# Source: HYDRAULIC DESIGN HANDBOOK

CHAPTER 8

HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION
H. Wayne Coleman C. Y. Wei James E. Lindell
Harza Company Chicago, Illinois

8.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter describes the design aspects of hydraulic structures related to the production of hydroelectric power. These structures include headrace channels; intakes; conveyance tunnels; surge tanks; penstocks; penstock manifolds; draft-tube exits; tailtunnels, including tail-tunnel surge tanks and outlets; and tailrace channels. The procedures provided in this chapter are most suitable for developing the preliminary designs of hydraulic structures related to the development of the hydroelectric projects. To finalize designs, detailed studies must be conducted: for example, economic analysis for the determination of penstock diameters, computer modeling of hydraulic transients for surge tank design, and studies of physical models of intake and its approach.

An open-channel called the headrace channel or power channel (canal) is sometimes required to connect a reservoir with a power intake when the geology or topography is not suitable for a tunnel or when an open-channel is more economical. The channel can be lined or unlined, depending on the suitability of the foundation material and the projects economics. Friction factors for various linings used for design are as follows: Manning’s n Lining Unlined rock Shotcrete Formed concrete Grassed earth Minimum. 0.030 0.025 0.012 0.030 Maximum 0.035 0.030 0.016 0.100

HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION

8.2

Chapter Eight

Headrace channels are generally designed and sized for a velocity of about 2 m/s (6.6 ft/s) at design flow conditions. Economic considerations may result in some variation from this velocity, depending on actual project conditions. Channel sections are normally trapezoidal because this shape is easier to build for many different geologic conditions. The bottom width should be at least 2 m (6.6 ft) wide. Side slopes are determined according to geologic stability as follows: earth, 2H:1V or flatter; and rock, 1H:1V or steeper. The channel’s proportions—bottom width versus depth— are largely a matter of construction efficiency. In general, the minimum bottom width reduces excavation, but geologic conditions may require a wider, shallower channel. The channel slope will result from the conveyance required to produce design velocity for design flow. Channel bends should have a center-line radius of 3W to 5W or more, where W is the water surface width of the design flow. For this radius, head loss and the rise in the water surface at the outer bank (superelevation) will be minimal. If the radius must be reduced, the following formula can be used to estimate head loss hL: hL where Kb 2 (W/Rc), W channel width, Rc Kb V 2g
2

(8.1) mean velocity.

Superelevation will be as follows (Chow, 1959): Z where Z 2W V2 Rc 2g (8.2)

rise in water surface above mean flow depth.

Freeboard must include allowances for the following conditions: (1) static conditions with maximum reservoir level (unless closure gates are provided to isolate the channel from the reservoir), (2) water surface rise (superelevation) caused by flow around a curve, and (3) surge resulting from shut-off of flow downstream or sudden increase of flow upstream. A forebay is provided at the downstream end of the headrace channel to facilitate one or more of the following: (1) low approach velocity to intake, (2) surge reduction, (3) sediment removal (desanding), or (4) storage. The forebay should be designed to maintain the approach flow conditions to the intake as smoothly as possible. As the minimum requirement, a small forebay should be provided to facilitate good entrance conditions to the intake. It should include a smooth transition to a section with a velocity not exceeding 0.5 m/s (1.64 ft/s) at the face of the intake structure A larger forebay could be required for upsurge protection during rapid closure of turbine gates for load rejection. The size would be determined on the basis of the freeboard allowance for the entire headrace channel and on a hydraulic transient analysis of the channel, if necessary. Surge calculations should consider maximum and minimum friction factors, depending on which is more critical for the case under study. Hydraulic transient (surge) studies are generally performed using a one-dimensional, unsteady open-channel-flow simulation program. The computer model developed should be capable of simulating the operation of various hydraulic structures, the effect of the forebay, and operation of the power plant. Several advanced open-channel flow-simulation programs have been described by Brater et al. (1996).

HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION

Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8.3

(a)

(b) Exhibit 8.1 Sun Koshi hydroelectric project, Nepal. (a) A view of the desanding basin (looking upstream) showing concrete guide vanes.( (b) Layout Of the desanding basin.

A large forebay is required if it will be used for diurnal storage–say, for a power peaking operation. In such a case, maximum and minimum operating levels would include the required water volume, with the intake located below the minimum level. Such a forebay also could accommodate the other three functions described above. When the flow carries too much sediment and its removal is required to protect the turbines, a still larger forebay would be provided to function as a desanding basin (also known as a desilting basin or desander). However, the desanding basin is more likely to be located at the upstream end of the headrace channel. Exhibit 8.1 Illustrates a desending basin. The basin can be sized using the following equation (Vanoni, 1977):

and very few are inclined. The vertical intake is frequently used in pumped-storage projects when the upper reservoir is on high ground. 8. 1984) LVs P (1 e VD ) 100% (8.1 Settling velocity as a function of particle diameter. geology. A separate sluicing outlet (or outlets) would be provided to flush the desanding basin intermittently. The settling velocity Vs for each particular sand particle size can be estimated from Fig. The horizontal intake is usually connected to a tunnel or penstock on a relatively small slope (up to 2–3 percent). . sometimes required for Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Figures 8.3 INTAKES Most power intakes are horizontal. L basin length. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.digitalengineeringlibrary. and a vertical shaft-tunnel is the obvious choice.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8.3) where P percentage of sediment of a particular size to be retained by the basin. 8. (Dingman. such as a mountain top.4 are examples of the three types of intakes. Vs settling (fall) velocity of suspended particles. a few are vertical.3.2 illustrates the layout of a hydroelectric project with the intakes.1.4 Chapter Eight FIGURE 8. 8. All rights reserved. An inclined intake is used when the topography. A variation on the three basic intake types is a tower structure. and 8. or type of dam dictate a steeper slope for the downstream tunnel or penstock.2. Exhibit 8. and D depth of the desanding basin. V mean flow velocity.

and power house.digitalengineeringlibrary. (c) General layout of the project including upper reservoir intake. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. All rights reserved. Georgia. (b) Closed up view of the upper reservoir intake structure. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.11 (a) (b) Exhibit 8. (a) Intake structure of the upper reservoir.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . power tunnel.3 Rocky mountain pumped storage project.

Even an unlined tunnel will have lined sections.016 Minimum friction corresponds to new conditions and is used for turbine-rating and pressure-rise calculations. . Maximum friction corresponds to aging and is used for economic-diameter and pressure-drop calculations. Lining is an economic consideration. All rights reserved. The resulting tunnel velocity with the economic diameter is usually in the range of 3 to 5 m/s (10 to 17 ft/s). such as portals. balancing the cost of the lining with the power loss caused by friction. its cross section is likely to be circular or have a square or trapezoidal bottom. The diameter of the circular top (or the width of the square bottom) should be larger than the required diameter.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.012 0.digitalengineeringlibrary.025 0.030 0. with some smoothing by filling the larger overbreak sections. The shape of the excavated tunnel normally will approximate a square bottom and a circular top. If it is unlined or lined with shotcrete. the excavated shape will remain. and sections where rock needs extra support for geologic stability. Friction factors for design are as follows: Manning’s n Lining Unlined Shotcrete Formed concrete Minimum Maximum 0. If the tunnel is lined with concrete.035 0.030 0. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Tunnel slope is dictated by construction suitability and geology. with a minimum of 1:1000 for drainage during dewatered condi- (a) Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8.15 to a simple formula.

com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. power tunnel and powerhouse . All rights reserved.16 Chapter Eight Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary. (a) Surge tank openings during construction (44-ft inside diamenter and 300-ft deep) (b) Layout of the project including upper reservor intake. Virginia.4 Bath County pumped storage project.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. surge tanks. Exhibit 8. control structure.

Bath County powerplant (1985): 2100 MW pumped storage development on Back Creek. FIGURE 8. New York. (Harza Engineering Co.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8. Virginia.8A Typical vented surge tank installation. Moose River powerplant (1987): 12 MW development on Moose River.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.) . Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.18 Chapter Eight Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary. All rights reserved.

1955) Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. (Parmakian. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. (Parmakian.20 Chapter Eight FIGURE 8.9 Maximum surge in surge tank due to instantaneous stopping of flow.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION 8.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.digitalengineeringlibrary.10 Maximum surge in a surge tank resulting from instantaneous starting of flow. 1955) FIGURE 8. .

27 FIGURE 8.HYDRAULIC DESIGN FOR ENERGY GENERATION Hydraulic Design for Energy Generation 8.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. FIGURE 8.) Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.12B Penstock manifold for an installation with six units. All rights reserved.12A Examples penstock manifold configurations for a powerhouse oriented at an angle with the penstock. (Harza Engineering Co.