can be measured. The total length of the path travelled from one location to another. The momentum of an object is defined as the product of its mass and its velocity. A physical quantity that cannot be defined in terms of other quantities. if moving. Consistency of an instrument is the ability of the instrument to measure a quantity with little or no deviation among measurements. The extension of a spring is directly proportional to the applied force provided the elastic limit is not exceeded. The ability of a measuring instrument to detect a small change in the quantity to be measured. in a specified direction. The energy stored in an object when it is extended or compressed by a force. The gravitational force acting on a mass of 1 kg placed at a point in the gravitational field. A way to write a numerical magnitude in the form A x 10". The rate of change of momentum. An energy resource that cannot be replaced once it has been used.S A K T I . to continue its uniform motion in a straight line. A word. The energy of an object due to its motion. Error due to non-zero reading when the actual reading should be zero Accuracy of a measurement is how close the measurement made is to the actual value. letter or value used to simplify the description of the magnitude of a physical quantity that either very big or very small. The capacity of a system to enable it to do work. A physical quantity that has magnitude and direction. 2 2 An energy resource that is continually replaced and will not run out. A region in which an object experiences a force due to the gravitational attraction towards the centre of the Earth. An error which may be due to the error in the calibration of an instrument. The motion when an object is acted upon by a gravitational force in the gravitational field. Error due to mistakes made when making measurement either through incorrect positioning of the eye or the instrument when making measurement. There are three types of variables. The length of the straight line connecting the two locations. A property of matter that enables an object to return to its original size and shape when the force that was acting on it is removed. where 1 A < 10 and n is an integer. The acceleration of an object due to the pull of the gravitational force. 63 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . responding variable and fixed variable. The inertia of an object is the tendency of the object to remain at rest or. A physical quantity that can be varied in an experiment. A physical quantity that has magnitude only. A single force that represents the combined effect of two or more forces by taking into account both the magnitude and the direction of the forces. manipulated variable. The quantity of impulsive force multiplied by time. The amount of matter in an object.

The speed in specified direction. The condition where the angle of incidence. The force of gravity acting on an object. the upward buoyant force acting on the body is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. The amount of heat that must be supplied to a body to increase its temperature by 1°C. The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gaseous state. For a fixed mass of gas. The light is no longer refracted but is internally reflected. A wave in which the particles of the medium oscillate in the direction parallel to the direction in which the wave moves. the pressure is high. The result of the combination of two separate sets of waves with the same frequency.S A K T I . The distance of the real object. An instrument that measures temperature or the degree of hotness. the pressure is low. Maximum energy transfer to the system occurs and it oscillates at large amplitude. The amount of heat that must be supplied to increase the temperature by 1°C for a mass of 1 kg of the substance. For a fixed mass of gas. An image that can be displayed on a screen. and where the speed is low. An oscillating system is said to be at resonance when it is driven at its natural frequency by a periodic force. where the change occurs throughout the liquid. The rate of change of velocity. It is also defined as the rate of change of distance. An upward force. 0 from the surface of the water or medium. the pressure of the gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature when its volume is kept constant. The amount of heat required to change 1 kg of a substance from the solid to liquid phase without a change in temperature. A wave in which the particles of the medium oscillate in the direction 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 64 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . The magnitude of the force acting perpendicular to a surface per unit area of the surface. For a body wholly or partially immersed in a fluid. c. For a fixed mass of gas. The pressure exerted by the atmosphere on the surface of the Earth as well as all objects on the Earth. the pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to its volume when the temperature is kept constant. A common point on a principle axis at which beams of light parallel to the axis converge after passing through a convex lens or appear to diverge from it after passing through a concave lens. The heat absorbed or the heat released at constant temperature during a change of phase.2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 Speed (Laju) Velocity (Halaju) Weight (Berat) Work (Kerja) Acceleration (Pecutan) Pascal's principle (Prinsip Pascal) Pressure (Tekanan) Archimedes' principle (Prinsip Archimedes) Atmospheric pressure (Tekanan atmosfera) Bernoulli's principle (Prinsip Bernoulli) Buoyant force (Daya apungan) Heat capacity (Muatan haba) Latent heat (Haba pendam) Melting point (Takat lebur) Pressure law (Hukum tekanan) Specific heat capacity (Muatan haba tentu) Specific latent heat of fusion (Haba pendam tentu pelakuran) Specific latent heat of vaporisation (Haba pendam tentu pengewapan) Temperature (Suhu) Thermal equilibrium (Keseimbangan terma) Thermometer (Termometer) Boiling point (Takat didih) Boyle's law (Hukum Boyle) Charles' law (Hukum Charles) Focal length (Jarak fokus) Focal point (Titik folcus) Interference of waves (Interferens gelombang) Longitudinal wave (Gelombang membujur) Period (Tempoh) Real depth (Dalam nyata) Real image (Imej nyata) Refraction of light (Pembiasan cahaya) Resonance (Resonans) Total internal reflection (Pantulan dalam penuh) Transverse wave The distance travelled per unit time. the volume of the gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature when its pressure is kept constant. The measure of the degree of hotness of an object. i is increased further so that it is greater than the critical angle. resulting from an object being wholly or partially immersed in a fluid. Where the speed of a fluid is high. The temperature at which a substance changes its state from a solid to a liquid. The rate of change of displacement. The bending of a light ray at the boundary as it travels from one medium to another. A condition where two objects in thermal contact have no net transfer of heat energy between each other. The amount of heat required to change 1 kg of a substance from the liquid to gaseous phase without a change in temperature. The distance between the centre of a lens to its focal point. Pressure applied to an enclosed liquid is transmitted uniformly to every part of the liquid and to the walls of the container of the liquid. The period of an oscillation is the time taken to complete one oscillation. The product of an applied force and displacement of an object in the direction of the applied force.

The resistance against the moving charge due to the electrolyte in the cell. The work done by a source in driving a unit charge around a complete circuit. The rate of charge flow in a circuit. A state when a diode does not allow current to flow 65 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . X-rays and gamma rays. microwaves.(Gelombang melintang) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Virtual image (Imej maya) Angle of incidence (Sudut tuju) Angle of reflection (Sudut pantulan) Apparent depth (Dalam ketara) Concave lens (Kanta cekung) Convex lens (Kanta cembung) Critical angle (Sudut genting) Diffraction of waves (Belauan gelombang) Electromagnetic spectrum (Spektrum elektromagnet) Frequency (Frekuensi) Node (Nod) Principle of superposition (Prinsip superposisi) Reflection of waves (Pantualan gelombang) Refraction of waves (Pembiasan gelombang) Wave (Gelombang) Wavefront (Muka gelombang) Wavelength (Panjang gelombang) Amplitude (Amplitud) Angle of refraction (Sudut pembiasan) Antinode (Antinod) Coherent waves (Gelombang koheren) Damping (Pelembapan) Electric current (Arus elektrik) Electric field (Medan elektrik) Electric power (Kuasa elektrik) Electrical energy (Tenaga elektrik) Electromotive force (Daya gerak elektrik) Internal resistance (Rintangan dalam) National Grid Network (Rangkaian Grid Nasional) Parallel circuit (Litar selari) Potential difference (Beza keupayaan) Power (Kuasa) Resistance (Rintangan) Reverse biased (Pincang songsang) perpendicular to the direction in which the wave moves. The members of the electromagnetic spectrum arranged in increasing frequencies (decreasing wavelengths) are radio waves. A circuit where all the electrical components are connected side by side and their corresponding ends are joined together to a cell to form separate and parallel paths for a current to flow. A phenomenon that refers to the spreading out of waves when they move through a gap or round an obstacle. The angle between the reflected ray and the normal. The ratio of a potential difference to a current flowing through a conductor. Damping in an oscillating system occurs when the system loses energy to the surrounding. A point where a destructive interference occurs. An imaginary line that joins all identical points on a wave. the combined wave form of two or more interfering waves is given by the sum of displacement of the individual wave at each point of the medium. A lens that is thinnest at its centre. The rate at which work is done. infrared rays. The horizontal distance between two successive equivalent points on a wave. visible light. It causes parallel rays of light to converge after passing through this lens. Waves having the same wavefront in which the coherent sources of waves maintain a constant phase difference. Refraction of waves occurs when there is change of direction of the propagation of waves travelling from a medium to another medium due to a change of speed. The amplitude of an oscillation is the maximum displacement from the mean position. An image that can be seen by the observer but not be displayed on a screen. A network system of cables which connects all the power stations and substations in the country to the consumers in a closed network to transmit electricity. I from the surface of the water. The angle of incidence in the denser medium when the angle of refraction in the less dense medium is equal to 90°. A group of waves with similar natures. The frequency of an oscillation is the number of complete oscillations made in one second. usually in the form of heat energy. A point where a constructive interference occurs. The angle between the incident ray and the normal. A region in which an electric charge experiences an electric force. Reflection of waves occurs when all or part of the waves are deflected after they encounter an obstacle or reflector. A travelling disturbance from a vibrating or oscillating source and carries energy along with it in the direction of its propagation. The work done in moving one coulomb of charge from one point to another. It causes parallel rays of light to diverge after passing through this lens. The rate of electrical energy dissipated or transferred. Principle of superposition states that at any time. The angle between the refracted ray and the normal.S A K T I . The energy carried by electrical charges which can be transformed to other forms of energy by the operation of an electrical device or appliance. A lens that is thickest at its centre. The distance of the virtual image. ultraviolet rays.

A subatomic particle found in the nucleus. is directly proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux or the rate of cutting of the magnetic flux. A device which steps up or steps down alternating current voltages. The setting up of an electromotive force in a conductor due to a change in magnetic flux caused by the relative motion of the conductor and a magnetic field. The effect of radiation that appears in the future generations of the exposed person as a result of radiation damage to reproductive cells. The emission of electrons from the surface of a heated metal. A force produced as a result of the combination of the magnetic field due to a current and another magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet. It will only flow when a suitable base current flows through the circuit. Switching circuit that is applied in computers and other electronic devices. The direction of the induced current is such that the change producing it will be opposed. Atoms of an element which have the same proton number but different nucleon numbers. A process where only one half of every cycle of an alternating current is made to flow in one direction only. A process where both halves of every cycle of an alternating current is made to flow in the same direction. The magnitude of the induced e. Electromagnetic waves with very high frequency and short wavelength. It changes its direction periodically. The current that flows through the base terminal of a transistor.f. The current that flows through the collector terminal of a transistor. A state when a diode allows current to flow. The time taken for the number of undecayed nuclei to be reduced to half of its original number. The combining of two lighter nuclei to form a heavier nucleus. A device used for storing charges and to smooth out output current in a rectifier circuit. 66 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 . A current which flows steadily in one direction only in a circuit. A process to convert an alternating current into a direct current by using a diode or diodes. A magnet made by winding a coil of insulated wire round a soft iron core. A current which flows to and fro in two opposite directions in a circuit. A radioactive decay which emits a gamma ray photon. The current that flows through the emitter terminal of a transistor. collector and emitter. It is equal to the sum of the base current and the collector current.S A K T I . A special cathode ray tube with a Maltese Cross in it which is used to investigate the properties of cathode rays.7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Series circuit (Litar sesiri) Alternating current (Arus ulangalik) Electromagnet (Elektromagnet) Electromagnetic induction (Aruhan electromagnet) Faraday's law (Hukum Faraday) Lenz's law (Hukum Lenz) Magnetic force (Daya magnet) Transformer (Transformer) Diode (Diod) Direct current (Arus terus) Doping (Pengedopan) Emitter current (Arus pengeluar) Forward biased (Pincang hadapan) Full-wave rectification (Rektfikasi gelombang penuh) Half-wave rectification (Rektifikasi gelombang separuh) Logic gate (Get logik) Maltese Cross tube (Tiub palang Maltese) Rectification (Rekfifikasi) Semiconductor (Semikonduktor) Thermionic emission (Pancaran termionik) Transistor (Transistor) Base current (Arus tapak) Capacitor (Kapasitor) Collector current (Arus pengumpul) Gamma decay (Reputan gama) Gamma rays (Sinar gama) Genetic effect (Kesan genetik) Half-life (Setengah hayat) Isotopes (Isotop) Nuclear energy (Tenaga nuklear) Nuclear fission (Pembelahan nukleus) Nuclear fusion (Pelakuran nukleus) Nucleon (Nukleon) Nucleon number (Nombor nukleon) Nucleus (Nukleus) A circuit where all the electrical components are connected one end after the other to a cell to form a single pathway for a current to flow. An electronic device which has three terminals labelled as base. A device that allows current to flow in one direction only.m. but not as well as conductor. A very small core of an atom which contains most of the mass and all of the positive charge of the atom. The total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus. so that a magnetic field is produced when a current is passed through the coil. A process of adding a certain amount of specific impurities called dopants to semiconductors to increase their conductivity. A material which can conduct electricity better than insulator. The splitting of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei. Energy released by a nuclear reaction as a result of a mass defect.

High energy electron emitted by an unstable nucleus. A beam of negatively charged electrons that move at high speeds. The spontaneous disintegration of an unstable nucleus accompanied by the emission of energetic particles or photons. 67 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .S A K T I . The effect of radiation that appears in a person exposed to radiation. Helium nucleus emitted by an unstable nucleus. A radioactive decay which emits an alpha particle. Unstable isotopes which decay and give out radioactive emissions. A self-sustaining reaction in which the products of a reaction can initiate another similar reaction. A radioactive decay which emits a beta particle. An instrument that converts electronic and electrical signals to a visual display.10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Proton number (Nombor proton) Radioactivity (Keradioaktifan) Radioisotope (Radioisotop) Somatic effect (Kesan somatik) Alpha decay (Reputan alfa) Alpha particle (Zarah alfa) Beta decay (Reputan beta) Beta particle (Zarah beta) Cathode rays (Sinar katod) Cathode ray oscilloscope (Osiloskop sinar katod) Chain reaction (Tindak balas berantai) The total number of protons in a nucleus.

S A K T I .68 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .

69 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .S A K T I .

70 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 .S A K T I .

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