Enter the Ancient World of the Norse
Norse Magic. These words conjure up shining images of adventurous Viking warriors, huge swords in hand, sailing their fabled dragon-ships over the foaming ocean. Like other ancient tribes, the Northmen had a strong bond to the Earth and the Elements, the Gods and the "little people." In its practical, easy-to-understand format, Norse Magic offers important features that distinguish it from other books written about the Norse: •In-depth discussion of the Norse pantheon, the Norse way of life and worship. •Complete listings of Norse myths and deities •Step-by-step instructions (including required tools and materials) for the immediate performance o f spellwork and the practical application of magic in everyday life "In the pages of Norse Magic, D.J. Conway gives the reader ready access and entry into the craft and ways of working with a kind of magic of the ancient North which runs parallel to that of the runes. She also gives us insight into the art and practice of seith—the magical way of the Lady, Freyja." Edred Thorsson Yrmin-Drighten of the Rune-Gild Author of Rune Might A Book of Troth

About the Author D.J. Conway was born in Hood River, Oregon to a family of Irish-North Germanic-American Indian descent. She began her quest for knowledge of the occult more than twenty-five years ago, and has been involved in many aspects of New Age religion from the teachings of Yogananda to study of the Qabala, healing, herbs, ancient pantheons and Wicca. Although an ordained minister in two New Age churches and holder of a Doc­ tor of Divinity degree, Conway claims that her heart lies within the pagan cultures. No longer actively lecturing and teaching as she did for years, Conway has centered her energies on writing. To Write to the Author If you wish to contact the author or would like more information about this book, please write to the author in care of Llewellyn Worldwide, and we will forward your request. Both the author and publisher appreciate hear­ ing from you and learning of your enjoyment of this book and how it has helped you. Llewellyn Worldwide cannot guarantee that every letter written to the author can be answered, but all will be forwarded. Please write to: D.J. Conway c / o Llewellyn Worldwide P.O. Box 64383, Dept. L137-7, St. Paul, MN 55164-0383, U.S.A.
Please enclose a self-addressed, stamped envelope for reply, or $1.00 to cover costs. If outside the U.S.A., enclose international postal reply coupon.

Llewellyn's World Magic Series

Norse Magic

D.J. Conway

2003 Llewellyn Publications St Paul, Minnesota 55164-0383, U.S.A.

Norse Magic. Copyright © 1990 by D.J. Conway. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever, including Internet usage, without written permission from Llewellyn Publications except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.

FIRST EDITION

Seventh printing, 2003 Cover art by Lissanne Lake Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Conway, D.J. (Deanna J.) Norse magic / by D.J. Conway. p. cm. — (Llewellyn's world magic series) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-87542-137-7 1. Magic, Norse. 2. Mythology, Norse. I. Title. II. Series. BF1622.N66C65 1990 133.4'3089395—dc20 90-6204 CTP
,

Llewellyn Worldwide does not participate in, endorse, or have any authority or responsibility concerning private business transactions between our authors and the public. All mail addressed to the author is forwarded but the pub­ lisher cannot, unless specifically instructed by the author, give out an address or phone number.

Llewellyn Publications A Division of Llewellyn Worldwide, Ltd. P.O. 64383, St. Paul, MN 55164-0383 www.llewellyn.com Printed in the United States of America

Neither Religion nor Magic conflict with Sci­ ence. as the home which humanity shares with beings and powers both visible and invisible with whom and which we can interface to either our advantage or disadvan­ tage—depending upon our awareness and inten­ tion. forever haunted b y human limitations in perceiving that truth. providing its practitioners with methods of greater influence and control over the world o f the invisible before it impinges on the world of the visible. The study of world magic not only enhances your understanding of the world in which you live. the under-lying intelli­ gence that is the universe within which we and all else exist. there is MAGIC. and hence your ability to live better. messes .LLEWELLYN'S WORLD MAGIC SERIES At the core of every religion. are ways of seeing and relating to the creative powers. the living energies. Magic sees the World as alive. and just as there are many religions in the world so are there many magical systems. Magic is "technology" based upon experience and extra­ sensory insight. but brings you into touch with the inner essence of your long evo­ lutionary heritage and most particularly—as in the case o f the magical system identified most closely with your genetic inheritance—with the ar­ chetypal images and forces most alive in your whole consciousness. the all-pervading spirit. and magic. Religious worship and communion is one kind of magic. at the founda­ tion of every culture. All share the same goals and the same limi­ tations: always seeking Truth. Religion.

Conway Celtic Magic Maiden. Mythical. Mystical Beasts Lord of Light and Shadow Magick of the Gods & Goddesses Sfiothslayer (fiction) Shapeshifter Tarot (with Sirona Knight) Perfect Love The Mysterious. Crone Dancing With Dragons By Oak.J. Mother. Ash & Thorn Animal Magick Flying Without a Broom Moon Magick Falcon Feather & Valkyrie Sword The Dream Warrior (fiction) Magical.Other Books by D. Magickal Cat Warrior of Shadows (fiction) Celtic Dragon Tarot (with Lisa Hunt) .

CONTENTS Norse Magic and Its Uses Today Understanding Norse Magic Preparing for Magic Magical Elements Casting the Magic Circle Sample Ritual Tools of Magic Norse Wicca and the Lady Seasonal Rituals Introduction to the Norse and Vikings History Religion Dress and Ornamentation Myths and Deities Spellwork Herb Magic Cauldron Magic Sword and Dagger Magic Cord Magic 1 7 15 21 25 33 39 107 121 163 .

Elf Magic Dwarf Magic Rune Magic Tables of Correspondence Norse Deities Quick Reference Bibliography 207 241 .

the Gods. huge swords in hand. or Assem­ bly. northern France. leaving much of their culture. daring warriors. and racial blood in these areas. be­ liefs. People think of them as Scandinavians. sailing their dragon-ships over the foam­ ing ocean. They gave us the concept of the Thing. but they also settled parts of north­ ern Germany. Norse Magic and Its Uses Today The Norse—adventurous Viking wanderers. the Northmen had strong ties with the Earth and the Elements. Like Celtic tribes. They believed in an af­ terlife and the end of the world. Theirs was one of the few cultures where women had a great 1 . and the "little people" or "hidden people.1. elves and giants. and throughout the British Isles. dwarves." From them come many of our ideas about trolls. long before Christians ever infiltrated their culture. or Ragnardk. and they were. where justice was administered. worshippers oftheAesir and the Vanir (the Asa-Gods)—these words conjure up shining images o f helmet-clad men.

fashions and fads from the countries they visited. because the Northmen applied them in such a way as to strengthen their position as wolf-warriors and shrewd traders of the northern seas. The Norse concept of mar­ riage allowed great cooperation and com­ panionship between husband and wife. They had a considerable amount of freedom and status. In addi­ tion to housewives.They could go before the Assembly and be granted justice. Iceland and Greenland. accepting adversities without self-pity.2 I Norse Magic amount of freedom and protection under the law. Any man prepared to die for what he be­ lieved was important was held in high esteem by . rune-mistresses. wise women. as they were one of the ways that the gods contacted humans. The people of this northern culture were indi­ vidualists and deeply resented any attempt to curb their freedom. they reached the balmy climate of the Mediterranean. these Vikings brought with them new ideas. just as the men could. Dreams were considered important. healers and warriors. The cul­ tural acquisition was not one-sided. as they did in many other cultures. Norse women were among the most liberated of the time. When they returned to their northern villages. These new ideas did not cause a breakdown in the Viking culture. Everywhere they went. espe­ cially if they had prophetic dreams or impressions. there were priestesses. To the south. They ranged to the north arid west as far as the shores of North America. Women were listened to by their men. the Northmen left their cultural influence. At the same time they were capable of great self-control. or even a divorce.

and wit. Nev­ ertheless. but not immortal. friends and family." someone who definitely does not believe in taking a servile apprpach to life. They reflect the peoples who believed in them.Norse Magic and Its Uses Today I 3 friend and foe alike. guardians of human­ kind. stories and legends show im­ mense. Anyone who was both had the world at his or her feet. They were shrewd traders with a wily instinct for commerce. Their land was harsh and their lives fraught with hardship. children. more beautiful. tender love for spouse. It interests those who advocate actively shaping . stronger. discrimination. The Vikings could understand and easily relate to this type of divine being. Norse magic for today fits the type of person­ ality that is a "doer. they maintained a strong belief in family and clan. treasuring their ships and swords as much for their beauty as their utility. only on a grander scale. The Northmen were firm believers in retali­ ation for injustices. Their deities were strong. They appreci­ ated fine design and artistry. a quick-witted poet could win fame and fortune just as well as a brilliant swordsman. The Northmen loved a good story and a jest. The Northmen were among the last European societies to fall to Christianity. In the Viking culture. Celtic magic and Norse magic are the only two true Western European magical traditions. There was no room for softness or the doormat theory of existence. wiser. These gods and goddesses were pictured as men and women. Many of their leaders were men of culture.

Preparing for magic begins with the subconscious mind. can hope to benefit from the prac­ tice of Norse magic. or the right brain. calling upon the Asa-Gods and other su­ pernatural beings. It is art active magic. These gods only help those who help themselves. reserved for participants. practice. perform. It is a magic of pride in oneself. It manifests itself in self-growth. It begins with learning how to unlock the door to the creative part of the mind. You must attune yourself to the powers of the Elements. Norse magic enlists the help of the Asa-Gods. and disregarding the old cry "Magic doesn't work!" Magic works if you think it works. The Asa-Gods do not drop results into your lap. open to changes and the acceptance of new ideas. If you can become successful and happy through magic. one will­ ing to study and learn and put into practice the new knowledge. courage to face whatever comes and continuing knowledge to mold the results to fit a particular life plan. a restructuring of thought and living.4 I Norse Magic their own future. It elicits aid from dead ancestors and the rulers of the Ele­ ments. the Light Elves and good Dwarves. ^programming it to accept the unseen. improve­ ment of life conditions. Only a strong person. not society. the disprovable. . Reap the benefits of Norse magic. those who affirm that practicing speliwork is preferable to passively waiting for changes to come. not by-standers. why worry about the opinions of others who are less open? Learn. True magic is the way of the individual. and enjoy every new success to the fullest.

Norse Magic and Its Uses Today J 5 As the Old Norse would say: May the Gods of Asgard guide your steps. May Freyja give you wisdom and magical power. and may Freyr grant you prosper­ ity. May Thorr's hammer protect you. .

.

Some have called magic "the art of changing consciousness at will. Understanding Norse Magic What is ritual magic? Everyone has a mental picture of a ceremonial magician gesturing with his wand. a witch stirring her cauldron. words. or some­ thing similar. the chamber that contains infinite power to change you. Magic opens the door to the secret chamber of your mind.2. or the creative hemisphere. But that is not magic. Ritual magic is the taking of energy from another plane of existence and weav­ ing that energy by specific thoughts. This secret chamber is a combina­ tion of the right brain. The human brain is divided into the left and 7 . Nor are they the definition of the power. but they are not the power. your personal circumstances and your future. and the subconscious mind." My own definition is less grand a statement. and practices into a desired physical form or result. These gestures and physical practices are necessary. that is only the physical activity that helps to perform ritual magic.

That is why it is so important to choose friends carefully. and most strongly from the day we are born. The left brain generally main­ tains control. Our subconscious minds are programmed from be­ fore birth." The same applies when people laugh or make fun of you when you try to do something." or "That got me noticed.8 I Norse Magic right hemispheres. It likes creative activity in all its forms. However. this reprogramming must be done so . This type of programming continues throughout your life." and the words are followed by an ac­ tion that shows displeasure or approval. It has unlimited powers to accomplish things that are important to it. It is also the side that criticizes us for things we do or do not do. The left brain deals to­ tally with what it calls reality. the subconscious mind permanently records the mes­ sage: "It doesn't pay to do that. Of course. the subconscious mind must be reprogrammed. it likes and demands logic." "You shouldn't do that. The right brain deals entirely with what we call imagination. Every time we are told as children "You can't do that. parents and teachers." "I love you when you do that. It is the dominant side. It also is connected with the subconscious mind. The right brain is the creative side. Order. we must have some rules to prevent us doing harm to our­ selves and others. In order to bring about permanent changes. But it does seem such a shame to spend valuable adult years undoing "good in­ tentions" or shifted problems that rightfully belonged to your friends. routine. explicit functions and directions. It is closely connected with the conscious mind. the artis­ tic hemisphere.

They do not react much. although most friends. readily accepts and uses to create the desired effect. Thus. the more creative activity happens in that secret chamber. candles." Remov­ ing these restraints that make us doubt our abilities is like removing shackles. Both the right brain and the subconscious mind perform best when presented with symbols. recit­ ing spells. The more creative activity there is. chants. or right brain. One of the biggest stumbling blocks to ef­ fective magic are these deeply buried false limitations that tell us "You can't do that. if at all. physical. teachers. the very act of magical gesturing. we are almost constantly being programmed for limitations and failures. that it forgets to monitor and control the creative activity of the right brain. and society in general are well-meaning in their intentions. It becomes so involved in taking an active. Unfortunately. become symbols which the secret mind chamber. However. the left brain will inter­ fere. logical part in the ritual. dosomething-worthwhile. in working magic. The more emotionally involved you are in spellwork. But. it is not disposed to creativity. par­ ents. to verbal com­ mands or desires.Understanding Norse Magic / 9 you can experience your rightful complete poten­ tial. all the spells. left brain. tools. etc. laying out Tarot cards and all the other physical parts of magic deceives our analytical. you may say. True. unless those commands are reinforced by a physical action that brings pain or pleasure. the stronger the message to the subcon­ scious mind that we definitely desire a specific .

5. stealing. 5 . and manifest it in the material world. addictive habits). how you treat others (lying. manifestations will take longer to appear. an emotional thought without physical substance. Repetition plays a great part in this imple­ mentation. you will find everything coming together on a positive path. reacting to input much like a computer. The subconscious. Doing spellwork for 3. To work magic effectively. carrying . The magical results will flow from the secret mind chamber into your physical world. reinforces the creative activity in the secret chamber and underlines your message "I want this to happen!" Repetition becomes the pleasure-pain motivator that changes the pro­ gramming of the subconscious mind. 7 and 9. The ancients were wise in their insistence on the magical power numbers of 3 . you must believe you can cause things to happen. we mean controlled emotions. Controlled emotional input in ritual proves to the subcon­ scious mind that you are sincere in your desires and what you are attempting to accomplish. Quite unexpectedly. not a vacil­ lating. that you have the power within you to change your life.10 I Norse Magic change to happen. At first this may be difficult. When we speak of the use of emotions in magic. Work on yourself: how you think of yourself. cheating. Until you get your subconscious mind reprogrammed in a more positive manner. You must be­ lieve that it is within your power to take a desire. rollercoaster-ride of emotions. con­ secutively. will implement the instructions. Keep practic­ ing the spellwork. broken promises. 7 or 9 days.

If you can't manifest through magic for yourself. and has nothing whatso­ ever to do with magic. such as a lover. This erroneous idea is a hold-over from Judeo-Christian belief. that it is selfish and wrong. happiness and prosperity. there must be a very good karmic reason for those two people to be together. It will never be to your benefit to deliber­ ately harm another being through magic. the Earth and all happenings within their vast realms. you do not want to deal with any unnecessary karma. Logically.) Let's look at this from the viewpoint of a lover. .Understanding Norse Magic I 11 with it health. how can we belittle anything that improves us or our surroundings? This line of reasoning brings us to a rule of morality in magic: Do what you will if you harm no being. etc. The Norse deities were and are greatly concerned about humankind. but you will be building karmic debt of your own for controlling someone against his or her will. everyone has enough of their own to handle. If you use a spell to draw someone to you in that manner. not only will you have to live with whatever karmic problems they bring. (I believe it is an exellent idea to put a copy of this rule in your ritual room. spouse. j o b . Therefore. This includes taking away by magic something that be­ longs to another. you have little chance of manifesting for others. Believe me. I have heard too many times that you should not do magic for yourself. Suppose you are convinced you really want someone else's lover. Be­ sides you could be passing up a greater and better love by narrowing your vision.

or you can spell for a better place to live.12 / Norse Magic Also. Talking about spellwork dis­ sipates the magical energy. By no means be a door mat! But be creative in forming protec­ tive spellwork. Troublesome neighbors can be spelled to move. if neces­ sary. Besides. Brainstorm on paper. or fear of losing control over you. It is essential to think through your reasons for doing magic. to be silent. A harassing landlord can be influenced to treat you better. Moon phases play an important part in many . When it comes to protecting yourself and your loved ones. if that person comes to you through spellworking. to dare to practice it. against hisior her will. to will the desired results. intentionally or unintention­ ally. the rule still holds. to dare. you have to fight to keep. What you fight to get through the misuse of magi­ cal power. The last is especially important. many of your "friends" and family will torpedo your rituals by negative thoughts. justice can be brought down on them through the police and legal system. have not limited yourself or destructively harmed others. spite. and to keep quiet about what you are doing. to will. out of jealousy. If they are engaged in illegal or destructive activities. until you are certain you are aware of all the options. you will have to do a lifetime of magic to make certain he/she stays and does not leave you for someone else. The practice of magic in this busy world is difficult enough without adding to the problem. Simply explained. There is an old teaching called the Four Pow­ ers of the Magus (Magician): to know. it means to gain the knowledge needed to do ritual magic.

It is much more harmless to in- . growth and gain takes place from after the New Moon until the Full Moon. with the day or night of the New Moon being strongest. It is better for spellworking to operate with the flow of energy than against it. you will see the logical rea­ soning behind this. Evocation is the commanding of certain forces and entities by Names of Power and sigils. Hebrew and unknown lan­ guages. Spellworking for increase.Understanding Norse Magic f 13 rituals. These rituals are done in a mixture of Greek. It invites higher spirits and the gods to enter into the magical circle itself. It is traditional that spellworking for de­ crease or removal o f problems takes place from after the Full Moon until the New Moon. like the waters of Earth. and it can be extremely dangerous if you do not know exactly what you are doing. Only the lower orders of spirits are evoked. The greater part of the human body is made up of water or liquids. The type of energy from the phases of the Moon will be reflected in our bodies. Therefore. If you think about the effect of the Moon on the tides of the Earth. with the day or night of the Full Moon being the most powerful. They are ordinarily based on a framework of Judaism or Christianity. we are affected by the Moon and her phases. The last of this discussion on the definition of magic is a brief clarification of two types of ritual magic: evocation and invocation. The compelled entity is forced into a magical triangle drawn outside the circle. This type of ritual does not use strange tongues and is never a command. Invocation is the safest and easiest form of magic to perform.

14 I Norae Magic voke than evoke. . This book will deal only with invocations.

3 . Preparing for Magic To begin the practice of magic. Cut out a white dot about the size of a quarter and paste it against a dark background. You must be so involved in your ritual and why you are doing it that no extraneous noise. Concentration is of prime importance during actual rituals when everything not directly related to what you are do­ ing must be excluded from your thoughts. one must learn certain basic techniques: concentration. meditation. is al­ lowed to intrude into your mind. fo­ cusing. Along with actual doing. imaging. these techniques are essential to accomplishing physical manifestation by spellworking. they are immediately dismissed to be dealt with at another time. Sit comfortably and look at the 15 . no thoughts of the day's happenings. There are two exercises that will strengthen your powers of concentration. or practice. not even the telephone. If they do intrude. Concentration is holding an image or idea in your mind without interruption.

Keep your thoughts on that dot. in that you could have had something better. it is probably better not to decide on the last jot and tittle. but refusing to accept a blue one because you visualized only red. Focusing and concentrating on what you are doing in ritual channels your mind's powers and energies into the activity. It is easiest on the eyes to look at the blue around the lower part of the wick instead of the bright upper flame. on a goal helps you to visualize the objective more clearly. to start the process which fulfills your desires. Another similar exercise uses a candle flame. the same way you did with the white dot. Too much detail limits the manifestation. Fo­ cusing your "inner eye. After a few minutes. Close your eyes and concen­ trate on seeing the image. blink your eyes whenever you needto do so. . Visualization. Proceed in the same manner by looking at the flame. It is rather like asking for a Ferrarri.WI Norse Magic dot.Do not stare. in fact. coupled with emotion and determi­ nation. yet is an integral part of it. Focusing is adjusting your "inner eye" or at­ tention on a particular object or goal. It is different from concentration." or third eye. For example. is necessary to unlock the secret mind chamber. and see how long you can maintain its image in your mind. the act of casting a circle (which I will explain later) needs focusing and con- . strengthening and clari­ fying it. It really is not necessary to visualize the goal in complete detail. close your eyes and look for the white dot. You will see it in front of you as if your eyes were still open.

Hang a "do not disturb" sign on your door. Classi­ cal music without singing or voices will provide a gentle background to screen out small noises and give your left brain something on which it can con­ centrate. change color. the circle will not adequately protect you or contain the magical energy you are raising. Go through the same exercise using the can­ dle flame. allow your creative right brain to summon up related ideas.Preparing for Magic I 17 centration to be done properly. calm music that appeals to you. but with a slightly differ­ ent twist. Again. and let these creative images pop through the door of your secret chamber. Again. Begin by selecting a piece of smooth. Meditation also brings a heightened sense of awareness and increased ability to visualize. and sit comfortably in . All of these skills are valuable in practicing magic and gaining practical results from magical rituals. The dot is white. it is round. expand. Relax. it looks like the sun en a foggy day. we will use the candle flame and the white dot. and gain insight. Summon up more images to fit the new color. you use your powers of focusing. concentration. control destructive emotions. See if you can make the flame go higher. There is no reason that meditation need be a complicated procedure. In the practice of meditation. You may find that after a few minutes the dot changes color. and relaxation to center yourself. imaging. or that you can make it change color. If n o t ' done correctly. as exercises. This time as you concentrate on the white dot image in your mind. turn off the telephone. summon up all asso­ ciated images.

once you push to hear what you want to hear. walking away. However. while the symbology of the action is influencing the right brain to come up with an answer to solving those problems. d o s e your eyes and listen to the music while taking a few deep breaths. take part in ceremonies. just become aware of your body and open your eyes. One by one. the calmness that exists in that garden. Then visualize yourself turning around. remember? To continue the meditation. The lim­ iting idea of time belongs only to the left brain and the conscious mind. surround yourself with white light. the clear messages will cease. the kind with a stone wall around it. Anytime you wish to end the meditation. peaceful garden. the healing. you can receive amazing guidance in this other-plane garden. As long as you remain objective in your out­ look. soak up the peacefulness. You may see people and buildings. drop all your problems into the well—relationships. Wander along the paths. Imagine yourself stand­ ing beside an old fashioned well. Mentally. Perhaps you realized while reading the above .18 I Norse Magic a chair. everything. finances. You will get only feed-back from your left brain and conscious mind. Go where you like. The same phenomenon occurs when you are involved in magical ritual. The right brain only understands sym­ bols. project yourself into a beautiful. You will find that time has absolutely no meaning while in meditation. This technique is giving the left brain something to think about. fears. talk with people.

focusing and imaging abilities. while in that other-plane garden. the same as you would when meeting any new acquaintance. followed by a stop at the well. . Please remember to be courteous. recall the white light and leave. mental and emotional levels. All existence does not belong exclusively to this physical level of life. From time to time it is possible to meet someone in your "travels" who will not be the kind of being you wish to be around. you can visualize going directly from the well to a temple or a class or a meeting with a specific person who talked with you during your meditations. With a little practice. often healing on the physical. This is a protection that eliminates carrying negative vi­ brations into the meditation. Meditation is a nice way to strengthen these while gaining the fringe benefits of relaxation. as these personalities are not neces­ sarily figments of your imagination.Preparing for Magic I 19 meditation that. vibrations that could contaminate an otherwise beautiful productive ex­ perience. Also practice discrimination. It is a wise precaution always to begin medi­ tation b y surrounding yourself mentally with the white light. If one of these types appears. you were exercising your concentration.

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each has a ruler or king. Fire. with its limited knowl­ edge. Science. each has positive and negative traits. you will see that they influence our physical world more than we realize. and most importantly to the four quarters of the magic circle. A s we discuss these magi­ cal Elements. But science does agree that they exist.4. and purposes. The four Elements possess form as well as force. Because the magician calls to each Element to protect its quarter of the circle and to render aid. does not acknowledge these four Elements as building blocks in the same way that the magi­ cian does. Each can be called a kingdom. it is important to understand exactly what each of 21 . as well as in­ fluencing our personalities and the realm of magic. Magical Elements All magic is primarily based on four Ele­ ments for spellworking. the four quarters of the universe. moods. Each has certain qualities. natures. although scientists call them by other names. They are forces and types of substance that make up the universe and everything in it. Water and Earth. These Elements are Air. The four Elements correspond to the four di­ rections of our physical world.

inattention. dar­ ing. . the dagger and sword. Undines. stars. intelligence. the Sun. fickleness. any kind of harmful water. joy. and the little ones of springs. hurricanes. candles. rain storms. Its color is pure blue. Its color is pure red. intuition. The positive associa­ tions of Fire are: noon. the wand. gossip. whirlpools. ponds. breezes. harmful fire of any kind. Its color is pure yellow. Firedrakes. tornadoes. Negative associations of Air are: frivolity. conflicts. fear. The Element of Water governs the western quarter of the circle. clouds. Its ruler is Paralda who oversees the Sylphs. Fall. and nature spirits or fairies. breath. any kind of helpful fire. activity. war. enthusiasm.22 / Norse Magic these Elements is and does. it is cold and moist. it is considered warm and moist. The Element of Air governs the eastern quar­ ter of the circle. incense. blood. destructive air in any form. Negative associations of Fire are: hate. it is considered warm and dry. optimism. Its ruler is Djin (dee-yin) who oversees the Salamanders. courage. volcanoes. forgetfulness. lightning. anger. Zephyrs. bragging. Spring. compas­ sion. and rivers. Summer. ego. The positive associations of Water are: sunset. Negative associations of Water are: floods. Mer-people. willpower. jealousy. wind storms. The positive associations of Air are: sun­ rise. Its ruler is Niksa who over­ sees the Nymphs. The Element of Fire governs the southern quarter of the circle. and the lit­ tle ones of the sunbeams. the chalice and cauldron. love. lakes. mental quick­ ness. peacefulness. any form of helpful water. forgiveness. any kind of helpful air. leadership.

we blend the various Elements needed to bring forth the manifestation of our de­ sires. stubbornness. lack of conscience. ritual salt. vacillation..Magical Elements / 23 laziness. ending in the north. Finally. instability. earthquakes. The Element of Earth (the Element most fa­ miliar to beings of this planet) governs the northern quarter. respect. At the beginning of the ritual. which domi­ nates the center of the magical circle and balances all the other Elements. re­ sponsibility. indifference. Spirit. mid­ night. insecurity. slides. gemstones. endurance. before the magic circle is officially opened. again begin­ ning in the east and moving clockwise around the circle. The rulers of the Elements and their king* doms are represented in their respective quarters by a symbol and perhaps a candle of the appropri­ ate color." . The positive associations of Earth are: Winter. Its ruler is Ghob. When the ritual is finished. who oversees the gnomes and dwarves. and the little ones of the moonbeams. mountains. the pentacle. Negative associations of Earth are: rigidity. or invoca­ tion of the Gods. sometimes called Ghom. it is cold and dry. lack of emo­ tional control. Its color is clear dark green. and starting in the east. caves. Through Spirit. purpose in life. soil. Moving clockwise around the cir­ cle he welcomes each Element. thoroughness. the magician welcomes the Element of Air. unwillingness to change. the magician thanks and dismisses each Element. the magician should return to the center and thank "all beings in the visible and invisible. There is a fifth Element. stability.

The Norse considered the Earth in the center as balance. and Vestri (West. when the worlds were created Odhinn and his brothers set four Dwarves permanently in place to hold up the sky at the four directions. ruling air). You may call upon these Dwarves as Rulers of the four Elements if you wish. ruling water). They are Nordhri (North. ruling ice). ruling fire). Sudhri (South. In Norse mythology. These Dwarves can be considered as ruling the four directions and Elements. . Austri (East.24 I Norse Magic This is the dismissal for Spirit.

Casting the Magic Circle The magic circle. is a pulsating cone of energy. On the astral level. It also serves to contain the power raised within the circle until the magician releases it. when prop­ erly produced. Some say that the circle must only have a nine-foot circumference. I have cast cir­ cles just big enough to stand in and others that took in a fifteen-foot room. with its point high above the ritual area. cast by dagger or sword. the shape of this Cone of Power. regenerating working area for the performance of magic. The power raised within the magic circle is commonly called the Cone of Power. The energy of the circle's bound­ ary keeps out negative influences.5. but when properly drawn. All were powerful be­ cause of the concentration and visualization used 25 . has great power both in this and other realms. is an imaginary boundary (to the physical eye). However. Its primary function is to cre­ ate a safe.

have the unusual ability of being able to cross the cast circle without disturbing the power flow. The dominant hand is generally considered the hand with which you write. being of steel or iron and having a sharp point. Begin at the east­ ern quarter of the area to be circled. Casting a proper circle requires concentrated visualization and focusing of inner energy on the part of the magician. must be inside the ritual area before the circle is drawn. The symbols and/or candles of each Element are now set just inside the boundary line. hold the conse­ crated dagger or sword (see later chapter for consecration rituals) in your power or dominant hand. includ­ ing the Element candles. To do this. What is important is that you see. Aim the ritual tool at the floor or ground while visualizing an in­ tense silver-blue light issuing from its tip. Cats. I have no explanation for this. The wand. in Wiccan rites. traditionally is used for defense and banishing. at least with your inner eye. "draw" a circle clockwise to cover your ritual area. Welcome each Element in its proper quarter before concen- . it is wise never to cross the boundary until the ritual or spellworking is finished and the Ele­ ments dismissed. Once cast and sealed.26 I Norse Magic when they were cast. a boundary line of silverblue flame around you. All needed supplies for spellworking. The circle does not have to be per­ fectly round. I only know it is so. however. Using that light. directs magical power and is used to persuade. The athame (dag­ ger) or sword. Finish by overlapping the ends of the line in the east.

movement of your sword or dagger across a section of the boundary. A word here on incense and charcoal tablets. When you are finished with your work. SAMPLE RITUAL Gather everything you will need for your al­ tar and spellworking. Please use the little self-lighting char­ coal tablets specially made for incense and NOT the barbecue ones! Incense has an effect on the mind and emo­ tions. wand. The best kind o f incense is the kind burned on charcoal. pentacle disk (see chapter on Magical Tools) your sword and/or dag­ ger. "cut" the circle with a backwards. This mental/emotional effect plus the atmosphere of a candle-lit room and the wear­ ing of robes can transform any ritual area into a pagan shrine of magical power. You need to create . appealing to the subconscious mind and past memories. one or two altar candles for light. you will not be crossing it until the ritual is finished. incense. a chalice with a little spring or fresh water in it. Once the magical circle is cast. four Element candles. The silver-blue circle will wink out of existence. or reverse. a dish of salt. Remember to dismiss the Elements at the end of the proceedings before you open the circle. incense burner (preferably one with attached chains for carrying) with lighted char­ coal. Place on or near your altar the following items: materials needed for any par­ ticular spellworking.Casting the Magic Circle I 27 trating on your spellworking.

Remember to overlap the ends in the east when you finish. May the Ancient Ones help and protect me on my magical journey. Raise your dagger or wand in greeting. facing north. While you are drawing the circle. say: / consecrate this circle of power to the Ancient Gods. take a few deep breaths to center yourself. Take your dagger or sword in your power hand. When you become more adept at spellworking. Move back to the altar. Aim it at the floor. The symbols and/or candles for the Ele­ ments should be set just inside the circle boundary with the altar set in the center.28 I Norse Magic this atmosphere in which magic can work. protective silver-blue light shooting from the tip of your ritual tool. Relax. Play soft instrumental music. . in a place that is not a place. facing north. Moving clock­ wise from the east. if you wish. draw the magical boundary of the circle. Starting in the east. you can turn the cen­ tral altar so that you face the predominant Element to be used in the spelling. visualize that powerful. I stand at the threshold between the worlds before the Gates ofAsgard. on a day that is not a day. it lends atmos­ phere. Position your altar table in the center. say: This is a time that is not a time. Here may they manifest and bless their child.

. be you adored! Beginning in the east and moving clockwise. then hold die chalice up high. May we always remember the cauldron waters of rebirth. bless this creature of Water to your service. bless this creature of Air to your service. sprinkle the water-salt mixture lightly around the edges of your circle. bless this creature of Earth to your service. Sprinkle a little salt into the water. May we always honor the blessed Earth. saying: Great God Freyr. Hold your dagger over the incense. saying: Great God Freyr. May we always remember the sacred Fire that dances within the form of every creation. May we always listen to the spirit winds that bring us the voices of the Ancient Ones. Hold your dagger over the lighted incense burner. Hold your dagger over it and say: Great Goddess Freyja. say: Great Goddess Freyja. Say: Great Freyja.Casting the Magic Circle I 29 Set the water chalice on the pentacle disk. Hold your dagger over the salt. its many forms and beings. Replace the chalice on the al­ tar. bless this creature of Fire to your service.

30 I Norse Magic Put a little incense on the lighted charcoal in the burner. Don't put too much incense in the burner as a little goes a long way in an enclosed room! Using the attached chains, touch the burner briefly to the pentacle disk, then raise the burner high, saying: Great Freyr, be you adored! Carry the burner around the circle clockwise, beginning in the east. Return it to the altar. Go to the eastern quarter of the circle and light the yellow candle. Hold up your hand in greeting. You may also salute the Element with your dagger, sword or wand instead of your hand: / call upon you, Powers of Air, to witness this rite and to guard this circle. Move to the south; light the red candle and hold up your hand in greeting: J call upon you, Powers of Fire, witness this rite and to guard this circle. to

In the western quarter you light the blue can­ dle and greet the Element: / call upon you, Powers of Water, to witness this rite and to guard this circle. End by going to the north; light the green candle and greet the Element: I call upon you, Powers of Earth, to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle.

Casting the Magic Circle I 31 Move back to your central altar, and stand facing north. Raise your arms in greeting: This circle is bound, With power all around. Within it I stand With protection at hand. Proceed with your planned spellwork or cere­ mony. When everything is completed, hold your hand or ritual tool over the altar and say: By the powers of the ancient Gods, I bind all power within this circle Into this spell. So mote it be! When you are ready to end the ritual, go to the east and extinguish the yellow candle. Say: Depart in peace, O Powers of Air. My thanks and blessings. Go to the south and extinguish the red can­ dle. Say: Depart in peace, O Powers of Fire. My thanks and blessings. Go to the west and extinguish the blue can­ dle. Say: Depart in peace, O Powers of Water. My thanks and blessings. Finish by going to the north and extinguish the green candle. Say: Depart in peace, O Powers of Earth. My thanks and blessings. Return to the center to stand before the altar.

32 I Norse Magic Raise your arms and say: To all beings and powers of the visible and invisible, depart in peace. May there always be harmony between us. My thanks and blessings. Cut the circle with a backwards motion of your magical tool to release all remaining vestiges of power for manifestation. Say: The circle is open, yet ever it remains a circle. Around and through me always flows its magical power. Put away all magical tools and clear the al­ tar, except for any candles or objects which must remain to either burn out or be empowered for a period of time specific for the ritual. You have completed your ritual. Practice will make the power flow easier. Soon you will find that you look forward to ritual and spellworking.

6. Tools of Magic

To use Norse magic correctly, you must re­ spond positively to active participation in magical rituals. You must be willing to do spellwork, to learn the self-discipline and emotional involve­ ment required to get results. One of the most important rules of magic is to do the work necessary for the results you want and KEEP SILENT about what you are doing. Silence gives your spellwork room to grow without being hindered or destroyed by negative thought-forms from others. The fewer people who know what you are doing, the better. The only time this rule does not apply is when you are working with likeminded people who are in complete agreement with your goals. Then the magical power is ampli­ fied. Magic can be done with a minimum of tools: a working space or altar, dagger and cauldron. The full range of basic tools for Norse magic-work are: dagger or sword or both, goblets or drinking horns, cauldron, incense burner, wand, offering bowl and plate, candles with holders, runestones, various colored cords, special stones to entice Elves and 33

34 I Norse Magic Dwarves. Optional implements are a small bell, horn and staff. Music by Richard Wagner is a very appropri­ ate aid also. Some of his music deals totally with the Norse-Germanic deities. Find recordings with instrumentals only; vocals can be too distracting. However, music you make for yourself can be a good active part of rituals. The first magical tool you should get is an al­ tar and a stone slab for its top. The altar itself may be a coffee table or chest that doubles as regular furniture. Or it may be a separate item that you use only for ritual work. If you are fortunate enough to have, or purchase, such furniture with a stone or marble top, very good. If not, do not de­ spair. Pieces of slate or marble can be fastened to a thin sheet of wood cut to the size needed; glue felt or small rubber feet on the reverse side to avoid scratching. The stone top does not have to cover the entire altar. There are also marble cutting or pastry boards available which work nicely. These usually have rubber feet already on them. Stone, and especially marble, is an excellent resonator of magical power. The more you use such an altar, the more power is stored in the stone. This can be drawn off to amplify your own power for spellworking. For spellworking, place your altar so that you face the north. Later, when you have more experi­ ence and if you so desire, you can change the altar to face the direction that corresponds to the type of magic you will be doing. Gather as many represen­ tative articles as you can to help. See the Tables of Correspondence for aid in this.

Both wear leather boots or slip­ pers.Tools of Magic I 35 A robe used only for magic helps the subcon­ scious mind make the transition from everyday working to magical working. If you want the more authentic-looking garb of a Norse rune-master. This prevents . If you plan to do any out­ side work. be certain that it is lined with silver. men can wear trousers with a long overtunic and women a long skirt with long overtunic. It is a Norse tradition to name daggers and swords. a dark blue or black hooded cape is nice to have for cold weather. such as an arm-band. if you choose one of brass. pewter. bracelet.. For the correct runes. a leather belt with a knife sheath and pouches for runestones and other magical sup­ plies. along with the magical name you have chosen for your­ self. try to purchase a new. Take your time choosing such a name. bronze. see the chapter on Spellwork. So does any special jewelry. double-edged knife that has a blade no longer than your palm and fingers. The goblet can be of any material. Or you might wish to wear a piece of amber on a chain. Swords should not be too heavy or kmg. or amulet. However. In selecting a dagger. A headband embroidered or painted with runes completes the outfit. etc. then carve or paint it in runes on the hilt. It is now possible to purchase small pendants of Thorr's hammer. Holding a sword out in front of you for five minutes can play havoc with the neck and shoul­ der muscles if it is too awkward and heavy. Used knives too often have negative vibrations that can sometimes be impos­ sible to purge.

Remember to ask the tree's permission before cutting any branches. I have never found that expensive silver wands worked any bet­ ter than those of wood. you can make your wands out of wooden dowels and decorate them to suit yourself. Set one at each end of the altar so you can see clearly. The small offering bowl and plate should also be of a non-flammable material. You can make your wands from specific types of trees. This . The holders should be wide enough to catch melting wax and be non-flamma­ ble. If you do not have access to such branches. and always leave a gift of milk and honey. It does not have to be large. and they are becoming easier to find. A drinking horn is nice. dry place out of sunlight. A burner with chains is a must if you plan to carry it around the circle. Wands are usually not longer than your fore­ arm. Place a lawyer of sand in your burner to make cleaning easier and to cut down on the heat. Having more than one wand makes it possible to designate specific uses to each one. Your herb supplies should be kept in sealed containers in a cool. A long wand does not increase the magical power. Incense burners are common. The altar candles used for lighting are gener­ ally white or black. but more than one wand is not really necessary. The cauldron is generally of black cast iron with a bail and with or without feet. it merely becomes awkward. The horn should have a stand so that balancing it on the altar does not become a juggling feat.36 I Norse Magic wise and other acidic beverages from causing a dangerous reaction with the metal. of course.

psychic de­ velopment.Tools of Magic I 37 helps to retain their freshness and potency longer. you will need cer­ tain stones to entice them. The small bell and horn for blowing are not mandatory but do help in certain spellworkings. marriage and growth. Anytime you are asking the Light Elves and Good Dwarves to work with you. Orange is for changing luck. yellow for intellect. can be painted with the runes. Use quartz or rock crystal and moonstone for the Elves. If you want . The color purple is for permanent changes in life. You can cut flat. persuasion and concentration. blue for healing. reversing and protection. never metal. pink for pure love. Use glass or earthenware containers. attracting good things and control. steel or iron and pyrite (fool's gold) for the Dwarves. made of a hollowed cow's horn. romance and togetherness. If at all possible. purchase sev­ eral 12-18 inch lengths of narrow round cording in various colors. red for energy or physical love. Runestones can be purchased. thin pieces of wood into one-inch squares and paint or burn the runes on one side only. Small flat stones. the horn should be a natural one. White is used for spiritual under­ takings and truth. understanding and peace. protection and breaking bad luck. Thread in these same colors is useful when spellwork calls for you to dispose of the knotted cord. wisdom. or you can make your own with very little trouble. imagi­ nation. If you plan to do cord magic. Use white or purple when you are uncertain what color to use. fertility. Green is used for prosperity. black for binding. also no more than one inch across.

relax and enjoy yourself. Taking someone's husband or wife. Remember. magic works if you think it works. Be certain that you are justified in the request. If a tool does not "feel" right. The important thing to re­ member is that the magic lies within you. not the tools. Carefully think out what you want to accom­ plish. The whole idea in using Norse magic is to improve yourself and your life. Y o u and your subconscious mind are the originators of all magical power. . Slowly acquire your tools. is bound to bring repercussions that you may not want or be able to handle. carefully choosing each to fit your vibrations.38 I Norse Magic to be elaborate and have access to deer antlers. A piece of black cloth or short fur to use for throwing the runes is a nice touch. it is not for you. Above all. you can saw thin pieces of this material and paint on the runes. for in­ stance. It can only be amplified through the imple­ ments.

Mother and Crone (Dark Mother. Queen of the Valkyries. The Wiccan believe in a main Goddess (the Lady) and a main God (the Lord). Norse Wicca and the Lady There are certain observances and beliefs which all Wiccan individuals and groups hold to be true. They observe Moon phases in connection with spellworking. intelligent. the Hag). such as the pentagram. Freyja is independent. the sister of Freyr and the daughter of Njord. They celebrate eight yearly festivals and each Full Moon. They use certain symbols with a magical significance.7. the Goddess specifically called "the Lady" is Freyja. with the Goddess having primary importance. She is also called the Seer. As you would expect from a Norse Great Goddess. 39 . the Great Goddess. The Goddess is worshipped as a Triple Deity—Maiden. Wise Woman. She is a Moon Goddess and a shape-shifter. In Norse mythology. regardless of the deity names they choose to use. and highly respected in Asgard. And they believe in magic and its powers.

and Hel. She is the springtime. is the nurturing force behind the life that Idhunn creates. Skadi or the Ger­ man Holda/Bertha (another name for Hel) as the Crone or Dark Mother. fertility. When she and her apples were sto­ len.A. the Full Moon. Freyja as the Mother. Several of the Norse stories involve some supernatural being trying to wed Freyja or at least sleep with her. nourishing. Her color is white. mother and teacher o f life. It was and is a favorite symbol of the Wiccan and magicians. and Giants. eternal youth and vigor. The Triple Goddess. en­ chantment. seduction. the dawn. or triple aspects o f the ' Goddess. desired by all the Gods. Idhunn was and is essential to the continuing of all life. The pentacle disk is placed on the altar as a power-point for con­ secrating objects. as the Great Mother. the Gods of Asgard began to wither and age.S. although that word now means any disk of metal or wood that is engraved with a pentagram and magical symbols. Idhunn is the keeper of the golden apples of . Her color is . Sometimes it is called a pentacle. the day. immortality. such as the water or wine in the chalice. Freyja. The Mother is Summer.40 I Norse Magic The pentagram is one of Freyja's symbols. A pentagram is an ancient five-pointed star. The five points of the pentagram represent the four Ele­ ments plus Spirit. The three-legged cauldron is a feminine symbol of the Triple Goddess. Dwarves. As the Maiden.. is represented by Idhunn as the Maiden. Used in the reverse position in the U. the waxing Moon. with one upward point. it is a symbol of Satanists. She is the ripeness of womanhood.

One can call upon these four beings as Rulers of the Ele- . the gateway to death and reincarnation. Water and Earth. is depicted by Hel or Skadi. This aspect of the Goddess is the waning Moon. During this creation. Winter. The four Dwarves correspond to the four Elements of Air. coun­ sel. Odhinn sent four Dwarves to hold up the sky in the four di­ rections. Fire. Thorr was the friend and deity of common humans. He is wisdom gained through suffering and experi­ ence. He and his brothers created the worlds listed in Norse mythology. known as the Great Father or Allfather. the Lord of the Hunt. night. Odhinn. He is the Lord of the Wild Hunt. The Norse God known as "the Lord" is Freyr. He is also called "the Lover. Freyr represents life. Thorr stood in the middle in the place of honor with Freyr on one side and Odhinn on the other. the Aven­ ger and ultimate Master in magic. because she joins Odhinn.Norse Wicca and the Lady / 41 color of blood and the life force. Her color is black. The Crone is often called the Hag. but could just as well be the German Goddess Holda/Bertha. god of fertility and of Yule. When three god pillars were raised in a Norse temple. growth and balance. on his wild ride across the night skies. as told in the story of how he gained knowledge of the runes. or Dark Mother." Like the Maiden. the authority over the Valkyries. wisdom. Thorr corresponds to the Mother as defender of both the Asa-Gods and humans. is the male equivalent of the Crone. the color of darkness where all life rests before being re­ born. The Crone.

Another holy day that easily could be celebrated in keeping with Norse ideas is the Feast of the Einheriar or Feast of the Fallen Warriors. Hare Moon.42 I Norse Magic merits when casting the circle or spellworking in Norse magic. Corn Moon. The wheel is the symbol of the year with the Solstices and Equinoxes as the main spokes. Fog Moon. Beltane. In the following discussions of these days. I will explain which Full Moon to use. The pagan year was based on lunar months. Imbolc. and Autumn Equinox. The eight traditional Wiccan holy days are: Samhain. Spring Equi­ nox. the Wiccan should observe these four festivals on the nearest Full Moon of the correct sign. the Norse called these months: Wolf Moon. Fallow Moon. Celebration of the solstices and equinoxes is done on a particular day when the Sun changes into particular zodiacal signs. The present-day calendar has under­ gone at least one major change. Seed or Planting Moon. and that heavily influenced by Christians. Shed­ ding Moon. the remaining four holy days as additional spokes. The remaining six holy days are honored by many Wic­ can on a specific day also. Lunasa. However. I was told. Mead or Merry Moon. thus having thirteen months to a year. Snow Moon. Summer Solstice. I was taught differently. Hunting Moon. Winter Solstice. Harvest Moon. Plough Moon. Beginning with the Full Moon closest to Winter Solstice. which coincides with Veterans' Day. This is listed on most calendars and varies from year to year. Therefore. The ancient pagan world counted days as . Horning Moon.

Norse Wicca and the Lady I 43 starting at sunset. and her aspect of the Mother giving birth to the Child of Promise. it was and is con­ sidered an excellent time for all types of divinations. or the charred remains kept to start the next year's Yule log. pronounced sow-en. This was known to the Norse as Jol (wheel) or Mother Night. Because the Veil between the worlds is thinnest on this night. It was known as Ancestor Night. or night before. Feasts are made in remembrance of past ancestors with the whole family or coven eat­ ing and drinking as an affirmation of continuing life. Mistletoe was . An oak Yule log (burned in honor of Thorr) is still a tradition in Norse/Germanic countries. The days are shortest. Winter Solstice. There is quite a lot of material available for groups. called Yule. it seems to me. The Triple Goddess rules with her aspect of the Crone ruling cold and darkness. If you have a partner. and more is needed for those pagans who wish to cele­ brate alone. Therefore. This is the time of death and rebirth of the Sun God. the Sun at its lowest point. occurs about De­ cember 21. and so on. The following seasonal holy day rituals are for the solitary practitioner. was the beginning of the Norse winter and probably was counted as the beginning of a new year. All their festivals were cele­ brated on the Eve. Summer Solstice was celebrated on Midsummer's Eve. The ashes are scat­ tered over the fields. and called Halloween today. or Feast of the Dead. This is celebrated on the first Full Moon in Scorpio. Samhain. it is easy to divide the rituals so each has a part.

This festi­ val is dedicated to "the Bright One. is a time of sowing in the North. but the light is growing stronger. It is a festival of the Maiden in preparation for growth and re­ newal. the root of the spring cleaning idea. The Yule ritual is always held in­ doors and is intensely personal. or drove cattle between two bonfires for fertility. The powers of Elves and Fairies are growing and will reach their height at Summer Solstice. Spring Equinox. other names for it are May Day or Lady Day." god of light and fire. It is a time of cleansing and purification. cattle were taken off to summer pastures right af­ ter this holy day. it is good . This ritual is a light festival. In the Northlands. A time of great magic. Light and darkness are in balance. Imbolc is celebrated on the first Full Moon in Aquarius. Beltane is the first Full Moon in Taurus. done only with family and coven members.44 I Norse Magic hung over the door to keep out malicious spirits. or Balder the Sun God. with as many candles as possible on or near the altar to welcome the Sun Child. It is primarily a fertility festival with nature enchantments and offerings to wildlings and elementals. I suspect this was true on all pagan holy days to keep from being persecuted by the Christians. The Full Moon after Yule is considered the most powerful of the whole year. The same was done at Summer Solstice. The Germanic peoples lit bonfires and jumped over the embers. It is called Walpurgisnacht by the Germans. it wasn't answered. about March 21. Tradition says that if there was a knock on the door on this day.

completion of the harvest. actually a preharvest festi­ val except in the cold northern lands. . the midsummer bonfires were called Balder's Balefires and symbolized his funeral pyre. Mistletoe was also gathered and hung over doors to keep out such spirits. with the darkness increasing. Lunasa is the first Full Moon in Leo. herbs gathered on this day are extremely powerful. about June 22. Bonfires are again lit and used as on Beltane (Walpurgisnacht). thus bringing us back to Samhain. In Scandi­ navia. Ashes from these were carried home for luck. On this night Elves and other ethereal beings are abroad in great num­ bers. The Sun is at his highest before he begins his slide into darkness. Again the hours of day and night are in balance. was a time of rest after labor. The bonfires also were believed to drive off trolls and other malicious spirits. was called Sonnenwende (Sun's Turning) by the Germans.Norse Wicca and the Lady I 45 for all divinations and for establishing a woodland or garden shrine. Summer Solstice. The house guardians should be honored at this time. All prepara­ tions for the dark of the year and the year's ending were made. about September 21. Traditionally. the turning point in Mother Earth's year. It is a corn or harvest festival. The last herbs are gathered. On this holy day it is believed that the most fanciful desire can become reality. The God-aspect as Fire and the Goddess-aspect as Water are balanced. the hours of daylight are longest. Thanks was given for the abundance stored for winter. Autumn Equinox.

.

Here may they manifest and bless their child. and raise your hand or wand in greeting. salt. cauldron. facing north. Altar Supplies: incense. burner. Arrange a white. pentacle. say­ ing: I consecrate this circle of power to the Ancient Gods. red and black on the right side. plate of bread and salt. in a place that is not a place. I stand at the threshold between the worlds. dagger or sword. chalice of water. Say: This is a time that is not a time. 4 Element candles. on a day that is not a day. Go back to the altar. You will need extra candles (two White. red and black together on the left side of the altar and a white. Also called Samhain and Halloween. chalice of wine. 47 . before the Gates ofAsgard.) Special Notes: This is the Time of the Thin Veil or communion with the dead. plate of cookies. A "sacrificial" feast of cookies or cakes in animal and human shapes is appropriate.SEASONAL RITUALS Ancestor Night or Feast of the Dead (First Full Moon of Scorpio. two red. two black) and holders for them. Cast the circle with the dagger or sword. the ruling time of the Crone.

be you adored! Sprinkle the water mixture lightly around the edges o f the circle. Set the chalice of water on the pentacle.48 I Norse Magic May the Ancient Ones help and protect me on my magical journey. moving clockwise and be­ ginning in the east. Hold your dagger over the incense. Replace the chalice on the altar. bless this crea­ ture of Water to your service. bless this crea­ ture of Earth to your service. saying: Great God Freyr. bless this creature of Air to your service. May we always remember the cauldron waters of rebirth. its many forms and beings. bless this creature of Fire to your service. Say: Great Freyja. then hold the chalice up high. saying: Great Goddess Freyja. Holdyour dagger over the chalice. May we always honor the blessed Earth. Hold your dagger over the incense burner. May we always remember the sacred Fire that dances within the form of every creation. saying: Great God Freyr. saying: Great Goddess Freyja. Sprinkle a little salt into the water. Hold your dagger over the salt. May we always listen to the spirit winds .

Turn to the three candles on the left side of . Light the yellow candle in the east and say: / call upon you. be you adored! Carry the burner around the circle clockwise. Light the red candle in the south and say: I call upon you. Powers of Air.Norse Wicca and the Lady I 49 that bring us the voices of the Ancient Ones. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. Light the blue candle in the west and say: I call upon you. Move back to the altar. then raise the burner high. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. Powers of Earth. Powers of Fire. briefly touch the burner to the pentacle. With power all around. Finally. Return it to the altar. to witness this rite and to guard this circle. Put a little incense on the charcoal and. using the chains. Within it I stand With protection at hand. Powers of Water. light the green candle in the north and say: I call upon you. face north and raise your arms in greeting: This circle is bound. beginning in the east. saying: Great Freyr. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle.

Allfather. (Light the red.) Bright Freyr. I welcome the God in all his forms. as Maiden. warrior and defender.. queen of the night.) Dark Mother Hel. (Light the white. I welcome the Goddess in all her forms. The footsteps of my an­ cestors rustle in the fallen leaves. love and knowledge. The gates between the worlds stand open this night. the night of the wheelturning year that brings us to the Thin Veil.as Lover. as Warrior.. Father of love. saying: / light three candles for the God. (Light the black. Great Mother of magic and plenty.. as Mother. the bright day and suc­ cess. forever the Maiden of youth and new be­ ginnings. saying: J light three candles for the God­ dess. skill and plenty. Raise your arms and say: This is Ancestor Night. Turn to the three candles on the right side of the altar. as Allfather. skilled in battle. ruler of the Gods and men.' The .) Glorious Id­ hunn.50 I Norse Magic the altar.) Dark Odhinn.) Mighty Thorr.. wise one of the twilight lands. dawn and the planted seed. death and re­ birth. keeper of the golden apples. (Light the black. as Wise One. (Light the red. (Light the white. the Feast of the Dead.) Lovely Freyja.

. pros­ perity and plenty. mind and spirit. Take up the cup of wine and say: May I always be strong in body. Say: May I always have good health. Place the plate of bread and salt on the pentacle: This is Ancestor Night. The Veil has been lifted that I may know I am not forgotten. Dip a piece of the bread into the salt and eat it. Take the plate of bread and salt and hold it up before you. To the Gods of Asgard! Merry meet and merry part and merry meet again. with the plate of cookies next to it: / ask all who have gathered here to join me in this feast. the Feast of the Dead. those who now dwell over Bifrost.Norse Wicca and the Lady I 51 whispering winds carry their voices to me. All those who wish me well are welcomed within this circle. that I may hear the voices of my ancestors. All those who wish me well are wel­ comed within this circle. Set the plate aside and put the wine chalice on the pentaele. the night strongest for com­ munication with those gone into the shadow lands. the Rainbow Bridge to Asgard.

O Great Ones! Guide and . before the gates that divide the worlds. Hear my desires. Say: The year wheel has turned.52 / Norse Magic Drink some of the wine and eat some of the cookies. let those that would hinder or hurt me be cast aside. heard my desires. Turn to the God candles or an image of him. Say: The year wheel has turned. saving some back to be put outside later for the nature spirits. the har­ vest has come again. (Always save some of your wine and ritual feast to be placed outside for the "little people". The Threefold Goddess—the Maiden. I have sowed many thought-seeds since last Ancestor Night. Tap the pentacle gently with your wand. The Great God. the Wise One—has covered me with her gentle hands. For this I give her honor and love. the Warrior of the night skies. Once more I stand before the Thin Veil. guided my steps.) Replace the wine chalice on the al­ tar. guided my steps. the Mother. For this I give him honor and love. Turn back to the Goddess candles or an im­ age of her. saying: Give me the true inner vision. Let the good be harvested. the har­ vest has come again. has pro­ tected me with his sword and hammer. heard my desires.

O Powers of Fire. Return to the altar. Lead me to greater edge and fulfillment. Blessed be! Now is a time for divination. O Powers of Water. O Powers of Earth. say: All love and honor to the Great Lady and her Lord. or spellwork. O Powers of Air. knowl­ Stand in silence while you ask what you need of the Gods. Extinguish the western candle and say: Depart in peace.Norse Wicca and the Lady / 53 protect me. depart in peace. I bind all power within this circle Into this spell. My thanks and blessings. My thanks and blessings. finish with: By the powers of the ancient Gods. My thanks and blessings. raise your arms and say: To all beings and powers of the visible and invisible. extinguish the northern candle and say: Depart in peace. So mote it be! Extinguish the eastern candle and say: Depart in peace. May there always be harmony between . Finally. If any spellworking is done. When finished. meditation. Extinguish the southern candle and say: Depart in peace. My thanks and blessings.

Around and through me always flows its magical power. My thanks and blessings. yet ever it remains a circle. . Cut the circle to end the ritual. Say: The circle is open. Be sure to put out your offering for the nature spirits.54 / Norse Magic us.

chalice of wine. pentacle. The Triple Goddess rules. saying: Great Goddess Freyja. Here may they manifest and bless their child.) Special Notes: Time of the Goddess of the Cold Darkness and the birth of the Divine Child. in a place that is not a place. a white. and raise your hand or wand in greeting. A time of rebirth and turning of the earth force tides. burner. bless this crea­ ture of Water to your service. dagger or sword. bell. Green candle in the cauldron with a red. facing north. say­ ing: I consecrate this circle of power to the Ancient Gods. Cast the circle with the dagger or sword. I stand at the threshold between the worlds. 55 . chalice of water. Say: This is a time that is not a time. on a day that is not a day. May the Ancient Ones help and protect me on my magical journey. the reborn Sun God. Altar Supplies: incense. Set the chalice of water on the pentacle. salt. before the Gates of Asgard. and a black candle arranged around it. Go back to the altar. Hold your dagger over the chalice.Yule or Mother Night (About December 21. Also called Winter Sol­ stice.

saying: Great God Freyr. Hold your dagger over the incense. using the chains. May we always honor the blessed Earth. bless this creature of Air to your service. then hold the chalice up high. be you adored! Sprinkle the water mixture lightly around the edges of the circle. moving clockwise* and be­ ginning in the east. Replace the chalice on the al­ tar. briefly touch the burner to the pentacle. say­ ing: Great God Freyr. Hold your dagger over the incense burner. cauldron Hold your dagger over the salt. saying: Great Goddess Freyja. its many forms and beings. Say: Great Freyja. Put a little incense on the charcoal and. then raise the burner high saying: Great Freyr. Sprinkle a little salt into the water.56/ Norse Magic May we always remember the waters of rebirth. be you adored! . bless this crea­ ture of Earth to your service. May we always listen to the spirit winds that bring us the voices of the Ancient Ones. May we always remember the sacred Fire that dances within the form of every creation. bless this creature of Fire to your service.

Powers of Fire. Light the yellow candle in the east and say: I call upon you. Say: This is the night of Yule. the Winter Solstice. Powers of Earth. Powers of Air. Light the blue candle in the west and say: I call upon you. With power all around. face north and raise your arms in greeting: This circle is bound. Ring the bell three times. Light the red candle in the south and say: I call upon you. Darkness reigns triumphant. to witness this rite and to guard this circle. yet gives way and changes into light. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle.Norse Wicca and the Lady / 57 Carry the burner around the circle clockwise. Move back to the altar. The breath of all nature is suspended. Within it I stand With protection at hand. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. light the green candle in the north and say: 7 call upon you. Return it to the altar. while within the cauldron of rebirth the Dark King is transformed into the newborn Infant . to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. the longest night of the year. beginning in the east. Powers of Water. Finally.

the god of many forms. Light the red candle near the cauldron: Red is for Freyja. the Divine Sun Child. . Put a little more incense on the coals: The season of life is past and all is cold. Light the white candle near the cauldron: White is for Idhunn. I ask of you the wisdom to un­ derstand the magical mysteries. the Maiden. the Mother. I await the coming of dawn. I welcome you again into life. May you plant your seeds of joy and new be­ ginnings within my life. Light the green candle within the cauldron: Green is for the newborn Lord of the forests. I stand in the stillness behind all motion. knowing that someday I too must pass through the cauldron and be reborn. the Sun King. and consort of the Goddess.58 / Norse Magic Light. Light the black candle near the cauldron: Black is for Hel (Skadi or Holda). From you I ask the gifts of creative ideas and the strength to bring them to completion. before the cauldron of rebirth. I now give honor to the Triple Goddess that the sea­ son may be made better through her Di­ vine Child. when the Triple Goddess once more gives birth to the Divine Child. the Wise One.

O Powers of Water. bringer of light out of darkness and new life out of the cauldron of rebirth. Warm him with your tender sun­ beams. O Powers of Fire. Stand in silence to receive the blessing. Triple Goddess. O Powers of Earth. Again stand in silence to receive the blessing. the three in one. O God of the woodlands and new life! I give you honor and ask your blessing. Ring the bell three times: Hail. Go back to the altar and stand facing north. . Cradle him with flowers and soft green boughs. Ring the bell again three times: Hail. Bless him with your spring showers. Go to the north and ring the bell once: Greet the Divine Child. I give you honor and ask your blessing. O Powers of Air.Norse Wicca and the Lady / 59 Take the bell and go to the east. Go the the west and ring the bell once: Greet the Divine Child. Blow upon him with your gentle breezes. Go to the south and ring the bell once: Greet the Divine Child. Ring the bell once: Greet the Divine Child.

Extinguish the southern candle and say: Depart in peace. So mote it be! Extinguish the eastern candle and say: Depart in peace. Return to the altar. saying: To the Gods of Asgard! Merry meet and merry part and merry meet again. If any spellworking is done. O Powers of Fire. raise your arms and say: To all beings and powers of the visible and invisible. Now is a time for divination. I hind all power within this circle Into this spell. O Powers of Earth. May there always be harmony between . depart in peace. Drink the wine. extinguish the northern candle and say: Depart in peace. My thanks and blessings.60 / Norse Magic Place the wine chalice on the pentacle for a few mo­ ments. Extinguish the western candle and say: Depart in peace. My thankss and blessings. meditation. or spellwork. My thanks and blessings. then lift it high. O Powers of Water. saving some back to be put outside for the nature spirits. finish with: By the powers of the ancient Gods. My thanks and blessings. Finally. O Powers of Air.

Be sure to put out your offering for the nature spirits. My thanks and blessings. yet ever it remains a circle. Cut the circle to end the ritual. Around and through me always flows its magical power. Say: The circle is open.Norse Wicca and the Lady / 61 us. .

.

Also called Imbolg and Candlemas. chalice of water. in a place that is not a place. May we always remember the cauldron 63 . chalice of wine. salt. I stand at the threshold between the worlds. Cast the circle with the dagger or sword. May the Ancient Ones help and protect me on my magical journey. Go back to the altar. bless this crea­ ture of Water to your service. before the Gates of Asgard. White candle in cauldron with a red candle on the left and a green candle on the right. Set the chalice of water on the pentacle. Altar Supplies: burner. facing north. incense.) Special Notes: First stirrings of Mother Earth. pentacle. dagger or sword. Say: This is a time that is not a time. say­ ing: I consecrate this circle of power to the Ancient Gods. Hold your dagger over the chalice. time of cleansing and puri­ fication. Here may they manifest and bless their child. saying: Great Goddess Freyja. and raise your hand or wand in greeting.Imbolc (First Full Moon of Aquarius. spring cleaning. preparation for growth and renewal. on a day that is not a day.

say­ ing: Great God Freyr. bless this crea­ ture of Earth to your service. using the chains. saying: Great God Freyr. its many forms and beings. Hold your dagger over the incense burner. saying: Great Freyr. Hold your dagger over the incense. Put a little incense on the charcoal and. briefly touch the burner to the penta­ cle. bless this creature of Fire to your service. Say: Great Freyja. bless this creature of Air to your service. May we always honor the blessed Earth.64 / Norse Magic waters of rebirth. Hold your dager over the salt. be you adored! Sprinkle the water mixture lightly around the edges of the circle. May we always remember the sacred Fire that dances within the form of every creation. May we always listen to the spirit winds that bring us the voices of the Ancient Ones. then raise the burner high. saying: Great Goddess Freyja. Sprinkle a little salt into the water. be you adored! . moving clockwise and be­ ginning in the east. Replace the chalice on the al­ tar. then hold the chalice up high.

Powers of Fire. Powers of Air. for the coming of . Light the yellow candle in the east and say: I call upon you. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. beginning in the east.Norse Wicca and the Lady/ 65 Carry the burner around the circle clockwise. as you awaken from your long slumber. to witness this rite and to guard this circle. Powers of Water. With power all around. Within it I stand. With protection at hand. Move back to the altar. Light the blue candle in the west and say: I call upon you. Add a little more incense to the burner. all creatures who in­ habit your realms. Powers of Earth. Light the red candle in the south and say: / call upon you. Mother Earth. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. Prepare the fields and forests. then say: / greet thee. Finally. I join with my distant ancestors in giving honor to the Ancient Ones. face north and raise your arms in greeting: This circle is bound. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. Return it to the altar. light the green candle in the north and say: J call upon you.

Preparation for new life begins as she spreads her blessings upon all the land and her children. Light the white candle in the cauldron: At this time and in this place do I sa­ lute the noble Goddess as the sacred Maiden. the Earth feels the first stir­ rings of the Goddess. Light the red candle on the left of the caul­ dron: Behold. for the coming of spring. dagger or sword: This is the feast of waxing light.66 I Norse Magic habit your realms. From her realm in the marsh-halls. It is a time of initiation. I give my dreams into your keeping. Freyja smiles upon the Earth and all things begin regeneration. For only with your guidance and help may I see these dream-seeds grow into reality. At this time and in this place I prepare my thought-seeds for the future. (Time of silence while you ask the Lord and Lady for inspiration and guidance for the future. . Tap the altar three times with your wand. of purification.) Tap the altar again gently three times: O Ancient Ones. now returned from the dark­ ness. a re­ newed promise of the Lady and her Lord for the future.

So mote it be! Extinguish the eastern candle and say: Depart in peace. in­ spire me to new goals. or spellwork. Place the wine chalice on the pentacle for a few moments. O Powers of Air. If any spellworking is done. good health. I ask for insight. . good health. My thanks and blessings. Great Goddess Freyja. I bind all powers within this circle Into this spell. saving some back to be put outside for the nature spirits. Light the green candle o n the right of the cauldron: Behold. so should there be renewal in my own life. Drink the wine. The year wheel turns again to­ wards spring. then lift it high.Norse Wicca and the Lady I 67 As there is renewal within the plants and animals. beckoning her back into fertility with his power and thought. Make my life fer­ tile with insight. the God approaches the dreaming Earth. meditation. finish with: By the powers of the ancient Gods. saying: To the Gods ofAsgard! Merry meet and merry part and merry meet again. prosperity and magical power. Now is a time for divination. Mighty glorious Freyr. prosperity and magical power.

Extinguish the western candle and say: Depart in peace. . Cut the circle to end the ritual.68 I Norse Magic Extinguish the southern candle and say: Depart in peace. yet ever it remains a circle. Be sure to put out your offering for the nature spirits. Return to the altar. depart in peace. extinguish the northern candle and say: Depart in peace. O Powers of Water. My thanks and blessings. Around and through me always flows its magical power. My thanks and blessings. May there always be harmony between us. Finally. raise your arms and say: To all beings and powers of the visible and invisible. O Powers of Earth. My thanks and blessings. My thanks and blessings. O Powers of Fire. Say: The circle is open.

Say: This is a time that is not a time. in a place that is not a place. saying: Great Goddess Freyja. Altar Supplies: burner. Cast the circle with the dagger or sword. wand. bell. dish for burning.) Special Notes: Sowing time in the north. dagger or sword. The decorated egg is an appropriate symbol of renewing life. facing north. salt. say­ ing: 7 consecrate this circle of power to the Ancient Gods. incense.Spring Equinox (About March 21. before the Gates of Asgard. I stand at the threshold between the worlds. chalice of water. bless this crea69 . Colored eggs and spring flowers for decorations. pentacle. on a day that is not a day. cauldron with red candle. May the Ancient Ones help and protect me on my magical journey. Hold your dagger over the chalice. and raise your hand or wand in greeting. Here may they manifest and bless their child. new beginnings. Roughly corresponds to the Christian Easter. Go back to the altar. Earth cycle of plant and animal-fertility. parchment and pen. Also called Summer Find­ ing. chalice of wine. Set the chalice of water on the pentacle. Balance of light and dark. spell pro­ ducing.

saying: Great Goddess Freyja. May we always remember the cauldron waters of rebirth. then raise the burner high. Say: Great Freyja. bless this creature of Air to your service. briefly touch the burner to the penta­ cle. say­ ing: Great God Freyr. be you adored! Sprinkle the water mixture lightly around the edges of the circle. saying: . Hold your dagger over the incense burner. saying: Great God Freyr. Replace the chalice on the al­ tar. using the chains. May we always remember the sacred Fire that dances within the form of every creation. Hold your dagger over the salt. Put a little incense on the charcoal and. Sprinkle a little salt into the water.70 I Norse Magic ture of Water to your service. its many forms and beings. bless this creature of Fire to your service. May we always honor the blessed Earth. then hold the chalice up high. bless this crea­ ture of Earth to your service. Hold your dagger over the incense. moving clockwise and be­ ginning in the east. May we always listen to the spirit winds that bring us the voices of the Ancient Ones.

Light the yellow candle in the east and say: I call upon you. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. Powers of Fire. Powers of Earth. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. of life and the giver of life. Pick up your wand and raise your arms in greeting again.Norse Wicca and the Lady / Great Freyr. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. Lord of death and resurrection. Without his Lady. the Goddess is bar­ ren. Within it I stand With protection at hand. Light the blue candle in the west and say: I call upon you. to witness this rite and to guard this circle. Powers of Water. say: Behold. Finally. light the green candle in the north and say: / call upon you. Return it to the altar. Powers of Air. the God. beginning in the east. Move back to the altar. Without her Lord. face north and raise your arms in greeting: This circle is bound. the God has no . With power all around. Light the red candle in the south and say: I call upon you. be you adored! 71 Carry the burner around the circle clockwise.

Now is the time . saying: Now I cast behind me the darkness of winter and the past. hear me! Touch the parchment paper with the dagger or sword. the Maiden. hear me! Freyr. Put it back on the altar and raise your arms. Ring the bell once and say: O God of renewal. make all things strong and giving of new life. O Ancient Ones. spirit to flesh. the fair one who brings joy and new life. Rap the cauldron once more with the wand. Each is needful of the other for com­ pletion and power. be with me now as Freyr. the spear to the cauldron. as Sun to Earth. the laughing one who brings warmth and love. Blessed be! Put a little incense on the coals and carry the burner again around the circle clockwise. saying: Harken to me! Awake! It is time to greet the spring.72 I Norse Magic life. May the strength of the old enter into the new. Lord of Life. and look forward to that which lies ahead. the Lover. Rap the cauldron lightly with the wand and say: O Goddess of the Earth. man to woman. Maiden of Light. be with me now as Idhunn. Idhunn.

. Fold the papers and hold them up over the altar: * This is ajoyous time. saying: To the Gods of Asgard! Merry meet and merry part and merry meet again. or spellwork. mental and spiritual realms. I bind all power within this circle Into this spell. then lift it high. saving some back to be put outside for the nature spirits. If any spellworking is done. Light the papers from the cauldron candle and drop them into the burning dish: These seeds do I place in the realms o / \ the Ancient Gods of Asgard.Norse Wicca and the Lady I for the planting of seeds in the physical. meditation. 73 Write on the parchment your desires for the coming year. Blessed be the Gods! Place the wine chalice on the pentacle for a few moments. My thanks and blessings. Now is a time for divination. O Powers of Air. Extinguish the southern candle and say: Depart in peace. O Powers of Fire. finish with: By the powers of the ancient Gods. that these desires and dreams may manifest and become a part of my life. a time for planting. Drink the wine. So mote it be! Extinguish the eastern candle and say: Depart in peace.

extinguish the northern candle and say: Depart in peace. O Powers of Earth. My thanks and blessings. yet ever it remains a circle. My thanks and blessings. raise your arms and say: To all beings and powers of the visible and invisible. Return to the altar. Extinguish the western candle and say: Depart in peace. Be sure to put out your offering for the nature spirits. May there always be harmony between us. Finally. .74 I Norse Magic My thanks and blessings. depart in peace. My thanks and blessings. Around and through me always flows its magical power. Say: The circle is open. Cut the circle to end the ritual. O Powers of Water.

before the Gates ofAsgard. and raise your hand or wand in greeting. the house guardian or his symbol. pentacle. I stand at the threshold between the worlds. in whatever form you have chosen. chalice of wine. facing north. Here may they manifest and bless their child. say­ ing: / consecrate this circle of power to the Ancient Gods. on a day that is not a day. Go back to the altar. bless this crea­ ture of Water to your service. Altar Supplies: burner. Somewhere within the circle area. May the Ancient Ones help and protect me on my magical journey. Hold your dagger over the chalice. along with perfumed oil. dagger or sword. Cast the circle with the dagger or sword. salt. Say: This is a time that is not a time. honor of the house guardian. May Day and Beltane. incense. in a place that is not a place.Walpurgisnacht (First Full Moon of Taurus. Set the chalice of water on the pentacle. wand. Also called Lady Day. saying: Great Goddess Freyja.) Special Notes: Time of the Horned God and the Lady of the Greenwood. 75 . chalice of water.

bless this crea­ ture of Earth to your service. its many forms and beings. bless this creature of Fire to your service. then hold the chalice up high. May we always remember the sacred Fire that dances within the form of every creation. Sprinkle a little salt into the water. Hold your dagger over the incense. be you adored! Sprinkle the water mixture lightly around the edges of the circle. May we always listen to the spirit winds that bring us the voices of the Ancient Ones. Hold your dagger over the incense burner. then raise the burner high. moving clockwise and be­ ginning in the east. saying: Great Goddess Freyja. Replace the chalice on the al­ tar. bless this creature of Air to your service. say­ ing: Great God Freyr. cauldron Hold your dagger over the salt. saying: Great Freyr. be you adored! . briefly touch the burner to the penta­ cle. saying: Great God Freyr. using the chains. May we always honor the blessed Earth.76 I Norse Magic May we always remember the waters of rebirth. Say: Great Freyja. Put a little incense on the charcoal and.

Powers of Earth. Finally. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. and moving clockwise. Pause to salute each element with raised arms. Powers of Fire. Move back to the altar." Greetings. Return it to the altar. beginning in the east. light the green candle in the north and say: / call upon you. to witness this rite and to guard this circle. of skies. O Goddess of things wild. Powers of Water. Light the yellow candle in the east and say: I call upon you. face north and raise your arms in greeting: This circle is bound. With power all around. Move back to the altar . beginning in the east. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. say: I do call the Goddess to be here with me. Blessed be. and of waters. she once called "the Lady of May. Within it I stand With protection at hand. Dance around the altar. of trees. Raise your wand in greeting.Norse Wicca and the Lady I 77 Carry the burner around the circle clockwise. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. Powers of Air. Light the red candle in the south and say: I call upon you. Light the blue candle in the west and say: I call upon you.

to die at the time appointed. thou the Lady. Place the. Let my ears hear them. If any spellworking is done. Iam a cup to be filled.' Stand before the house guardian or symbol. Iam the hands to obey. Lovely Lady. Drink the wine. Blessed be ever thy will which moves me. and by thy will shall I live. the special spirit(s) I have invited into my home. that I may do what is needful. If the symbol is such that it cannot be oiled. I was born to thy service. Great Freyr.78 I Norse Magic when finished. lovely Freyja. finish with: . I add my thanks for their protection. bless this (these) guardian(s) of this house. Let now thy great light come into me. wine chalice on the pentacle for a few moments. I present to you the guardian(s) of this house. Iam the servant. or spellwork. saving some back to be put outside for the nature spirits. The guardian symbol or statue is lightly anointed with perfumed oil. Now is a time for divination. Blessed be thy commands. meditation. And to your blessings. saying: To the Gods of Asgard! Merry meet and merry part and merry meet again. the body to serve. I honor them in this symbol of their being. the weapon to use. at least swing the smoking incense burner around it. Blessed be. then lift it high. my hands and feet obey. great Lord.

Return to the altar. May there always be harmony between us.Norse Wicca and the Lady I 79 By the powers of the ancient Gods. So mote it be. I cast my words into the mists of time and space: Where I stand now. My thanks and blessings. raise your arms and say: To all beings and powers of the visible and invisible. I celebrate this ancient rite as the old ones did before me. My thanks and blessings. O Powers of Earth. My thanks and blessings. . O Powers of Air. I bind ail power within this circle Into this spell. My thanks and blessings. Extinguish the eastern candle and say: Depart in peace. So mote it be! Rap the altar three times with the wand. O Powers of Fire. Finally. depart in peace. My thanks and blessings. Extinguish the western candle and say: Depart in peace. Extinguish the southern candle and say: Depart in peace. extinguish the northern candle and say: Depart in peace. may scores of other pagans be. say: As woods and meadows blossom and green. in years to come. O Powers of Water.

80 ) Norse Magic Cut the circle to end the ritual. Be sure to put out your offering for the nature spirits. . Say: The circle is open. yet ever it remains a circle Around and through me always flows its magical power.

on a day that is not a day. dagger or sword. Altar Supplies: burner. saying: Great Goddess Freyja. Cast the circle with the dagger or sword. salt. chalice of water. wand. bless this crea­ ture of Water to your service. I stand at the threshold between the worlds. Also called Summer Sol­ stice. before the Gates of Asgard. in a place that is not a place. say­ ing: I consecrate this circle of power to the Ancient Gods.Sonnenwende or Sun's Turning (About June 22.) Special Notes: A Fire festival honoring the Sun God and the Water Goddess. Rededication to the Lord and the Lady. May the Ancient Ones help and protect me on my magical journey. Here may they manifest and bless their child. Hold your dagger over the chalice. incense. chalice of wine. Set the chalice of water on the pentacle. and raise your hand or wand in greeting. A red candle (set to the right of the cauldron) and a cup of fresh water set in the caul­ dron with a green or blue candle on the left. Go back to the altar. facing north. pentacle. 81 . Say: This is a time that is not a time.

Sprinkle a little salt into the water. saying: Great Freyr. saying: Great Goddess Freyja. Hold your dagger over the incense burner. cauldron Hold your dagger over the salt. Put a little incense on the charcoal and. using the chains. saying: Great God Freyr. its many forms and beings. May we always honor the blessed Earth. May we always remember the sacred Fire that dances within the form of every creation.82 I Norse Magic May we always remember the waters of rebirth. bless this crea­ ture of Earth to your service. bless this creature of Fire to your service. briefly touch the burner to the penta­ cle. then hold the chalice up high. moving clockwise and be­ ginning in the east. May we always listen to the spirit winds that bring us the voices of the Ancient Ones. be you adored! . Replace the chalice on the al­ tar. Say: Great Freyja. Hold your dagger over the incense. bless this creature of Air to your service. then raise the burner high. be you adored! Sprinkle the water mixture lightly around the edges of the circle. saying: Great God Freyr.

known and unknown. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. say: Green forest Mother. Powers of Air. With power all around. spinner of fates. Finally. light the green candle in the north and say: I call upon you. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. Light the yellow candle in the east and say: I call upon you. face north and raise your arms in greeting: This circle is bound. Light the blue candle in the west and say: I call upon you. beginning in the east. Move back to the altar. Powers of Fire. to witness this rite and to guard this circle. . I give honor to you. Great One of the stars. Return it to the altar. and call upon you in your ancient names. Powers of Water. I do ask. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. Light the green candle to the left of the caul­ dron. be with me here in your fullness of life. Powers of Earth. Within it I stand With protection at hand.Norse Wicca and The Lady I 83 Carry the burner around the circle clockwise. Light the red candle in the south and say: I call upon you.

say: Great Balder. be here with me here. The touch of its conse­ crated water blesses. then lift it high saying: To the Gods of Asgard! Merry meet and merry part and merry meet again.set the candles on the floor and carefully. laughing Freyr. known and unknown. the Lord of Life. Dip the forefinger of your power hand into the cauldron water and touch your forehead. Raise your arms over the cauldron. and call upon you in your ancient names. Lift up your shining spear of Light to protect me. god of fertility and plenty. even as the Sun. slowly walk be­ tween them. hps. standing firmly based and balanced on Earth. the Triple Goddess. I do ask. May the Asa-Gods wit­ ness my words! Place the wine chalice on the pentacle for a few moments. making wishes as you do so. I give honor to you. power of the Sun. and breast. Pass your hands and arms between the two candles. Or. say: This is the cauldron of Freyja.84 f None Magic Light the red candle to the right of the caul­ dron. . arises in his strength in the sign of the waters of life. Kneel before the altar say: I will serve the Goddess and give rev­ erence to the God. and enduring through time. yet open to the winds of the Gods. I am a pagan. a stone of the ancient circle.

extinguish the northern candle and say: Depart in peace. yet ever it remains a . If any spellworking is done. So mote it be. My thanks and blessings. O powers of Water. O Powers of Air. Now is a time for divination.Norse Wicca and the Lady / 85 Drink the wine. raise your arms and say: To all beings and powers of the visible and invisible. May there always be harmony between us. I bind all power within this circle Into this spell. Extinguish the Southern candle and say: Depart in peace. meditation. Cut the circle to end the ritual. depart in peace. Return to the altar. Finally. My thanks and blessings Extinguish the western candle and say: Depart in peace. My thanks and blessings. or spellwork. My thanks and blessings. saving some back to be put outside for the nature spirits. finish with: By the powers of the ancient Gods. Say: The circle is open. O powers of Fire. O powers of Earth. My thanks and blessings. Extinguish the eastern candle and say: Depart in peace.

Around and through me always flows its magical powers.86 I Norse Magic circle. . Be sure to put out your offering for the nature spirits.

before the Gates ofAsgard. Hold your dagger over the chalice. Cast the circle with the dagger or sword. Set the chalice of water on the pentacle. say­ ing: I consecrate this circle of power to the Ancient Gods. dagger or sword. in a place that is not a place. pentacle. Altar Supplies: burner. on a day that is not a day. salt. Go back to the altar.) Special Notes: The turning point in Mother Earth's year. The waning God and the waxing Goddess. plate of bread. Here may they manifest and bless their child. 87 . saying: Great Goddess Freyja. ivy and leaves for decoration. chalice of water. bless this creature of Water to your service. cauldron with a yellow or or­ ange candle in it. wand.Lunasa (First Full Moon in Leo. a harvest festival in the northern lands. Fall flowers. I stand at the threshold between the worlds. incense. facing north. May the Ancient Ones help and protect me on my magical journey. chalice of wine. and raise your hand or wand in greeting: Say: This is a time that is not a time. Spellwork for good fortune and abundance is espe­ cially appropriate.

Say: Great Freyja. Hold your dagger over the incense burner. then hold the chalice up high. May we always honor the blessed Earth.88 j Norse Magic May we always remember the waters of rebirth. . bless this creature of Fire to your service May we always remember the sacred Fire that dances within the form of every creature. then raise the burner high saying: Great Freyr. using the chains. Hold your dagger over the incense. briefly touch the burner to the penta­ cle. be you adored. saying: Great Goddess Freyja. be you adored. moving clockwise and be­ ginning in the east. Replace the chalice on the al­ tar. Sprinkle a little salt into the water. its many forms and beings. Put a little incense on the charcoal and. bless this creature of Earth to your service. Sprinkle the water mixture lightly around the edges of the circle. say­ ing: Great God Freyr. cauldron Hold your dagger over the salt. saying: Great God Freyr. bless this creature of Air to your service. May we always listen to the spirit winds that bring us the voices of the Ancient Ones.

Move back to the altar. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. Within it I stand With protection at hand. light the green candle in the north and say: I call upon you. Return it to the altar. Powers of Air. Light the blue candle in the west and say: I call upon you. Light the cauldron candle. in a place that is not a place. on a day that is not a day. With power all around. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. Finally. . beginning in the east. For this is a time that is not a time. and I await you. Powers of Fire to witness this rite and to guard this circle.Norse Wicca and the Lady / 89 Carry the burner around the circle clockwise. I do ask your presence here. Powers of Earth to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. say: O Ancient Gods ofAsgard. Powers of Water. face north and raise your arms in greeting: This circle is bound. Light the red candle in the south and say: I call upon you. Light the yellow candle in the east and say: / call upon you.

Drink some of the wine. Merry meet and . Say: As the grape undergoes change to be­ come a sparkling wine. Stand still and breathe deeply for a few moments. Say: As in the bread and wine. every grain is the record of ancient times. say: I have purified myself by breathing in the life force of the universe and expel­ ling all evil from me. May the Asa-Gods lay their blessings upon me. so I do realize that all humans rise or fall as their will and strength decrees. then set it back on the altar. and a prom­ ise to all of what shall be. This bread represents life eternal through the caul­ dron of the Goddess. Put the chalice of wine on the penta­ cle. then set it back on the altar. Lift the plate of bread high. that this season of waning light and increasing dark­ ness may not be heavy. Eat a piece of bread. Con­ centrate upon the cleansing power of the breath and air. Say: I know that every seed. so it is with me. Hold high the wine chal­ ice.901 Norse Magic Set the plate of bread on the pentacle. so by life's caul­ dron shall I undergo change. When you feel ready. And as this wine can give man enchantment of the divine or sink him into the lower realms. The mysteries of ancient times are with me still.

Finally. Into this spell. mote it be! So Now is a time for divination. My thanks and blessings. raise your arms and say: To all beings and powers of the visible and invisible. O Powers of Earth. Cut the circle to end the ritual. I bind all power within this circle. So mote it be! Extinguish the eastern candle and say: Depart in peace. My thanks and blessings. My thanks and blessings. O Powers of Fire. depart in peace. finish with: By the powers of the ancient Gods. or spellwork. Return to the altar. yet ever it remains a . extinguish the northern candle and say: Depart in peace. Extinguish the western candle and say: Depart in peace. Say: The circle is open. O Powers of Air. O Powers of Water. May there always be harmony between us. My thanks and blessings. meditation.Norse Wicca and the Lady / 91 merry part and merry meet again. Extinguish the southern candle and say: Depart in peace. If any spellworking is done. My thanks and blessings.

Around and through me always flows its magical power.921 Norse Magic circle. Be sure to put out your offering for the nature spirits. .

Autumn Equinox (About September 21. dagger or sword. incense. Altar Supplies: burner. Hold your dagger over the chalice. wand. I stand at the threshold between the worlds. Go back to the altar. Ivy in the cauldron. salt. Here may they manifest and bless their child. before the Gates ofAsgard. Three can­ dles (red. and raise your hand or wand in greeting. white. Also called Winter Finding. pentacle. chalice of wine. Set the chalice of water on the pentacle. completion of the harvest. autumn-colored ribbons tied on the dagger. Cast the circle with the dagger or sword. on a day that is not a day. saying: Great Goddess Freyja. A good time for meditations on reincarnations in preparation for Ancestor Night. thanksgiving. May the Ancient Ones help and protect me on my magical journey. say­ ing: / consecrate this circle of power to the Ancient Gods. bless this crea93 . chalice of water. Autumn leaves for decoration.) Special Notes: Balance of light and dark. Say: This is a time that is not a time. Time of rest after labor. facing north. black) set around cauldron. in a place that is not a place.

bless this crea­ ture of Earth to your service. then hold the chalice up high. using the chains. May we always listen to the spirit winds that bring us the voices of the Ancient Ones. be you adored! Sprinkle the water mixture lightly around the edges of the circle. Put a little incense on the charcoal and. Replace the chalice on the al­ tar. saying: Great God Freyr. bless this creature of Air to your service. its many forms and beings. then raise the burner high. briefly touch the burner to the penta­ cle. bless this creature of Fire to your service. say­ ing: Great God Freyr. Hold your dagger over the salt.941 Norse Magic ture of Water to your service. May we always remember the sacred Fire that dances within the form of every creation. Say: Great Freyja. Sprinkle a little salt into the water. saying: . May we always honor the blessed Earth. Hold your dagger over the incense burner. Hold your dagger over the incense. moving clockwise and be­ ginning in the east. saying: Great Goddess Freyja. May we always remember the cauldron waters of rebirth.

to witness this rite and to guard this circle. Move back to the altar. Powers of Air. giver of life and of plenty since before time began. face north and raise your arms in greeting: This circle is bound. beginning in the east. Light the blue candle in the west and say: I call upon you. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. Say: I call upon the blessed Lady. light the green candle in the north and say: I call upon you. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. Light the red candle in the south and say: I call upon you. Finally.Norse Wicca and the Lady I 95 Great Freyr. With power all around. Powers of Water. power and . Powers of Earth. Give to me. your joy and beauty. be you adored! Carry the burner around the circle clockwise. Return it to the altar. Light the yellow candle in the east and say: I call upon you. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. Within it I stand With protection at hand. as of old. Powers of Fire. queen of the harvest. Light the three candles around the cauldron.

chanting: The year wheel turns and bounty comes. as of old. giver of riches and of protec­ tion since before time began. Blessed be! To the God! May he protect this fol­ lower and bring me prosperity and hap­ piness! Blessed be! . Salute the ivy-filled cauldron with your dag­ ger or sword. Say: I call upon the Lord of the harvest. As you make the following toasts. Say: Always has life fulfilled its cycle and led to life anew in the eternal chain of the living. the wine chalice in the other. your strength and laughter.96/ Norse Magic prosperity. In honor of the Asa-Gods and their blessings. power and prosperity. Give to me. Walk three times clockwise around the circle. each time raise the chalice high before taking a sip: To the good seasons that have gone and the good ones yet to come. I mark the fullness of my life and the harvest of this year's lessons. Blessed be! To the beauty of autumn and good friends. Set the wine chalice briefly on the pentacle. Move back to the altar and lay aside the dag­ ger. sa­ cred King. Take the ribbon-tied dagger in your power hand.

O Powers of Air. My thanks and blessings. So mote it be! Extinguish the eastern candle and say: Depart in peace. My thanks and blessings. finish with: By the powers of the ancient Gods. O Powers of Water. raise your arms and say: To all beings and powers of the visible and invisible. I bind all power within this circle Into this spell. Return to the altar. depart in peace. Extinguish the western candle and say: Depart in peace. Blessed be! Now is a time for divination. Finally. . O Powers of Fire. extinguish the northern candle and say: Depart in peace. If any spellworking is done. My thanks and blessings. O Powers of Earth. Extinguish the southern candle and say: Depart in peace. My thanks and blessings. My thanks and blessings. May there always be harmony between us.Norse Wicca and the Lady I 97 To the Goddess! May she bring peace and fulfillment to all her children! Merry meet and merry part and merry meet again. meditation. or spellwork.

Be sure to put out your offering for the nature spirits. . Around and through me always flows its magical power.981 Norse Magic Cut the circle to end the ritual. yet ever it remains a circle. Say: The circle is open.

incense.Feast of Fallen Warriors (November—Veterans' Day or The Feast of the Einherar) Special Notes: A time to honor all fallen war­ riors. and raise your hand or wand in greeting. White candle in cauldron with red candle on the left. chalice of wine. apple. black on the right. Here may they manifest and bless their child. say­ ing: I consecrate this circle of power to the Ancient Gods. facing north. and Freyja as the Queen of the Valkyries. Altar Supplies: burner. in a place that is not a place. on a day that is not a day. chalice of water. saying: 99 . dagger and sword. salt. cookies. May the Ancient Ones help and protect me on my magical journey. A sacrificial feast of cookies or cakes in animal and human shapes is appropriate. Go back to the altar. Say: This is a time that is not a time. Hold your dagger over the chalice. Cast the circle with the dagger or sword. before the Gates ofAsgard. 4 Element candles. plate of bread and salt. I stand at the threshold between the worlds. cauldron. pentacle. A special ritual to acknowledge Odhinn who welcomes all warriors. Set the chalice of water on the pentacle.

Hold your dagger over the incense burner. Hold your dagger over the incense. May we always listen to the spirit winds that bring us the voices of the Ancient Ones. saying: Great God Freyr. say­ ing: Great God Freyr. using the chains. briefly touch the burner to the penta- . Say: Great Freyja. Put a littleincense on the charcoal and. Sprinkle a little salt into the water. be you adored! Sprinkle the water mixture lightly around the edges of the circle. saying: Great Goddess Freyja. Hold your dagger over the salt. Replace the chalice on the al­ tar. its many forms and beings. bless this crea­ ture of Water to your service. May we always honor the blessed Earth. moving clockwise and be­ ginning in the east. bless this creature of Air to your service. then hold the chalice up high. bless this crea­ ture of Earth to your service. bless this creature of Fire to your service. May we always remember the sacred Fire that dances within the form of every creation. May we always remember the cauldron waters of rebirth.100 I Norse Magic Great Goddess Freyja.

be you adored! Carry the burner around the circle clockwise. Finally. Salute the altar with your sword. Powers of Water. then raise the burner high. Powers of Air. Powers of Earth. Light the blue candle in the west and say: I call upon you. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. to witness this rite and to guard this circle. beginning in the east. Great Odhinn. I call upon you. light the green candle in the north and say: . to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. Powers of Fire. to wit­ ness this rite and to guard this circle. Light the red candle in the south and say: I call upon you. Light the black candle to the right of the caul­ dron. With power all around Within it I stand With protection at hand. Say: This is the time to honor all fallen warriors.Norse Wicca and the Lady I 101 cle. saying: Great Freyr. Light the yellow candle in the east and say: I call upon you. All father. Move back to the altar. you who have gathered to you all brave war- . Return it to the altar. face north and raise your arms in greeting: This circle is bound.

Salute the altar with your sword. I salute your courage. They meet the Allfatker as firemen on duty. Light the red candle to the left of the caul­ dron. The fallen warriors of Asgard have walked all paths of life. your community. They greet the Valkyries when rescuing others in peril. your country. the Maiden. Lay sword before altar. Light the white candle in the cauldron. Cut the apple crosswise to reveal the pen- . you who have gathered to you your share of the fallen heroes.102 I Norse Magic riors who die in battle. Say: Freyja. They sacrifice themselves as policemen on the streets. your willingness to die in defense of your family. yet because of their deeds were found worthy by the Valkyries. your property. Sa­ lute the altar again with the sword. I salute you. Say: Hail to the fallen warriors who now dwell in Asgard. warrior-women who see the truth in the heart of each person. Queen of the Valkyries. Take up dagger and apple: As there is death in life. I salute you. Only those who seek and know may find it. The symbol of the Lady and life eternal is hidden inside the sa­ cred fruit ofldhunn. Well do I know that brave warriors do not all fall in wars. so must there be life in death.

each passing soul falls into the sacred cauldron. brings forth new beginnings out of the cauldron of rebirth. the staples of life! The grain which is ground and baked into bread to sustain the body. Go the south. Each time I taste salt and bread may I remember that all life turns in cycles of life and death. with the Allfather. Place the plate of cookies on the pentagram. give your blessings to . to rest. Grant them rest in spring fields caressed by gentle breezes. Salute with the sword. Salt which preserves food and enriches life. Salute with the sword. Eat part of the apple. then be reborn in another time and place. say: Rulers of Air. those who turn away from the great knowledge that life never ends. Dip a piece of bread into the salt and eat it.Norse Wicca and the Lady I 103 tagram made by the core and seeds: Behold! The star of Life! Symbol of the Triple Goddess who. Go the east. saving the rest to be placed outside: The secret of this sacred fruit is for­ bidden only to those who walk in dark­ ness. Like a dried autumn seed. give your blessings to the fallen warriors. Place the plate of bread and salt on the pen­ tagram for a moment. Say: Behold. say: Rulers of Fire.

Place the wine chalice on the pentacle for a few moments. Let them know they are not for­ gotten.104 I Norse Magic the fallen warriors. Although we may grieve their loss among us. finish with: . yet do we rejoice that they rest with you. and sweet meadow flowers. Now is a time for divination. or spellwork. say: Rulers of Water. Return to the altar. If any spellworking is done. Grant them chang­ ing seasons. Salute with the sword. say: Rulers of Earth. give your blessings to the fallen warriors. Go to the north. give your blessings to the fallen warriors. saving some back to be put outside for the nature spirits. Go to the west. Grant them sunny days and warm nights of feasting. you who see beyond all actions to the truth. saying: To the Gods ofAsgard! Merry meet and merry part and merry meet again. Salute with the sword. carry my greetings and blessings to the heroes ofAsgard. say: Great Odhinn. green forests. Drink the wine. Grant them warm pools of refreshing water where they may dream of rebirth. meditation. then lift it high. Salute with the sword.

Cut the circle to end the ritual. Return to the altar. extinguish the northern candle and say: Depart in peace.Norse Wicca and the Lady I 105 By the powers of the ancient Gods. raise your arms and say: To all beings and powers of the visible and invisible. I bind all power within this circle Into this spell. My thanks and blessings. My thanks and blessings. So mote it be! Extinguish the eastern candle and say: Depart in peace. Finally. Say: The circle is open. yet ever it remains a circle. Around and through me always flows its magical power. Extinguish the western candle and say: Depart in peace. O Powers of Earth. My thanks and blessings. O Powers of Air. Be sure to put out your offering for the nature . My thanks and blessings. My thanks and blessings. depart in peace. Extinguish the southern candle and say: Depart in peace. O Powers of Fire. O Powers of Water. May there always be harmony between us.

1061 Norse Magic spirits. . Tie the cookies and pieces of the apple to tree limbs for the birds and animals.

" Like the Celts. In their own language. Greenland and Iceland. Scotland. the Irish called the Vikings of Dublin "the tribe of Thorr. the phrase fara i viking meant to go raiding over the seas. However. the Norse had skalds (bards) 107 I . a vikingr was a raid­ er. there were "black" Vikings—not black of skin. but with dark hair and eyes. customs and beliefs. and in northern Germany about three or four centuries before the Christian era. In fact. Introduction to the Norse and Vikings History The Teutonic tribes came to settle in the Scandinavian peninsula. The Vikings carried their cult of Thorr to every land they settled. Britain. They were of Indo-European stock with the same basic lan­ guage.8. A typical Northman was tall and blonde with blue or grey eyes. They later became the Viking raiders who terrorized and settled parts of Europe. Ireland. on islands of the Baltic Sea.

"ship of the Dwarves. whose respon­ sibility it was to remember correctly the family ge­ nealogies. "to feed the ravens" or "to sate the eagles. they could not scorn a king in song." a human forearm. and long ." A kenning was a phrase which all hearers knew was an image of something else. buy life." killing enemies." poetry." blood. give ad­ vice. "tears of Freyja" or "cushion of the dragon Fafhir" gold. Unlike the Celtic bards. and Jarl (chieftain or aristocrat). "Fire of Odin" and "fire of the Valkyries" often were used to depict a sword." a hand." battle. or mock death. None of this was written down until much later in Icelandic chronicles. "hawksfell. very poor rocky soil. vivid descriptions and history. The Norsemen were Vikings perhaps in part because their countries had extremely short grow­ ing seasons. The skalds were skilled poets. thus being the genetic link between the Gods and hu­ mans. Karl (farmer). Skaldic poetry was long and full of kennings. Heimdall in the disguise of Rigr brought these classes of men into being. Although from very early times the Norse were divided into three classes. Even women were trained to handle weapons for defense. legends and history. there was no pure warrior class. Every man had to be a fighter. "falcon's tree. These poets held Odhinn in high regard and called poetry "sacred mead. Thrall (slave). "reddening of spears" or "the Valkyries' magic song.1081 Norse Magic who memorized their genealogies. myths and epics. "wound-dew. but could use their skills to break bad news.

Introduction to the Norse and Vikings I 109 .

They were outspoken. An insult to one member of a family was an insult to all. Both men and women were independ­ ent and enterprising. If he had to. They were expert horsemen and sailors. ferocious but some­ times undisciplined fighters. Christian priests were known for their lack of weather-luck among the Norse. The Vikings took great pride in knowing their genealogies' for many generations and had a strong sense of what was due from a kinsman. the priest was immediately thrown overboard. It was a hard life that shaped men to be daring. deliver us from the terror of the Northmen! Luck ranked highest in desirable qualities. No ship's captain willingly transported one. When fighting men prepared to go viking. likewise. A man. No stigma was involved. Seldom was a daughter married off against her will. fearless in battle. they chose a leader known for his battle-luck. disgrace by one member affected eve­ ryone else. Weddings were formalized before wit­ nesses by the bride and groom drinking the bridal ale. Their ships and weapons were the finest in Europe. even to the taking of sworn blood-bonds. An early Christian prayer lists the phrase: Lord. and a storm arose. fostered to another family early in childhood could claim the same rights and help from his foster family . Divorces were simple—a declaration before witnesses at the Assembly (Thing) on the grounds for parting and a return of the dowry. and steadfast in friendship. adventurous and aggressive.1101 Norse Magic winters. The Norse believed strongly in their code of honor and freedom.

On occasion. references to human sacrifice in the Vi- . spe­ cial rocks. Conversion to Christianity nearly wiped out the Teutonic mythological epics.Introduction to the Norse and Vikings I 111 as from kin. Religion Most sites for worship were in the open air in holy groves and meadows. and the people faced north to pray. gos­ sip was regarded as one of the worst crimes possi­ ble. cleverly carved in Christian churches. Offense taken at slurs to honor led to many blood-feuds that lasted for generations. Inside these areas no blood could be shed or weapons carried. The temples and even outdoor shrines were laid out on a north-south axis. fine or outlaw an uncontrollable man.their legends and dei­ ties can still be seen. Sometimes wooden posts with human faces depicted the dei­ ties. But there were also wooden temples. They had a detailed. trees or hillocks. Since the Norse con­ sidered their good name of prime importance. the Thing (court of law) would pass sentence. But Scandinavia and Iceland managed to preserve the sagas and epics. strict code of repay­ ment. Pictorial symbols of . In contrast to records from the Ro­ man Age. and marked off by fences built in a V-shape barrier. before holy wells. probably built much like the Norse long houses. for the death or injury of any human or domestic animal. or weregild. leaving us a rich assortment of history and belief.

1121 Norse Magic .

bells and drums were used for both religious rites and personal entertainment. not marrying until they retired. they may have used a type of self-hypnosis or trance-induc­ ing plants. only an instant death-wound could bring down a berserker. They did leaping dances with spears and swords and wear­ ing horned helmets. There were full-time priests and priestesses in the temples. Among the people were men and women who practiced as seers. caves and hillocks. It was believed that they could change themselves into animals whenever they wished. Yarrow and mistletoe were among the herbs used for ceremonies.Introduction to the Norse and Vikings I 113 king Age are rare. The terrible dragon-heads on the Vi­ king ships were removed before land was sighted so that the landvaettir would not be frightened away. To induce their battle frenzies. looking into the fu­ ture and doing various magical rites. A vitki was a magician or wise one. Offerings of meat and bread were laid out •a his temples. There is evidence to indicate that the terrify­ ing berserkers were initiates of an Odhinn cult. The landvaettir were powerful land-spirits who lived in the Earth and were responsible for it. These men were usually part of a chieftain's household. Lurs (long twisting horns) were used solely for religious purposes. It was well known that neither fire nor steel could stop them in battle. The god Thorr was called the common man's friend. but harps. Offerings were placed for them at cairns. In these buildings a huge sacred arm-ring on which oaths were taken and heavy .

His symbol. a stallion called Freyfaxi (mane of Freyr). god­ dess of magic and love affairs (not marriages). In the Vatnsdaela Saga. marriages. was used to bless births. Fighting men worshipped Thorr as the strongest god and Tyr for magical influences in battle. the double-bladed axe or hammer.114/ Norse Magic bronze hammers were also kept. as the god of fertility. The female volva went about the tribes giving predic­ tions of the future through trance and were linked . was also called upon to bless marriages. A sacred symbol of both Freyr and Freyja was the boar. Some Teutonic tribes wore masks or helmets that covered the face and had a tusk protruding on each side. Bells and hand clapping were performed in his rituals. Neck-rings and arm-rings also carried the boar symbol. deaths and cremations. seeresses. rune-mistresses and healers were closely connected with Freyja. A Swedish king had a helmet Hildigoltr (battle pig) and won another helmet called Hildisvin (battle swine). Sacred horses were kept in some of his sanctuaries. The hammer was considered such a protection against all evil that men and women wore tiny hammer amulets. Odhinn was not much trusted b y the average Viking. there is mention of such a horse. Wise women. This put him and his actions above the human concept of good and evil. although he was the chief God of Asgard and was worshipped by chieftains. skalds and ber­ serkers. Boar images were used on ceremonial ob­ jects and war helmets. Odhinn's main purpose was to fend off the terrible destiny he knew awaited the Gods and hu­ mans at Ragnardk. Freyr.

carpen­ try. There is also evi­ dence that some were laid out in ships which were then set afire and sometimes launched on the sea. the dragon was guardian of the . It was fairly independent of runic magic. Ships were often connected with death and burial. but woodcarving. Freyja was also known as the great dis. these "spirits" and Freyja were wor­ shipped in a ceremony called the disablot. sex magic and other techniques. The disir (goddesses) were nine women dressed in black and carrying swords. These women carried a staff with a bronze cap or mounting and wore capes. Dead warriors were sometimes buried in mounds shaped like ships. At the beginning of winter.Introduction to the Norse and Vikings I 115 to cults of both Freyja and Odhinn. Seidr was a form of magic. Smithcraft was a mystical art as it included not only metalworking. bone carving and other forms of handicraft. although they did take lovers. horses and the Sun-wheel. being more involved with shapeshifting. trance and divina­ tion that originated with Freyja and was a femi­ nine mystical craft. astral body travel through the nine worlds. Nine (a Moon number) was considered the most sacred and mysterious of numbers. They did not tend to marry. particularly in Sweden. In Germany. hoods and gloves of fur. The disir brought good luck but they were also merci­ less in exacting justice. Three important symbols used in early Scan­ dinavian rock carvings were ships. A smith had to be knowledgeable about runes as it was his responsibility to engrave the correct ones on sword hilts. They also did healing and occasionally cursing.

Urd was defined as "that which has be­ come. that what each person did influenced his or her fu­ ture. slender. warriors. and righteous men went after death. harvest." and Skuld as "that which should become. They believed. Not until it was certain that a new- . Helheim. however. traveling. This idea is reflected in their descriptions of the Norns. Jormungand. An example of a personal ritual was the nam­ ing of a child. In Norse mythology. etc. who in­ habited the Ocean surrounding Earth. while Norse dragons were shaped like serpents. another for those who died of old age or ill­ ness." The Vikings also believed in an afterlife and continuing contact between the living and the dead. marriage. The Norse religious rituals encompassed the solstices and equinoxes. trade undertakings. death. Asgard (Heaven) was the realm of the gods where those who died vio­ lently.1161 Norse Magic burial mound. the king­ dom of the goddess Hel. The most powerful times for rituals were thought to be dawn. two unfor­ givable crimes to the Norse. noon. In other words. birth. evening and midnight. such as plowing. they ap­ proached the gods whenever they felt a need. had one section for crimi­ nals." Verthandi as "that which is becoming. wingless dragon. There is nothing to suggest that women did not have the same privileges. Oath-breakers and secret killers. World-Serpent. German dragons had wings and a long tail. were also condemned to Hel's kingdom. but primarily they were used for everyday happenings. was de­ picted as a long. Predestination and predetermination were unknown to the Norse.

A warrior carried a round. They believed that knowledge of the runes could save a man's life. the word "to make red" and "to endow with magical power" were the same. Many leading Northmen learned them as part of their education. He had to know how the runes should be carved. The runes were both magical symbols and letters of the alphabet. A rynstr or runester was very skilled in the knowledge of the runes. except for warriors who wore it long and braided or fastened in an elaborate top knot. Tall leather boots and sleeveless jerkins completed the outfit. . and help to understand the language of birds.Introduction to the Norse and Vikings I 117 born child would live was it sprinkled with water and given a name. Their trousers were either very full or very straight and tight in the legs. which had few curved lines. Nearly every man carried a dagger and sword on his leather belt. Men wore long-sleeved wool shirts and trousers with attached socks. hair was cut below the ear. how they should be read. Mus­ taches were common. In ancient German. how they should be colored and how they should be used. Warriors wore a chain mail shirt over a pad­ ded leather jerkin and usually a conical metal hel­ met with nose and cheek pieces. These types of helmets were mainly used for relig­ ious ceremonies. calm the seas and winds. quench fire. Dress and Ornamentation Everyday clothing was simple among the Norse. blunt sword blades. Helmets with wings and horns were rare among fighting men.

Ornaments of all kinds— rings. etc. however. leaves. It could cleave completely through a helmet and skull. often . Their hair was long. Wool socks and soft leather shoes covered their feet. passed down from father to son. Swords were made in such a way as to be strong and flexible. silver and bronze were also used." as Vikings called gold. Illegiti­ mate children were treated generously. diadems— were much favored. They were beautiful. "The fire. "the serpent of battle. A dagger hung from the belt. The Norse were mainly monogamous. blood and death. only kings and great chiefs had concubines.1181 Norse Magic wooden." Battleaxes and shields had names also. Women wore long plain wool dresses over linen petticoats for everyday. In cold weather both sexes wore thick heavy cloaks and fur hats. brooches. was a desired metal. Am­ ber amulets were worn for luck. or flowers. neck-rings. highly prized possessions. like "Leg-Biter. bracelets. seldom shattering against hel­ met or shield rim. keys. broad. was the battle-axe with its large curved blade and four-foot handle. arm-rings. earrings. A great brooch at one shoulder held a collection of necessary tools on little chains: scissors. needle and thread case. vines. usually pertain­ ing to Trolls. either hanging down or piled up in elabo­ rate styles. two-edged sword. Across his back were hung leafbladed spears. pins. leather-covered shield and a long. tores. hut copper. necklaces. This jewelry was worked into shapes of animals. collars. and given names." The favorite Viking weapon.

40-100 feet in length.Introduction to the Norse and Vikings / 119 adopted by the father and given the same training as his other children. All types of wild game. Mead. pork. and long platforms along each inside wall. Two rows of wooden pillars helped to hold up the roof. chicken and mutton were eaten along with a variety of vegetables. beef. A fire pit lay in the center of the pounded earth floor. made of logs or planks and roofed with thatch or shingles. was drunk from tankards or drinking horns. but not forks. Knives and spoons were known. no windows. These people built long houses. weak barley beer and mead rounded out the meals. made of fermented honey and water. . There was a door at each end. fruits and breads. Milk drinks.

.

These offspring created the first human man (Askr or ash) and woman (Embla or elm) out of liv121 . a Giant. the great cow. From the Sun's warmth on the whirling lifeseeds came Audhumla. life began without any one creator. Life began at the place where the positive energy of Muspell melted the negative en­ ergy of Niflheim. Buri. Vili and Ve. Buri produced a male being called Borr.9. capable o f spawning offspring without a mate. producing his Giant children. and Ymir. In the beginning there was a magicfilled gulf (Ginnungagap) bounded on the north by cold and darkness (Niflheim) and on the south by fire (Muspell). Myths and Deities In Norse mythology. Audhumla licked a being. Both Ymir and Buri were asexual beings. Borr married Bestla. one of YimYs Giantess daughters. Ymir perspired in his sleep. out of the salty ice. their children were Odhinn. These flashing sparks of life and hailstones of cold combined to produce the lifeseeds of all matter.

from his bones the rocks and mountains. he left them the color of the Earth in which they live. so Odhinn and his brothers killed him. He hung bright sparks of fire from Muspell inside Ymir's skull as . Four of the Dwarves were given the permanent task of hold­ ing up the sky. There are three tribes of Dwarves: one lives in mounds of earth. another in rocks. and the third in the high mountains. except for Bergelmir (Mountain Old) and his wife who hid in the great World-Mill. But Ymir was terribly cruel. Odhinn set the heavens swinging around Veraldar Nagli (World Spike) which is the North Star. Austri (East). From this pair came all the Jotnar. His brain and skull were set in place to make the sky. Sudhri (South). However. His j a w and teeth became boulders. his blood the rivers and seas. The great World-Mill was used to grind the mold that made earth. Their king is Modsognir. small human-shaped creatures. Maggot-like creatures crawling from Ymir's flesh were changed by Odhinn into Dwarves. also known as Odhinn's Eye. They were named for the four direc­ tions: Nordhri (North). The whole race of Giants drowned in Ymir's blood.122 / Norse Magic ing trees by giving them a new form. or Giants. Odhinn and his brothers put Ymir's body in the millstones. intelligence and a soul. From his flesh they made earth. The bodies of the other Giants were also ground up to make sand and pebbles. and Vestri (West).

a rival of Odhinn's. named after this girl who rides in the Moon chariot with Mani. Mundilferi's daughter Sol drives the Sun chariot with the horses Arvakr (Early Dawn) and Alsvid (Scorching Heat). The Milky Way was known as Bil's Way. larger fire-sparks. She brings inspira­ tion. their son is Dag or Dagr (Day). and the swan maidens of the western realm of Njord. Nott or Nat (Night) is the dark daughter of Mimir. Her second husband was Annar (Water) by whom she had the Giantess Jord. The Sun and Moon. peace and rest to humankind. or Narfi (the Binder). Bil was peti­ tioned by the skalds to sprinkle magic song-mead on them from the Moon. Hati (Hater) chases the Moon.Myths and Deities 1123 stars. At Ragnardk the wolves will catch and eat the celestial bodies. who became the mother of Thorr by Odhinn. His first wife was Sol. red Elf of dawn. Children of the van­ quished Mundilferi. the . The daughters from this union were Idhunn. were ap­ pointed to drive the chariots. Skoll (Adherer) chases the Sun. With him are two kidnapped children^-a boy Hjuki and a girl Bil. Her brother Mani drives the Moon chariot. His second wife was the Giantess Greip. the Sun goddess. were carried across the heavens in chariots made by the Elf-smith sons of Ivaldi. Giants in disguise. Ivaldi is the watchman of the Spring of Hvergelmir and the rivers Elivagar in Hel. Her third husband is Delling. The chariots of the Sun and Moon are eter­ nally chased by two evil wolves. wife of Bragi.

124 I Norse Magic mother of Thjatsi-Volund, Orvandel-Egill (the great archer), and Ide. Egill's son Svipdag will de­ stroy Thorr's hammer with the "Sword of Victory" in the last days. The Spring of Hvergelmir (Roaring Caul­ dron) is the source of all water and rises up through the treeYggdrasil to all the worlds. It lies in the lowest level of the nine worlds and has one of YggdrasiU's roots deep within it. Yggdrasil as a cosmic tree is sometimes called an ash and sometimes a yew. A clue to the correct name may be in another Norse word for yew which is needle ash. Yggdrasil, otherwise known as the World Tree, grows out of the past, lives in the present and reaches toward the future. It nourishes all spiritual and physical life. Its roots reach into all the worlds; its boughs hang above Asgard. Yggdrasil has three main roots which hold everything together. One root reaches into the Well of Urd in Asgard, another into the Fountain of Mimir in Midgard, and the third into the Spring o f Hvergelmir in Hel. At Hvergelmir is the watch­ man Ivaldi and his sons who defend Hel against the Storm Giants. The World Tree is constantly under attack by evil creatures. In Niflheim, the dragon Nidhogg continually chews on its root. In Midgard, four gi­ ant harts eat the buds and leaves. Age rots its sides, and many serpents of the dark underworld attack its wood. But the Norns sprinkle it each morning with water from Urd's fountain of life. Of the nine worlds in Norse mythology, As-

Myths and Deities 1125 gard is on the highest level, with Alfheim to the east and Vanaheim to the West. The Prose Edda states that Midgard is in the center of Ginnungagap, an area of 11 rivers and frozen wasteland. It is Midgard that ties together all the other worlds. On the same level as Midgard is Svartalfheim to the south, Nidavellir to the east, and Jotunheim to the west. Below Midgard lie Hel and Niflheim. The Aesir gods live in Asgard, the Vanir in Vanaheim, and the Light Elves in Alfheim or Ljossalfheim (Light Elf-World). In the sky between Asgard and Midgard hangs the beautiful Bifrost bridge, guarded by the god Heimdall. Heimdall wears silver armor and a helmet with ram's horns. From his tower Himinbjorg (Ward o f Heaven), which sits on the highest point of Bifrost, he guards the bridge. He can see a hundred leagues by day or night, can hear grass growing, and sleeps very little. He is also called Gullintani (Golden Teeth). The southern span of Bifrost reaches to Midgard. The bridge is built of air and water with protecting fire on its edges. Everyday the Gods ride their horses and chariots across the bridge to the lower world Thingstead. Thorr, however, has to walk as his thunder chariot could destroy Bifrost. Asgard is situated on an island in the middle of a broad dark river which flows up through Yg­ gdrasil from Hvergelmir. Around Asgard is a high wall (the story of its construction is given later). The flames of the boiling river lap the base

126 I Norse Magic

Myths and Deities 1127 of the wall, thus making Asgard impossible to en­ ter except through Odhinn's mighty gate. In the middle of Asgard is Valaskjalf, the Court of Judgment or High Thingstead of the Gods. Here they discuss and decide their private affairs. This great hall is roofed with silver and all the walls are overlaid with burnished gold. Od­ hinn's great throne is here, with twelve golden seats around it for the other gods who sit in judg­ ment with him. Vingolf (Abode of Friends) is the beautiful sanctuary, as well as private Thingstead, for the Goddesses in Asgard. Also in Asgard is a smithy where the Elfsmiths, or Dwarves, such as Ivaldi's sons and Sindri's kinsmen, work in fine metals, making all kinds of implements and objects for the Gods. Freyr, the brother of the goddess Freyja, was the ruler of the Light Elves in his youth. A very in­ teresting group of Elves were the sons of Ivaldi— Volund (Weland) and his brothers. They had many traits of Dwarves, Giants and star deities, and were symbolized as mountain wolves and often winged. In Teutonic myths, Elf-smiths were stronger than Giants. On the middle level are Midgard (Earth or manifested material world of men), Jotunheim (Land of the Giants or Etins), Nidavellir (Land of the Dwarves) and Svartalfheim (Land of the Dark Elves). Midgard is surrounded by a deep Ocean; in it lives the monster World-Serpent. Another name for Midgard is Mannaheim (home of men). In Jotunheim, which occupies the east edge

128 I Norse Magic of the world of men, lies the mountain stronghold (Utgard) of the Giants. Mountain Giants are bound to their mountains. Their mothers, often called Hags, are greater than the males. Not all of them are against the Gods. The Hag Grid warned and instructed Thorr. Niflheim is the world of the dead, ruled by the goddess Hel, while the kingdom Hel is the realm of the dead, ruled by Urd. Muspell is guarded by the Fire Giant Surt and his flaming sword. Niflheim or Niflhel (Misty Hel or Misty World) lies to the south of Midgard. It is an im­ mense land of darkness and great cold, an area of torture for evil souls. To reach Niflheim, one has to travel down­ wards for nine days from Midgard on the Helway. This road goes through great forests and deep dark valleys, over high mountains. There is a deep black cave between the two levels of Midgard and Hel. Near the end of the Helway, the maiden Modgud guards the Gjallarbru or Gjoll (Howling) bridge over the boundary river Gjoll. Beyond the bridge are the Hel Gates (Helgrind), and behind them the Hall of Death. The goddess Hel's palace is called Sleetcold or Sleet-Den. Dwarves and Dark Elves live in mines, tun­ nels, caves and holes in Nidavellir and Svartalfheim, respectively, located below Midgard and above Hel. It is believed by some that Dwarves and Dark Elves are the-same creatures.

Even the Valkyries must first bring their chosen warriors to this Thingstead where they are ac­ cepted or rejected as unworthy. If the person is evil. personal power. and hostages exchanged. Freyr and his sister Freyja (supreme Goddess of magic). the Hamingjur (individual guardian spirits. There the souls of the dead are judged by Odhinn. Two races o f deities ended up in Asgard. However. or the luck of each man) can speak for an individual during judgment. Those souls judged good go to Hel where they live in eter­ nal joy. There they must drink burning venom and are subjected to the nine realms of torture.Myths and Deities (129 Hel is the lower world Thingstead of the Gods. . At the lower world Thingstead. the Aesir killed and burned her. twice Gullveig rose from the flames. the Aesir and the Vanir. The greatest Vanir deities. Njord. This proved ineffec­ tive. Finally a truce was called. The Vanir-goddess Gullveig (Gold-Thirst) went to the Aesir and flaunted her ability to predict the future and make gold. When she refused to share her secrets with them. Those condemned as evil are shackled and driven to Niflhel by the Dark Elves. They renamed her Heid (Gleam­ ing One) and began to consider a peaceful life with the Vanir more seriously. the murder attempt brought about constant fighting. Finally the Aesir gave up. The walls of both kingdoms were de­ stroyed. and rewards or punishments handed out. with neither side getting the up­ per hand. he or she is deserted by his or her Hamingja. joined the Aesir.

so that Mimir's knowl­ edge would not be lost. Odhinn.130 I Norse Magic Meanwhile. Mimir was very wise. his seven sons fell asleep in their hall in Hel. but Hoenir was mostly silent. Odhinn's knowledge stems from several sources. it was evident that he was not very bright. Odhinn saw the runes written clearly and understood them. and Valaskjalf (Seat of the Slain) where he can sit on . the Vanir took out their frustrations on Mimir. relieving him of his head which they sent back to Odhinn. The Allfather preserved it with herbs and placed it at the Fountain in Midgard. but still he thirsted for more magical knowledge. At the very last of his en­ durance. the Vanir were having their own problems with the two Aesir hostages. When Mimir was slain. and becoming worthy of ruling the Asa-Gods. Mimir's sons will awake and fight with the Gods of Asgard against their ene­ mies. When he did speak. chief of the Gods. Both of these incidents may be symbolic of shamanistic initiation experiences. According to the Ynglinga Saga he learned the magical art called seid from Freyja. Mimir and Hoenir. has two halls: Valhalla (Hall of the Slain) where he revels with fallen heroes and his Valkyries. In frustration. In Asgard and Vanaheim each deity has a magnificent hall. he hanged himself from Yggdrasill for nine days and nights. When Heimdall blows his horn at Ragnarok. Elsewhere we learn that he gave up one eye to drink the egg-white mead of the Fountain of Mimir. In disgust. thus gaining all knowledge.

The Valkyries are Odhinn's female warriors who collect his share of fallen warriors and carry them to Valhalla on their flying horses. Sif and Thorr live in Bilskirnir (Lightning). Freyja has her own hall Sessrumnir on Folkvang where she takes her half of the slain warriors. Norse poets had over 150 names to describe him. In the Voluspa (The Sib­ yl's Prophecy) this seeress tells him of an axe-age.Myths and Deities I 131 his throne Hlidskjalf and see all of the nine worlds. Therefore. wearing a cloak flecked with cloud-spots and a wide-brimmed hat. gives inspiration with magic and the runes. Odhinn's ultimate purpose is to try to delay the terrible destiny awaiting both the Gods and hu­ mankind. Njord's hall is called Noatun (Anchorage or Ship­ yard). These women wear armor and have names such as Shaker. Raging Warrior. and a wolf-age when brother will turn against brother. a sword-age. . This will herald the beginning of Ragnarok. Njord and Aegir are the only gods to have halls near or under the sea. One tradition says there were thirteen Valkyries. It is said that a man chosen to die in battle sees a Valkyrie just before the fatal blow. his actions and thoughts are beyond the normal concept of good and evil. Balder and Nanna in Breidablik. Odhinn is a war god and magician who con­ trols battles. judges the dead. Often he was pictured with an empty eyesocket and a long grey beard. and Shrieking. He was made aware of this future fate when he called up a dead seeress in Hel.

She called herself Gulveig-Hoder but was really a Giantess in disguise. One day a beautiful girl showed up at the gates of Asgard. offering to do the work. In payment he wanted the Sun. It quickly be­ came clear that they would need help if they were to protect themselves from attack by the Ice Gi­ ants. About this time a stranger rode up. Loki. She was the wife of the Giant Gymir and was a spy bent on causing all the trouble she could. he brought with him a magi­ cal eight-legged horse named Sleipnir. the Moon. It soon was evident that the walls would be finished on time. with the condition that the building be done in six months without help. and Freyja as his wife. The last of the walls remained unfinished. But Loki was a shape-changer. . He turned himself into a mare and lured the stallion away. She became handmaiden to Freyja. Naturally she was willing to aid his ambi­ tions to be ruler of the Asa-Gods. sworn blood-brother of Odhinn. the truce held between the Aesir and the Vanir. Although Loki was already married to Sigyn. When Loki returned after a year. The Gods killed him immediately. sug­ gested the Gods accept.132 I Norse Magic Miraculously. offspring of Svadilfari and Loki as a mare. the Gods got down to the busi­ ness of replacing the damaged walls. Loki found himself in a lot of trouble with the Gods. With a roar the stranger became his true self—a Rock Gi­ ant. he took Gulveig-Hoder as a wife also. The stranger agreed as long as he could use his stallion Svadilfari (Hazard-Farer). The Trickster gave him to Odhinn to regain his friendship.

even by the Gods' standards. and Fenrir. thus becoming even more evil. He fled with her to his castle in Jotunheim where she remained a prisoner until rescued by Svipdag and Ull. Three times the Gods burned her and twice she came back to life. The Gods met at the High Thingstead and discovered who was responsible for Freyja's cap­ ture. . he became involved with the Giantess Angrboda. Before Tyr could remove his hand. Fenrir struggled but was caught fast. They decided the ani­ mal had to be chained. Skirnir. Thorr went to find Gulveig-Hoder and struck her down.Myths and Deifies I 133 It wasn't long before Gulveig-Hoder lured Freyja out ofAsgard where the goddess was cap­ tured by tine Giant Beli (Howler). Freyr's ser­ vant. went to the Dwarves. goddess of Helheim. They needed a special magic chain and some way to make Fenrir agree to the chaining. the wolf bit it off. The third time tine Gods threw her ashes away. but Loki secretly swallowed her heart. the World-Serpent. the father of Grep. so the god Tyr volunteered to put his hand in the wolfs jaws while the chain was fastened. Loki was always creating trouble for the Gods. who forged a magical ribbon-chain. Against several dire warnings. Fenrir was afraid of the in­ nocent looking bonds. Hel. Fenrir became savage and unpredictable. but were unable to do it. a huge wolf. From this union came three monsters: Jormungand.

Thorr. When Mjollnir was laid in Thorr's lap to bless the mar­ riage. So Loki tricked Idhunn. Without the apples. Heimdall came up with a plan of dressing Thorr in bri­ dal attire and sending Loki with him dressed as a maid. Thorr had a magic hammer. the God threw aside the veil and killed the Giants. the Frost Giant. however. Even Thorr's anger. Mjollnir. did not perma­ nently stop Loki's maliciousness and lying. the Gods . keeper of the golden apples of im­ mortality. was only excited. was Od­ hinn's son by the Giantess Jord. went to the hall of Thrym. All through the wedding feast. champion of the Gods against all Gi­ ants because of his size and strength. Once Loki was captured by the Giant Thjatsi in the dis­ guise of an eagle. clad in a bridal dress and veil. She was impris­ oned by the Giant. the Goddesses at Vingolf. He returned to Asgard with the demand that the Giants would return Mjollnir in exchange for Freyja as bride for their leader. Loki borrowed Freyja's falcon-dress to search for it.134 I Norse Magic Thorr. So the Gods met at the High Thingstead. The Giant would allow him to go free only if he delivered Idhunn to him. Once when he and Loki were returning from one of their secret trips into Jotun­ heim. Even Odhinn fled the hall in fear. and dragging Loki with him. but was caught by the Giants. Thorr's hammer was stolen by the Giant Thrym while they slept. Loki had to keep assuring the Giants that the rav­ enous bride. into leaving Asgard. The Gods con­ sidered this until Freyja exploded in anger. who seemed to be eating and drinking more than her share.

and the Gods made the troublemaker get Idhunn back. But before he fled. only to dis­ cover that the foot belonged to the fair Njord. Loki made him­ self known to the Giant and dared him to catch him. She chose its owner. Before long. In an attempt to avenge her fa­ ther's death. Loki went outside the walls and danced for her with a goat in a most peculiar fash­ ion until her anger vanished. However it wasn't long before Skadi missed the snow-covered moun­ tains and thundering waterfalls of her homeland. Thorr killed him with his ham­ mer. Since she was very beautiful. so she managed to peek under the blindfold and spied a handsome foot. it was decided to try to appease her. Neither Skadi nor Njord could bring themselves to . and carrying a great spear and poisoned arrows. Heimdall discovered Loki's part in the event. sum­ mer sea-god who stills the tempests of Aegir and the blasts of Gymir (Storm Giant of the east). showed up at the gates of Asgard.Myths and Deities / 135 began to grow old. Then Odhinn offered her a choice of any God as husband. she challenged the Gods to combat. Skadi had already decided that she wanted Balder the Beautiful. Once again Loki borrowed Freyja's falcondress and went to Thjatsi's castle where he changed Idhunn into a nut so he could carry her back to Asgard. daughter of Thjatsi. Thjatsi in his eagle disguise almost caught Loki but the flames of the river around Asgard brought him down. but she could only choose while blindfolded. The couple went to live at Noatun. clad in her chain mail and helmet. Skadi.

and Freyr's boar Gullinbursti. Thorr's hammer Mjollnir. Loki bet his head against their ability to make equal or better gifts. He wasn't supposed to be on the throne. corn. He was so overcome by love that he refused to eat or drink. and they soon parted. and the ship Skidbladnir. The other Gods' laughter at his pain made Loki decide to plot revenge. Loki went to the sons of Ivaldi who made magic hair for Sif. Sif s hair represented harvest. While sitting on the throne. a spear Gungnir. a second family of Elfsmiths. With Thorr's threats ringing in his ears. in which Loki sneaked into Sif s bedroom and cut off all her golden hair with a sharp sword. Some translations call these crafts­ men Elves and others Dwarves. Freyr saw in the north a beautiful Giantess Gerd. abundance and pros­ perity. One day Freyr sat on Odhinn's throne in the High Thingstead and from it he could see into all the nine worlds. but said Brokk could have none of his neck. Brokk settled for sew­ ing Loki's mouth shut. Brokk and Eitri forged Odhinn's arm-ring Draupnir. daughter of Gymir. and Brokk demanded Loki's head. while Thorr was gone. Clever Loki agreed. An incident occurred. and his actions set the stage for future troubles for the Gods.136 I Norse Magic live in the other's land. who were kinsmen of Sindri. Brokk and Eitri. Finally his servant Skirnir got Freyr to confide in him arid told the other Gods what had happened. They sent Skirnir . Loki met two other craftsmen. On his way home. The Gods decided the gifts were as good as the first ones.

and gave him her magic staff. He was captured and. Thorr and his friends continued their journey through rising rivers and steep mountains to reach their destination. the sword that would bring disaster to the Gods passed into the Giants' hands. At last she promised to marry Freyr if the Sword of Victory was given to her father. With the help of Grid's weapons and the arrows of Ivaldi's sons. Skirnir arrived at Gymir's castle. By much lying. Thus. Another time Loki was nosing around Jotun­ heim. the summer Sun-god. This Giantess had a magic rowan wand named Gridarvold. A s a result of this gift of the rowan staff. Gerd spurned the proposal and gifts until Skirnir threatened to send her to Niflhel forever. for love of a woman. belt and iron gloves. Riding on Sleipnir and bearing bridal gifts. The sons of Ivaldi accompanied them. Balder. She warned Thorr about Loki and the Giants. Freyr was so lovesick that he sent the Sword of Victory with his servant.Myths and Deities I 137 to win Gerd for Freyr. because he desired the daughter of the Giant king Geirrod. Loki finally got Thorr to go with him. this tree became one of Thorr's sacred plants. he won his freedom by promising to deliver Thorr to the Giants—Thorr without his magic hammer. wearing Freyja's falcon-dress. Geirrod and his Giants were destroyed. gloves or strength belt. mother of Odhinn's son Vidar (the Silent One). as usual. was the son of . On the way they stopped for the night in a deep woods inhabited by a friendly Giantess Grid.

died of sorrow and was burned with her husband. The dead vala told the Allfather that the Norns had decreed that Hodur would kill Balder. Hyrrokin. On his tongue were engraved runes of eloquence. pushed Balder's fu­ neral ship out onto the sea. plants. Then he went back to Asgard. refused to weep. Riding Sleipnir. Odhinn went to Niflhel to the house Heljar-rann which belongs to Delling. Odhinn chanted magic and raised the wom­ an's spirit. Nanna. In disguise. Thus. Urd promised Hermod that if everyone wept for Balder he could return to the Gods. Balder began to have prophetic dreams of his death and fell into a state of melan­ choly. But the slender mistletoe was consid­ ered too weak to cause harm and wasn't asked to give a promise. but Odhinn still had evil premonitions. He took a sprig of it to an Elf-smith named Hlebard. So Frigg sent her sister Fulla to all crea­ tures. wife of Balder. where he tricked the blind god Hodur into killing Balder. jealous Loki learned from Frigg about the mistletoe. The Storm Giantess. in the disguise of an old Giantess named Thok (Darkness).138 I Norse Magic Odhinn and Frigg. metals and stones to beg protection for Balder. These promises relieved Frigg. In the meantime. But Loki. Back in Asgard the Gods were having a good time throwing all kinds of weapons at Balder who was never harmed. Deceiv­ ing the smith. red Elf of the dawn. At once Hermod rode Sleipnir down into Hel to search for Balder and gain his release. Loki had him make the mistletoe into a deadly magic arrow. . At the east gate at the grave of a vala.

There he was bound to three sharp edged rocks. went seek­ ing the blind Hodur who was hiding. Before Rag­ narok. Thorr and others captured the evil Loki and dragged him to the island in the gulf of Black Grief where Loki's wolf-son Fenrir was impris­ oned. He avenged Balder's death by killing Hodur. The Gods discov­ ered that Loki had been the Giantess. Loki was shunned in Asgard so he stayed away. Sigyn. but Odhinn still refused to punish him. and the Earth quakes from his movements. The Gods still rejected him.Myths and Deities I 139 Urd would not allow Balder's return to Asgard un­ til the time of Ragnarok. and Skadi hung a poisonous snake over his head to drip burning venom on him. daughter of Billing (Elf of the twilight). the Gods had a feast in Aegir's hall. Odhinn's son Vali. uninvited. nursing his evil feel­ ings. Loki began to taunt and ridicule them with knowledge he had acquired by sneaking around in shadows. At last Odhinn saw him while sitting on his throne. Then he fled again into hiding. sits day after day holding a dish to catch the poison. But Loki will have his revenge at Ragnarok (the end of the world) when he breaks free and leads the Giants against the Gods. Loki. there will be a great winter (fimbulvetr) . killed the guard at the door and forced his way inside. At the Autumn Equinox. his loyal wife. The Norse say that when Sigyn leaves to empty the dish. whose mother was Rind. Loki thrashes in terrible agony.

earth­ quakes and a great freeze will kill all of human­ kind. And Thorr's hammer Mjollnir. Garm and Tyr. shape- . There will be constant war on Midgard. crossing the Ocean in the boat Naglfari. The wolves Skoll and Hati will swallow the Sun and Moon. which is made of dead men's nails. wielded by his sons. Loki and Heimdall will destroy each other. Jormungand will invade Midgard. the two humans hidden in the World Tree will climb down to renew the race. Thorr will slay Jormungand but will die of its poison. The skies will darken. Fenrir will kill Odhinn and then will be killed by Odhinn's son Vidar. Heimdall's horn Gjall will sound through the nine worlds as the combatants meet on the vast plain of Vigard. Fenrir and the Giants in war against the Gods.140 I Norse Magic lasting three years with no summers in between. Yggdrasil will sur­ vive. will burst out of Niflheim. Balder and Nanna will return from the dead. Places & Things ALFHEIM (alf-hame): Land of the Light Elves. Hel. Supernatural Beings. however. except one man and woman who will hide in Yggdrasil. ANDVARI (and-varri): Dwarf. A s new land rises. Some of the Gods will survive: Odhinn's sons Vidar and Vali. Thorr's sons Modi and Magni. Hel will join with Loki. Hodur and Hoenir. The Earth will sink into the sea. with her dead souls and the dog Garm. will once again protect hu­ mans.

BILSKIRNIR (bill-skier-near): "Lightning". The cursed gold later caused Fafnir to turn himself into a dragon and brought the hero Sigurd into the story. BESTLA (best-lah): A Frost Giantess. wife of Borr. she be­ came Freyja's maid. fa­ ther of all Giants. "Grief Boda".Myths and Deities I 141 shifter who lived as a pike in a pool in Svartalfheim. Vili and Ve. son of Buri and father of Odhinn. He and his wife were the only two Giants to survive the flood of Ymir's blood. . BERGELMIR (bare-ghel-mere): A Giant. BIFROST (bee-frost): Rainbow bridge be­ tween Asgard and Midgard. daughter of Ymir. Thorr and Sif s great hall in Asgard. BORR (bore): A supernatural man. guarded by Heimdall. ANGRBODA (anger-bodda): "DistressBringer". Hel. Disguised as Gulveig-Hoder. He was a gold-collector who cursed the gold he had to give to Loki. She had three monster children by Loki: Fenrir. ASGARD (ass-guard): Home of the Aesir gods. thus becoming a spy within Asgard for the Giants. BOLVERK (boll-verk): The Giant disguise used by Odhinn to get the Mead of Poetry. and Jormungand. mother of Odhinn. a Giantess. BILLING: Elf of the twilight or west.

142 I Norse Magic .

This beautiful being fell in love with the hero Sigurd. Grandfather to the Gods. and is under Freyja's control. This ornament can be worn either as a belt or a necklace depending upon how Freyja plans to use it. BROKK (brock): Dwarf. See Hamingja. DARK ELVES: See Elves. BRISINGAMEN (briss-ing-a-men): "Neck­ lace of the Brisings". a shape-shifter who often used a swan disguise. BRYNHILD (brin-hild): A Valkyrie and ser­ vant to Odhinn. The goddess ob­ tained it by spending a night with each of its mak­ ers. superb smith and jeweler.Myths and Deities I 143 BREIDABLIK (brade-a-blick): Balder and Nanna's hall in Asgard. lover ofNottorNat. DWARVES: Small human-shaped beings . DISIR: Supernatural beings. Odhinn's arm-ring and Thorr's hammer Mjollnir. The Brisings were called the de­ scendants of the Shining Ones. With Eitri he made the gold boar Gullinbursti. Freyja's necklace made by four Dwarves. BURI (boo-ree): Supernatural being licked from the ice by Audhumla. He was pictured as small and blackened from the smithy. DELLING: Red Elf of the dawn or east. Brisingamen is the magical counterpart of the Midgard Serpent. BYGUL (bee-gool) "Bee-Gold" or honey & TRJEGUL (tree-gool) "Tree-Gold" or amber: Freyja's cats that pulled her chariot.

They live in caves and mountains in Svartalfheim. jew­ elers." Small human-shaped beings who have much wisdom and lore to impart. the first human woman created by Odhinn from a tree. enemy of the Gods. EMBLA (em-bla): "Elm". Bowls of milk were left out for them. also known as the Fountain of Knowledge. Elves live in almost every wood and stream of Midgard. FARBAUTI (far-bowt-ee): "Cruel Striker". FJALAR (fyah-lar): Dwarf and brother of . father of Loki. Dark Elf may be another name for Dwarf. They are skilled crafters. and Vestri (West). Light Elves live in Ljossalfheim or Alfheim and are help­ ful. a Fire Giant. Austri (East). and miners. "the shining-white one.144 I Norse Magic created by the gods from maggots in Ymir's flesh. The four Dwarves sent to hold up the sky are Nordhri (North). He was killed by his nephew Sigurd. FOUNTAIN OF MIMIR: Well in Midgard (or perhaps Jotunheim). FENRIR (fen-rear) /FENRIS WOLF: Wolfmonster son of Loki. He was so vicious that the Gods had to finally chain him. EITRI (a-tree): Dwarf and metal-worker. ELVES: In Old Norse the world is alfar. he turned into a dragon because of his greed for a hoard of gold. FAFNIR (fahf-near): Son of a magi­ cian/farmer. See Brokk. but tend to hoard precious met­ als and gems. do not like daylight. Sudhri (South).

GERI (gir-ee) or Greedy & FREKI (frik-ee) or Voracious: Odhinn's great wolves. were antagonistic. In Old Norse the word risi meant a true Gi­ ant of great size. FULLA (fool-ah): Sister of Frigg. The thursar.Myths and Deities I 145 Galar. The jotnar. She cares for Trigg's magic box and slippers. She is known for her shining beauty. singular thurs. May have been one of the Asynjor. GARM: Monster dog who guards the island where Loki and his wolf-son are chained. had great strength and age and were also called etins. GINNUNGAGAP (ghin-un-ga-gap): Great . Fire Giants hot-tempered. GERD/GERDA (gird): Frost Giantess who married Freyr. destructive. Utgard. they were usually beautiful and good. lies in Jotunheim. GIMLI (geem-lee): Golden-roofed hall in As­ gard for righteous men after death. Fire or Mountain (Rock) Giants. and stupid. singular jotunn. All are shape-shifters and quick to do vio­ lence. Hound of the Underworld. the Giant stronghold. capable of intermarrying with humans. All but a few are enemies of the Gods. Frost Giants are extremely cold. GALAR (gay-lar): See Fjalar. Mountain Giants hard as rock. GIANTS/GIANTESSES: Supernatural be­ ings who are known as Frost. they killed Kvasir and made the Mead of Poetry from his blood.

GUNGNIR (goong-near): Odhinn's magic spear that always returns to his hand. GRID (greed): Giantess who warned Thorr against Geirrod and Loki. GNA (gnah): Servant of Frigg and a Asynjor. He appeared wearing a blue cloak and large hat. he could gallop through the air. Thorr got him when he killed the Giant. GULLFAXI (gool-fax-ee): "Golden Mane". a boar made by the Dwarves and given to Freyr. . She gave Thorr his magic strength belt and iron gloves. horse of the Giant Hrungnir. A messenger. GLADSHEIM (glahds-hame): Part of As­ gard for the gods. bridge crossed by Hermod on his way to Hel's realm in search of Balder. pulls Freyr's chariot at a fantastic speed. her horse was called Hofvarpnir. Midgard is said to be in the center of this world GJALL (gyaliyGJALLARHORN: dall's mighty horn. The king's dogs would not bark at him. GRIMNIR (grim-near): A disguise Odhinn used when visiting a king's court.146 I Norse Magic wasteland between Niflheim and Muspell. GULLTOP (gool-top): Heimdall's horse with a golden mane. he can fly with great speed. but gave the horse to his son Magni. Heim- GJALLARBRU (gyall-ar-broo): "Resounding Bridge". GULLINBURSTI (gool-in-burst-ee): "Gold­ en Bristles".

Myths and Deities 1147 GUNNLOD (goon-lod) / GUNNLAUTH/ GUNNLOED: Giantess daughter of Suttung. HILDISVINI (hill-dee-sveen-ee): "Battle Pig". HAMINGJUR: Lifelong guardians of hu­ mans. HLIDSKJALF(hlid-skyalf): Odhinn's throne in the hall Valaskjalf. HEL (hell): Realm of the Dead. she guards the Mead of Poetry in an under­ ground-cavern. HATI (hah-tee): Son of the Giantess of Iron Wood. she travels at great speeds. HREIDMAR (hrade-mar:): cian and father of Fafnir. HELGRIND: "Death Gate". a piece of the . Freyr's wife. they appear to give warnings and advice by dreams. barrier between the worlds of the living and the dead. Farmer/magi­ HRUNGNIR (hroong-near): Giant who raced with Odhinn. HARBARD (hahr-bard): Ferryman disguise of Odhinn. Similar to guardian angels. sow belonging to Freyja. HEIDRUN (hide-roon): The goat which pro­ vides the mead for Valhalla and feeds on the World Tree. also the name of the Goddess of Death. GYMIR (guy-meer): Giant father of Gerd. a huge wolf who chases the Moon. When Thorr killed him.

She rides a wolf and uses a serpent for reins. Also the name of the Giant who was with Thorr when he caught Jormungand while fishing. inhabited by the mother of Hati and Skoll. IVALDI: Also called Vidfinner and Svigdar (Champion Drinker). IRON WOOD: An old dark forest in Midgard. mother of Thorr by Odhinn. . she did not like the Gods. May have been one of the Asynjor. Giantess JORMUNGAND (yore-mun-gand)/MIDGARDSORMR: World-Serpent. HYNDLA (hinnd-la): Giantess who keeps the genealogy lists and the Memory Beer. JORD (joord)/JORTH: "Earth". east of Midgard or over the Ocean. HUGGINN (hoog-in) T h o u g h t " & MUNNIN (moon-in) "Memory": Giant ravens who bring news of the nine worlds to Odhinn. JARNSAXA (yarn-sax-a): Giantess lover of Thorr and mother of his sons Magni and Modi. HYMIR (him-ear): Tyr's Giant mother. His family was one of two families of Elf-smiths who worked in Asgard. monster son of Loki who inhabits the Ocean surrounding Midgard. HYRROKLN (hirro-kin): Giantess who launched Balder's funeral boat. JOTUNHEIM (yot-oon-hame): Mountain home of the Giants or Jotuns.148 I Norse Magic Giant's whetstone lodged in Thorr's head.

NARFI (nah-vee) & VALI (vah-lee): Sons of Sigyn and Loki. very brave.Myths and Deities I 149 KOBOLDS (co-bolds): Small human-shaped beings who live in or near barns and stables. home of hu­ mans. NIDHOGG (need-hoog): Dragon that guards the Spring of Hvergelmir in Niflheim. NIDAVELLIR: Land of the Dwarves. extremely strong at birth. and MIDGARD (mid-guard): Earth. Thorr's magic MODGUD (mode-good): The maiden who keeps the bridge on the road into Hel. LIGHT ELVES: See Elves. KVASIR (kvah-seer): A wise human created by the Gods. MUSPELL (moo-spell): Part of the lower level of nine worlds. MAGNI (mag-nee): Son of Thorr Jarnsaxa. LAUFEY (lowf-ee): "Wooded Isle". NIFLHEIM (niffle-hame): Lowest level of the . LOGI (lo-ghee): Giant who lived in Utgard. Fire Gi­ antess mother of Loki. MODI (mode-ee): Son of Thorr and Jarnsaxa. MJOLLNIR (myoll-near): hammer and symbol. If treated kindly. an area of fire. The Mead of Poetry was made from his blood. they are friendly.

around RAGNAROK(rag-na-rock): T w i l i g h t of the Gods". red Elf of the dawn. a land of ice and snow. . NOTT/NAT (noot): "Night". Freyja's hall in Asgard.150 I Norse Magic nine worlds. Ragnarok will be more a transformation than total destruction. great battle that will be fought between the Gods and the Giants at the end of the world. Jormungand dwells there. Actually. SINDRI: Elf-smith who worked in Asgard. grandmother of Thorr. He killed the dragon Fafnir. SAGA (sah-gah): "Seeress". could understand the speech of birds. She has a dwelling in Asgard called Sokkvabekk (Deep Stream). "Many SIGURD (sig-urd)/SIGURDHR: Human lover of Brynhild. SESSRUMNIR (sess-room-near): Seats". One of the Asynjor. Daughter of Mimir and the sister of Urd. "Doom of the Gods". mother of Jord and grandmother of Thorr. runs up and down the jtrunk carrying insults between the dragon Nidhogg and the eagle who dwells in the top branches. and their son is Dag (Day). "An­ chorage". Giantess associ­ ated with the sign of Pisces. RATATOSK(rat-ah-tosk): Squirrel who lives in Yggdrasil. Njord's hall by the sea. NOATUN (noah-toon): "Shipyard". OCEAN: Vast stretch of water Midgard. She brings refreshment and inspira­ tion to humans. Her lover is Delling.

He carries a flaming sword. he chases the Sun. sea or through the air. can gallop over land. father of Skadi. SKIDBLADNIR (skid-blad-near): magic ship. SPRING OF HVERGELMIR (hvare-ghelmeer): Well in Niflheim guarded by the dragon Nidhogg. disguise THRUD: "Strength". king of the Giants. THJATSI/THIAZI (thyah-tzee): Giant and shape-shifter. daughter of Thorr and . Freyr's SKOLL (skol): Monster wolf-son of the Giant­ ess of Iron Wood. SUTTUNG (soo-toong): Giant who guards the Mead of Poetry. Fire Giant who guards the gates of Muspell and rules the fiery beings there. mated with Loki and produced Sleipnir. made by Dwarves. He is cloud-grey in color and has sacred runes engraved on his teeth. SKRYMIR (skree-meer): "Big Boy". SLEIPNIR (slape-near): 8-legged horse of Odhinn and child of Loki. SURT (sert): "Black". disguise used by Utgard-Loki. SVARTALFHEIM (svart-alf-hame): Home of the Dark Elves. SVADILFARI (svad-ill-far-ee): Horse who belonged to a Rock Giant. THOK/THOKK: Loki's Giantess when he refused to weep for Balder.Myths and Deities I 151 Brokk was his brother.

VE (vay) & Vili (vill-ee): Brothers of Odhinn. UTGARD-LOKF. Ve could also be called Hoener. will avenge Odhinn by killing Fenrir at Ragnarok. They can be eaten and revived. Odhinn's second hall in Asgard and home of the dead warriors. and will become one of the new Gods. THRYM (thrim): Giant who stole Mjollnir and demanded Freyja as his wife. TOOTHGNASHER & TOOTHGRINDER: Giant goats who pull Thorr's chariot. on the same level as Asgard. VANAHEIM (van-ah-hame): Land of the Vanir gods. rafters of huge shining spears and tiles of golden shields. VTDAR (vee-dar): Son of Odhinn and Grid. VALHALLA (val-hal-ah): "Hall of the Slain". Very bad-tempered. especially Thorr. they helped to kill Ymir and create the nine worlds. from it Odhinn can see into all the nine worlds. enemies of the gods. UTGARD (oot-guard): Giants' stronghold in Jotunheim. (oot-guard-low-kee): King of the Utgard Giants.152 I Norse Magic Sif. Valhalla has 640 doors. Vili or Villi may also be identified as Lodur or Loki. TROLLS: Huge supernatural beings with great strength. . In this hall stands the throne Hlidskjalf. one of Odhinn's halls in Asgard. VALASKJALF (val-ah-skyalf): "Seat of the Slain".

one of the races of Gods in Asgard. Vana-God of die sea. Hnossa tike beautiful. ALAISIAGAE: kyries. WADE: Father of Weland the smith. or undines. giant ash or yew tree which holds the nine worlds in place by its three roots. . WELL OF URD (oord): Well in Asgard tended by the Norns. was called Eir. Gold. He and Ran have nine daughters. a healer. control of wind and waves. The Gods & Goddesses AEGIR (a-gear): "Alebrewer". AESIR (a-seer): Warrior-gods. YGGDRASIL (ig-dra-sill): World Tree. Frimia. prosperity.Myths and Deities I 153 VIGARD (vee-guard): Huge plain where the last battle of the Ragnarok will be fought. VINGOLF (veen-gulf): Part ofAsgard for the goddesses. One of them. Keepers of the Dead. brewing. a Giant connected with great stones and the sea. also used to refer to die Aesir and Vanir together. Oth­ ers were named Fjorgyn. also female attendants of Frigg in Ymgolf. sunken treasure. feminine version of Aesir. THE ASYNJOR: The Goddesses. sailors. can be good or evil. Fimila. War goddesses. See Val­ ASA-GODS: The Aesir.

Sacred wells sprang up from the hoof marks of his horse. wisdom. son of Odhinn and Frigg. music. God of poetry and elo­ quence. but the tears which fall into the sea become amber. Mother Earth: the great cow who produced Buri and nourished the Giant Ymir. Love. pull her chariot. gold. reconciliation. "Lady". leader of the Valkyries. beauty. beauty.154 I Norse Magic AUDHUMLA (ow-doom-la): "Nourisher". cunning. the arts. BALDER/BALDR/BALDUR (bal-der): "The Bright One". trance. VanaGoddess. Justice. the Bleeding God. who mysteriously disap­ peared. writing. witchcraft. sister of Freyr and daughter of Njord. Motherhood. child-rearing. cats. Bygul and Trjegul. animals. horses. fairness. patron of skalds and minstrels. good laws. FREYJA/FREYA (fray-ah): Syr (seer). She owns the necklace Brisingamen and keeps half of the slain warriors in her hall. She weeps tears of gold. She is the mistress of cats. arbitration. reincarnation. advice. wisdom. "She who shines over the sea". fire. childbirth. FORSETI: Son of Balder and Nanna. en­ chantments. gentleness. a shape-shifter. wealth. jew- . perhaps identical to Odhinn. sex. Light. Aesir Sun god. good judg­ ment. married to Idhunn. BRAGI (brah-ghee): Son of Odhinn and Frigg. Her cats. She was married to the god Od. he greets new arrivals to Valhalla with songs of their deeds. the Sage or "sayer" who inspires all sacred poetry. Shining God. harmony. peace. home crafts. Great Goddess. "Rich Hornless Cow". Thirteen is her number and Friday her day. happiness. Wit.

marriage. fertility. luck. physical love. the sea. HEID (hade): "Gleaming One". mother of Balder. guarantor of oaths. GULLVEIG (gool-vague): Vana-Goddess and sorceress. and a magic sword that moves by itself through the air. Magic. magic. son of Njord. wisdom. queen of the goddesses. a Giantess.Myths and Deities / 155 elry. destiny. Aesir Mother Goddess. plowing. childbirth. Sen­ sual love. Gerda or Gerd. He owns the boar Gullinbursti. cunning. FREYR (fray-er)/FREY/FRO: "Lord". May have been one of the Asynjor. foresight. protector of ships and sail­ ors. music. weather. beauty. the Moon. plant growth. fortunate turn of events. god of Yule. Mistress of Magic. seeress. children. groves. the ship Skidbladnir. po­ etry. healing. sex. "the Lover". wife of Odhinn. protection. horses. joy. Fertility goddess. flowers. FRIG (frig)/FRIGGA/FRIJA: "Well-Be­ loved Spouse or Lady". Magical arts. a shape-shif­ ter. crops. "Gold-Thirst". fertil­ ity. growth. fer­ tility. knower of all things. wealth. land. wisdom. peace. boars. foresight. death. Independ­ ence. sunshine. enchantments. prophecy. happiness. . See Gullveig. cleverness. she is the goddess to whom virgins go at death. GEFION (ghev-yon)/GEFJUN: "The Giver". long life. is his wife. abundance. Per­ haps identical to Freyja. bravery. a shape-shifter. Daughter of Nott or Nat and sister of Njord. rain. Vanir Sun god. Although she is not a virgin. prosperity. luck. magic.

rode to Niflheim to try to get Balder back. Famous archer before he became blind. Wyrd. son of Odhinn and Frigg. She is sometimes seen riding a goat with a pack of 24 spotted hounds (her daughters) running beside her. fate. brav­ ery. Aesir god of winter. Aggressiveness. HODUR (hod-er)/HOTH/HOTHR/B JORNOHODER: "The blind god". her home is called Sleet-Den or Sleetcold. He has super sight and hearing. rides on the Wild Hunt. HERMOD (hair-mod): Asa-God and son of Odhinn.156 I Norse Magic HEIMDALL (hame-dall): Asa-God of Light and the rainbow. His horse's name is Golden Forelock. HOENIR (ho-near)/HONIR: Asa-God. revenge. Nine is a magic Moon number. the Crone aspect of the Moon. "Black Earth Mother". Passiveness. "The White God". dark magic. morning light. guardian of Bifrost bridge. karma. HEL (hell)/HELA: Queen of the Dead and Ruler of Niflheim. revenge. H O L D A / H O L D E / HOLLE /HULDA (Be­ nign) /BERTHA/BERCHTA (White Lady): North Germanic name for Hel. Dark magic. a great warrior but not clever. beginnings and endings. seriousness. Honor. Guardian. IDHUNN (id-doon)/IDUN/IDUNA: Asa- . Goddess of winter and witchcraft. He is called "the Son of the Wave" because he was born from nine waves by Odhinn's enchantment. defense against evil. the arts. bravery. "White Lady".

attractive. springs. NJORD (nyord): Vana-God of the sea. gentleness. responsibility. death. thieves. the arts. trickery. dark magic. NERTHUS (near-thus)/ERCE: Earth Moth­ er. Shape-Changer. ING: Another name for Freyr. Earthquakes. wife of Balder.Myths and Deities I 157 Goddess of immortality. The Swedish royal line called themselves Ynglings. destruction. his head kept at the Fountain of Mimir after his death. seafaring. the Trickster. Giant who is the blood-brother of Odhinn. mischief. evil. revenge. lies. peace. Great Mother. Peace. Fertility goddess. long life. LOKI (lo-kee): "Father of lies". groves. keeper of the golden apples. daring. pools. NANNA (nan-ah ) / N A N A / A N N A / I N ANNA: Asa-Goddess. purification. fishing. deceit. father . wealth. spring. teaching. Youth. wit. agility. He is handsome. A dangerous god to invoke as one can never be certain how he will answer. Her symbol is a cornucopia. fertility. married Sigyn. as did the Anglo-Saxon line of Berenicia. inland lakes. wife of Bragi. stealth. NEHALLENNIA (nee-hal-een-ia): Goddess of plenty. knowledge. Vana-God of Earth and fertility. Love. MIMIR (mee-meer)/MIMR/MIMI: Very wise Aesir god. and free with the ladies. witchcraft. Earth Goddess. forest fires. fruitfulness. cun­ ning. Sky-Traveler. Wisdom. beauty. lecherousness. fire. the sea. son of the Giant Farbauti (Cruel Smiter). "The Moon".

rebirth." Three different frenzies or madnesses are his gifts to humankind: the warrior in battle. ODHINN(oh-din)/ODINAVODAN/WODEN/ OTHINN: Aesir King of the gods. mysterious and dangerous. SKULD: the future.158 I Norse Magic of Freyr and Freyja. and the Valkyries. death. He produces the battle panic called "battlefetter. the seer in trance. VERTHANDI/VERDNADI: present. Subtle. No reason is ever given for his disappearance. All-Seeing. guarantor of oaths. the Wyrd Sisters. OD: The mysterious husband of Freyja for whom she mourned with tears of gold. three women usually found near the World Tree at the Well of Urd in Asgard. wisdom. and sorcerers. Runes. rain and harvest. livestock. Attended by his two ravens. "Allfather". Sky God. winds and seas. mad". prosperity. Fishing. Great Father. wily. magic. he often ignores pacts made in honor with humans. success. Feared by ordinary people and worshipped only by princes. A shape-shifter. poetry. poets. Perhaps an­ other form of the name Odhinn. Lives in Noatun (Boat-Town). knowledge. wind. storms. god of storm. . His Giantess wife Skadi picked him for his beauti­ ful feet. URD/ URTH/WYRD/ERTHA/WURD/WEIRD: past. des­ tiny. THE NORNS (nornz): The Fates. "fren­ zied. and the poet in creativity. two wolves. justice. Rules fire. divination. stubbornness. the berserkers. words of power. journeyluck. sail­ ors. he makes men mad or possessed with a blind raging fury. lands. god of the hanged and the Wild Hunt. Un­ predictable when invoked. weather. sacred poetry.

civilization. She is unpredictable. crops. the arts. patron of poets. war. Earth Mother. storms. He has wild red hair and beard. great terror. always in battle dress. Drowning. Although he is sometimes over hasty in judgment. She is noted for her beautiful hair. light. His symbol is his magic hammer Mjollnir (Destroyer). dark magic. two sons Vali and Narfi. and malicious. patron of priests. fruitfulness. faith­ fulness. initiation. Love. "High Thunderer" champion of the Gods and enemy of the Giants and Trolls. wife of Aegir. weapons. winter. loyalty. his wife is Sif. law. protector of the common man. wife of Thorr. SIF (siff): Asa-Goddess. "The Thunderer". fate. He has a magic belt (Megingjardar or Strength-Increaser). the sea. horses. THORR / THOR / THUNAR / THUNOR/ DONAR. sages. music.Myths and Deities 1159 reincarnation. law and order. prophecy. SJOFNA (syof-nah): Goddess of love. Strength. and waiters. RAN: "The Ravager". SKADI (skah-dee). Har­ vest. One of the Asynjor. medicine. water. he is a totally reliable friend and battle-companion. generosity. Vana-Goddess. wisdom. SIGYN (sig-inVSIGUNA/SIGNY: Goddess wife of Loki. son of Odhinn and Jord. Mountains. oaks. "Harm". deceit. thunder. He drives a chariot pulled by two giant male goats. Asa-God. wife of Njord. weather. sailors. defense. goats. . lightning. in­ spiration. revenge. plenty. trading voyages. storms. daughter of the Giant Thjatsi. hunting.

God of archery. choosing the valiant warriors for Valhalla. assemblies of the people for judicial matters. T h e One-Handed". winter sports. He presides over law. integrity. Brynhild as Sigrdrifa (Victory-Giver) was a valkyrie. TYR (tier)/TIU/TIWAZ/TrW/ZIU: Asa-God. Tradition says there are thirteen of them. hunting. honor. nobility. legal contracts. fe­ male warrior-attendants of Odhinn. patron of the Thing or Assem­ bly. order. Associated with horses and wolves. powerful en­ chanter. battle. skiing. victory in battle. She initiated Sigurd into runic wisdom. Fearlessness. VALKYRIES (val-kye-reez)/WAELCYRIE/ VALKYRJA/IDICI: "Choosers of the Slain". they direct the course of battles. he is never deceitful. They are death angels. bravery. In Old English they were called waelceasig. magic. death. They can also turn them­ selves into swan-maidens. trust. son of Orvandel-Egil by the beautiful Sith. mare-women. called the bravest of the gods. Thrown out ofAsgard by Odhinn because the Allfather was jealous. sports.160 I Norse Magic courage. single combats or contests. awarded victory in combat. . justice. ULL (ooD/ULLR: T h e Magnificent". courage. war. The sky. protection. war. Giver of victory in battle against odds. athletics. Beauty. "the Bow God". They are helmeted goddesses with spears crowned with flames and mounted on flying horses whose manes drop dew or hail. sometimes known as the Death God. law and the binding of solemn oaths. war. meaningful self-sacrifice. revenge.

also called Vana-Gods. WELAND / WAYLAND / W I E L A N D / VOLUND / VOLUNDR: North Germanic god of smiths. Strength.Myths and Deities I 161 VANIR (vah-near): Fertility Gods ofAsgard. YMIR (im-meer): First Frost Giant. second race of deities. su­ preme craftsman. evil. prince of the fairies. violent. A Shape-shifter associated with horses. metal-working. Wonder Smith. Brutal. Mentioned in the tales of Siegfried (Sigurd) and Dietrich of Bern. skill. horses. cunning. . healing. Magic powers. witchcraft. magic.

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10. Furthermore. Spellwork was and is an important part of all pagan religions. the drawing down of energy from another plane of existence. To do this. thoughts and practices. herbs or other magical equipment. Doing spellwork that will bring results is like exercising a physical muscle of the body. Spellwork is a type of magic. is known as spellwork or spelling. Pagans believe in actively par­ ticipating in the unfoldment of opportunity and -development in their lives. Repeti­ tion and practice strengthen the ability to do spell­ ing that will bring about a desired manifestation. they believe it is their responsibility to do whatever they personally can to aid in gaining their desires. They believe that it is their right to confidently petition their deities for what they want. all pagans engage in some form of spellworking. Spellwork The use of certain gestures and words. Playing at spellwork may bring you what you want 163 . gestures. when performed in a specific way with candles. This energy is woven into a specific physical form or result by the use of certain words.

sword. Turn to the Tables of Correspondence to check for appropriate deities. It is said that the Elves use the green dye from alder. Before beginning any spellwork. the chimes draw Freyr's attention and blessings when they ring. Remember. Always choose matching incenses for all your spellwork. but it is not reliable. This is done within a drawn circle of power. Practice and dedication are necessary if you want to have a con­ tinued.164 I Norse Magic a few times. Fruit of the Un- . brown from the twigs. dagger and jewelry are listed among the spells of Elf and Dwarf Magic. Herb Magic ALDER (Alnus glutinosa). colors. wand and other equipment. Rituals of consecra­ tion for the wand. for any spelling. it is a good idea to consecrate your magical weapons. etc. All spelling to increase is done during the waxing Moon or on the Full Moon. Wind chimes can be considered as bells. consistent influence on your own life and the opportunities that come to you. All other non-metal ritual tools may be con­ secrated with the wand ritual. all spelling to decrease is done during the waning Moon or on the New Moon. incenses. jewelry. APPLE OR CRAB APPLE (Pyrus malus). Hung outside. This tree yields three dyes: red from the bark. and green from the flowers. All other metal tools may be consecrated with the sword ritual. changing the name of the tool in the chant. Also known as Fruit of the Gods.

Spellwork 1165 derworld. AVENS (Geum urbanum). Wands of this wood are used in love rituals. An apple cut crosswise will reveal a five-point star. BEECH (Fagus sylvatica). Oracle messages can be heard by listening to the wind through the leaves. Red . Dragonwort. An exorcism plant when added to incenses. Its three leaves repre­ sent Thorr. ASH. Also known as White Birch. Paper Birch. Blessed Herb. Odhinn and Freyr. MOUNTAIN (Fraxinus excelsior or F. Tree of Love. An ash twig hung over the doors re­ pels evil. Snakeweed. as does scattering the leaves to the four directions around your house. Canoe Birch. Apples are a Norse symbol of long life. Gently striking an outdoor ritual area with a birch twig or branch will drive off all negativity. americana). Ancient runic tablets were often made of this wood as it repre­ sents wisdom and creativity. Lady of the Woods. Ash wands are for healing. BIRCH (Betula alba). Also known as Herb Bennet. Also known as Patience Dock. It was also known as the tree of con­ ception and birth to the Norse. Silver Bough. Cider is an excellent substitute for blood when called for in old spells. Star of the Earth. Burning ash wood at Yule (Winter Solstice) brings prosperity. Yellow Avens. Apple wood can be carved into charms for long life and wisdom. symbol of Freyja and Idhunn. Golden Star. BISTORT (Polygonum bistorta). but when carried it at­ tracts the opposite sex.

Also known as Wild Rose. Its leaves can be used in spells for protec­ tion or wealth. Dewberry. it can be added to incenses used during divinations. Swallow Herb. Also known as Blackberry. Also known as Tetterwort. Mother of the Wood. Also known as Sloe. villosus). BUTTERCUP (Ranunculus bulbosus). King's Cup.166 I Norse Magic Legs. Bitter Herb. Carry it to court to help the judge and jury decide in your favor. mi­ nus. CELANDINE (Chelidonium majus. Dog Rose. CENTAURY (Erythraea centaurium). Sprinkle a little in your purse or wallet to draw money. Also known as Century. Briar Rose. BRIAR {Rosa rubiginosa or R. Ranunculus ficaria). C. Devil's Milk. Its pet­ als can be used in incenses for love. Garden Celandine. Thimbleberry. BRAMBLE (Rubus fructicosus or R. and other fiveleafed plants. BLACKTHORN (Prunus spinosa). Goldcup. Feverwort. The wood makes good walk­ ing sticks because of its protective qualities. A piece of root under your pillow can bring dreams that help with problems. Pilewort. represent the goddesses. Also known as Crowfoot. BRACKEN (Pteridium aquilinum). It is . canina). Its five leaves. The flowers can be floated in the caul­ dron while doing scrying. An herb of psychic powers. Blackthorn wands are all-purpose and can drive out ghosts and negative spirits. especially Freyja.

Lion's Tooth. A favorite of the gods. CLUB MOSS (Lycopodium clavotum). Staghorn. Added to incenses it repels negative spirits. Lady Elder. Also known as Cankerwort. Ellhorn. Ground Apple. calmness. When you have been able to hold the message for about a minute. Elder wands can be used to exor­ cise negative spirits from houses or places. it will soon rain. To re­ move warts. The tree bleeds red sap when cut and absolutely must be asked for permission before cutting. blow off the flower-down. Also known as . this plant and its spores give great blessings and protection. concentrate while holding a ripe flower. Hollunder. Elderberry.Spellwork 1167 said that snakes will not go where it is planted. Dog Fennel. it draws prosperity. Also known as Roman Chamomile. Especially sacred to the German goddess Holda/Bertha. ELDER (Sambucus canadensis). Also known as Wolf Claw. Old Lady. Foxtail. smelling like fresh apples when cut or picked. Wild Endive. then bury it. Grown around the house or in the garden it reverses spells cast against you. Roman chamomile is the best. DANDELION (Taraxacum officinale). rub them with a green twig. CHAMOMILE (Anthemis noblis or Matricaria chamomilla). Blow Ball. To send a message to an­ other person or to the Gods. Also known as Devil's Eye. Added to incenses. ELM (Ulmus campestris). If the ripe down blows off without a wind. Otherwise it is apt to bring bad luck.

Because of its fertility powers. it causes rain. Rock Elm. HAWTHORN (Crataegus oxyacantha). ICELAND MOSS. An infusion containing hawthorn blossoms purines wherever it is sprin­ kled. Carry it to pre­ vent sickness and accident. Its leaves can be sprinkled around a ritual area for protection. It was carried by brides for good luck and love. White Thorn. Tree of Chastity. It was a holy tree in northern . SILVER (Abies alba). Winged Elm. Also known as May Bush. Also known as Featherfoil. FEVERFEW (Chrysanthemum parthenium or Pyrethrum parthenium). Pyrethrum.). When burned outside. Flirtwort. JUNIPER (Juniperus communis).168 I Norse Magic Slippery Elm. it was used as a decoration at weddings. May Tree. Haw. POISONOUS if eaten. FIR. rVY(Hederaspp. Planted near the door it gives protection. it was used as decoration at Yule. FERNS (all species). Gin Berry. Also known as Birth Tree. Also known as Gemeiner Wachholder (common juni­ per). To bless and protect a mother and new baby. a flaming fir candle was carried three times around the bed in northern Europe. English Elm. Can be added to prosper­ ity bags or poppits when doing spellwork for in­ crease of money. A plant of Freyr. Hawthorn wands have great power and are sacred to the Mother Goddesses.

this plant brings love and harmony when grown in the house. The whole root is placed on the altar for pro­ tection if under spell-attack by another. Atropa mandragora). Also known as Willow-herb. POISONOUS if eaten. Picked on a Full Moon and used . Also known as Mandragora. wealth and love when carried. Ruddes. Marybud. Herb of Circe. Burned in incenses or sprinkled about the house. Bride of the Sun.Spellwork 1169 Europe where it was used with wild thyme in divi­ nation and trance incenses. MANDRAKE (Mandragor officinarum. Also known as Calendula. It was believed that it sprang from dragon blood. A fern. it dissolves arguments. MALE FERN (Dryopteris felix-mas). both of which are POISON­ OUS. Raccoon Berry. May Bells. The root can be carved into a tiny human figure and used in image magic. POISON. Very rare and usu­ ally replaced by the American May Apple or the English White Bryony. Also known as May Lily. Mannikin. The un­ curled dried fronds are known as Lucky Hands and bring luck. PURPLE (Lythrum salicaria). MAIDENHAIR (Adiantumpedatim). Gallows. Rainbow Weed. MARIGOLD (Calendula officinalis). The oil or distilled water from the flowers is said to strengthen the memory when applied to the third eye in the center of your fore­ head. Brain Thief. LOOSESTRIFE. LILY OF THE VALLEY (Convallaria magalis). Holigold.

Witch Herb. NUTS & CONES. capable of pro­ tection. bringing money and happiness wherever it is hung. Velvetback. Sacred to Thorr and Balder. All nuts and cones are sa­ cred to the fertility deities. Also known as Joy of the Mountains. it helps one to see Elves and Dwarves. such as walnuts. A Moon herb. Feltwort. MULLEIN (Verbascum thapsus). Donnerbesen. Also known as Naughty Man. brings money and happiness. and known in Old Norse as mistillteinn. Mountain Mint. MARJORAM (Origanum majorana). A flower carried in the pocket helps to win favor in court. Use in an infusion with peppermint to cleanse magical tools if unde­ sirable people have handled them. are very lucky. Sweet Marjoram. Powdered mullein leaves are a good substi­ tute for graveyard dust in old spells. POISON­ OUS if eaten. It is an all-purpose herb. Wintersweet. Also known as Golden Bough. alba). OAK (Quercus robur. Q. Oil from its flowers is excellent for children's ear­ aches. Also known as Hag's Taper. Velvet Plant. MISTLETOE (Viscum album). divination and clairvoyance. MUGWORT (Artemisia vulgaris). granting love and health. Used in spell-bags. Artemisia. Carry it for courage and to keep away wild animals. Sailor's Tobacco. Thunderbesom.170 I Norse Magic in incenses or washes. Also known . it relieves depression. Candlewick Plant. Shepherd's Club. Double nuts. its odor in incenses helps with scrying. Pot Marjoram. Birdlime.

It is also a good additive to gain money and protection. Lammint. White Oak. This plant repels ants and flies. Although not an herb. A few grains sprinkled throughout the house will cleanse all vibrations that are nega­ tive. Burned. it banishes unwanted spirits. PEPPERMINT (Mentha piperita). salt is a sacred substance. Carduus benedictus). used by nearly every religious culture in the world. Drink pepper­ mint tea to help clear head colds. Also known as Goat Weed. A n infusion sprinkled around the ritual area expels all negativity. This grows as a lichen on the oak trees and is a wonderful fixa­ tive for scents in incenses. SALT. ST. It can be used in incenses . This must be repeated every Full Moon. it drives off lightning and ghosts. JOHNSWORT (Hypericum perfora­ tum). Also known as Buttons. When picked on Summer Solstice and hung near a window. THISTLE. Acorns are carried for youthfulness. Also known as Holy Thistle. Herba John. BLESSED (Carbenia benedicta. Cnicus benedietus. Especially sa­ cred to Thorr because oaks are frequently struck by lightning. warm the body and increase energy. OAKMOSS (Evernia pruastri).Spellwork / 171 as Tanner's Bark. Duir. TANSY (Tanacetum vulgare). Plant an acorn on the N e w Moon to acquire money quickly. Its lem­ ony fragrance makes a good vibration purifier. long life and freedom from illnesses and pain. Also known as Brandy Mint. Oak wood makes excellent all-purpose wands of great power.

it protects. Wands made from willow branches are specifically for Moon magic. Mother of Thyme. One of the Norse sacred herbs burned to purify temples and objegts. serpyllum). . The powdered root is sometimes used in place of grave­ yard dust called for in old spellworkings. An infusion sprinkled around the ritual area is good for exorcism and purification. Thriving plants grown in the house or garden provide a steady inflow of money. VERVAIN/VERBENA (Verbana officinalis. A Norse sacred herb used in spells of love. Tree of Enchantment. V. VALERIAN (Valeriana officinalis). Enchanter's Plant. Cat's Valerian. Van-Van. Also known as Common Thyme. WILD THYME (T. purification. Witches' Aspirin. WHITE WILLOW (Salix alba). Hung in the home or carried in bags. Amatilla. hastata). Also known as European Willow. cleansing. Withy. Vandal Root. Also known as Juno's Tears. protec­ tion. Also known as Garden Heliotrope.172 I Norse Magic or bouquets to break hexes. It is a Moon tree sacred to all Moon Goddesses and Great Mother God­ desses. But cats are said to love pillows made with this herb. Crush a leaf against your third eye in the center of your fore­ head to enhance your psychic powers. THYME. GARDEN (Thymus vulgaris). Holy Herb. But willows have been known to cause trouble for anyone cutting their limbs without asking first and leaving a gift. Blue Vervain. This plant has a strong pun­ gent odor that is repelling to some people. Herb of Enchantment. It is a favorite plant of Elves.

Also known as Curled Dock. Also known as Master of the Woods. Also known as Seven Years' Love. Soldier's Woundwort.Spellwork 1173 Tap on a willow with your knuckles to avert evil and accidents. divina­ tions. WOODRUFF (Asperula odorata). YARROW {Achillea millefolium). Woodrove. Its stalks can be used in divination spells and to consult the I Ching. European Yew. WORMWOOD {Artemisia absinthium). . YEW (Taxus baccata). Yarrow tea is drunk to improve your psychic pow­ ers. Sanguinary. The seeds and powder are used in money spells and incenses. prophecy. Also known as Chinwood. It acquires its fragrant scent only as it dries. YELLOW DOCK (Rumex crispus). this herb can be used in incenses for scrying. POISON­ OUS. English Yew. Military Herb. When you wish to change the outlook of your life. and astral projection. Wuderove. It is safer to use the oil rather than the poisonous plant. carry a few leaves with you. A quarter ounce steeped for nine days in a bottle of wine makes a fine magical and spellworking drink. Absinthe. It can be used as decorations at Winter Sol­ stice to symbolize death and endings. It is not advisable to eat or drink anything made with this herb as it is addictive and DANGEROUS. Also known as Crown for a King. Sour Dock. A very magical herb sacred to the Moon.

The same applies whenever you get water on the sword and dagger. This is best done on the Full Moon. With a lighted candle. Light your incense. strong impressions. The prophecy is read by interpreting the images seen . Stir the cauldron gently three times with your fingers. Be certain that any candles you use do not reflect in the cauldron or shine in your eyes. or later dreams. carefully dry it afterwards to avoid rusting. P r o p h e c y : Fill the cauldron half-full of fresh water. Anytime you use water or other liquids in your cauldron. O Gods of Asgard. P r o p h e c y : Fill the cauldron half-full of fresh water. If you use the kind without legs and plan to burn anything very hot in it. with or without legs. Float a few buttercup or marigold petals in it. bring into my mind The lovely gift of prophecy. Lay aside the dagger and look deep into the cauldron.174 I Norse Magic Cauldron Magic Cauldrons come in all sizes. place a heat mat un­ derneath to prevent scorching the altar top. The prophecies may come in immediate visions. Stir the cauldron gently three times with your dagger while chanting softly: Into the threads of time I cast my thoughts To catch a glimpse of what will be. slowly drip spots of wax into the swirling water.

bury the herbs and ashes in the ground to destroy the illness. Tap the parchment three times with the wand. Heal (person's name) of all ill­ nesses. Hear my call. Rebuild his/her body. P r o s p e r i t y : Place the cauldron in the center . Your healing comes tonight. The Sun. Slowly sprinkle the herbs over the ashes. Cauldron of rebirth and renewal. much like reading tea leaves. A stick figure with the person's name un­ derneath will do. When cool. clouds and horses usually signify journeys or movement. This need not be artistic. Healing: Have on the offering plate these herbs: mountain ash leaves or berries. All wrongness now is right. Moon and stars indicate spiritual growth and/or life's successes. vervain. draw a fig­ ure to represent the sick person. My words have reached to Asgard. say: Cauldron of the Great Mother. On a small piece of parchment.Spellwork 1175 in the wax. feverfew. This is best done on the Full Moon. mind and spirit. Tap the cauldron with your wand. Light the parchment from one of the altar candles and drop it into the cauldron to burn: All illness turn to ashes. This is best done during the waning Moon. Boats. Develop your own interpretations for the images.

Hold the bag over the incense smoke: Blessings to all who come to my aid. Place the offering bowl outside overnight. At the same time on each of the two days before the Full Moon. On Full Moon night. chamomile. Gather the herbs and stuff them into the bag. Do not light it until the Full Moon night. a rose in a vase beside it. carve into the candle with your dagger the runic equivalent of a "true love for me. you Elves and Dwarves of old.176 I Norse Magic of the altar with the offering bowl of milk and honey by the side. dressed in fur and silk. thus bringing to you the love you . A thank you gift for aiding me To find luck and prosperity. I've brought you gifts of honey and milk. Stir lightly with your wand while chanting: Come. Small ones. bistort. Also have available rose or apple blossom oil and a small bell. fasten shut by tying or sewing. L o v e : Set up the altar two days before the Full Moon with a pink candle in its holder inside the cauldron." Rub the candle with oil from the wick down to the end. Iceland moss and vervain. Between friends is this bargain made. Carry the bag with you or keep on your altar. Fill my pockets up with gold. Into the cauldron sprinkle a little woodruff (for changes in your life). Pour what remains onto the ground in the morning. Also have ready a small green cloth bag. hold the pink candle and pour loving thoughts into it. This is best done during the waxing Moon.

Lay the horn to the left of the cauldron. please give to me A true love. Freyr. re­ turn to those who sent you! Begone. please bring to me Love's ever-burning fire. Lord of Love. Then as the flame does flicker low Finally to depart. Ring the bell three times. B a n i s h i n g : Set the cauldron in the center of the altar with the offering plate of salt beside it or on top. Set the candle in its holder inside the caul­ dron and light it. Whether you be born of thought or deed. heart to heart. Leave the al­ tar as it is until the candle has burned completely out. foul troublemakers! By the power of oak and ash and thorn. Freyr. and . Hold your sword straight out and over the caul­ dron while you chant: By the power of oak and ash and thorn. Chant: As this candle flame grows bright And ever grows much higher.Spellwork 1177 desire. Lord of Love. the Asa-Gods will send you to the flames ofMuspell and the freezing darkness of Hel! Slink back to your makers! Take up lodg­ ing in their homes and hearts where you belong! By the power of oak and ash and thorn. I give warning to all negative entities. I say Begone! If you stay. Ring the bell three more times.

178 I Norse Magic all the Gods of Asgard. . Rest your sword point-down on the floor at your feet. in my hour of need. Take up your sword and hold it out over the cauldron. Grant me your protection. This is best done during the waning Moon. Chant 3. elder flowers. I say DEPART! Lay the sword on the floor before the altar. Protection: Best done during the waxing Moon. Champion of the Gods and human­ kind. your presence is re­ quired. including the trunk space. I await your aid and protection. holding both hands on the hilt. Thorr of the mighty hammer. 5. Defend me against all evil. sprinkle salt in it also. Put your cauldron in the center of the altar with a goblet of wine on the right side. Give one long blast on the horn. the horn on the left. Be my champion. Then put a little salt over the herbs. or shout: "Get out NOW!" Take up the plate of salt and hold it high. Inside the cauldron lay a piece of jewelry you will wear to increase the protection. sprinkling a few grains of salt in each cor­ ner. blessed thistle and vervain on the altar around the caul­ dron. Also sprinkle window ledges and door sills. great Thorr. 7 or 9 times: Mighty Thorr. Blow the horn three times. Sprinkle equal parts of chamomile. Then go through every room and closet of your home. If you feel your car needs cleansing.

And to bond our friendship. strong in his hall. I now ask one more boon. solemnly hold up the goblet.Spellwork 1179 Lay the sword on the floor before the altar. write the name of the person who is bother­ ing you. I do thank you. Put out the candles. With the dagger. Binding: This is best done during the wan­ ing Moon. or "all my enemies. One for Thorr. tightly . Set the cauldron on the altar with a can­ dle holder inside. one at a time. great horn in his hand. carve four small X s length­ wise on a black candle. Tie four black threads. Save part of the wine to be poured outside as Thorr's share: We have drunk together as comrades. One for Freyja. Gather up the herbs and salt and sprinkle outside. I offer drink. champion of all. Put on the jewelry." Anoint the paper with vervain or binding oil and place under the candle holder. One for Heimdall. On a small piece of parchment paper. As you carve each one. Queen of the land. Bless this jewelry that I may know that your hand of protection is with me at all times. For each drink you take. say: r One for the Allfather. I share this with You. mighty Thorr. Lift up the goblet of wine: For my champion.

. Hear my plea. Stone to stone. Bury or throw away the remaining herbs.180 I Norse Magic around the candle while saying: One to seek them I him I her. lay your hands on the Earth and whisper: Erce. So say I. To gain a desire. Carefully carve or paint the weapon's name and your magical name in runes on the hilt. Erce. then roll in a mixture of vervain. Oil the candle from the end to the wick. One to bind them I him I her. Erce. go to a secluded area where there is a small patch of bare earth. Then burn the parchment on the offering plate. One to find them I him I her. Sword and Dagger Magic It is Norse tradition to name your sword and dagger. Mother Earth. Allow the candle to burn out completely. This spell is done. One to bring them I him I her. T o G a i n a D e s i r e : Sword and dagger magic is the easiest to do. lightly carve your desire into the ground. With your weapon. Walk away without looking back. Place in the holder and light. Send this desire or better to me. See the section in this chapter on Dwarf Magic for consecration rituals for sword and dagger. valerian and blessed thistle. When fin­ ished. parchment ashes and candle wax. forever one. then surround it with a circle.

This symbol looks like an upside-down capital T. Beginning on the right side. For bind­ ing or reversing. Using the weapon. Nothing and no one wishing me harm shall pass this way. step back across the sword and seal the doorway with the dagger. I will sit beside the Well of Urd for in­ struction by the Norns. Freely I return. As you draw this symbol at the open­ ings. Cord Magic Always choose a color according to your needs and desires of each particular spellwork. Stand be­ yond the sword. Increase Visions During Meditation: Choose a comfortable chair and lay the sword crosswise about three feet in front of it. draw the sym­ bol of Thorr's hammer in the air before the open­ ing. Go through the house clockwise as when you draw a circle. do at the waning or New Moon. say: By the power of Mjollnir and Thorr. and going up and to the left. This is done by drawing the doorway from left to right. Freely I go.Spellwork 1181 Protection of Home and Belongings: Stand before each window and door with dagger or sword in hand. "cut" a doorway in the air. Walk through the door to your chair and be­ gin your meditation. When your meditation is fin­ ished. then say: Across Bifrost bridge I go to commune with the Gods of Asgard. . dagger in hand.

Hold the cord or thread in both hands and concentrate on what you want done. that entice Elves. Begin at one end of the cord and work towards the other end in tying knots. this power I store. events I'll fix. throw it into a river or out the car window along a busy highway. to Asgard's Heaven I send my spell for the Gods to see. etc. Be sure to use your quartz and moonstone.182 I Norse Magic For all increase spells. For other spells. it will come true. and the cord used again at another time. this spell's alive. offering plate with marigold . If you wish the spell to work a very long time. Then bury the thread. my power shall be. As you tie each knot. To give me aid and enlighten me. By knot of three. such as with binding spells. this spell's begun. do at the waxing or Full Moon. chant: By knot of one. C o n s e c r a t i o n o f t h e W a n d : Best done on the Full Moon. The knots can be untied when the spellwork manifests. By knot of six. By knot of two. * Elf Magic See the Tables of Correspondence for colors. store the cord in a safe secret place. By knot of five. use thread in­ stead of cord. To be put on the altar: offering bowl with milk and honey. By knot of four. This spell goes out on wings of power To return full-grown in another hour. herbs. By knot of seven.

Your blessings now need I. Drawing Elves sublime. Next morning pour the herbs and milk outside. Place your offering bowl with a little milk and honey by the plant or in the garden on the New and Full Moon. Gently stroke the wand from the tip towards you. Light a good bless­ ing incense with a pinch of ginger added. crystal and moonstone. or if you are planting a garden. either by carving or painting. Do this for several minutes. alternately using the crystal and moonstone. very lightly sprinkle ginger around the plant or edges of the garden to entice the Elves. If you have named the wand. This I ask from friend to friend. Lay the wand in the center of the altar. put that name and your magical name on it in runes. If the plant is indoors. set your crystal quartz or moonstone near it. The power returns from Alfheim. Leave the wand on the altar overnight with the offering bowl and plate. By Earth and plant and sky. To cross the air of space and time.Spellwork 1183 petals and thyme. Place an offering of milk and honey with a little ginger sprinkled in it either . Chant: Light to Light. P l a n t M a g i c : If you have a plant that needs special help. the call goes out. This wand was made for magic. A n i m a l M a g i c : An Elf blessing for pets or wild animals is a good way t o establish friendly contact with the Elves.

lay a few fern fronds by the bowl. While asleep or while at play. Beautiful Light Elves. For (animal's name) needs your protection. Any herbs you plan to use for Norse magic should be blessed as soon as possible. Your presence here I ask. Hear my call.184 I Norse Magic on your altar or outside in a sheltered place. Put them in their containers. listen. Stand before the altar with wand in hand: Light Elves. If pos­ sible. Blessings to all who come to my aid. To this little one protection give That he/she may have no fear. gen­ tly tap the bowl three times and say: Light Elves. This spell may also be used to protect chil­ dren. Also lay out your crystal and moonstone. Burn a good blessing incense to which you have added a pinch of ginger. answer me. Between friends is this bargain made. H e r b B l e s s i n g : Best done during the wax­ ing Moon or on the Full Moon. Have marigold petals and thyme on the offering plate on the altar also. Light Elves and children have a strong affin­ ity for each other. With your wand. and set all the containers on your altar. Keep (animal's name) safe by night and day. To safeguard him I her is your task. Join with me . I ask your presence here. come now.

H o u s e a n d P r o p e r t y B l e s s i n g : Best done on the Full Moon. come. Tap the bags. so I give to you. and put one in each bag. Leave the offering plate on the altar over­ night. Burn a blessing incense. and plate with your wand: Light Elves. Then tap the offering plate: As you have given to me. Be sure to use your pyrite and steel or iron. parchments. Leave the bags between the crystal and moonstone on the altar overnight. herbs. both Lord and Lady. From your home in forests shady. Fold the parchment into small squares.Spellwork 1185 To bless these herbs most merrily. offering plate with thyme and ginger. Save some of the herbs to put outside for the Elves. etc. Then sprinkle the herbs outside. Rest the wand briefly on each container. crys­ tal and moonstone. Have on the altar: two small blue or green cloth bags. Sprinkle a small amount of herbs into each bag. You can then hang one in your house and one in your car. . And we shall be friends happily. Dwarf Magic See the Tables of Correspondence for the cor­ rect incense. colors. two small pieces of parchment with the words Light Elves written in runes on them. Change the herbs and repeat the chant each Full Moon. Give your blessings now to me.

Gleam of silver and of gold. Lay your magical jewelry inside the cauldron on the al­ tar between the pyrite and metal. If you have not carved or painted its name in runes on the hilt. That magic filled these weapons be. Chant: From the mountains good Dwarves bold Often came in times of old. along with your magical name. Burn a good blessing incense with a pinch of cinnamon added. Good Dwarves. Join with me as in times old. Spell-bind this sword and dagger here. With their magic and their spells. Gently stroke both the sword and dagger from tip to hilt with the pyrite and metal. Hark! Make this jewelry magical. Blessing Magical Jewelry: Burn a bless­ ing incense with a pinch of cinnamon added. do so now. Now I ask you come to me. magical and bold. Do this for several minutes. listen unto me. Lay your sword and dagger on the altar be­ tween the pyrite and steel or iron. Hammers sounding in the dark.1861 Norse Magic Consecration of Sword and Dagger: Best done between the New and Full Moons. Raise your dag­ ger over the cauldron and chant: Hammers. hammers. Good Dwarves. . underground. Good Dwarves. Leave them on the altar over­ night. harken. Call each weapon by the name you have chosen for it before replacing it on the altar.

Be sure to leave them sprinklings of cinnamon. and pass it slowly through the incense smoke. Tap the bags. Dwelling place and delight of all Good Dwarves. Chant: . parchments and plate lightly with your dagger. offering plate with cin­ namon and thyme. pieces of pyrite and steel or iron. Bend your Earth-powers to help me.Spellwork 1187 Master Smiths. thyme and marigold petals. bring help to me. Who speak chants of protection and aid. Have on the altar: your dagger. Master Smiths and Miners. etc. stones. Put each piece of jewelry on the tip of the dag­ ger blade. Burn a good blessing incense. That magic power I may hold. walk in peace. Harken to the words of the Master Smiths and Miners. Leave on the altar overnight S t o n e M a g i c : Anytime you purchase any­ thing containing a gemstone. Use this chant: Stones. aid and protection. ask the Good Dwarves for blessings. two small pieces of parchment with the words Good Dwarves written on them in runes. gar­ dens. Circle your deep power to protect me.. or are working with stones in any manner. bones of Mother Earth. such as landscaping. two small dark green or brown cloth bags. H o u s e a n d P r o p e r t y B l e s s i n g : This may be combined with the blessing by the Light Elves.

run meant mystery and secret. In Old English. In Old Norse. Leave the bags between the pyrite and metal overnight. Give your blessings now to me. The carved runes were painted red to embody them with magical power. wisdom and magical signs. You can then hang one in your house and the other in your car. Save some herbs to put out­ side for the Dwarves. there were few curved lines. the word run meant secret lore. in your caverns deep. meaning mystery. There were some variations from country to country. later used to write ordinary messages. Hear my words. Rune Magic Nordic-Germanic runes were a magical al­ phabet. The word in Old High German was runa. the same as it did in Old Saxon. Sprinkle small amounts of herbs into each bag. In ancient Germanic the words for "to make red" and "to endow with magical power" were the same.188 I Norse Magic Good Dwarves. This can be done in conjunction with the similar spell for Light Elves. but basically they were similar enough to be read by any knowl­ edgeable rune-master or magician. Fold the parchment into small squares and put one in each bag. secret or to whisper a se­ cret. Watch with me keep. And we shall be friends happily. . Change the herbs and repeat the chant each Full Moon. Be­ cause they were usually carved in wood or stone.

ansuz. Often they carried a staff carved with runes and capped with a bronze mounting. laguz. whether male or female. their magical meanings. Some runic alphabets had more letters than others. eihwaz. raidho. mannaz. Rune-mas­ ters. Freyja's Eight are: fehu. and the Moon. andsowilo. among these were Thorr's hammer. ingwaz. The runes can be used to write out spells or put names on magical objects. hold the bag in your hands and say: . perdhro. kaunaz. and other impor­ tant features. Tyr's Eight are: tiwaz. naudhiz. uruz. the wealth symbol. the World Tree. thurisaz. elhaz. were treated with great honor and respect.) Before using the runestones in any form of divination. the deity or deities connected with them. ehwo. berkano. jera. There were also powerful symbols fre­ quently found in Nordic rock carvings but not con­ sidered part of the Elder Runes. two types of the Sun-wheel. Following this table is a description of the seven mystical runes.Spellwork 1189 Rune-masters were identified by their deep blue cloaks and the leather charm pouches at their belts. othalaz. and wunjo. the ship. This chapter contains a table which lists the 24 Elder Runes. (See the previous chap­ ter on magical tools. Hagal's (World Tree) Eight are: hagalaz. The 24 Elder Runes are traditionally divided into groups of eight runes each. paint or etch each rune on one side of a thin one-inch square of wood or a small flat stone. and dagaz. gebo. To use the runes for divination. isa.

Five stones may also be drawn and placed in the Cross of Thorr for reading. Lay them out in a horizontal line. starting from the left. and the top is the future. Keep the milestones in a bag large enough to get your hand inside. The negative meanings of each rune apply to the reversed position or if the rune lies next to another rune that must be read in the negative. The two runes flank­ ing it are the present conditions affecting the ques­ tion. Vana-Goddess ofseidr. you may draw up to three more runestones to clarify it. This layout is an equal-armed cross: one runestone in the middle. Mistress of Magic. Reveal to me the future paths. Rune-Master. If the future posi­ tion is unclear. the center the present. one below this. Gently stir the runestones and say: Urd! Verthandi! Skuld! Without looking. Another way of foretelling by the runes is to cast them on a square piece of cloth or fur. representing the person for which the reading is being done. Freyja. The left stone will be the past. The bottom rune is past conditions still hav­ ing an influence. and one on each side of the middle runestone. Use the magical meanings from the table to interpret the reading. draw out three. The middle rune is the person involved. This is . one above this. Lead me to true knowledge Of the sacred runes. and the right stone the future.1901 Norse Magic Allfather Odhinn.

Spellwork 1191 done by selecting nine runes without looking. Any runes that land with the rune not showing are not read. Lead me to true knowledge Of the sacred runes. Hold the runestones in your hands over the cloth and concentrate on your question. The fur­ ther out on the cloth the further into the future is the influence. Vana-Goddess ofseidr. Freyja. Gently toss the runes away from you onto the cloth while saying: Urd! Verthandi! Skuld! The nearest runes are read as the past or things moving away from the questioner. This also applies to any runes that do not fall on the cloth. Mistress of Magic. . Hold them in your hands and say: Allfather Odhinn. Reveal to me the future paths. Rune-Master.

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good luck. minor illnesses. fulfillment. drizzle. goals reached. aurochs. V Norse Name: Uruz. Ur—Ox. good fortune. dynamic power. 193 . Rune: Alphabet: U . fee.Elder Rune Table Rune: Alphabet: F Norse Name: Fehu. Tree: Birch Deity: Vanir Color: Dark green Tarot Card: High Priestess Astrology: Taurus Magical Meaning: Advancement. basic powers of manifestation. Fe—Cattle. Feoh. happiness. gold. bad luck. Negative: A person or offer to be avoided. rain. property. Tree: Elder Deity: Aesir Color: Light red Tarot Card: Tower Astrology: Aries Magical Meaning: Money. If near negative. money.

chariot. Negative: Bad advice. Reidh. wagon. one of the Aesir. Rune: Alphabet: A Norse Name: Ansuz. the good one. Rit. Ass—Asa. Rod—Long journey on horseback. . ances­ tral god. Tree: Oak Deity: Thorr Color: Bright red Tarot Card: Emperor Astrology: Mars Magical Meaning: Journey over water.194 I Norse Magic Rune: Alphabet: T H Norse Name: Thurisaz. riding. the strong one. Thorn. Inner strength to break resistance or pass a time of waiting. Negative: Delayed or unpleasant journey. information that changes your life. Thurs—Giant. Oss. Good news from a distance. Take great care in making decisions. Rune: Alphabet: R Norse Name: Raidho. new goals. thorn. Tree: Ash Deity: Odhinn Color: Dark blue Tarot Card: Death Astrology: Mercury Magical Meaning: Transformation. god.

Negative: Bad judgment. ambition. forge. getting to the truth. Kaon. Cen. inconvenience. travel problems. generosity. Freyja Color: Deep blue TarotCard: Lovers Astrology: Pisces Magical Meaning: The exchange of force or power . determination. Trees: Ash. confusion. Controlled energy for dissolution. boil. blocks. Weland. Rune: Alphabet: C. K Norse Name: Kenaz. Dwarves. elm Deities: Odhinn. Rune: Alphabet: G Norse Name: Gebo. seeing past illusions. If near negative. Gipt—Blessing. pyre. hospitality. Life-strength. swelling. in­ spiration. sore. Gyfu. Kaun—Torch.Spellwork 1195 Tree: Oak Deity: Forseti Color: Bright red TarotCard: Hierophant Astrology: Sagittarius Magical Meaning: Journey. gifts from the Gods. hearth. Gifu. Tree: Pine Deities: Freyja. Loki Color: Light red TarotCard: Chariot Magical Meaning: The rune of craftsmen and the crafty or sly.

196 I Norse Magic between the gods and humans.Wedding,legacies, promotion, windfall. Negative: Sadness caused by someone close. Rune: Alphabet: W Norse Name: Wunjo, Wynn, Wunna, Vend—Bliss, pleasure, joy, delight, hope, pasture. Tree: Ash Deities: Freyr; Elves Color: Yellow Tarot Card: Strength Astrology: Leo Magical Meaning: Security, comfort, happiness, good social life. Negative: Needless self-sacrifice. Rune: Alphabet: H Norse Name: Hagalaz, Haegl, Hagal—Hail, snow Trees: Yew, ash Deity: Ymir Color: Light blue Tarot Card: World Astrology: Aquarius Magical Meaning: Ability to bring opposites into harmony. Delays waiting for the right time. Negative: Setbacks, delays, situations out of your control.

Spellwork 1197 Rune: Alphabet: N Norse Name: Naudhiz, Nyd, Naut, Naudhr—Need, necessity, distress. Tree: Beech Deities: Norns Color: Black Tarot Card: Devil Astrology: Capricorn Magical Meaning: Distress that clouds reality, something out of the past that drives you (not necessarily good). Caution needed to succeed. Negative: Impatience leads to dis­ aster. Rune: Alphabet: I Norse Name: Isa, Iss, Eis—Ice Tree: Alder Deities: Frost (or Rime) Giants Color: Black Tarot Card: Hermit Astrology: Moon Magical Meaning: Period of absolute stillness. Be careful what you say. Negative: Hasty words bring trouble; indifference, uncaring, detached emotions. Rune: Alphabet: J (pronounced y) Norse Name: Jera, Ger, Yer, Ar, Jer—Good year,

198 I Norse Magic harvest, good season. Tree: Oak Deities: Freyr Color: Light blue Tarot Card: Fool Astrology: Earth Magical Meaning: A cycle, rewards, no quick results. Rune: Alphabet: E L L Y Norse Name: Eihwaz, Eoh, Yr, Ihwar—Mountain ash, yew tree Tree: Y e w Deities: Odinn; Ull Color: Dark blue Tarot Card: Hanged Man Astrology: Scorpio Magical Meaning: End of a matter, situation or problem. Drastic change. Death of a relation­ ship. Negative: Old conflicts and situations cause trouble. Rune: Alphabet: P Norse Name: Perdhro, Perodh, Peorth, Fate, dice cup. Tree: Beech Deities: Norns Color: Black Tarot Card: Wheel of Fortune Astrology: Saturn

time,

reaping

Pear—

Spellwork 1199 Magical Meaning: Chance, unexpected material gain, surprise. If near negative, a secret that can hurt you. Rune: Alphabet: Z Norse Name: Elhaz, Eolh, Aquizi, Ihwar—Elk, stone axe, protection, yew bow. Tree: Y e w Deities: Valkyries Color: Gold Tarot Card: Moon Astrology: Cancer Magical Meaning: Visible movement, blockages removed. If near negative, people actively trying to stop you. Rune: Alphabet: S Norse Name: Sowilo, Sigil, Sig, Sol—Sun, Sun-wheel Tree: Juniper Diety: Balder Colors: White, Silver Tarot Card: Sun Astrology: Sun Magical Meaning: Change, guidance, time of renewal, drastic changes, complete turnaround, advancement of plans, change of residence. Negative: Failure which leads to new opportunities.

200 I Norse Magic Rune: Alphabet: T Norse Name: Tiwaz, Tyr, Tiu, Tir—Sky god, the god Tyr. Tree: Oak Deities: Tyr; Mani Color: Bright red Tarot Card: Justice Astrology: Libra Magical Meaning: Unbiased wisdom, justice, law and order. Justified victory and success. Negative: Intrigue, deception, others working against you. Rune: Alphabet: B Norse Name: Berkano, Beorc, Birca—Birch tree, birch goddess. Tree: Birch Deities: Frigg; Nerthus; Hel Color: Dark green Tarot Card: Empress Astrology: Virgo Magical Meaning: Creativity, new beginnings, birth, marriage. If near negative rune, failure, divorce, miscarriage, stagnant period. Rune: Alphabet: E Norse Name: Ehwo, Eoh, Ehwaz, steed, stallion, war horse.

Eh—Horse,

Balder Color: Deep green TarotCard: Star Astrology: Moon water. Lagu. Negative: Material loss. new home. Madhr—Mankind. progress blocked. new attitude. Rune: Alphabet: M Norse Name: Mannaz. Freyr Color: White TarotCard: Lovers Astrology: Gemini Magical Meaning: Trust. lover or husband. Tree: Holly Deities: Heimdall. ash Deities: Freyja. or laukaz—leek Tree: Willow Deities: Njord. steady progress. world. Positive Unk with the Gods. male influence in life. New career opportunities. Man. human being. If near negative. new goals. Logr—Lake. Rune: Alphabet: L Norse Name: Laguz. Odhinn Color: Deep red TarotCard: Magician Astrology: Jupiter Magical Meaning: Man. . self-transformation.Spellwork 1201 Trees: Oak.

. Tree: Apple Deities: Ing. mystic light. relatives.202 I Norse Magic Magical Meaning: Hidden movement below the surface. Ing—Kin. parents. Negative: Family becomes a burden. Family. usually with a woman involved. Ingvi. manifestation coming from other planes. attraction between two people. awakening. the god Ing (later a name for Freyr). spouse. Freyr Color: Yellow Tarot Card: Judgment Astrology: Moon's quarters Magical Meaning: Creating life-force at work. Rune: Alphabet: NG Norse Name: Ingwaz. Dag. If near negative. Life energy. behind the scenes action blocks progress. Daeg—Day Tree: Spruce Deity: Odhinn Color: Light blue Tarot Card: Temperance Astrology: Dark of the Moon Magical Meaning: Sudden realization. Benefits from relatives. children. no progress seen but it is happening. Rune: Alphabet: D Norse Name: Dagaz.

jealousy greed. Odhal. Octal. Possible change of residence. property. material success. white Magical Meaning: Motion. sacred enclosure Tree: Hawthorn Deities: OcUiinn. Othala—Homeland. wasted efforts.Spellwork 1203 Rune: Alphabet: O Norse Name: Othalaz. advancement of plans. If near a negative. Rune: Norse Name: Unknown Colors: Green. Mystical Runes Rune: Norse Name: A form of the Sun-wheel (triskelion) Colors: Gold. If near negative. . Ethel. tangible possessions. movement. someone or something keeps you from moving ahead. illusions. inherited land. gold Magical Meaning: Wealth. Thorr Color: Deep yellow Tarot Card: Moon Astrology: Pull Moon Magical Meaning: Inborn qualities.

Cosmic guidance in everyday life. you must work hard to gain success. Negative: Chaos. Rune: Norse Name: Thorr's hammer Color: Red Magical Meaning: Increase. white Magical Meaning: Inner guidance. Rune: Norse Name: Sun-wheel Colors: Gold. seeking mystical truths. will power. bad advice. Overpowers all negative runes.204 I Norse Magic gain. protection. psychic abilities. magical power under control. false information. If near a negative. Rune: Norse Name: Moon Colors: Silver. gullibility. . Overpowers all negative runes. If near a negative. protection. Rune: Norse Name: World Tree Color: Green Magical Meaning: Protection through magical workings. white Magical Meaning: Orderly change.

. journeys. problems growing more burdensome.Spellwork 1205 Rune: Norse Name: Ship Color: Blue Magical Meaning: Growth. movement. transmutation of problems into positive situations: Negative: Stagnation.

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purple Incense/Oil: rose. Wave-Roller. Name: Audhumla Also Called: Nourisher. lapis lazuli. tin Plants: avens. whale Stones/Metals: coral.11. turquoise. naudhiz Chant: Hail. Tables of Correspondence Norse Deities Name: Aegir Also Called: the Alebrewer Colors: turquoise. god of the deep. Give only good things from your hand. rose. oak. cedar Symbols: dolphin. bring me good to keep. verbena Day: Thursday Runes: laguz. Aegir. watery Van. Alebrewer. Turn always a smiling face toward me. Vana-God of the sea. Mother Earth 207 . amethyst. Wind and wave obey your command. polypody. Alebrewer.

copper Plants: loosestrife. Baldur Also Called: the Bright One. mugwort. Shining God. May my house be bright. Nourisher. marigold. Thought-Flourisher. Grant me harmony. fehu. Shining God. goldstone Plants: ash. hawthorn Day: Monday Runes: uruz. Nourisher. rose.208 I Norse Magic Colors: green. my future right. willow. white Incense/Oil: frankincense. St. mistletoe. Mother Earth. Your nourishment keeps from your children the cold. Mother of birth. Baldr. the Bleeding God. Sun God Colors: gold. cinnamon Symbol: the Sun Stones/Metals: gold. hagalaz Chant: Mother Earth. fir. Johnswort Day: Sunday Runes: sowilo. Light for all to see. Bless my family and my hands. Bless my home and all my lands. celandine. . Open up my inner eyes. chamomile. birch. brown Incense/Oil: juniper. jasmine. raidho Chant: Bright One. Name: Balder. smoky topaz. great mother of old. lotus Symbol: cow Stones/Metals: quartz crystal.

verbena Day: Thursday . Master Poet. marjoram. Grant me creativity. The arts as my destiny. gebo. master o f eloquence Colors: orange. carnelian. dagaz. Bless me. mandrake. tin Plants: avens. Wise is he and eloquent. maidenhair. Name: Forseti Also Called: God of justice Color: yellow Incense/Oil: rose. Hear his glorious song. storax Symbols: harp. oak. aquamarine. rose. Sing a magic song. happier life. othalaz Chant: See the Master Poet. valerian. book Stones/Metals: agate. To make the next incarnation A better. cedar Symbol: scales Stones/Metals: lapis lazuli. polypody. beech Day: Wednesday Runes: mannaz.Tables of Correspondence 1209 Help me bring my life to balance. lily of the valley. Name: Bragi Also Calledf Patron of skalds and minstrels. multi-colored Incense/Oil: sandalwood. Writing sagas long. amethyst. Give me wisdom and advice. alloys Plants: fern.

mint. Seer. Bring calm and justice to my life. Brisingamen. perdhro. mint. valerian Day: Friday Runes: kaunaz. necklace. O glorious one. apple. tansy. horse and sword. Freya Also Called: Lady. floral scents Symbols: cat. Mistress of cats. Sweep away the tears and strife. Lady of love. Teach me the magic I need. yarrow. rose. Give me a glimpse of your deep . tiwaz Chant 1: (as Seer and Lady) Great Goddess. Queen of the Valkyries Color: red—physical love black—protection. ehwaz. silver. mugwort. Great Goddess. Stretch out your soothing hand. boar. thyme. birch. Talents of the god Forseti. Fulfill my greatest needs. sandalwood. moonstone. Wipe clean the marked life sand. feverfew. elhaz Chant: Justice. vervain. peace. Freyja of the Black Swordhand. malachite. bramble. jade. beautiful VanaGoddess. copper Plants: alder. fehu. emerald. tranquility. Name: Freyja. 5-pointed star Stones/Metals: amber. revenge silver or green—all other aspects Incense/Oil: rose. uruz.210 I Norse Magic Runes: naudhiz. number 13. the Sage. elder. the Full Moon.

the Sun Stones/Metals: goldstone. Lady of love. You are the Shape-shifter. Give me the strength and the magic I need. The Independent One. stands at my side. I lift up my sword to repel all attackers. the Sayer. I would weave strong magic for protection. Chant 2: (as Valkyrie leader) Queen of the warrior-women. bronze . enchantments deep. Sun God. You who beckon to fallen heroes. Queen of the Valkyries. the Lover. Fro Also Called: the Lord. rose quartz. Freyja. Name: Freyr. sandalwood. brass.Tables of Correspondence I 211 wisdom. O Lady. you are Golden-Tears of Asgard. Frey. god of Yule Colors: red—physical aspect green or gold—other aspects Incense/Oil: mint. Harken to this. gold. your child. Beware. Mistress of Magic. Teach me in dreams. Enrich my life. foul troublemakers! For Freyja whispers her spells in my ear. beautiful VanaGoddess. Freyja of the Black Swordhand. Deep magic to bind and chasten. rose Symbols: boar.

Day: Friday Runes: sowilo. nuts and cones. ivy. dagaz. Name: Frigg. Show me the way to reconcile opposites in my life: Independence and commitment. Fill my life with good things. mannaz Chant: Asa-Mother. Green groves to worship in. Johnswort. ingwaz. peace and love To satisfy the body. raidho Chant: The Lord. mountain ash. Loving wife and mother. crystal. great Freyr. Abundance. Happiness. silver. jera. Mother Goddess Colors: silver. . the Lover. blue Incense/Oil: lily of the valley Symbol: crown Stones/Metals: moonstone. Queen of Asgard. copper Plants: birch. Vanir god of the Sun and wealth. hawthorn Day: Monday Runes: berkano. Frigga.212 I Norse Magic Plants: avens. yew. yet holder of infinite wisdom. Giving and receiving. And other believers in the Old Gods To fill those groves with joy again. holly. St. uruz. bravery and honor To feed the soul. fir. Hear me. Frjja Also Called: Queen of the Gods. ansuz. Sun and rain to bless the Earth. quartz.

chrysolite. corn. jacinth. gold Incense/Oil: floral scents Symbols: plow. St. marigold. Gefion. corn Stones/Metals: amber. gold. fehu. celandine. thyme. Name: Gullveig. Teach me the cleverness to be all needed things. Gefjun Also Called: the Giver. amber Symbol: the Sun Stones/Metals: topaz. Heid Also Called: Golden Branch. yarrow Day: Friday Runes: gebo. copper Plants: ash. Mistress of Magic Colors: green. cinnamon. malachite. Show me what I need To grow in art and wisdom. apart and free.Tables of Correspondence I 213 Destiny and changing-magic. Mistress of the growing land. Change my luck and fortune. elder. my magic power feed. Aesir Mother. wheat. alder. copper Plants: hawthorn. bless me. Yet to remain myself. mistletoe. jera Chant: Fertility Lady. Guide my steps in magic Till fate turns in my hand. the Giver. Name: Gefiort. chamomile. Gleaming One Color: gold Incense/Oil: frankincense. wheat. Johnswort .

oak. elm. . copper. Guardian of Bifrost Colors: white. rainbow Stones/Metals: aquamarine. Name: Heimdall Also Called: the White God. elhaz. jet. Gleaming One. ingwaz Chant: Guardian of Bifrost bridge. End old events of my life smoothly. yew. rose. polypody. juniper. bronze Plants: avens. dagaz. Heimdall. amethyst. obsidian. Chant: Golden Branch. Healer divine. tiwaz. eihwaz. black agate. dog Stones/Metals: onyx.214 I Norse Magic Day: Sunday Runes: sowilo. tiwaz. Aid and instruct me. verbena Day: Thursday Runes: mannaz. Influence my fate. Hela Also Called: Queen of the Dead Color: black Incense/Oil: storax. Blower of the great horn Gjall. eihwaz. myrrh Symbols: wolf. Beginnings and endings are influenced by your hand. gold. White God. elder. multi-colors Incense/Oil: birch Symbols: horn. Vanir sorceress. Guide of seers and prophecy. lead Plants: beech. ivy. hear me! Name: Hel. Make new and better beginnings for me.

ruby. You delight in revengeful clashes. willow Day: Saturday Runes: hagalaz. son of the Allfather. steel Plants: thistle. red agate. Let my enemies taste defeat and ashes. ehwo Chant: Dark mistress of Sleet-Den. Name: Hoenir. garnet. hawthorn. iron. Honir Also Called: the Silent One Color: red . Name: Hermod Also Called: the Brave One Color: red Incense/Oil: dragon's blood. Help me to find honor and bravery. Queen of the land of ice and snow. Goddess of the Dead and Niflheim. red topaz. wormwood Day: Tuesday Runes: tiwaz. pepper Symbols: sword. You whose hands gather evil ones To stay-in your land below. Goddess Hel of Death and Darkness. The treasured virtues that grant entrance into Asgard. isa. eihwaz. shield Stones/Metals: bloodstone.Tables of Correspondence 1215 mullein. elhaz Chant: Asa-God. ingwaz. You who braved the ride into the kingdom of Hel To ask the return of the Shining God. woodruff. blackthorn. pine.

ehwo Chant: White Lady of the Wild Hunt. Black Earth Mother Color: black Incense/Oil: storax. Fire and cold. Berchta Also Called: White Lady. helmet Stones/Metals: bloodstone. myrrh Symbols: wolf. obsidian. Change the fate that rules me. Crone Lady of the Moon. willow. black agate. Holle. Holde. . red topaz. elder Day: Saturday Runes: isa. Teach me to be silent until the time for defense comes. yew. red agate. ivy. bear Stones/Metals: onyx.216 I Norse Magic Incense/Oil: pine Symbols: shield. elm. othala Chant: Asa-God. To all who ill-wish me. the Crone. eihwaz. worm­ wood Day: Tuesday Runes: elhaz. iron. mullein. garnet. Lift all curses soon. silent warrior. blackthorn. woodruff. Help me to defend myself. hawthorn. juniper. Hulda. jet. Whose thoughts lie only in bravery and warrior-skill. Dark Moon Goddess. Bertha. lead Plants: beech. Name: Holda. hagalaz. steel Plants: thistle. pine. ruby.

obsidian. smoky topaz. Crone Lady of old. willow. rose. the Trickster. elder Day: Saturday . ivy. thistle. copper . eihwaz. willow. mugwort. pepper. Shape-Changer Color: black Incense/Oil: dragon's blood. fir. black agate. Name: Idhunn. mullein. othalaz Chant: Asa-Goddess of immortality. Idun Also Called: Keeper of the Golden Apples Colors: silver. lead Plants: beech. Keeper of the wondrous golden apples. yew. Let my keyword be flexibility. That my expansion in the realm of magic May be unending. blackthorn. Grant me the youth and long life of the Gods. birch. Plants: loosestrife. yew Symbol: snake Stones/Metals: onyx. juniper. Name: Loki Also Called: Father of Lies. crystal. hawthorn Day: Monday Runes: elhaz. Youth and enduring life of the mind as well as of the body. elm. jet. green Incense/Oil: apple blossom Symbol: apples Stones/Metals: quartz.Tables of Correspondence / 217 Their lives be in ashes.

Gunning and fire. evil spell-weaver. Blood-brother of Odhinn. Loki divine. Mimr. naudhiz. Name: Mimir. From whom truth flies. dagaz. marigold. That trouble be made. Master of Lies. Skillful Shape-Changer. kaunaz Chant: 1: (as Master Thief) A thief has taken what is mine. mischievous faring. But harken that my spirit stays free. teach me. Come to my aid. jacinth. Wondrous dark magic. ehwo. Teach me your daring. chamomile.218 I Norse Magic Runes: thurisaz. othala. Return it all. treacherous liar. Keep me from danger. St. well Stones/Metals: topaz. ansuz Chant: Asa-God whose great wisdom is kept at the Fountain of Midgard. mistletoe. Chant 2: (other aspects) Oath-Breaker. gold. Troublemaker. . Loki. Mimi Also Called: the Wise One Color: yellow Incense/Oil: cinnamon Symbols: fountain. pool. Johnswort Day: Sunday Runes: mannaz. copper Plants: ash. laguz. Cunning deceiver. Asgard-defiant. celandine. chrysolite. Son of Giant.

Earth Goddess Colors: silver. lotus. jasmine. jade. mugwort. elder. thyme. harken to me. Great Mother. sandalwood. vervain. rose. bronze Plants: alder. your child. Peace and knowledge. malachite. feverfew. copper. yarrow Day: Friday . floral scents Symbol: cornucopia Stones/Metals: amber. Give me calmness. birch. Nana. Grant me. rose. floral scents Symbol: crescent Moon Stones/Metals: moonstone. Name: Nehallennia Also Called: the Fruitful One Colors: green. mugwort. silver. birch. emerald. quartz. fir. And creativity to make needed changes. Great Goddess mild. pale green Incense/Oil: juniper. Anna. Name: Nanna. Great Mother. moonstone.Tables of Correspondence / 219 Give me water from that Fountain. Lady of the Moon. silver Plants: hawthorn. berkano. Inanna Also Called: the Moon. willow. wunjo Chant: Gentle Nanna. yellow Incense/Oil: rose. tansy. calm as the waters you rule. and that right soon. loosestrife Day: Monday Runes: uruz. bramble. Enduring love. Knowledge to deal rightly with all events.

wunjo. turquoise. plenty. hawthorn Day: Monday Runes: berkano. uruz. Abundant Goddess. jasmine. bless this land. polypody. Erce. Bless me. ships. Name: Nerthus. Goddess of groves. ripening seed. all ferns. amethyst. willow.220 I Norse Magic Runes: berkano. fehu. Prepare me for great growth and blessings. Fruitfulness. rose. Purify me. light brown Incense/Oil: juniper. wunjo. Wise Earth Mother. the sea Stones/Metals: quartz. cedar Symbols: the sea. copper Plants: loosestrife. othala. Erce Also Called: Earth Mother Colors: green. fish Stones/Metals: aquamarine. smoky topaz. Name: Njord Also Called: Sea-Ruler Color: blue Incense/Oil: vervain. birch. laguz. mannaz. mugwort. eihwaz . mint. laguz Chant: Horn of plenty in your hand. this I do need. oak moss. dagaz. tin Plants: avens. ehwo. oak. lotus Symbols: groves. raidho Chant: Erce. Nerthus. verbena Day: Thursday Runes: laguz. Erce. fir. crystal. Great Nehallennia.

Chant 2: (as Lord of the Wild Hunt) Blue cloak swirling in the storm.Tables of Correspondence I 221 Chant: Wise Njord. dagaz. Let me call upon your wisdom and magic. all ferns. agate. Hat pulled low over empty eye. beech. Rune-Master. Name: Odhinn. God of the Wild Hunt Colors: black—revengeful and dark aspects red—weather. Father of the Lady and Lord. eagle Stones/Metals: onyx. ingwaz. yew Days: Wednesday. wolf. healing orange—other aspects Incense/Oil: pine. protect. gold Plants: polypody. Show me the words of power. Woden. Stand by me at initiation into realms of magic. Great Father. marjoram. Vana-God of the sea. Wodan. sandalwood Symbols: raven. whose craft was learned By self-sacrifice and dedication. jet. tin. Prosper. . Rune-Master) Patron of those who write and sing. jera. alloys. Odin. All-Seeing. Great Father. maidenhair.1: (as Allfather. ansuz. hear my call. dragon's blood. laguz. Let us be of one accord. othala. Saturday Runes: wunjo. give wisdom to me. ehwo Chant: . valerian. justice. Othinn Also Called: Allfather. Lead me on the paths of creativity. Frenzied. carnelian. mandrake. All-Seeing.

hawthorn . Grant me safe journeys. Siff Also Called: Earth Mother. copper. birch. elm. fir. lead Plants: beech. smoky topaz. obsidian. crystal. elder Day: Saturday Runes: thurisaz. You who grasp my fate in your fist. blackthorn. yew. Name: Ran Also Called: the Ravager Color: black Incense/Oil: juniper. all floral scents Symbols: loom. Name: Sif. naudhiz. Lord of the Wild Hunt who rides Sleipnir Across the stormy skies. malicious sea-woman. mirror Stones/Metals: quartz. mullein. Golden Hair Colors: gold. brass Plants: mugwort. With warrior-women armed for battle. Protect me from my enemies. dragon's blood Symbols: stormy sea. kaunaz Chant: Vana-Ravager. Hold back the terrors of the mind. Turn that fate into paths of success. rose. juniper. wolves by your feet. storax. Calm the storm. chamomile. nets Stones/Metals: onyx. willow. Let my life be on still waters. black agate.222 I Norse Magic Ravens at your shoulders. jet. bronze. willow. green Incense/Oil: jasmine. ivy.

Help me to harvest the plans I have sown. yarrow . wife devoted. copper. rose. mugwort. Signy Also Called: the Faithful Colors: pink. thyme. jade. copper Plants: alder. silver. Name: Sigyn. gebo. malachite. Siguna. hawthorn Day: Monday Runes: sowilo. birch. mint Symbol: heart Stones/Metals: amber.jera Chant: Beautiful Sif. Name: Sjofna Also Called: no other names Color: red Incense/Oil: rose. smoky topaz. uruz Chant: Loyal Sigyn. Intercede with wayward Loki. emerald. berkano. Let my life show forth fruitfulness and plenty. elder. vervain. Good-hearted Earth Mother of Aesir. fir. rose. Show him love and tenderness To put his mischievous heart at rest. you of the long golden hair. crystal. sandalwood. brown Incense/Oil: all floral scents Symbol: bowl Stones/Metals: quartz. birch. willow. Calm the troublesome Trickster Loki. wife devoted. moonstone. wunjo. bronze Plants: mugwort.Tables of Correspondence 1223 Day: Monday Runes: wunjo. Loyal Sigyn.

juniper. willow. Whose tale there is no telling. obsidian. avens. mullein. isa. Chase m y enemies far away. gebo Chant: Mysterious Sjofna. Goddess of love. iron Plants: thistle. Lady of mountains and winter snow.224 I Norse Magic Day: Friday Runes: wunjo. New Moon Stones/Metals: onyx. lightning Stones/Metals: carnelian. juniper. goats. Thor. oak moss. dragon's blood Symbols: double-headed axe. Goddess of love. Thunor. elder Day: Saturday Runes: thurisaz. Mysterious Sjofna. ivy. yew. oak. kaunaz. jet. steel. Bring a lover unto me That will set my heart to swelling With fulfillment and desire. myrrh Symbols: mountains. High Thunderer Color: red Incense/Oil: pine. hagalaz. Name: Skadi Also Called: no other names Color: black Incense/Oil: dragon's blood. Donar Also Called: the Thunderer. lodestone. red agate. beech. ehwo Chant: Mistress of dark magic. To Hel's dark realm make them go. Let this wish be done. tin Plants: blackthorn. acorns . pepper. elm. Name: Thorr. Thunar. black agate. Let us be as one.

eihwaz Chant: Asa-God of the one hand. steel. juniper. blackthorn. Release the warm and nourishing rain. raidho. Stand beside me in the courts. ingwaz. Bravest of all the Gods. Wielder of mighty Mjollnir. Let the Earth be green again. Let there be order and strength. Ride your great chariot to my defense. kaunaz. Vervain Day: Tuesday Runes: tiwaz. Ziu Also Called: the One-Handed Colors: yellow. jera. ansuz Chant: 1: (as Defender) High Thunderer. Or any time I am accused. Chant 2: (as Weather God) Mjollnir flies from your mighty hand. orange Incense/Oil: pine. helmet Stones/Metals: smoky topaz. Let my life be filled with lightness. Storm clouds gather o'er the land. bronze Plants: thistle. Tiwaz. Champion. Hear my plea for justice. Tiw. thurisaz. eihwaz. . Tiu. ingwaz. Great Thorr of the red hair. Come to my aid. grey agate. Name: Tyr. oak. juniper Symbols: sword. Preserve me against my enemies.Tables of Correspondence' 1225 Day: Thursday Runes: thurisaz.

226 I Norse Magic Speak into the ears of those in authority. Grant me freedom from all persecution. Name: Ull, Ullr Also Called: the Magnificent Colors: white, yellow Incense/Oil: sandalwood, pine Symbols: bow, skis, mountains Stones/Metals: agate, carnelian, alloys Plants: fern, maidenhair, mandrake, marjoram, valerian, beech Day: Wednesday Runes: ehwo, isa, perdhro, tiwaz Chant: Powerful enchanter, Magnificent One, Let the victory be mine. Abilities and beauty, magic skillful, Aid me in my endeavors. Name: Weland, Wayland, Wieland, Volund, Volundr Also Called: Wonder Smith; Prince of the Fairies Color: yellow Incense/Oil: juniper, vervain, thyme Symbols: anvil and hammer, horseshoes Stones/Metals: agate, carnelian, jasper, steel, iron, bronze Plants: all ferns, marjoram, valerian, thyme, beech, juniper Day: Wednesday Runes: elhaz, perdhro, tiwaz, eihwaz, ingwaz Chant: See the Wonder Smith at his forge. Hear his hammer ring. Metal is changed by his strong hands Into a beauteous thing.

Tables of Correspondence 1227 Magic healer of cunning and skill, Friend o f Dwarf and Elf, Good luck and strength, power of your hands, These things I ask for myself. Name: Light Elves Also Called: the Little People or Hidden People Colors: silver, green, blue Incense/Oil: ginger, lily of the valley, fir, floral scents, milk and honey Symbols: leaf, vine, star, bow and arrow, horses, wand Stones/Metals: silver, quartz, rock crystal, moonstone, copper, bronze Plants: alder, marigold, thyme, all ferns, fir, pine Chant: Light Elves, from dark forests shady, Come to me, both Lord and Lady. Dressed in magic clothes and flowers, Teach me in the twilight hours. Sing to me an eldritch tune As the clouds flow past the Moon. Whisper magic of the land, Mushroom ring and wooded strand. Light Elves, from the forests shady, Come to me, both Lord and Lady. Name: Good Dwarves Also Called: the Master Smiths Colors: yellow, gold, brown, dark green Incense/Oil: ginger, cinnamon, spicy scents, milk and honey Symbols: anvil and hammer, all jewelry and weapons, swords Stones/Metals: gold, pyrite, steel, iron, goldstone,

228 I Norse Magic diamond, zircon Plants: marigold, all ferns, fir, juniper, pine Chant: Hammers ring in caverns deep, Where you, Dwarves, your watch do keep. Teach me magic of Earth and stone, Gems and metals, Earth Mother's bone. From deep mountain caves of yore, Come to teach me ancient lore. Friend I'll be and secrets keep If you teach me magic deep. Dwarves of knowledge strong and old, Come as once you did of old.

Quick Reference
ABUNDANCE? Nerthus, Freyr, Njord, Freyja, Nehallennia, Dwarves. ADVICE: Balder, Freyja, Sif, Tyr. AGRICULTURE: Odhinn, Freyr, Gefion, Sif, ThoriH Light Elves. AIR: See Sky. ANIMALS: Frigg, Freyja, Odhinn, Freyr, Loki, Thorr, Light Elves. ARTS & CRAFTS: Holda, Bragi, Mimir, Odhinn, Weland, Freyja, Sif, Ull, Light Elves, Dwarves. BEAUTY: Freyja, Sif, Balder, Freyr, Idhunn, Loki, Ull, Light Elves. BEGINNINGS: Heimdall, Tyr. BLACKSMITHS: See Metalworking. BLESSINGS: Balder, Freyja, Heimdall, Njord, Odhinn, Sif, Light Elves, Dwarves. BOATS: Njord, Aegir, Freyr, Nehallennia, Ran, Thorr. BRAVERY: See Courage. BREWING: Aegir. 229

230 I Norse Magic CALM: Balder, Hodur, Mimir. CHANGE: Freyja, Loki, Odhinn, Tyr, Njord, Light Elves, Dwarves. CHARMS: See Magic. CHILDBIRTH: Frigg, Freyja, Audhumla. CHILDREN: Audhumla, Frigg, Sif, Sigyn, Light Elves. CIVILIZATION: Odhinn, Tyr. COMMERCE: Nehallennia, Freyja, Freyr, Thorr. COMPASSION: See Mercy. CONTRACTS: Tyr, Freyr, Njord, Thorr. COURAGE: Thorr, Tyr, Odhinn, Valkyries, Freyr, Freyja, Hermod, Hoenir, Loki. CREATIVITY: Freyja, Bragi, Odhinn, Weland, Light Elves, Dwarves. CREATOR GOD/GODDESS: Audhumla, Odhinn. Freyja, Nerthus,

CRYSTAL READING: See Psychic Abilities. CUNNING: Loki, Odhinn, Bragi, Frigg, Thorr, Weland, Dwarves. CURSING: See Revenge.

DREAMS: Freyja. EARTH GOD/GODDESS: Freyr. Odhinn. Odhinn. Freyja. Nanna. DESTRUCTION: Hel. DISEASE: Hel. Holda. Sif. ELOQUENCE: Bragi. Audhumla. Skadi. Odhinn. Odhinn. ENCHANTMENTS: See Psychic Abilities. Ran. Ran. Freyja. ECSTASY: See Passion. DEATH: Hel. . Ran. DrVTNATION: See Psychic Abilities. Tyr. Frigg. DOMESTIC ARTS: Audhumla. ENDINGS: Heimdall. DECEPTION: Loki. EARTHQUAKES: Loki. Sigyn. DESTINY: See Fate. Loki. Sif. Thorr. Odhinn. DISASTER: Loki. Tyr. Valkyries. Odhinn. Forseti. Odhinn. Tyr. Loki. Thorr.Tables of Correspondence 1231 DARKNESS: Hel. Light Elves. Ner­ thus.

goddess of fertility. sexual love. Gefion. . Tyr. FERTILITY: Freyja. woodlands. the Sun. Nanna. the Moon. FREEDOM: Odhinn. Aegir. summer. Motherhood. animals. Odhinn. the seas. Frigg. Sigyn.232 I Norse Magic ENLIGHTENMENT: See Blessings. Frigg. Weland. Frigg. Gefion. Njord. Sif. the sky. Light Elves. Nehallennia. Ran. Odhinn. Sif. FATE: Holda. Freyja. god of winter. water. healing. Thorr. Freyr. flowers. GREAT MOTHER: The female principle o f creation. Freyja. Odhinn. See Boats. GENTLENESS: Balder. the Norns. FORESTS: See Woodlands. FIRE: Loki. Freyja. love. GREAT FATHER: The male principle of creation. FLOWERS: Freyja. Freyja. Valkyries. Nerthus. FAMILY: See Marriage. Nanna. FISHING: Nehallennia. Tyr. forests. GREAT GOD/GODDESS: Nanna. EVIL: Loki.

HAPPINESS: Freyja. Odhinn. Sif. THE HUNTER: Odhinn. Freyr. Weland. INSPIRATION: Odhinn. Thorr. Freyja. . INDEPENDENCE: Frigg. Weland. GROWTH: Freyr. Thorr. Freyja. Freyja. HARMONY:. THE HUNTRESS: Holda. Freyr. Nerthus. Sigyn. Sif. Thorr. Healing. Gullveig. Gefion. Odhinn. HARVESTS: Balder. Sif. Odhinn. HORSES: Freyr. Balder. HUNTING: Skadi. Sigyn. ILLNESS: See Disease. Light Elves.Tables of Correspondence I 233 GROVES: See Woodlands. Freyja. Nehallennia. Gefion. ILLUSION: See Shape-Shifter. See Agriculture. INITIATION: Odhinn. HEALING: Elves. Light HERBS: Freyja. Tyr. Valkyries. Odhinn. Skadi. Od­ hinn. Skadi. Sif.Balder. Ull. Thorr. Light Elves.

Thorr. JOURNEYS: Njord. Odhinn. Loki. Odhinn. LONG LIFE: Idhunn. Light Elves. Odhinn. INVENTIONS: Dwarves. Dwarves. INTELLIGENCE: See Wisdom. Thorr. Nerthus. Forseti. Thorr. Forseti. Odhinn. Thorr. Retribution. Freyr. JUDGMENT: Tyr. Tyr. Frigg. LUCK: Freyja. Tyr. Odhinn. Light Elves. Arts. Freyr. Sjofna. Weland. Light Elves. Idhunn. Freyja. Sigyn. Thorr. Gefion. JEWELRY: Freyja. Odhinn. JUSTICE: Forseti.234 I Norse Magic Dwarves. Dwarves. LAW: Odhinn. LIGHTNING: Thorr. Odhinn. . KARMA: See Fate. Nanna. Freyja. LEARNING: See Wisdom. Weland. Balder. LOVE: Freyja. LIFE: Odhinn.

NATURE: See Woodlands. Loki. Odhinn. MARRIAGE: Frigg. Tyr. Dwarves. MAGIC.Tables of Correspondence I 235 MAGIC: Freyja. MISCHIEF: Loki. OATHS: See Contracts. Thorr. Bragi. METALWORKING: Weland. . Nehallennia. Light Elves. Frigg. Mimir. Odhinn. Freyja. Freyja. Nerthus. Hel. Audhumla. MUSIC: Odhinn. Freyr. DARK: Skadi. MERCY: Freyja. MOUNTAINS: Skadi. Ull. Dwarves. MOON: Frigg. Frigg. MOTHER GODDESS: Frigg. Holda. NIGHT: Hel. Weland. Light Elves. Light Elves. Holda. Dwarves. Loki. Gefion. MEDICINE: Gullveig. Freyja. MOTHERHOOD: Freyja. Thorr. Audhumla. Gullveig. Holda. Sigyn. Freyja. Odhinn. Sif. OPPORTUNITIES: Odhinn. Odhinn. Nanna. Odhinn. See Spells. See Healing. Balder.

PATRONESS OF PRIESTESSES: Freyja. Freyja. Sif. PSYCHIC ABILITIES: Freyja. Dwarves. Light Elves. Dwarves. Forseti. Nerthus.236 I Norse Magic ORDER: Tyr. Frigg. PEACE: Nerthus. PROPHECY: See Psychic Abilities. Thorr. Weland. Freyr. PROTECTION: Thorr. Thorr. Thorr. Mimir. Gefion. PATRON OF PRIESTS: Odhinn. Skadi. Loki. Tyr. Forseti. PASSION: Frigg. Njord. Gullveig. PROSPERITY: Nehallennia. Odhinn. POLITICS: Forseti. PROBLEM-SOLVING: Odhinn. Freyr. Ull. . Tyr. Odhinn. Freyja. Freyr. Skadi. Tyr. Light Elves. Odhinn. PLEASURE: See Passion. Heimdall. Freyja. Light Elves. Tyr. Skadi. See Blessings. POETRY: See Writing. Magic. Holda. Weland. Aegir. Holda. Spiritual Illumination. POWER: Odhinn. Freyja. Freyr. Thorr. Freyr. Forseti. Dwarves. Freyja.

Light Elves. Nerthus. SEXUAL LOVE: Sjofna. Skadi. Freyr. Dwarves. Freyja. Freyja. REINCARNATION: Odhinn. Thorr. Forseti. Weland. Hel. RETRIBUTION: Odhinn. Nerthus. Frigg. the Norns. Freyr. Light Elves. Odhinn. Ran. Balder. REVENGE: Thorr. See Peace. Thorr. Odhinn. Loki. Loki. RUNES: See Psychic Abilities. Odbinn. Loki. See Revenge. Odbinn. Light Elves. Holda. Thorr. RECONCILIATION: Balder. Aegir. Thorr. Freyr. Hermod. Frigg. Tyr. Tyr.Tables of Correspondence 1237 PURIFICATION: Freyja. Weland. Tyr. Thorr. RAIN: Freyr. Njord. Odhinn. . RITUALS: Freyja. RAINBOW: Heimdall. Holda. REMOVE DIFFICULTIES: Balder. SEA: Nehallennia. Freyja. RENEWING: See Growth. Ran. RESPONSIBILITY: Idhunn.

Light Elves. SPRINGTIME: Nerthus. Dwarves. Thorr. Odhinn. Odhinn. THUNDER: Thorr. Light Elves. Tyr. Freyja. Balder. Gull­ veig. Ull. Freyr. Magic. Light Elves. Holda. Gefion. Odhinn. Ran. . See Psychic Abilities. Odhinn. STRENGTH: See Power. SKY: Freyja. SPIRITUAL ILLUMINATION: Odhinn. SNAKE: Loki. SPELLS: Loki. Freyja. Freyja. Dwarves.238 I Norse Magic SHAPE-SHIFTER: Loki. SPORTS: Ull. Odhinn. Dwarves. Freyja. Thorr. Odhinn. Loki. TEACHING: Mimir. Njord. Frigg. Odhinn. Light Elves. Tyr. Tyr. SORCERESS/SORCERER: Loki. THIEVES: Loki. Weland. SUCCESS: Nehallennia. Nerthus. Freyja. SUN: Balder. STORMS: Thorr. Light Elves. Odhinn.

Tyr. Hoenir. WHIRLPOOLS: Ran. Nerthus. TREASURE: Aegir. WIND: Aegir. VICTORY: Odhinn. Odhinn. TRIPLE GODDESS: Holda. Loki. Odhinn. Thorr. Ull. Hel (or TRUTH: Odhinn. Dwarves. Skadi) Idhunn. Thorr. TRICKERY: Loki. Freyr. Thorr. Freyja. WEAPONS: Thorr. VOLCANOES: Loki. Light Elves. . Thorr. Odhinn. Thorr. Freyja. Tyr. Aegir. Freyja. Tyr. Tyr. Freyja. Skadi. WAR: Valkyries. Dwarves. Hoenir. Forseti. Freyr. WARNING: Heimdall. Thorr.Tables of Correspondence / 239 TRANCE: See Psychic Abilities. FRESH: Mimir. WATER. Odhinn. WEATHER: Odhinn. THE UNDERWORLD: Hel. Odhinn. Odhinn. Valkyries. TRIPLE GOD: Freyr. Thorr.

240 I Norse Magic WINTER: Holda. Freyja. Light Elves. . Bragi. Freyr. YOUTH: Idhunn. Mimir. Mimir. Balder. Skadi. Nerthus. Skadi. Njord. Thorr. WOODLANDS: Freyr. Freyja. Hodur. WITCHCRAFT: Holda. Ull. Freyja. Balder. Odhinn. WISDOM: Frigg. Nerthus. Odhinn. Dwarves. WRITING: Bragi. Tyr. Light Elves. Odhinn.

Wellingborough. Gods and Myths of the Viking Age.. Princeton. Arthur. 1978.BIBLIOGRAPHY Guirand. 1973. London: Hamlyn Pub. 1980. Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology. 241 . 1982. Guide to the Gods. Campbell. R. Ellis. The Book of Runes.New York: Perigree. New York: Penguin. Co.. Cleveland. Wallis. Martins-. 1982. 1978.. New York: Bell Publishers. Migration of Symbols. Richard. 1964. New York: Schocken Books. 3 Vols. 1964. Thomas Caldecot. NJ: Princeton University Press. Cavendish. Gods and Heroes From Viking Mythology. Joseph. Brian. Campbell. Wm. Hero With a Thousand Faces. A. UK: Aquarian. Amulets and Superstitions. Paul. Felix. Count G. The Masks of God. Cotterell. Davidson. 1979. 1977.. New York: St. Carylon. 1987. Mythology: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. The Book of the Sword. D'Aviella. H. A Dictionary of World Mythol­ ogy. 1979. Beyerl. The Northmen. E. Morrow and Co. OH: World Pub. Chubb. date unknown. New York: Dover. Ralph. Custer. Joseph. Richard. Budge. New York: Dover. WA: Phoenix. 1984. Blum. Branston. Richard. Burton. New York: Rizzoli International Pub. Editor. Master Book of Herbalism.

New York: Samuel Weiser. Michael. OK: EDC Publishing. 1984. UK: Wayland. UK: Aquarian. The Customs of Mankind. Evans. 1939. Wellingborough. New York: Ginn and Co. Washington. Gibson. New York: Robert B. How to Make Amulets. NY: Nelson Doubleday. 1983.1972. Secret Teachings of All Ages. Tulsa. 1967. Howard. Lindow. New York: Stein and Day. Manley Palmer. Lippman. The Vikings. 1977. Froncek. Howard. Klindt-Jensen. 1979. Wellingborough. Line. CA: Philosophical Society. UK: Aquarian. The Northmen. Max J. Garden City. Fortune-Telling by Runes. Gayley. Luce. 1926. 1980. 1928. LaFay. Thomas. David and Julia. Michael. Paul. Classic Myths.. Howard. New York: Allyn & Bacon. John. Lillian. Hall. The Magic of the Runes.242 I Norse Magic Eichler. 1972. Ole and Svenolov Ehren. East Sussex. CA: Bellerophon Books. Norse Myths and Legends. The Viking World. The Vikings. . Los Angeles. Michael. DC: National Geographic. Cheryl and Anne Millard. Huson. Mastering Herbalism. Charles. New York: Time-Life Books. Myths and Legends of the Vikings. Deborah. 1981. 1986. Myths and Their Meaning. The Runes and Other Magical Alphabets. Santa Barbara. Herzberg. 1974.

York Beach. ME: Samuel Weiser. 1983. 1970. Everyday Life in the Viking Age. Rites and Religion of the Anglo-Saxons. 1986. McKenzie. . Women's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets. King Harold's Saga. Thomas. Simpson. Sturluson. Wagner's "Ring". Edred. Anne. Rackham. Serraillier. and Talismans. 1983.. 1985. ME: Samuel Weiser. New York: Dorset. Beowulf the Warrior. UK: Blandford. Timothy. Richard. Newark. William and Kate Pavitt. 1967. No. 1985. Gale. Evans and Co. Translators. Hermann and Paul Edwards. New York: M. England: Dorset. Dorset. 1985. New York: Destiny Books.. German Myths and Legends. New York: Penguin Books. The Barbarians. Viking Hammer of the North. Edred. Owen. New York: Dorset. Ian. Futhark. Amulets and Zodiacal Gems. 1984. 1979. Jacqueline. Savage. 1976. New York: Scholastic Books. Snorri. Magnusson. York Beach. Arthur. Hollywood. Walker. The Book of Talismans. Thorsson. Thorsson. CA: Wilshire Book Co. New York: Dover. Palsson. Seven Viking Romances. London: Orbis. New York: Dorset. Barbara. 1974. Magnus.Bibliography I 243 Charms. Runelore. The Magical and Ritual Use of Herbs. Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. Donald. New York: Harper and Row. 1985. Miller. 1987. New York: Avenel. 1970.

New York: Bonanza. Viking and Norman Arms. Doreen. Wise. 1979. London: Osprey Publishers. Terence.244 f Norse Magic 1983. Encyclopedia of World Costume. . 1986. Yarwood. Saxon.

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