Source: HYDRAULIC DESIGN HANDBOOK

CHAPTER 8

HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION
H. Wayne Coleman C. Y. Wei James E. Lindell
Harza Company Chicago, Illinois

8.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter describes the design aspects of hydraulic structures related to the production of hydroelectric power. These structures include headrace channels; intakes; conveyance tunnels; surge tanks; penstocks; penstock manifolds; draft-tube exits; tailtunnels, including tail-tunnel surge tanks and outlets; and tailrace channels. The procedures provided in this chapter are most suitable for developing the preliminary designs of hydraulic structures related to the development of the hydroelectric projects. To finalize designs, detailed studies must be conducted: for example, economic analysis for the determination of penstock diameters, computer modeling of hydraulic transients for surge tank design, and studies of physical models of intake and its approach.

8.2 HEADRACE CHANNEL
An open-channel called the headrace channel or power channel (canal) is sometimes required to connect a reservoir with a power intake when the geology or topography is not suitable for a tunnel or when an open-channel is more economical. The channel can be lined or unlined, depending on the suitability of the foundation material and the projects economics. Friction factors for various linings used for design are as follows: Manning’s n Lining Unlined rock Shotcrete Formed concrete Grassed earth Minimum. 0.030 0.025 0.012 0.030 Maximum 0.035 0.030 0.016 0.100

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HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION

8.2

Chapter Eight

Headrace channels are generally designed and sized for a velocity of about 2 m/s (6.6 ft/s) at design flow conditions. Economic considerations may result in some variation from this velocity, depending on actual project conditions. Channel sections are normally trapezoidal because this shape is easier to build for many different geologic conditions. The bottom width should be at least 2 m (6.6 ft) wide. Side slopes are determined according to geologic stability as follows: earth, 2H:1V or flatter; and rock, 1H:1V or steeper. The channel’s proportions—bottom width versus depth— are largely a matter of construction efficiency. In general, the minimum bottom width reduces excavation, but geologic conditions may require a wider, shallower channel. The channel slope will result from the conveyance required to produce design velocity for design flow. Channel bends should have a center-line radius of 3W to 5W or more, where W is the water surface width of the design flow. For this radius, head loss and the rise in the water surface at the outer bank (superelevation) will be minimal. If the radius must be reduced, the following formula can be used to estimate head loss hL: hL where Kb 2 (W/Rc), W channel width, Rc Kb V 2g
2

(8.1) mean velocity.

center-line radius, and V

Superelevation will be as follows (Chow, 1959): Z where Z 2W V2 Rc 2g (8.2)

rise in water surface above mean flow depth.

Freeboard must include allowances for the following conditions: (1) static conditions with maximum reservoir level (unless closure gates are provided to isolate the channel from the reservoir), (2) water surface rise (superelevation) caused by flow around a curve, and (3) surge resulting from shut-off of flow downstream or sudden increase of flow upstream. A forebay is provided at the downstream end of the headrace channel to facilitate one or more of the following: (1) low approach velocity to intake, (2) surge reduction, (3) sediment removal (desanding), or (4) storage. The forebay should be designed to maintain the approach flow conditions to the intake as smoothly as possible. As the minimum requirement, a small forebay should be provided to facilitate good entrance conditions to the intake. It should include a smooth transition to a section with a velocity not exceeding 0.5 m/s (1.64 ft/s) at the face of the intake structure A larger forebay could be required for upsurge protection during rapid closure of turbine gates for load rejection. The size would be determined on the basis of the freeboard allowance for the entire headrace channel and on a hydraulic transient analysis of the channel, if necessary. Surge calculations should consider maximum and minimum friction factors, depending on which is more critical for the case under study. Hydraulic transient (surge) studies are generally performed using a one-dimensional, unsteady open-channel-flow simulation program. The computer model developed should be capable of simulating the operation of various hydraulic structures, the effect of the forebay, and operation of the power plant. Several advanced open-channel flow-simulation programs have been described by Brater et al. (1996).

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HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION

Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8.3

(a)

(b) Exhibit 8.1 Sun Koshi hydroelectric project, Nepal. (a) A view of the desanding basin (looking upstream) showing concrete guide vanes.( (b) Layout Of the desanding basin.

A large forebay is required if it will be used for diurnal storage–say, for a power peaking operation. In such a case, maximum and minimum operating levels would include the required water volume, with the intake located below the minimum level. Such a forebay also could accommodate the other three functions described above. When the flow carries too much sediment and its removal is required to protect the turbines, a still larger forebay would be provided to function as a desanding basin (also known as a desilting basin or desander). However, the desanding basin is more likely to be located at the upstream end of the headrace channel. Exhibit 8.1 Illustrates a desending basin. The basin can be sized using the following equation (Vanoni, 1977):

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and very few are inclined. The vertical intake is frequently used in pumped-storage projects when the upper reservoir is on high ground. 8. 1984) LVs P (1 e VD ) 100% (8.1 Settling velocity as a function of particle diameter. geology. A separate sluicing outlet (or outlets) would be provided to flush the desanding basin intermittently. The settling velocity Vs for each particular sand particle size can be estimated from Fig. The horizontal intake is usually connected to a tunnel or penstock on a relatively small slope (up to 2–3 percent). . sometimes required for Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Figures 8.3 INTAKES Most power intakes are horizontal. L basin length. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.digitalengineeringlibrary. and a vertical shaft-tunnel is the obvious choice.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8.3) where P percentage of sediment of a particular size to be retained by the basin. 8. (Dingman. such as a mountain top.4 are examples of the three types of intakes. Vs settling (fall) velocity of suspended particles. a few are vertical.3.2 illustrates the layout of a hydroelectric project with the intakes.1.4 Chapter Eight FIGURE 8. 8. All rights reserved. An inclined intake is used when the topography. A variation on the three basic intake types is a tower structure. and 8. or type of dam dictate a steeper slope for the downstream tunnel or penstock.2. Exhibit 8. and D depth of the desanding basin. V mean flow velocity.

) .digitalengineeringlibrary.2 A typical horizontal intake. (Harza Engineering Co.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8. FIGURE 8. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. All rights reserved.5 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.

All rights reserved. (Harza Engineering Co.3 A typical vertical intake.) Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.digitalengineeringlibrary. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.6 Chapter Eight FIGURE 8.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8. .

(Harza Engineering Co. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.4 A typical inclined intake.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.) .digitalengineeringlibrary. All rights reserved.7 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. FIGURE 8.

HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.digitalengineeringlibrary. . Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.2 (a) Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.8 Chapter Eight Exhibit 8.

radial gates. Bureau of Reclamation.9 (b) Exhibit 8. The tower includes openings with trashracks and bulkheads at various levels. selective withdrawal of water. Although head loss through trashracks depends heavily on the amount of clogging. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. intake and powerhouse.Exhibit 8.2 Karun hydroelectric project. 1987).3 ft/s) when the intake is accessible for cleaning.6 ft/s). (b) Layout of dam showing spillway. power intakes.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Figure 8. If a trashrack is not accessible for cleaning. Trashrack bar spacing is dictated by turbine protection requirements.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8. but clear spacing of 5cm (2 in) is typical. and diversion tunnel entrace structure. which permit water to be withdrawn from different depths to control temperature or water quality. the following can be used for a clean trashrack. Iran (a) A vew of the dam and control structure (looking donwnstream showing spillway crest. Descriptions of several reservoir-simulation models can be found in Brater et al. Trashracks for power intakes are designed for a velocity of about 1 m/s (3. All rights reserved. (1996).3 illustrates the intake structure for a pumped storage project.5 is an example of a multilevel intake tower structure for selective withdrawal. (U. .5 m/s (1. the allowable velocity is approximately 0.S. Computer modeling of a reservoir’s temperature and waterquality structure is generally required to finalize the required opening sites. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

but it is rectangular in shape. 1. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.45 0. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.8 the conduit diameter.5 A typical multi-level intake tower structure for selective withdrawal.digitalengineeringlibrary.10 Chapter Eight FIGURE 8. Kt trashrack and support structure. (Harza Engineering Co.) 2 Vn 2g hL where Vn Kt (8. The effective area of the gate is usually about the same as that of the power tunnel or penstock. This gate is provided for emergency closure against flow in case of runaway conditions at the turbine. The trashrack slot might be used for this function by first pulling the trashrack.A net area of Ag  Ag  n gross area of trashrack and support structure. . with a height that is the same as the conduit’s diameter and a width that is 0. A bulkhead (or stop log) is provided upstream of the intake gate for servicing the gate.45 An intake gate is generally provided when the power tunnel or penstock is long or when a short penstock does not have a turbine inlet valve. and Ag An  An 2  . All rights reserved.4) velocity based on the net area.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8.

and power house.digitalengineeringlibrary. (c) General layout of the project including upper reservoir intake. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. All rights reserved. Georgia. (b) Closed up view of the upper reservoir intake structure. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.11 (a) (b) Exhibit 8. (a) Intake structure of the upper reservoir.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . power tunnel.3 Rocky mountain pumped storage project.

3 (c) .com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8.12 Chapter Eight Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Exhibit 8. All rights reserved.digitalengineeringlibrary.

The maximum turbine flow or runaway flow should be considered. the water levels and pressures. a generous gate well or air vent must be provided downstream of the gate to provide relief once the tunnel or penstock fills.digitalengineeringlibrary. critical gate loads can be determined for the gate and hoist. In such cases. The head loss for a bulkhead or gate slot.1 of the local velocity head at the slot. All rights reserved.6). With this information. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.) Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. . as a function of gate position are investigated (Fig. In the hydraulic study.6 A typical intake gate arrangement.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8. A minimum gate opening of 10 to 15 cm (4-6 in) is usually specified for this. The gate also may be used for penstock filling. but a special hydraulic study must be made to determine potential gate load and vibration if the gate opens continuously by accident. including top opening. as well as flow into and from the gate well.13 A hydraulic study is generally conducted for emergency closure of the intake gate. is generally about 0.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. The transition length (m or ft) Lt from gate section to tunnel or penstock should be approximately: FIGURE 8. (Harza Engineering Co. The runaway flow may be 50 percent higher than the normal turbine flow for a propeller turbine. 8.

8. construction cost is added to the cost of head loss (loss of generating revenue) to obtain the minimum combined cost. . Overall head loss for an intake includes trashrack.1 V2/2g).5. In this case. and transition.5) where V tunnel/penstock velocity (m/s or ft/s). (Gulliver and Arndt. The potential vortex formation for an intake should be checked using Fig.84 for units in English systems. 8.7 Intake submergence and vortex formation.4 TUNNELS When the powerhouse is situated a considerable distance from the intake and when geologic conditions permit. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. 1991) Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. bellmouth (0. D tunnel/penstock diameter (m or ft). submergence requirements increase dramatically.00 for units in metric systems or 9. a tunnel is often used to convey the flow for power generation.7.14 Chapter Eight Lt VD C (8. The size of the tunnel is dictated by economics: that is.digitalengineeringlibrary. a physical model study should be carried out. and the vortex formation is difficult to predict. and C 3.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8. gate slots.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. The variation of velocity in the transition section should be as close to linear as practicable. All rights reserved. This determination is usually obtained by trial and error because the process does not lend itself FIGURE 8. Note that when the intake Froude number (V/ gD ) exceeds 0.

Even an unlined tunnel will have lined sections.016 Minimum friction corresponds to new conditions and is used for turbine-rating and pressure-rise calculations. . Maximum friction corresponds to aging and is used for economic-diameter and pressure-drop calculations. Lining is an economic consideration. All rights reserved. The resulting tunnel velocity with the economic diameter is usually in the range of 3 to 5 m/s (10 to 17 ft/s). such as portals. balancing the cost of the lining with the power loss caused by friction. its cross section is likely to be circular or have a square or trapezoidal bottom. The diameter of the circular top (or the width of the square bottom) should be larger than the required diameter.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.012 0.digitalengineeringlibrary.025 0.030 0. with some smoothing by filling the larger overbreak sections. The shape of the excavated tunnel normally will approximate a square bottom and a circular top. If it is unlined or lined with shotcrete. the excavated shape will remain. and sections where rock needs extra support for geologic stability. Friction factors for design are as follows: Manning’s n Lining Unlined Shotcrete Formed concrete Minimum Maximum 0. If the tunnel is lined with concrete.035 0.030 0. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Tunnel slope is dictated by construction suitability and geology. with a minimum of 1:1000 for drainage during dewatered condi- (a) Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8.15 to a simple formula.

com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. power tunnel and powerhouse . All rights reserved.16 Chapter Eight Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary. (a) Surge tank openings during construction (44-ft inside diamenter and 300-ft deep) (b) Layout of the project including upper reservor intake. Virginia.4 Bath County pumped storage project.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. surge tanks. Exhibit 8. control structure.

Brater et al. 1951. Tunnel bends generally have large radii for convenience of construction. Exhibit 8. 8. 1955. g gravitational acceleration. 1989. 1955. c Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. 1993. 1991. Hydraulic stability for a surge tank assures that surging is limited and brief after load changes (Rich.17 tions. an enlargement or lateral tunnel or chamber is sometimes used near the bottom of the shaft if downsurge would caused the water level to drop below the tunnel crown.8 shows typical installations of surge tanks for controlling hydraulic transients. 1993).5 SURGE TANKS Surge tanks generally are used near the downstream end of tunnels or penstocks to reduce changes in pressure caused by hydraulic transients (waterhammer) resulting from load changes on the turbines (ASCE. Bureau of Reclamation 1980. When the geometry is a cylinder.4 illustrates a pumped storage project with a surge tank. The term LiVi is computed from the intake to the turbine and Hn is the minimum net head. The minimum cross-sectional area of a simple cylindrical surge tank required for stability can be determined using the Thoma formula: AST AL 2gcH (8.7) where AST minimum tank area. air compressors. For instance. Wylie and Streeter. The tanks are usually vented to atmosphere or can be pressurized as air chambers. Surge tanks normally are located as close as possible to the powerhouse for maximum effectiveness and may be free-standing or excavated in rock. Figure 8.S. U.digitalengineeringlibrary. Gulliver and Arndt. A surge tank should be provided if the maximum rise in speed caused by maximum load rejection cannot be reduced to less than 60 percent of the rated speed by other practical methods. Wylie and Streeter. The latter is not used frequently because of requirements of size. 1987.6) where Li is the length of a penstock segment and Vi is the velocity for the segment (Dingman.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8. Zipparro and Hasen. Moffat et al.. the provision of a surge tank should be investigated if 0 0 LiVi Hn 3 to 5 for units in m/s and m or 10 to 20 for units in ft/s and ft. a hydraulic transient simulation model is required to carry out the study (Chaudhry. 1984). Rich. Vertical bends at shafts usually have a minimum radius of 3D to minimize head loss and to provide constructibility.. All rights reserved. but other geometric designs are used when the surge amplitude is to be limited. 1987. If the geometry is more complicated. Parmakian. and air tightness. Parmakian. analysis is relatively simple and can be performed using design charts. 1993). 1951. In general. 1993. Zipparro and Hasen. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. 1996). A tunnel area between reservoir and surge tank. such as increasing the generator’s inertia or the penstock’s diameter or by decreasing the effective closing time of the wicket gates. (8. Similarly. . L tunnel length between reservoir and surge tank. Surge tanks usually are simple cylindrical vertical shafts or towers. an enlarged chamber can be used at the top if upsurge might cause the water level to rise above the ground surface. Chaudhry. 1990.

Bath County powerplant (1985): 2100 MW pumped storage development on Back Creek. FIGURE 8. New York. (Harza Engineering Co.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8. Virginia.8A Typical vented surge tank installation. Moose River powerplant (1987): 12 MW development on Moose River.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.) . Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.18 Chapter Eight Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary. All rights reserved.

For maximum upsurge. Here again. since downsurge may differ from upsurge.digitalengineeringlibrary. including tunnel velocity head V turbine. (See Brater et al. For a typical surge tank with a restricted orifice. .) head loss coefficient H 1  H    H minimum head loss from reservoir to V2 2g  V2 / 2g  2/2g. and H = minimum net operating head on surge tank. Moose River powerplant (1987): 12 MW development on Moose River.19 FIGURE 8. For a simple surge tank (without an orifice). shaping the orifice (i. Maximum downsurge in a cylindrical surge tank can be determined from Fig. Assume full plant load-rejection (tripout) in the shortest reasonable time.8B Typical pressurized surge tank installation. For a given tank size. 1996.. use the maximum normal headwater. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. for available computer models).. increase the diameter obtained from the Thoma formula by 50 percent. Freeboard Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. maximum head loss. New York.9. such as pumped-storage plants. and maximum plant flow.10. For maximum downsurge. the load acceptance is criterion is more extreme.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8. is 0 percent to 100 percent in the shortest reasonable time. increase the diameter by 25 percent. These increases are necessary to provide damping of the oscillation in a reasonable period of time.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. full load acceptance. When the surge tank geometry is complex (noncylindrical). a computer model should be used to determine the limiting surge levels. and accept load from 50 percent to 100 percent in the shortest reasonable time. Maximum upsurge in a cylindrical surge tank can be determined from Fig. (Harza Engineering Co. minimum head loss between reservoir and surge tank. 8. 8. changing the discharge coefficient) by rounding the top or bottom may satisfy the two area requirements approximately. All rights reserved.e. and the required orifice size may be different for the two purposes. At some projects. the optimum size of the orifice is based on the balanced head design so that the maximum tunnel pressure below the surge tank equals the maximum upsurge level. the size of the orifice should be based on balanced head design as a first attempt. However. The controlling criterion will be used to design the orifice on downsurge. use the minimum normal headwater.

1955) Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. (Parmakian. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. (Parmakian.20 Chapter Eight FIGURE 8.9 Maximum surge in surge tank due to instantaneous stopping of flow.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.digitalengineeringlibrary.10 Maximum surge in a surge tank resulting from instantaneous starting of flow. 1955) FIGURE 8. .

1967. particularly where cover is low.5 (8.. Penstock size is usually governed by project economics.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. It is used when the internal pressure is high enough to make a concrete-lined tunnel or unlined rock tunnel uneconomical. H = the rated head (m or ft). Plant efficiency 4. Cost of pipe 2. Pressurized air chambers are often used in pumping plants for surge protection. 1993). Minor loss factor 5. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. 1984. Warnick et al. Chaudhry. 1987. Average head 6.Allowable hoop stress where De the most economical penstock diameter (m or ft). 8. the most economical diameter can be determined more accurately by a trial-and-error procedure. 1990).6 PENSTOCK A penstock generally refers to a steel conduit or steel-lined tunnel connecting a reservoir or surge tank to a powerhouse (ASCE.21 for the surge tank is 10 percent of the computed rise in the water level in the surge tank for upsurge and 15 percent of the drop in the water level for downsurge to maintain. They are used occasionally for power plants when the generating flow is not excessive. the most economical diameter can be estimated using the following formula (Moffat et al. Weight of steel penstock 9. A computer model is required to verify performance. Zipparro and Hasen. As with tunnels. and the analysis does not lend itself to simple formulas and charts. Bureau Reclamation. 1984). De CQ0. 1967. The hydraulic characteristics of the chambers are complicated by the compressibility effects of air and temperature. and C = 0.52 (for metric units) or 3. and C = 0.07 (for English units). P = the rated capacity of the plant (kW or hp). 1993. Waterhammer effect For the assessment of a preliminary design or a feasibility level. Value of energy loss 3.40 (for English units). Surface roughness (friction factor) 8. The economical diameter is determined by the minimum combined cost of construction and energy reduction caused by head loss in the penstock. The following variables are generally considered (U.digitalengineeringlibrary.9) where De = the most economical penstock diameter (m or ft). Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Bureau of Reclamation. submergence of the tank invert or the orifice to avoid admitting air into the penstock.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8.60 (8. 1991): 1. 1989. Gulliver and Arndt. Gulliver. Q = the design discharge (m3/s or ft3/sec). 1991. De CP0. Wylie and Streeter. and Arndt. 1993..43 H0.8(B) shows a typical air chamber design for a hydropower plant.8) 7. . U. The energy loss decreases as the diameter of the penstock increases while construction cost increase.72 (for metric units) or 0. Design discharge 10. Fig. 8. the following simple equation can be used (Warnick et al.S.S. If the project is a small hydropower installation..

4) where GD2 flywheel effect of the turbine and generator rotating parts used in metric system (kg-m2). .43 h0.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8. 1987. and handling requirements.44 (for English units). U. P maximum turbine output (kW). 1980.000 generator 23. The WR2 can be determined using on the following formulas: WR 2 turbine and WR2 normal 356. N turbine speed (rpm).. 1.11) where tmin the minimum thickness of the penstock (mm or in).15) Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Bureau of Reclamation.S.22 Chapter Eight For large hydroelectric projects with heads varying from approximately 60 m (190 ft) to 315 m (1.13) (GD2) N2 36 104 P (8.932 GD2. All rights reserved. and the generator develop the flywheel effect WR2 or GD2. The maximum velocity in the penstock is normally kept lower than 10 m/s (33 ft/s). and C 0. G weight of rotating parts (kg).72 ( for metric units) or 4.14) KVA N3/2 5/4 (8. 1984).digitalengineeringlibrary. Tm is the time for torque to accelerate the rotating mass from zero to rotational speed. p the rated turbine capacity (kW or hp). the following formula can be used (U..800 Pd N3/2 5/4 (8. and K = 500 (for metric units) or 20 (for English units). To determine the minimum thickness of the penstock. W weight of rotating parts (lb). h the rated net head (m or ft). R radius of gyration of the rotating parts (ft). Together. D 2 radius of gyration of the rotating parts (m). and P1 maximum turbine output (hp). Bureau of Reclamation. Warnick et al.025 ft) and power capacities ranging from 154 MW to 730 MW. tmin D K 400 (8.S. 1984). 1984). WR2 flywheel effect of the turbine and generator rotating parts in English system (lb-ft2) 5. check for the operating stability of the generating unit-penstock combination using the following steps (Chaudhry. connecting shafts. corrosion protection. Determine the mechanical starting time in seconds for the unit Tm as Tm or Tm (WR2)N2 1..6 106 P1 (8. Warnick et al. based on the need for stiffness.10) where De the most economical penstock diameter (m or ft).63 (8. 1967. D = penstock diameter (mm or in). the following equation can be used (Warnick et al. After determining the economic diameter.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. the turbine runner in water. De Cp0.

In general. except for a narrow range. • Increase the penstock diameter. . this is probably not economical.5 A typical steel penstock branch structure being fabricated Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. turbine rated output (hp) and kVA generator rated output (kilovolt- 2. • Add a surge tank or move the surge tank closer to the powerhouse.16) where (LV) summation of product of length (measured from nearest open water surface) and velocity for each segment of penstock from intake or surge tank to tailrace (m2/s or ft2/sec).digitalengineeringlibrary. there are three possible solutions: • Increase WR2 or GD2 for the generator. g gravitational acceleration (m/s2 or ft/sec2). A combination of these three possible solutions may be the most cost-effective solution. Determine the water column starting time for the penstock TW as follows: Tw (LV) gH (8.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8. 3. The following friction factors are recommended for designing steel penstocks: Exhibit 8. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.23 where Pd amperes). If Tm/Tw2 is less than 2. and H minimum net operating head (m or ft). Tm/Tw2 should be maintained greater than 2 for good operating stability and to have reasonably good responses to load changes. this is relatively inexpensive for increases of up to 50.

Many computer programs capable of simulating hydraulic transients are described in Wylie and Streeter. the penstock may consist of shaft and tunnel sections that are largely lined with concrete.6. A hydraulic transient study is necessary to determine closure conditions (by accident or because of penstock rupture). A free-standing penstock also requires small air inlet-outlet valves at local high points to remove air during filling and admit air during dewatering. Design pressure is determined on the basis of the turbine’s characteristics and the closure rates of the wicket gates or needle valves. the following head loss coefficients can be used to estimate the head loss hb from the main into a branch: hb Kb V2 2g (8. .1 Penstock Branches A penstock often delivers water to more than one turbine. The profile for a free-standing penstock is based on the topographic and geologic conditions of the ground. g = gravitational acceleration (m/s2 or ft/sec2). depending on the cost of steel lining required. In other cases.24 Chapter Eight Penstock Age New Old Manning’s n 0.Exhibit 8. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. For Pelton turbines. an emergency closure valve is often added near the tunnel outlet.2 for manifold branch. and Kb = head loss coefficient 0. the predicted pressure conditions are verified in the load rejection tests during unit start-up. To calculate pressure drop use the higher values. the risk of penstock rupture is greater than it is for the shaft and tunnel system. In such cases. Ultimately. design pressure rise is usually 30 to 40 percent of the static pressure head.012 0. Head losses in branches and manifolds depend on precise geometry and often are developed by model studies. 1993.12). with a relatively short section of steel-lined penstock near the powerhouse. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. If there is a long tunnel section upstream of the free-standing penstock. All rights reserved. Detailed pressure conditions are determined by a computer model that includes the water conductors and surge tank as well as the turbine discharge-speed characteristics and generator inertia. 0. A vent must be provided to admit air just downstream of the valve for penstock rupture and must be large enough to prevent collapse of the penstock from internal subatmospheric pressure caused by water-column separation. and 0.3 for symmetrical trifurcation.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8.17) where V = branch velocity (m/s or ft/s). and design pressure rise is usually of the order of 20 percent of the static pressure head. If the penstock is free-standing.2 for symmetrical bifurcation.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. A fast closure is desirable to minimize speed rise and the potential for runaway conditions in the turbine. 8. However. the penstock is branched in various ways to subdivide the flow.5 illustrates a typical steel penstock branch structure. When the powerhouse is normal to the penstock. 8.016 Use the value for new penstock to calculating turbine-rating and pressure-rise. If the powerhouse is at an angle with the penstock.digitalengineeringlibrary. 8. several configurations are possible (Fig. closure rates are slow.11). for a typical well-designed layout. Such computer simulation studies are often required of turbine or governor manufacturers now as a part of the specifications. For Francis turbines. a manifold is used (Fig.

25 FIGURE 8.11A Example penstock branch configurations for powerhouse normal to the penstock. no head loss occurs in the fully open position. Here again. and.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. as such. The lower limit for the size of the branch is the size of the turbine inlet that is normally provided by the turbine manufacturer. . All rights reserved. The diameters of branched penstocks are usually determined so that the velocity is increased significantly relative to the main penstock.digitalengineeringlibrary. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8. This valve is usually a spherical type. the branch size is determined by economics so that construction and material costs added to cost of energy loss are at a minimum. its diameter will either be equal to the inlet diameter or be between the inlet diameter and the penstock branch diameter. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. If a turbine inlet valve is provided. Friction losses in the branch penstocks are calculated using the same friction factors used for the main penstock and the conduit lengths up to the net head taps in the turbine inlet.

(Harza Engineering Co. Therefore. in theory.). a longer draft-tube with expansion to a larger area would. any head losses which occur after the draft-tube pressure tap are subtracted from the turbine net head. 8.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8. and trifurcated penstocks.7 DRAFT-TUBE EXITS Draft-tubes are designed by considering the turbine’s characteristics. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. however the flow is not uniform Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. double y-branching.26 Chapter Eight FIGURE 8.digitalengineeringlibrary. reduce this loss. . Because the exit head loss is generally considered to be the average velocity head at the end of the draft-tube. In actuality.11B Configurations for single bifurcated. The net head for the turbine is based on pressure taps at the spiral-case inlet and near the draft-tube exit.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

27 FIGURE 8.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. FIGURE 8.) Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.12B Penstock manifold for an installation with six units. All rights reserved.12A Examples penstock manifold configurations for a powerhouse oriented at an angle with the penstock. (Harza Engineering Co.

A structural mathematical model is then applied using the hydraulic loadings obtained from the hydraulic model tests. However. Current thinking is that further extension of the draft-tube is not economical. a surge chamber will be required to prevent large fluctuations of pressure on the turbines during load changes. A manifold is used to collect the flow from the individual draft-tubes and guide the flow through a transition section to the tail-tunnel proper. Figure 8.5). For a pumped-storage plant. because it must deliver water both ways. the tunnel is likely to be free flow to maintain freeboard on the turbine. the trashrack is designed to withstand the flow-induced vibrations. A typical tail-tunnel manifold design is shown on Fig. However. For a conventional hydroelectric plant with generating only. If the tunnel is pressurized and is long enough. The rule of thumb is to end the draft-tube when the mean velocity is about 2m/s and to base the exit head loss on this velocity. The data on hydraulic conditions can be obtained from a physical model (usually the model from the pump-turbine manufacturer) because fully developed mathematical models are not readily available to predict these forces. For a pumped-storage project.14 shows a typical tail-tunnel surge chamber.8. A trashrack is usually provided at the end of the draft-tube at a pumped-storage project to prevent entry of coarse debris during the pumping mode. because it acts as the inlet tunnel during pumping. All rights reserved. However. . is based on economics and constructability. 8. but generally the velocities are much lower. The analysis of the rack is a combined hydraulic and structural one. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. The limiting size is dictated by available equipment and tunneling methods.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. this tunnel provides flow both ways. two tunnels are usually more expensive than one. (Refer to Sec. 8.. The number of tail-tunnels. it is highly turbulent and swirling. the tunnel is usually pressurized.28 Chapter Eight at this point. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. the tunnel is most likely to be pressurized. head losses are not significant and the flow conditions are generally acceptable.1 Tail-Tunnel Surge Tanks When an underground power plant has a significant length of pressurized tail-tunnel. This manifold is similar in concept to the penstock manifold. 8.8 TAIL-TUNNELS An underground power plant will have a tail-tunnel to deliver the flow to the downstream river or lake. These factors must be evaluated carefully when estimating the costs of one tunnel versus two tunnels. using the hydraulic characteristics of the tail-tunnel instead of the head-tunnel. The velocity at the end of the draft-tube is typically 2 m/s (7 ft/s) and 3 m/s (10 ft/s) at the tail-tunnel. and usually only one will be used unless its size becomes unmanageable. usually one or two. The hydraulic loadings consist of drag forces on rack bars that are dependent on velocity patterns along with pulsation of pressure caused by swirling flow. 8. two tunnels are desirable to allow partial operation of the plant even during maintenance or inspection of one of the tunnels. and the true exit loss is difficult to define. Therefore. By trial and error. This complicates the design of the trashrack and increases its cost. The procedures for sizing and determining extreme surges are similar to the procedures used for surges in the head-tunnel.13. during the generating mode with the trashrack in place. a surge tank is likely to be required. if the turbines are the Pelton type.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8. the trashrack is subject to vibration caused by the concentration of flow and by swirling. From an operational standpoint.digitalengineeringlibrary.

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. and the velocity at the trashracks will be approximately 1. the outlet structure will incorporate trashracks at the face of the structure.0 m/s (3. If the project is the pumped-storage type.) 8.8.3 ft/s). a tailrace channel will be required (Fig. Figure 8. All rights reserved.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.digitalengineeringlibrary. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.9 TAILRACE CHANNELS If the outlet structure is a significant distance from the receiving waterway. (Harza Engineering Co. 8. which might incorporate some flow spreading for energy recovery. because the racks tend to be self-cleaning during the generating mode.2 Tail-Tunnel Outlet Structures The tail-tunnel outlet structure is typically a bulkhead structure.29 FIGURE 8. .15 shows a typical structure of a tail-tunnel outlet. The spreading of the flow is an economic decision based on construction costs and the value of energy loss.16). (Refer to Sec.13 A typical tail-tunnel manifold arrangement.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8. The sizing of the channel will be similar to that of the headrace channel. 8. 82).

(Harza Engineering Co. All rights reserved.14 A typical tail-tunnel surge chamber.) .digitalengineeringlibrary.30 Chapter Eight Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. FIGURE 8.

com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.) Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.digitalengineeringlibrary.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8. All rights reserved.31 FIGURE 8. .15 A typical tail-tunnel outlet structure. (Harza Engineering Co.

Arndt.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8. New York. McGraw-Hill. Freeman.. B. Open Channel Flow. S. H. Bureau of Reclamation. 1993. E.... L. New York. A.. W. Lindell. Fluvial Hydrology. New York. 1988. Hydraulic Structures. Handbook of Hydraulics. Henderson.16 Tailrace channels of the Guri Project. 1980.. Steel Penstock. F.32 Chapter Eight FIGURE 8. 1996. Hydropower Engineering Handbook. 7th ed.. U. 2nd ed. 1987. E. Army Corps of Engineer (USACE). U.. MS. W. and R. New York. American Society of Civil Engineers. 1955. Engineering Monograph No. C. Army Corps of Engineers. and C. Moffat.. McGraw-Hill. Chow. 79. G.S. New York. King. F.. Dingman. S. S. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.. McGraw-Hill. U. Narayanan. Dover Publications. All rights reserved. American Society of Civil Engineer (ASCE).com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Open-Channel Hydraulics. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 1989. Hydraulic Design Criteria. New York. Applied Hydraulic Transients. Vicksburg. London. 1966. J. 2 Waterways. M. Civil Engineering Guidelines for Planning and Designing Hydroelectric Developments: Vol. 1991. New York. Hydraulic Transients.20. 1951. New York. H. I. Department of the Interior. Unwin Hyman. Selecting Hydraulic Reaction Turbines. New York. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. J. Venezuela) REFERENCES American Society of Civil Engineer (ASCE). (EDELCA. Chaudhry. New York. Wei. . and R. Macmillan. Rich. American Society of Civil Engineers. M. E. 1990. 1984. J. A. H. T.S. Y. Waterhammer Analysis. Gulliver.digitalengineeringlibrary. Waterways Experiment Station. R. Parmakian. Dover Publications.. V. Brater. 1959. UK. Nalluri. Van Nostrand Reinhold.

. Denver. A. . U. NJ. Engineering Monograph No. NJ. 1984. V. J. and H. Warnick. All rights reserved. L. Wylie. Englewood Cliffs.. A. H. Streeter. Design of Small Dams. Denver. U.. S. New York 1977. Hydropower Engineering. 1993. 4th ed. B. Davis' Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary. and L. McGraw-Hill.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8. Vanoni. Hasen. 1987.3. Sheldon.S.33 U. 1993. Co. C. American Society of Civil Engineers. Sedimentation Engineering. Bureau of Reclamation Welded Steel Penstocks. L. J.S. Prentice-Hall. Fluid Transients in Systems. Mayo Jr.. U.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 1967. New York.. H. Department of the Interior. and V. Carson. Department of the Interior. Zipparro. ed.. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Bureau of Reclamation. V. S. C. Co. Prentice-Hall. E.

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