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THE WORD OF THE BUDDHA
WORKS OF THE AUTHOR
The Word of the Buddha (Abridged) Students’ Edition. Colombo 1946, Y.M.B.A. Guide through the Abhidamma-Pitaka 3rd Ed.. Colombo 1971, Lake House Bookshop. Fundamentals of Buddhism: Four Lectures. Colombo 1949, Lake House Bookshop. Buddhist Dictionary: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines, 3rd Ed. Colombo 1971, Frewin & Co., Ltd. Path to Deliverance, 2nd Ed. Colombo 1959, Lake House Bookshop. The Buddha’s Teaching of Egolessness (Anattâ). Colombo 1957. The Inﬂuence of Buddhism on a People. Kandy 1958, Buddhist Publication Society.
Das Wort des Buddha. 1906 f., Konstanz 1953 Anguttara-Nikâya (Trans., 5 vols.). 1906 f. ; reprint 1969 Milinda-Pañha (transl., 2 vols.). 606 pp., 1918 f. Dhammapada. (Pali text, metrical transl., commentary; in M.S.) Puggala-Paññatti (transl.). 1910 Abhidhammattha-Sangaha. Kornpendi urn der Buddh istschen Phiolsophie (in M.S.) Visuddhi Magga (complete transl.). Konstanz 1952. Fûhrer durch das Abhidhamma-Pitaka (in M.S.) Systematische Paligrammatik. 1911. Pali Anthologie umid Woerterbuch. (Anthology and Glossary; 2 vols.). 1928. Grundlebren des Buddhismus (in M.S.). Weg zur Erloesung (Path to Deliverance). Konstanz 1956. Buddhistisches Worterbuch. K onsta nz 1957.
THE WORD OF
An Outline of the teaching of the Buddha in the words of the Pali canon.
Compiled, translated, and explained by
BUDDHIST PUBLICATION SOCIETY KANDY CEYLON
This electronic edition was input using TextBridge Pro® 8.0 Optical Character Recognition software from Xerox; then formatted using FrameMaker® 5.5.6 and Acrobat Distiller® from Adobe, Inc., all running on an Apple Power Macintosh. Body text is set in Palatino. Some title text is set in Optima.
PREFACE TO THE ELEVENTH EDITION
PREFACE TO THE ELEVENTH EDITION
The Word of the Buddha, published originally in German, was the ﬁrst strictly systematic exposition of all the main tenets of the Buddha’s Teachings presented in the Master’s own words as found in the Sutta-Pitaka of the Buddhist Pali Canon. While it may well serve as a ﬁrst introduction for the beginner, its chief aim is to give the reader who is already more or less acquainted with the fundamental ideas of Buddhism, a clear, concise and authentic summary of its various doctrines, within the framework of the all-embracing ‘Four Noble Truths,’ i.e. the Truths of Suffering (inherent in all existence), of its Origin, of its Extinction, and of the Way leading to its extinction. From the book itself it will be seen how the teachings of the Buddha all ultimately converge upon the one ﬁnal goal: Deliverance from Suffering. It was for this reason that on the title page of the ﬁrst German edition there was printed the passage from the Anguttara Nikaya which says: Not only the fact of Suffering do I teach, but also the deliverance from it. The texts, translated from the original Pali, have been selected from the ﬁve great collections of discourses which form the Sutta-Pitaka. They have been grouped and explained in such a manner as to form one connected whole. Thus the collection, which was originally compiled for the author’s own guidance and orientation in the many voluminous books of the SuttaPitaka, will prove a reliable guide for the student of Buddhism. It should relieve him from the necessity of working his way through all these manifold Pali scriptures, in order to acquire a comprehensive and clear view of the whole; and it should help him to relate to the main body of the doctrine the many details he will encounter in subsequent studies. As the book contains many deﬁnitions and explanations of important doctrinal terms together with their Pali equivalents, it can serve, with the help of the Pali Index (page 89), as
Colombo. The 11th edition has been revised throughout.VIII PREFACE TO THE ELEVENTH EDITION a book of reference and a helpful companion throughout one’s study of the Buddha’s doctrine. 1948. The original Pali of the translated passages was published in Sinhalese characters (edited by the author. Japanese. the ﬁrst English version was published in 1907. .) and an American edition (Santa Barbara. Additions have been made to the Introduction and to the explanatory notes. published in the United States of America. F. and this has since run to ten editions. Italian. Cal. Czech.A. J. Hindi. and some texts have been added. translations have been published in French.B. under the title Sacca-Sangaha. including an abridged student’s edition (Colombo. Y.. Rowny Press). After the ﬁrst German edition appeared in 1906. Besides subsequent German editions. It has also been included in Dwight Goddard’s Buddhist Bible. Finnish. 1950. Bengali and Sinhalese. Russian. 1914) and Devanagari script in India.M.
the original Pali . Along with this edition the Society is publishing. was included in The Path of Buddhism. with only few and minor amendments. Beginning with the 13th edition (1959). the book is now being issued by the Buddhist Publication Society. texts which are translated in the present book. a revised reprint of this book being the 12th edition. in Roman script. and as a handy reference book as well as a Breviarium for contemplative reading for those already conversant with the language of the Buddhist scriptures. Ceylon.PREFACE TO THE 14TH EDITION IX PREFACE TO THE 14TH EDITION The venerable Author of this little standard work of Buddhist literature passed away on May 28. Before his demise. and with the kind consent of the former publishers. The present new edition commemorates the tenth anniversary of his death. Buddhist Publication Society Kandy. the Sasanadhara Kantha Samitiya. under the title of Buddha Vacanam. December 1967. published by the Buddhist Council of Ceylon (Lanka Bauddha Mandalaya). . On that 12th edition the text of the subsequent reprints has been based. aged 79. 1957. This Pali edition is meant to serve as a Reader for students of the Pali language.
so the pages can be printed to give a likeness of the original book. In other respects. and the form of bibliographic listings. the pages can be printed ‘two-up’ as a booklet. The HTML version uses a modern convention for the Pali diacriticals.3 in. 48 x 32 picas) is similar to the original. Punctuational styles. 2. The following editorial changes were made while editing the text for presentation: 1. Index of Pali Terms (page 89) expanded to link every use of every term. The page size (8 in x 5. These ﬁles were output in two versions: one in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) for viewing with Adobe Acrobat®. With appropriate software. 4.X PREFACE TO THE ELECTRONIC EDITION PREFACE TO THE ELECTRONIC EDITION This edition of The Word of the Buddha was prepared by scanning the pages of the 14th Edition and capturing the text using OCR software. one in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) for viewing in any web browser. An HTML document cannot emulate a printed page or display nonstandard accent marks. Both versions are hypertextlinked so that clicking a heading in the table of contents or a word in the index turns to the page referenced. replacing the numbered footnotes of the original.S. the text is unchanged from the original. using either U. letter stock or European A4 paper. The PDF version reproduces the diacritical marks that indicate Pali pronunciation in the original. which is less readable but uses only standard characters (see “The Pronounciation of Pali” on page xii). British spellings such as colour changed to American. changed to reﬂect contemporary usage. Citations placed in the margin at the start of each quotation. 3. .
B. Snp. VisM. The Roman number refers to the division into ‘Kindred Groups’ (Samyutta). . Visuddhi-Magga (‘The Path of Puriﬁcation’). Majjhima-Nikaya. etc. Dhp. M. Samyutta-Nikaya. The number refers to the Sutta. by Nyanatiloka Mahathera. refers to the Sutta. the second number . the second number to the Sutta. Anguttara-Nikaya. The number refers to the verse.. Udana. S. The Roman number refers to the Chapters. Ud. The number refers to the Sutta. Buddhist Dictionary.ABBREVIATIONS XI ABBREVIATIONS The source of each quotation is shown by a marginal note at the head of the quotation. the second number.g. Dhammapada. The citations use the following abbreviations: Abbreviation D. The Roman number refers to the main division into Parts or Nipatas. to the Sutta. Document Referred To Dîgha Nikaya. Fundamentals of Buddhism.Dict Fund. . e. by Nyanatiloka Mahathera. Devata-Samyutta = I. A. Sutta-Nipata. The number refers to the verse.
never as in take. never as k. As the ‘nazalizer’ is in Ceylon. the written language of the source documents. sing. As in put or oo in foot. As oo in boot. As ny in canyon (Spanish: cañon) or as gn in Mignon. Most such words are in Pali. As in joy. etc. ch as chh in ranch-house: dh as in handhold. and never as in take. As in get. e. etc. j m . Long as in hope. As in father. never as s. never as in refuse. never as in ﬁne. As in pin. never as in cat. a e i i o u u CONSONANTS Letter c g h Should Be Sounded As ch in chair. non-English words are italicized.g. gh as in bag-handle. . Always. jh as dgh in sledgehammer. s ñ . bh as in cabhorse. Long. city. Pali words are pronounced as follows. usually pronounced as ng in sung. As in machine. never as in these. Always as in this.XII THE PRONOUNCIATION OF PALI THE PRONOUNCIATION OF PALI Adapted from the American edition Except for a few proper names. even in positions immediately following consonants or doubled consonants. never as in general. as a in stake. nor as c in centre. VOWELS Letter a Should Be Sounded As u in the English word shut.
th. . never as in thin nor as in than. . e. Double consonants: each of them is to be pronounced.. in pronouncing.THE PRONOUNCIATION OF PALI XIII Letter ph Should Be Sounded As in haphazard. . . . d. bb as in scrub-board: tt as in cat-tail. the tongue is . As in yes. As in hot-house. never as in photograph.g. are lingual sounds. l to be pressed against the palate. th . dh. y t.
. ....... ..XV CONTENTS PREFACE TO THE ELEVENTH EDITION ..... .. .. . The Group of Perception . ...... . ... ... . .. .. . . .. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE ORIGIN OF SUFFERING . The Threefold Craving ... ... The Five Khandhas... ..... . .. . ...... .... . .. The Buddha .. .... ... ..... . .. ...... Karma . .. .. . ... . ...... .. . .. Present Karma-Results ..... . . ... .. INTRODUCTION .. . .. ...... .. .. .... .... Origin Of Craving .. . ... The Five Precepts ... .. . . . The Group Of Consciousness .. The Dhamma . The Group Of Mental Formations .... Dependent Extinction Of All Phenomena .... The Three Characteristics Of Existence .. .. .... .... THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS ... ........ .. .... ... ..... PREFACE TO THE 14TH EDITION .... .. . ....... . ... . .... .. . .. . . The Sangha . ... . III... .. The Group of Corporeality . .. .. .. ... ... .. . . . ABBREVIATIONS .. .. . .... . ..... ..... .. . . . ... Consonants . THE NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING . . . ... .. . ... Future Karma-Results ... The Immutable . The Arahat. . . . .... .. PREFACE TO THE ELECTRONIC EDITION ... .. .. ..... or Groups of Existence ...... . . .... .. . .. .. VII IX X XI XII xii xii 1 1 1 2 3 3 5 7 8 9 11 11 11 12 13 19 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 24 24 25 26 26 .. .. . .. .. .. Karma As Volition . Nibbna ... .. .. Or Holy One ..... II... .... . . ... .. . ... .. .. .. ..... .... . .. .. . ... .. ... .. .... . ... .. . . The Threefold Refuge .. .. ... Dependent Origination Of All Phenomena .. THE PRONOUNCIATION OF PALI . . ... .. . The Group of Feeling . . .. . . .... . THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE EXTINCTION OF SUFFERING .. . .. . . . . . Inheritance Of Deeds (Karma) ...... .. I.. . .. ... . . . Vowels .... .. .. .. .... . . .
XVI IV.. . . . 32 Five Fetters . .. .. ... .. .. .. . ... ... . . . .. .. ... . . ... . . ... . .. . ... . .. .. . 30 Understanding The Four Truths ... . . .. . . ...... ... . . . .. . .. . . ... .. 37 Conjoined With Other Steps .... 35 The Noble Ones . . 47 RIGHT SPEECH . . .. . .. . .... . .. . . 27 The Two Extremes....... .. 51 Abstaining from Stealing . . 49 Conjoined with Other Factors . .. .. 39 Past. . . 48 Abstaining from Tale-bearing . 35 The Ten Fetters . ..... . ... .. .. .. . . . . .. .... ... . . .. . . . . 40 The Two Extremes (Annihilation and Eternity Belief) and the Middle Doctrine... .. 27 The Noble Eightfold Path . . ... . .. . . . . 49 RIGHT ACTION . . .. ... . .. .. . . .. .. . ... . . . 32 Unprofitable Questions . . . . . . ... .. . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . ... . . 28 RIGHT UNDERSTANDING .. 27 The Eightfold Path ... . .. .... . . ... . 41 Dependent Origination .. .... .. . 33 Unwise Considerations .. . ... .. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE PATH THAT LEADS TO THE EXTINCTION OF SUFFERING ... . .. . 44 RIGHT THOUGHT . . . . 30 Understanding The Three Characteristics .... . . . 38 The Three Characteristics. Present and Future ... ... ... .... .. ... .. . . . . 43 Cessation of Karma . .... . .... . 36 Mundane And Supermundane Understanding .. . . . . . . ... . . .... 48 Abstaining from Harsh Language. 47 Conjoined with Other Factors . .. 48 Abstaining from Vain Talk . . . ... ... .. . . ... ... .. . and the Middle Path . . . . 34 Wise Considerations . 42 Rebirth-Producing Karma . . . . . .. . .. .. .. 51 . ........ . 49 Mundane and Supermundane Speech... 37 Free from All Theories . . ... . . . . . . . . . ....... . . .. 47 Mundane And Supermundane Thought... ... .. 34 The Six Views About The Self .. ... .. . . . . . .. .. 30 Understanding Merit And Demerit ..... ... . . 35 The Sotapanna or ‘Stream-Enterer’ . . .... . .. . .. . ... ... .. .. . . . .. . 51 Abstaining from Killing . ... . . . ... . 38 Views and Discussions About the Ego . ... . . .. .
Contemplation of the Feelings.. .. .. .. Nibbna Through Ânpna-sati ... Its Development .. . . . .. Its Objects .. ... .. . . . Contemplation of the Mind .. The Effort to Develop.. . Confidence and Right Thought . .. .. ..... . ... The Effort to Overcome .. ... ... ... ..... ... . .... . . . ... . Mindfulness and Clear Comprehension . . ... . . . . . . BUDDHIST LITERATURE ............. . . .. The Four Absorptions ..... .. . . .... ... Contemplation of the Body . . .. Insight . Conjoined with Other Factors .. . . .. .... 51 51 52 53 53 53 55 55 55 56 56 57 58 58 58 64 65 66 68 73 73 73 73 73 74 78 78 78 79 80 80 81 81 81 82 82 84 89 . 3.. . ... . . . ..... . .... .. ..... ... . The Silent Thinker .. The Absorptions . . . .....XVII Abstaining from Unlawful Sexual Intercourse .. . Morality .. 3. ... ... . .. ... .. . . . .. .... . .. .. 4. .. .. ..... ..... .... . Nibbâna . ... .. .. . .... ....... I..... . ... . ... ... Control of the Senses . . ... . . . 2.... . ... .. . ............ ... . ... The Four Foundations of Mindfulness . ... . Its Definition . RIGHT CONCENTRATION .. .. . ... . ... .. . 1.... .... . . . ... ... The True Goal ... Contemplation of the Mind-Objects ... . .. .. GRADUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE EIGHTFOLD PATH IN THE PROGRESS OF THE DISCIPLE ... .... .. ... .. ... ..... . ... ... 2. . ... . .. . ..... .. ... . . . .. . . . . ... . ...... Conjoined With Other Factors ..... . Absence of the Five Hindrances .... RIGHT MINDFULNESS . 4.... INDEX OF PALI TERMS . . ...... ...... .. ... Its Requisites . .. . . .. Five Methods of Expelling Evil Thoughts ..... .. Mundane and Supermundane Right Livelihood . . .... RIGHT EFFORT . .... ....... .. . . The Effort to Avoid . ... ..... . . ... The Effort to Maintain ..... . . ... .. ... . ..... .. ...... . Mundane And Supermundane Action ... .. . . .. RIGHT LIVELIHOOD ... .
In the consummate harmony of Wisdom and Compassion attained by the Buddha. by actually following to the end the Path trodden and shown by him. It has been handed down in the ancient Pali language. known to the West by the name of Buddhism. and his clan name Gotama (Sanskrit: Gautama).’ He is a ‘Saviour’ only in the sense that he shows men how to save themselves.INTRODUCTION 1 INTRODUCTION THE BUDDHA BUDDHA or Enlightened One—lit. but a supreme human being who. He was born in the 6th century B. Gotama. at Kapilavatthu. THE DHAMMA The Dhamma is the Teaching of Deliverance in its entirety. spent under various religious teachers and in a period of fruitless self-mortiﬁcation. as discovered.C. a principality situated in the border area of modern Nepal. attained to Final Deliverance and Perfect Wisdom. After a six year’s quest. His persona1 name was Siddhattha. realized and proclaimed by the Buddha. and pre- . and became a homeless ascetic in order to ﬁnd a way out of what he had early recognized as a world of suffering. under the Bodhi tree at Gaya (today -). Five and forty years of tireless preaching and Buddh-Gaya teaching followed and at last. through his own effort. he embodies the universal and timeless ideal of Man Perfected. in his 80th year.. Knower or Awakened One—is the honoriﬁc name given to the Indian Sage. as the son of the king who ruled the Sakya country. there passed away at Kusinara that ‘undeluded being that appeared for the blessing and happiness of the world.’ The Buddha is neither a god nor a prophet or incarnation of a god. and became ‘the peerless teacher of gods and men. he ﬁnally attained to Perfect Enlightenment (samma-sambodhi). who discovered and proclaimed to the world the Law of Deliverance. In his 29th year he renounced the splendor of his princely life and his royal career.
(Ill) the Abhidhamma-pitaka. Discipline. the devoted disciple and constant companion of the . or Collection of Discourses. presenting the teachings of the Sutta-Pitaka in . and dealings with the doctrine proper as summarized in the Four Noble Truths. It is the teaching of the Fourfold Truth dealing with the fundamental facts of life and with liberation attainable through man’s own effort towards puriﬁcation and insight. or Collection of . Laos and Chittagong (Bengal). consisting of various . Cambodia. system of ethics. etc. Amongst the most famous disciples in the time of the Buddha were: Sariputta who. containing the rules of the monastic order. but the teaching of Enlightenment based on the clear comprehension of actuality. Ceylon. verses. the Dhamma has. dialogues. the . but realistic. after the Master himself.” namely: (I) the Vinaya-pitaka. or Philosophical . an all-comprehensive and perfect guidance on the Path to Deliverance.2 INTRODUCTION served in three great collections of hooks. who had the greatest supernatural powers: Ananda. and by pointing out the liberating Middle Path that leads beyond all futile and destructive extremes in thought and conduct. founded by the Buddha and still existing in its original form in Burma. practical methods of mind training—in brief. Moggallana. books of discourses. called Ti-Pitaka. By answering the claims of both heart and reason. Collection. the Assembly. a profound philosophy. or community—is the Order of Bhikkhus or Mendicant Monks. together with the Order of the Jain monks. the oldest monastic order in the world. THE SANGHA The Sangha—lit. It is. strictly systematic and philosophical form. a timeless and universal appeal wherever there are hearts and minds mature enough to appreciate its message. The Dhamma offers a lofty. (II) the Sutta-pitaka. Siam. and will always have. The Dhamma is not a doctrine of revelation. stories. “Three Baskets. a penetrative analysis of life. possessed the profoundest insight info the Dhamma.
‘for the second/ third time.) THE FIVE PRECEPTS After the formula of the Threefold Refuge follows usually the acceptance of the Five Moral Precepts (pañca-sila). (At the second and third repetition the word Dutiyampi or Tatiyampi. The Sangha provides the outer framework and the favorable conditions for all those who earnestly desire to devote their life entirely to the realization of the highest goal of deliverance. and the Sangha. . I go for refuge to the Buddha I go for refuge to the Dhamma I go for refuge to the Sangha. in the words by which he pro. his acceptance of them as the guides of his life and thought. . too. and master of Right Mindfulness. THE THREEFOLD REFUGE The Buddha. Rahula. Thus the Sangha. Dhammam saranam gacchami . . the Buddha’s own son. and as being to the Buddhist the most precious objects in the world. fesses. of divine vision. It is through the simple act of reciting this formula three times that one declares oneself a Buddhist. unhindered by worldly distractions. San gham saranam gaccha .INTRODUCTION 3 Buddha. the President of the Council held at Rajagaha immediately after the Buddha’s death. . . Their . The Pali formula of Refuge is still the same as in the Buddha’s time: Buddham saranam gacchami . the Dhamma. are called ‘The Three Jewels’ (ti-ratana) on account of their matchless purity. is of universal and timeless signiﬁcance wherever religious development reaches maturity. .’ are added before each sentence. Anuruddha. or re-afﬁrms. Maha-Kassapa. -mi. These ‘Three Jewels’ form also the ‘Threefold Refuge’ (ti-sarana) of the Buddhist.
. 3. I undertake to observe the precept to abstain from sexual misconduct. I undertake to observe the precept to abstain from intoxicating drinks and drugs causing heedlessness. 2..Adinnadana veraman--sikkhapadam samadiyami. . .1. ..pamadatthana veraman--sikkhapadam . 4.i .4 INTRODUCTION observance is the minimum standard needed to form the basis of a decent life and of further progress towards Deliverance..Surameraya . I undertake to observe the precept to abstain from killing living beings. i .. .Kamesu michcacara veramani-sikkhapadam samadiyami. .. I undertake to observe the precept to abstain from taking things not given. . Panatipata veramani-sikkhapadam samadiyami.samadiyami.. . . I undertake to observe the precept to abstain from false speech. 5..Musavada veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami. ...majja . . ..
which is not to be gained by mere reasoning. delighted with pleasure. difﬁcult to understand. 26 . there arose in me the assurance that I had won that supreme Enlightenment unsurpassed. evil spirits and gods. so difﬁcult to perceive. But as soon as the absolute true knowledge and insight as regards these Four Noble Truths had become perfectly clear in me. the Enlightened One: D. The Noble Truth of the Extinction of Suffering (dukkhanirodha).16. is given to pleasure. And what are these four things? They are: The Noble Truth of Suffering (dukkha). that I. tranquilizing and sublime. 11 M. such beings will S. enchanted with pleasure. The Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering (dukkhasamudaya). The Noble Truth of the Path that leads to the Extinction of Suffering (dukkha-nirodha-gamini-patipada). And I discovered that profound truth. The world. had to wander so long through this round of rebirths. Truly. LVI. It is through not understanding. however.THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS 5 THE WORD OF THE BUDDHA OR THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS Thus has it been said by the Buddha. so long was I not sure that I had won that supreme Enlightenment which is unsurpassed in all the world with its heavenly beings. Disciples. amongst all the hosts of ascetics and priests. as well as you. and is visible only to the wise. . not realizing four things. As long as the absolutely true knowledge and insight as regards these Four Noble Truths was not quite clear in me. heavenly beings and men.
. the Dependent Origination (paticca-samuppada) of everything. Yet there are beings whose eyes are only a little covered with dust: they will understand the truth. the fading away of craving. incomprehen. detachment. extinction. the forsaking of every substratum of rebirth. sible to them will also be the end of all formations.6 THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS hardly understand the law of conditionality. Nibbana.
is Birth? The birth of beings belonging to this or that order of beings. Decay is suffering. the wearing out of the senses: this is called decay. is wail and lament. the failing of their vital force. Lamentation. Death is suffering. the state of woe and lamentation: this is called lamentation. in short: the Five Groups of Existence are suffering. the completion of their life-period. dissolution of the Groups of Existence. the worrying oneself. And what is Pain? The bodily pain and unpleasantness. death. their being born. inward woe: this is called sorrow. and wrinkled. the manifestation of the Groups of Existence. frail. now. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING 7 THE FIRST TRUTH I. Pain. the painful and unpleasant feeling produced by bodily impression: this is called pain.I. wailing and lamenting. now. And what is Lamentation? Whatsoever. And what is Decay? The decay of beings belonging to this or that order of beings. their conception and springing into existence. through this or that loss or misfortune which befalls one. is the Noble Truth of Suffering? Birth is suffering. the arising of sense activity: this is called birth. not to get what one desires. Sorrow. Grief. What. the discarding of the body: this is called death. And what is Sorrow? The sorrow arising through this or that loss or misfortune which one encounters.22 What. . inward sorrow. and Despair are suffering. their becoming aged. is suffering. And what is Death? The departing and vanishing of beings out of this or that order of beings. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING D. the state of being alarmed. grey. their destruction. disappearance.
all mental formations belong to the Group of Formations. is suffering.8 I. and despair. And what is the ‘Suffering of not getting what one desires’? To beings subject to birth there comes the desire. the desire comes to them: ‘O. are the Five Groups of Existence? They are corporeality. OR GROUPS OF EXISTENCE And what. All corporeal phenomena. all feelings belong to the Group of Feeling. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING And what is Grief? The mental pain and unpleasantness. those which appear to the ignorant man as his ego or personality. and desperation: this is called despair. Hence birth. that we were not subject to birth! O. death. gross or subtle. death. all consciousness belongs to the Group of Consciousness. the painful and unpleasant feeling produced by mental impression: this is called grief. and not to get what one desires. and consciousness. whether past. all perceptions belong to the Group of Perception. that these things were not before us!’ But this cannot be got by mere desiring. decay. (mental) formations. and in particular. all belong to the Group of Corporeality. perception. one’s own or external. THE FIVE KHANDHAS. And what is Despair? Distress and despair arising through this or that loss or misfortune which one encounters: distressfulness. M. grief. ‘O. 109 . etc. are also included in these ﬁve Groups which actually comprise the whole world. far or near. These Groups are a ﬁvefold classiﬁcation in which the Buddha has summed up all the physical and mental phenomena of existence. feeling. present or future. in brief. lofty or low. pain. lamentation. that no new birth was before us!’ Subject to decay. disease. that we were not subject to these things! O. sorrow.
g. speech. nose. the Earth Element predominates. pain. popularly called Earth. visible form. the Vibrating (Windy) Element. see B. vitality. liver. and nutriment. stomach. gesture. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING 9 THE GROUP OF CORPOREALITY (rupa-khandha) M. 28 What. masculinity. nose. e. Radiation. tongue.The four Elements (dhatu or maha-bhuta). What. excrement and so on—this is called one’s own solid element. -po-dhatu. body. skin. whether it . . etc. are to be understood as the elementary qualities of matter. nails.. Cohesion. now. is the ‘Solid Element’ (pathav--dhatu)? The solid i element may be one’s own. ﬁrmness. marrow. the tactile) are not especially . And what is one’s own solid element? Whatever in one’s own person or body there exists of karmically acquired hardness. and may be rendered as Inera tia. the material object is called ‘solid’. The ‘Corporeality derived from the four primary elements’ . bones. according to the Abhidhamma. change. teeth. spleen. or it may be external. diaphragm. All four are present in every material object. bowels. physical basis of mind (hadaya-vatthu. sinews. now. as they are identical with the Solid. Fire and Wind. taste. etc.). femininity. 1. heat.. etc. mentioned among these twenty-four. and Vibration. though in varying degrees of strength. heart. the Heating Element.I. space (cavities of ear. They are named in Pali. ﬂesh. Now. If. Dict. pathavi-dhatu. Bodily impressions (photthabba. lungs. kidneys. . ear. sound. Water.. and corporeality derived from them. tejo-dhatu. the Heating and the Vibrating Elements which are cognizable through the sensations of pressure. is the ‘Group of Corporeality?’ It is the four primary elements. cold. vayo-dhatu. such as the hairs of head and body. THE FOUR ELEMENTS And what are the four Primary Elements? They are the Solid Element. mesentery. odour. of the following twenty-four material phenomena and qualities: eye. decay. the Fluid Element.)..(upadaya rupa or upada rupa) consists.
they are both merely the heating element. And what is one’s own heating element? Whatever in one’s own person or body there exists of karmically acquired heat or hotness. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING be one’s own solid element. tears. 3. consumed. What. whereby that which has been eaten. phlegm. is the ‘Heating Element’ (tejo-dhatu)? The heating element may be one’s own. according to reality and true wisdom. nasal mucus. And what is one’s own vibrating element? What in one’s own person or body there exists of karmically acquired wind or windiness. this is not my Ego’. is the ‘Fluid Element’ (apo-dhatu)? The ﬂuid element may be one’s own. fat. is the ‘Vibrating (Windy) Element’ (vayo-dhatu)? The vibrating element may be one’s own. now. 4. oil of the joints. this is not my Ego’. such as bile. And one should. whether it be one’s own ﬂuid element. ‘This does not belong to me. 2. this am I not. such as that whereby one is heated. And one should understand. or whether it be the external ﬂuid element. And what is one’s own ﬂuid element? Whatever in one’s own person or body there exists of karmically acquired liquidity or ﬂuidity.10 I. or it may be external. or whether it be the external heating element. saliva. according to reality and true wisdom. What. Now. this am I not. What. ‘This does not belong to me. sweat. such as the upward-going and downward- . according to reality and true wisdom. whether it be one’s own heating element. scorched. and so on—this is called one’s own ﬂuid element. they are both merely the ﬂuid element. ‘This does not belong to me. urine. blood. now. understand. they are both merely the solid element. pus. chewed. And one should understand. skin-grease. or it may be external. is fully digested. drunk. and so on—this is called one’s own heating element. or whether it be the external solid element. or it may be external. or tasted. this is not my Ego’. this am I not. now. Now.
even so we call ‘body’ the circumscribed space that comes to be by means of bones and sinews. Now. is Perception? There are six classes of perception: perception of forms. whether it be one’s own vibrating element or whether it be the external vibrating element. are present in a single moment of consciousness. they are both merely the vibrating element. and so on—this is called one’s own vibrating element. 1 There are three kinds of Feeling: pleasant. bodily impressions. unpleasant. seven of which are constant fac- .I. bodily impressions. are Mental Formations? There are six classes of volitions (cetana): will directed to forms (rupa-cetana). ﬂesh and skin. to sounds. now. and clay. and of mental objects. XXII. odors. ‘This does not belong to me. THE GROUP OF FEELING (vedana-khandha) S. tastes. now. this is not my Ego. reeds. And one should understand. THE GROUP OF PERCEPTION (sañña-khandha) S. and neither pleasant nor unpleasant (indifferent). ﬁfty Mental Formations are distinguished. the wind permeating all the limbs. in-breathing and out-breathing. tastes. THE GROUP OF MENTAL FORMATIONS (sankhara-khandha) What. 56 What. sounds.XXXVI. in addition to feeling and perception. In the Abhidhamma. odors. the winds of stomach and intestines.’ Just as one calls ‘hut’ the circumscribed space which comes to be by means of wood and rushes. according to reality and true wisdom. The ‘group of Mental Formations’ (sankhara-khandha) is a collective term for numerous functions or aspects of mental activity which. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING 11 going winds. and to mental objects. this am I not.
in that case there occurs no formation of the corresponding aspect of consciousness. -ra). ear-consciousness.12 I. however. XXII. Hence I say: the arising of consciousness is dependent upon conditions. and therefore serves to exemplify it in the passage given above. and the external forms fall within the ﬁeld of vision. is called ‘eye-consciousness’ (cakkhu-viññana). and no corresponding conjunction (of eye and forms) takes place. The number and composition of the rest varies according to the character of the respective class of consciousness (see Table in B. sense impression (phassa). sounds. In the Discourse on Right Understanding (M. . though one’s eye be intact.9) three main representatives of the Group of Mental Formations are mentioned: volition (cetana). Or. yet if no corresponding conjunction takes place. odors. Of these again. tastes. And upon whatsoever conditions the arising of consciousness is dependent. 28 not fall within the ﬁeld of vision. and of mental objects (lit. whose arising depends on the eye and forms. after these it is called. in that case also there occurs no formation of the corresponding aspect of consciousness. bodily impressions. though one’s eye be intact. 38 . is particularly characteristic of the Group of Formations. For other applications of the term sankhara see B. one’s eye is intact. in that case there arises the corresponding aspect of consciousness. Diet. M. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING tors of mind. What. no consciousness arises. 56 Now. is consciousness? There are six classes of consciousness: consciousness of forms. it is volition which. DEPENDENT ORIGINATION OF CONSCIOUSNESS S. and attention (manasika being a principal ‘formative’ factor. Dict). and the corresponding conjunction takes place. THE GROUP OF CONSCIOUSNESS (viññana-khandha) . yet if the external forms do M. etc. now. If. Consciousness. and the external forms fall within the ﬁeld of vision.).: eye-consciousness. and without these conditions.
whose arising depends on the tongue and taste. is called ‘nose-consciousness’ (ghana-viññana). Consciousness. 28 And it is impossible that any one can explain the passing out of one existence. this belongs to the Group of Consciousness. is called ‘tongue-consciousness’ (jivha-viññana). this belongs to the Group of Feeling. all things are ‘without a self’ (anatta). DEPENDENCY OF CONSCIOUSNESS ON THE FOUR OTHER KHANDHAS S. increase and development of consciousness. XXII. independently of corporeality. feeling. and the entering into a new existence. or the growth. 53 M. all formations are ‘subject to suffering’ (dukkha). Whatsoever there is of ‘feeling’ (vedana).I. Consciousness. XXII. perception is transient. feeling is transient. mental formations are transient. these belong to the Group of Mental Formations. THE THREE CHARACTERISTICS OF EXISTENCE A. Whatsoever there is of consciousness (viññana). consciousness is transient. and mental formations. perception. Corporeality is transient. Whatsoever there is of ‘corporeality’ (rupa) on that occasion. 134 (ti-lakkhana) . III. this belongs to the Group of Corporeality. . whose arising depends on the olfactory organ and odors. this belongs to the Group of Perception. Consciousness. All formations are ‘transient’ (anicca). is called ‘ear-consciousness’ (sota-viññana). S. Consciousness. whose arising depends on the mind and mind objects. . . THE NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING 13 Consciousness. . . . is called ‘mind-consciousness’ (mano-viññana). whose arising depends on the ear and sounds. Whatsoever there is of ‘perception’ (sañña). Whatsoever there are of ‘mental formations’ (sankhara). is called ‘body-consciousness’ (kaya-viññana). 59 . whose arising depends on the body and bodily contacts.
As stated in the preceding texts. is subject to suffering. or by the name ‘I’. shaft. and equally no self. present or future. soul or substance can be found outside of these Groups as their ‘owner’. whether past. nor do they belong to a Self (anattaniya). and of that which is transient and subject to suffering and change. In view of the impermanence and conditionality of all existence. in brief. and has no real existence in itself. and also after one’s death it will continue for endless periods of time. as long. whatever there be of corporeality. before one’s birth. This process has gone on from time immemorial. Just as what we designate by the name of ‘chariot’ has no existence apart from axle. In other words. the belief in any form of Self must be regarded as an illusion. one should understand according to reality and true wisdom: ‘This does not belong to me. wheels.14 I. this am I not. as well as the whole world. lofty or low. the ﬁve Groups of Existence—either taken separately or combined—in no way constitute a real Ego-entity or subsisting personality. This is. of feeling. one’s own or external. THE ANATTA DOCTRINE Individual existence. this is not my Self’. the Anatta Doctrine of the Buddha. that which we call a ‘being’ or an ‘individual’ or a ‘person’. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING And that which is transient. this is my Self’. Therefore. gross or subtle. this am I. mental formations. as there are conditions for it. one cannot rightly say: ‘This belongs to me. perception. the ﬁve Groups of Existence are ‘not-self’ (anatta). is nothing but a changing combination of physical and psychical phenomena. the teaching that all existence is void (suñña) of a permanent self or sub- . and as far. or consciousness. far or near. and there is no separate house-entity in existence: in exactly the same way. are in reality nothing but a process of ever-changing phenomena which are all comprised in the ﬁve Groups of Existence. body and so forth: or as the word ‘house’ is merely a convenient designation for various materials put together after a certain fashion so as to enclose a portion of space.
and states of consciousness—whether they be of the past. undertaken. piled up. It is the fundamental Buddhist doctrine not found in any other religious teaching or philosophical system. and he watched them and carefully examined them. Dict. and. well rigged. In exactly the same way does the monk behold all the corporeal phenomena. will not be freed from suffering. Unstable. S. or mental formations.g. XXII. feelings. is an indispensable condition for the true understanding of the Buddha-Dhamma and for the realization of its goal. and impermanent! Devoured by old age is this frame. then after he had carefully examined them they would appear to him empty. far or near. XXII. he delights in suffering. For a detailed survey of the Khandhas see B. How can you ﬁnd delight and mirth Where there is burning without end? In deepest darkness you are wrapped! Why do you not seek for the light? I. And he watches them. perceptions. S. e. and full of greediness. and examines them carefully. A heap of many sores. in the Khandha Doctrine of which only a bare indication can be given by means of the texts included here.ook at this puppet here. but by constant reference to actual experience. or the present. 146-48 . they appear to him empty. 29 Dhp. or perception. after carefully examining them. mental formations. Whoso delights in corporeality. and whoso delights in suffering.I. The Anat-a-Doctrine is the inecessary outcome of the thorough analysis of actuality. weak and frail. 95 Suppose a man who was not blind beheld the many bubbles on the Ganges as they drove along. Thus I say. or the future. void and without a Self. or consciousness. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING 15 stance. or feeling. not only in an abstract and intellectual way. unreal and unsubstantial. Diseased. To grasp it fully. A prey to sickness.
growing old. which. inﬁrm. are hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING To pieces breaks this putrid body. with blotched limbs? And did the thought never come to you that you also are subject to decay. one must S. More precisely put: Samsara is the unbro. ing’—is the name given in the Pali scriptures to the sea of life ever restlessly heaving up and down. or a woman who. lit. wallowing in his own ﬁlth. and grievously ill. bent down. the symbol of this continuous process of ever again and again being born. or a woman. afﬂicted. THE THREE WARNINGS Did you never see in the world a man. blue-black in color. XV. frail. not to be dis. with broken teeth. wrinkled. resting on crutches. and ensnared by craving. crooked as a gable-roof. swollen up. that you also cannot escape it? Did you never see in the world a man. 3 . the ‘Perpetual Wander. . youth long since ﬂed. grey and scanty hair or none. who obstructed by ignorance. III. Of this Samsara a single life time constitutes only a tiny fraction. one or two or three days after death. with tottering steps. constantly changing from moment to moment. was lifted up by some and put to bed by others? And did the thought never come to you that you also are subject to disease. or a hundred years old. being sick. ninety.16 I. to be able to comprehend the ﬁrst Noble Truth. or a woman. Samsara—the wheel of existence. suffering. All life must truly end in death. Hence. follow continually one upon the other through inconceivable periods of time. that you also cannot escape it? Did you never see in the world the corpse of a man. and dying. 35 Inconceivable is the beginning of this Samsara. covered is any ﬁrst beginning of beings. that you also cannot escape it? SAMSARA A. ken sequence of the ﬁvefold Khandha-combinations. eighty. and full of corruption? And did the thought never come to you that you also are subject to death.
or highway men or adulterers. owing to the universal law of impermanence. even high and sublime states of happiness are subject to change and destruction. separated from the desired—this. and that all states of existence are therefore unsatisfactory. obstructed by ignorance and ensnared by craving. The Truth of Suffering teaches that. of course. or the waters of the four oceans? Long have you been caught as robbers. not to be dis. . have ﬂowed upon this long way. And whilst you were thus suffering. upon this frightful sequence . are hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths. which. Which do you think is more: the ﬂood of tears. of rebirths. 1 And thus have you long undergone suffering. But how is this possible? Inconceivable is the beginning of this Samsara. through your being beheaded. without exception carrying in themselves the seeds of suffering. you have indeed shed more tears upon this long way than there is water in the four oceans. or the waters of the four oceans? Long have you suffered the death of father and mother. united with the undesired. these. and. S. covered is any ﬁrst beginning of beings. undergone torment. not merely to painful bodily and mental sensations due to unpleasant impressions. verily more blood has ﬂowed upon this long way than there is water in the four oceans. which weeping and wailing you have shed upon this long way— hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING 17 let one’s gaze rest upon the Samsara.I. The term ‘suffering’ (dukkha). daughters. but it comprises in addition everything productive of suffering or liable to it. of sons. may sometimes be not very painful. S. and not merely upon one single life time. and sisters. XV. XV. through your being beheaded. and ﬁlled the graveyards full. who. 13 Which do you think is more: the streams of blood that. brothers. undergone misfortune. in the ﬁrst Noble Truth refers therefore.
long enough to turn away and free yourselves from them all.18 I. . THE NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING truly. long enough to be dissatisﬁed with all the forms of existence.
. the ‘Craving for . ‘Craving for Existence’ (bhava-tanha) is the desire for continued . i. and mind. . ‘Craving for Self-Annihilation’ (lit. the delusive materialistic notion . THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE ORIGIN OF SUFFERING D. now here. nose.or uccheda-ditthi).II. referring in particular to life in those higher worlds called Fine-material and Immaterial Existences (rupa-. now. body. It is closely connected with the so-called and aru ‘Eternity-Belief’ (bhava. . of a more or less real Ego which is annihilated at death. or eternal life. which gives rise to fresh rebirth. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE ORIGIN OF SUFFERING 19 THE SECOND TRUTH II. 22 What. there this craving arises and takes root. ear. the ‘Craving for Self-Anni(Eternal) Existence’ (bhava-tanha . hilation’ (vibhava-tanha).e. tongue.pa-bhava). now there.. (vibhava. and. . . ‘Sensual Craving (kama-tanha) is the desire for the enjoyment of . absolute. bound up with pleasure and lust. ﬁnds ever-fresh delight. the belief in an . THE THREEFOLD CRAVING There is the ‘Sensual Craving’ (kama-tanha). vibhava-tanha) is the outcome of the ‘Belief in Annihilation’ . i. the ﬁve sense objects. eternal Ego-entity persisting independently of our body. and which does not stand in any causal relation with the time before death and the time after death. ORIGIN OF CRAVING But where does this craving arise and take root? Wherever in the world there are delightful and pleasurable things.or sassata-ditthi). ‘for non-existence’.e. -). are delightful and pleasurable: there this craving arises and takes root. Eye.. is the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering? It is craving.
bodily impression. conditioned through sensuous craving. the object is pleasant. and mind objects. here kamma-bhava.20 II. pain. but lust for feelings means ‘Clinging’ (upadana). sounds. they fall M. odour. sense impression. and cherishes the feeling. then while doing so. Consciousness. princes with princes. lust . on the process of becoming (bhava. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE ORIGIN OF SUFFERING Visual objects. may be regarded as a detailed explanation of the Second Truth. lamentation. 13 . Thus. the father with the son. thinking. will. the son with the father. brother with sister. one is repelled. the son with the mother. and if unpleasant. bodily impressions. and clings to it. unpleasant or indifferent—if one approves of. one is attracted. taste. the mother quarrels with the son. Thus arises this whole mass of suffering. citizens with citizens. given to dissension. Karmaprocess) depends (future) ‘Birth’ (jati).springs up. a sound. craving. priests with priests. brother quarrels with brother. 38 PRESENT KARMA-RESULTS Truly. are delightful and pleasurable: there this craving arises and takes root. entirely moved by sensuous craving. This is called the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering. of which only some of the twelve links have been mentioned in the preceding passage. quarrelling and ﬁghting. whenever perceiving a visual object. Thus. DEPENDENT ORIGINATION OF ALL PHENOMENA If. or a mind-object. feeling born of sense impression. impelled by sensuous craving. due to sensuous craving. kings ﬁght with kings. The formula of the Dependent Origination (paticca-samuppada) . whatever kind of ‘Feeling’ (vedana) one experiences— pleasant. sister with brother. M. sorrow. are delightful and pleasurable: there this craving arises and takes root. perception. grief and despair. and reﬂecting. and dependent on birth are ‘Decay and Death’. smells tastes. and on clinging depends the (present) ‘process of Becoming’. friend with friend.
the heaping up of suffering in the future life. this is the misery of sensuous craving. But this is the misery of sensuous craving. ripening amongst men. caused by sensuous craving. Now. . Nor hidden in the mountain clefts. Nowhere is found a place on earth. Dhp. entirely moved by sensuous craving. rob. Where man is freed from evil deeds. And thereby they suffer death or deadly pain. seduce the wives of others. plunder. due to sensuous craving. commit highway robbery. words and thoughts. sticks. Then. one acts by body. due to sensuous craving. entirely dependent on sensuous craving. they fall into a downward state of existence. VI. KARMA AS VOLITION A. people break into houses. 127 Not in the air. the rulers have such people caught. the evil way in words. There are actions (kamma) ripening in hells. . and the abysses of the hells. Having willed. ripening in the domain of ghosts. FUTURE KARMA-RESULTS And further. conditioned through sensuous craving. at the dissolution of the body. . a state of suffering. and by taking the evil way in deeds. impelled by sensuous craving. And thereby they incur death or deadly pain. caused by sensuous craving. after death. . ripening in heavenly worlds. speech. . . due to sensuous craving. . nor ocean-midst. 63 It is volition (cetana) that I call ‘Karma’ (action). and mind. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE ORIGIN OF SUFFERING 21 upon one another with ﬁsts. conditioned through sensuous craving. . people take the evil way in deeds. . And further. and inﬂict on them various forms of punishment. the heaping up of suffering in this present life. entirely dependent on sensuous craving. into an unhappy destiny.II. conditioned through sensuous craving. ripening in the animal kingdom. or weapons. the evil way in thoughts. pillage whole houses.
and many other evil things productive of suffering and misery. is not the only cause of evil action. or be it in any other future life. their deeds are their refuge. 33 S. life-afﬁrming impulses and actions. or be it in the next life. partly in former states of existence. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE ORIGIN OF SUFFERING The result of actions (vipaka) is of three kinds: ripening in the present life. who. which we have to seek partly in this life. anger. or in future lives. dependent on craving. there. INHERITANCE OF DEEDS (KARMA) All beings are the owners of their deeds (kamma. may arise envy. III. Skr: karma). And all these selﬁsh. XXII. and that not only our latent tendencies. together with the various kinds of misery produced thereby here or thereafter. . But yet there will be no end to the suffering of beings. and thus of all the suffering and misery produced thereby in this and the next life. but wherever there is craving. there their deeds will ripen. Craving (tanha). and wherever their deeds ripen. hatred. result from causes (Karma). perish. there they will earn the fruits of those deeds. and be no more. be it in this life. Whatever deeds they do—good or evil—of such they will be the heirs. obstructed by ignorance. all weal and woe. X. by teaching that nothing in the world can come into existence without reason or cause. but our whole destiny. 206 A. in the next life. There will come a time when the mighty ocean will dry up. 99 KARMA The second Noble Truth serves also to explain the causes of the seeming injustices in nature. and even all the ﬁve groups of phenomena constituting life—everything is ultimately rooted in blindness and ignorance (avijja). however. are hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths. There will come a time when the mighty earth will be devoured by ﬁre.22 II. and ensnared by craving. and be no more. the heirs of their deeds: their deeds are the womb from which they sprang. These . with their deeds they are bound up. A. And wherever the beings spring into existence. vanish.
speech and mind. which. the term ‘Karma’ signiﬁes only the aforementioned kinds of action themselves. there as animals. when considering Karma. manifest themselves here as men. For further details about Karma see Fund. or better the Process of Becoming (bhava). In the case of a storm-swept sea. Exactly deﬁned Karma denotes those good and evil volitions (kusala-akusala-cetana). too. and does not mean or include their results. consists of an active and conditioning ‘Karma Process’ (kamma-bhava). Hence it is this threefold action (kamma) that determines the character and destiny of all beings. Here. it is not an identical wave that hastens over the surface of the ocean. In the same way it should be understood that there are no real Ego-entities hastening through the ocean of rebirth. but merely life-waves. together with rebirth. Once more the fact may be emphasized here that correctly speaking. the ‘Rebirth Process’ (upapatti-bhava). Thus existence. according to their nature and activities (good or evil). and of its result. Skr: karma) produced by body. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE ORIGIN OF SUFFERING 23 causes are the life-afﬁrming activities (kamma. one must not lose sight of the impersonal nature (anattata) of existence. but it is the rising and falling of quite different masses of water. Dict. and B.II. and elsewhere as invisible beings. .
it is he who overcomes craving. perception. XXII. lamentation. Clinging (upadana) is extinguished. the Process of Becoming (bhava) is extinguished. D. and through the extinction of rebirth. Hence the annihilation.22 DEPENDENT EXTINCTION OF ALL PHENOMENA And through the total fading away and extinction of Craving . THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE EXTINCTION OF SUFFERING THE THIRD TRUTH III. and without a self (anatta). sorrow. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE EXTINCTION OF SUFFERING What. mental formations. there it may be extinguished. the end of disease. through the extinction of the (karmic) process of becoming. 30 . extinction of clinging. 66 or priests regards the delightful and pleasurable things in the world as impermanent (anicca). liberation and detachment from it. there this craving may vanish. and consciousness: this is the extinction of suffering. as diseases and cankers. and maintained by the stored-up energies. Decay and Death.(tanha). whosoever of the monks S. XII. its forsaking and abandonment. feeling. grief and despair are extinguished. suffering. Thus comes about the extinction of this whole mass of suffering. through the . 43 S. cessation and overcoming of corporeality. But where may this craving vanish. where may it be extinguished? Wherever in the world there are delightful and pleasurable things. Be it in the past. now. S. or future.24 III. miserable (dukkha). The undulatory motion which we call a wave—and which in the ignorant spectator creates the illusion of one and the same mass of water moving over the surface of the lake—is produced and fed by the wind. Now. is the Noble Truth of the Extinction of Suffering? It is the complete fading away and extinction of this craving. present. Rebirth (jati) is extinguished. XII. the overcoming of old age and death.
the craving and clinging to life. NIBBANA A. if ﬁre does not get new fuel. become extinct. or Holiness. the forsaking of every substratum of rebirth. become extinct) may be considered nir +√ va under two aspects. or ‘Extinction’ (Sanskrit: nirvana. life will continue as long as there are still lifeenergies stored up.III. i. this is the Highest. and he experiences mental pain and grief. and . ‘Nibbana with the Groups of Existence still nibba remaining’. with mind ensnared. the FiveKhandha -process will reach ﬁnal extinction. Enraptured with lust. ‘Extinction of Impurities’ (kilesa-parinibbana).to cease blowing.e. and if no fresh wind again whips up the water of the lake. Just in the same way this Five-Khandha-process—which in the ignorant worldling creates the illusion of an Ego-entity— is produced and fed by the life-afﬁrming craving (tanha). Nibbana. But. ‘Extinction of the Five-Khandha-process’ (khandhaparinibbana). the fading away of craving. 2. detachment. III. maintained for some time by means of the stored-up life energies. truly. the stored-up energies will gradually be consumed. 55 . anger. if lust. at the ruin of both. i. enraged with anger.Now. which takes place at the death of the Arahat. after consuming all the old fuel. ‘Nibbana without the Groups remaining’. from . reached at the attainment of Arahatship. 32 This. namely as: 1. blinded by delusion. at the ruin of others. and if no new craving impels again this FiveKhandha-process. and A. in the Suttas it is called ‘saupadisesa-na’. after the fuel (upadana). is Peace. namely the end of all Karma formations. Nibbana.e. but at their destruction at death. Similarly. . overwhelmed. III. man aims at his own ruin. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE EXTINCTION OF SUFFERING 25 after the wind has ceased. extinction. and thus the whole undulatory motion will come to an end. it will. Thus. which generally takes place during life-time.e. has ceased. called in the Suttas: ‘an-upadisesa-nibbana’ i.
nor tastes. this Unformed. escape from the world of the born. neither this world. the extinction of hate. attractive. There is neither foothold. gained is deliverance. Just as a rock of one solid mass remains unshaken by the wind. Thus is Nibbana immediate. can cause such a one to waver. man aims neither at his own ruin. is called Nibbana. nor being born. therefore is escape possible from the world of the born. If there were not this Unborn. nor any basis. nor odors. nor at the ruin of both and he experiences no mental pain and grief. the formed. The extinction of greed. from sorrow. there is a realm. and from longing. and is no more disturbed by anything whatever in the world. 3 Ud. S. VI. and comprehensible to the wise. the created. This I call neither arising. neither the desired nor the undesired. the originated. This is the end of suffering. there is nothing to be added to what has been done. nor dying. VIII. And he who has considered all the contrasts on this earth. inviting. where there is neither the solid. the originated. Ud.XXXVIII. and naught more remains for him to do. nor development. Unoriginated. Steadfast is his mind. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE EXTINCTION OF SUFFERING delusion are given up. nor any other world. the peaceful One. neither sun nor moon. A. he has passed beyond birth and decay. would not be possible. nor contacts of any kind. Uncreated. the formed. nor sounds. the extinction of delusion: this. Unformed. nor passing away. OR HOLY ONE And for a disciple thus freed. this Uncreated. neither heat. Unoriginated. 55 Snp. in whose heart dwells peace.1 THE ARAHAT. neither standing still. nor the ﬂuid. There is an Unborn. visible in this life. freed from rage.26 III. nor at the ruin of others. indeed. 1048 THE IMMUTABLE Truly. the created. Unformed. nor motion. VIII. even so neither forms. Uncreated. But since there is an Unborn. 1 . this Unoriginated.
to discernment. 7. unproﬁtable.Samma-vaca Right Action Samma-kammanta Right Livelihood . 2. II. vulgar. 4. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE PATH THAT LEADS TO THE EXTINC- THE FOURTH TRUTH IV. unholy. 3.. namely: 1. Right Thought Samma-sankappa Right Speech . the painful. common. unproﬁtable: both these two extremes. which leads to peace.Samma-vayama Right Mindfulness Samma-sati Right Concentration Samma-samadhi III. Right Understanding Samma-ditthi . and has found out the Middle Path. or to give oneself up to Self-mortiﬁcation. the Perfect One has avoided. Wisdom Pañña I.. Concentration Samadhi .Samma-ajiva Right Effort . 5. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE PATH THAT LEADS TO THE EXTINCTION OF SUFFERING THE TWO EXTREMES. 11 To give oneself up to indulgence in Sensual Pleasure. the way that leads to the extinction of suffering. AND THE MIDDLE PATH SS. to Nibbana.IV. THE EIGHTFOLD PATH It is the Noble Eightfold Path. Morality S-la i 6. the base. which makes one both to see and to know. LVI. to enlightenment.. unholy. 8.
which makes one both see and know. Right Understanding is therefore the beginning as well as the culmination of the Noble Eightfold Path. An initial minimum of Right Understanding.28IV. man’s character and mind will be capable of reaching perfection in the ﬁrst two factors (1-2) forming the section of ‘Wisdom’ (pañña). or of practising Right Speech. to enlightenment. . has to be gradually developed. only after that preparation. however. In that case. i. before one could think of developing Right Thought. for a diligent practice of the Path. one after the other. which leads to peace. is required at the very start. and an incentive. after that one has to give attention to the systematic training of mind by practising the three factors (6-8) forming the section ‘Concentrations (samadhi). to discernment. For that reason. Right Understanding. THE NOBLE EIGHTFOLD PATH (Ariya-atthangikamagga) . But in reality the three factors (3-5) forming the section ‘Morality’ (sila) have to be perfected ﬁrst..e. because some grasp of the facts of suffering. is necessary to provide convincing reasons. This initial understanding of the Dhamma. The ﬁgurative expression ‘Path’ or ‘Way’ has been sometimes misunderstood as implying that the single factors of that Path have to be taken up for practice. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE PATH THAT LEADS TO THE EXTINC- This is the Middle Path which the Perfect One has found out. would have to be realized ﬁrst. with the help of the other Path factors. however. to Nibbana. A measure of Right Understanding is also required for helping the other Path factors to fulﬁl intelligently and efﬁciently their individual functions in the common task of liberation.. Right Understanding has been given the ﬁrst place in the Noble Eightfold Path. in the order given. until it reaches ﬁnally that highest clarity of Insight (vipassana) which is the immediate condition for entering the four Stages of Holiness (see “The Noble Ones” on page 33) and for attaining Nibbana. the full penetration of Truth. and to emphasize the importance of that factor. etc. etc.
139 Free from pain and torture is this path. for the Deathless is found. realize. 276 M. you will put an end to suffering. in no long time.IV. make known to yourself. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE PATH THAT LEADS TO THE EXTINC- M. free from groaning and suffering: it is the perfect path. the Perfect Ones have only pointed out the way. 26 . for the sake of which sons of good families rightly go forth from home to the homeless state: this you will. 274-75 Dhp. I reveal. If you follow this path. Truly. Give ear then. I set forth the Truth. But each one has to struggle for himself. like this path there is no other path to the purity of insight. and make your own. in this very life. As I reveal it to you. so act! And that supreme goal of the holy life. Dhp.
This is called Right Understanding. and the root of wholesome karma. 7. 3. UNDERSTANDING MERIT AND DEMERIT Again. to understand the origin of suffering. What. is Right Understanding? D.24 UNDERSTANDING THE FOUR TRUTHS 1. 2. what is karmically unwholesome. 3. when the noble disciple understands what is karmically wholesome. To understand suffering. 5. What..30 RIGHT UNDERSTANDING FIRST FACTOR RIGHT UNDERSTANDING (Samma-ditthi) . now is ‘karmically unwholesome’ (akusala)? 1. 6. 2. and the root of unwholesome karma. 4. 9 Bodily Action (kaya-kamma) Verbal Action (vac--kamma) i . Destruction of living beings is karmically unwholesome Stealing is karmically unwholesome Unlawful sexual intercourse is karmically unwholesome Lying is karmically unwholesome Tale-bearing is karmically unwholesome Harsh language is karmically unwholesome Frivolous talk is karmically unwholesome M. to understand the extinction of suffering. to understand the path that leads to the extinction of suffering. then he has Right Understanding. 4. now.
And what are the roots of unwholesome karma? Greed (lobha) is a root of unwholesome karma. moha). 2. 9. or due to hatred. I say. Greed and hatred. or speech.RIGHT UNDERSTANDING 31 8. i. Mental Action (mano-kamma) These ten are called ‘Evil Courses of Action’ (akusalakammapatha). hatred. Therefore. as also that of hatred (dosa). 3. 10.e. It may manifest itself as action of the body. What. speech. To abstain from killing is karmically wholesome To abstain from stealing is karmically wholesome To abstain from unlawful sexual intercourse is karmically wholesome Bodily Action (kaya-kamma) . or due to delusion. if it does not manifest itself outwardly. as it produces evil and painful results in this or some future existence. As ‘karmically unwholesome’ (a-kusala) is considered every volitional act of body. cannot co-exist in one and the same moment of consciousness. Covetousness is karmically unwholesome Ill-will is karmically unwholesome Wrong views are karmically unwholesome. is always accompanied by ignorance (or delusion. however. these demeritorious actions are of three kinds: either due to greed. this latter being the primary root of all evil. is ‘karmically wholesome’ (kusala)? 1. now. it is counted as mental action. Delusion (moha) is a root of unwholesome karma. The state of greed (lobha). or mind. unwholesome or unskillful. It is regarded as akusala. Hatred (dosa) is a root of unwholesome karma. The state of will or volition is really that which counts as action (kamma). which is rooted in greed. or delusion.
absence of delusion (a-moha = wisdom) is a root of wholesome karma. 51 UNPROFITABLE QUESTIONS Should any one say that he does not wish to lead the holy life under the Blessed One. feeling. and without a self). or something different. absence of hatred (a-dosa = kindness) is a root of wholesome karma. XXII. 6. 9. UNDERSTANDING THE THREE CHARACTERISTICS (ti-lakkhana) . SS. Again. mental formations and consciousness are transient (subject to suffering.32 RIGHT UNDERSTANDING 4. To abstain from lying is karmically wholesome To abstain from tale-bearing is karmically wholesome To abstain from harsh language is karmically wholesome To abstain from frivolous talk is karmically wholesome Absence of covetousness is karmically wholesome Absence of ill-will is karmically wholesome Right understanding is karmically wholesome Verbal Action (vac--kamma) i Mental Action (mano-kamma) These ten are called ‘Good Courses of Action’ (kusala-kammapatha). when one understands that corporeality. 10. And what are the roots of wholesome karma? Absence of greed (a-lobha = unselﬁshness) is a root of wholesome karma. unless the Blessed One ﬁrst tells him whether the world is eternal or temporal. 5. 63 . 8. perception. also in that case one possesses Right Understanding. ﬁnite or inﬁnite: whether the life-principle is identical with the body. 7. whether the Perfect One continues after M.
or short. a tradesman.or sassata-ditthi. sorrow. M. attainable even in this present life. by Sensual Lust. lamentation. there exists decay. i. ‘Annihila. until I know. untrained in the noble doctrine. pain. who the man is that has wounded me: whether he is a noble man. lit. I make known unto you. and despair. or temporal. 1. And his heart is possessed and overcome by Self-illusion. there exist death. or a servant’. 64 (Samyojana) . that there is an unlearned worldling. and continues even after the dissolution of the latter. or: ‘whether he is tall. by Scepticism. 2.or ucchcda-ditthi. i.RIGHT UNDERSTANDING 33 death. Truly. the man who seeks his own welfare. ignorant of the teaching of holy men.—such a one would die ere the Perfect One could tell him all this. void of regard for holy men. grief. etc. a priest. that the world is eternal. or of medium height’. Self-Illusion (sakkaya-ditthi) may reveal itself as: . such a man would die ere he could adequately learn all this. there exists birth. pain. ‘Eternalism’: bhava. . the materialistic belief that this present life . or whether it does not exist. and how to free himself from these things. the belief that one’s Ego. or: ‘what his name is. should pull out this arrow—this arrow of lamentation. by Attachment to mere Rule and Ritual. ‘Annihilationism’: vibhava. whether the theory exists. and by Ill-will.e. and sorrow. he does not in reality know. and to what family he belongs’.. Suppose for instance. the extinction of which. 63 FIVE FETTERS M. companions or near relations should send for a surgeon. ‘Eternity-Belief’.. tion-Belief’. It is as if a man were pierced by a poisoned arrow and his friends.e. Snp. 592 Therefore. Self or Soul exists independently of the material body. For. but that man should say: ‘I will not have this arrow pulled out. lit.. or ﬁnite or inﬁnite—yet certainly.
not subject to change. UNWISE CONSIDERATIONS Not knowing what is worthy of consideration. he adopts one or other of the six views. or: ‘With that which is no Self. If there really existed the Self. and which. And unwisely he considers thus: ‘Have I been in the past? Or. persisting. now here. stable. see “The Ten Fetters” on page 32. and eternal’? . can be found. he considers the unworthy. after death I shall be permanent. As. have I not been in the past? What have I been in the past? How have I been in the past? From what state into what state did I change in the past? Shall I be in the future? Or. experiences the fruit of good and evil deeds: this my Self is permanent. he adopts the following view: ‘This my Self. or: ‘With the Self I perceive the Self’. or: ‘I have no Self’. nor anything belonging to the Self. this am I. ‘Am I? Or. is it not therefore really an utter fools’ doctrine to say: ‘This is the world. Or. and will thus eternally remain the same’. I perceive the Self’. am I not? What am I? How am I? This being. in truth and reality neither the Self. and what is unworthy of consideration. or: ‘With the Self I perceive that which is no Self’. there would also exist some. 22 thing which belonged to the Self. For the ten ‘Fetters’ (samyojana). whence has it come? Whither will it go?’ M. now there.M. and it becomes his conviction and ﬁrm belief: ‘I have a Self’. however. and not the worthy. and hence that it is annihilated at the death of the material body. shall I not be in the future? What shall I be in the future? How shall I be in the future? From what state into what state shall I change in the future?’ And the present also ﬁlls him with doubt.34 RIGHT UNDERSTANDING constitutes the Ego. 2 THE SIX VIEWS ABOUT THE SELF And with such unwise considerations. which can think and feel. eternal.
what the path is that leads to the extinction of suffering. M. and from death. however. he understands what is worthy of consideration. 178 THE TEN FETTERS (Samyojana) . THE SOTAPANNA OR ‘STREAM-ENTERER’ And by thus considering. and not the unworthy. More than all the joys of heaven.Self-Illusion (sakkaya-ditthi) . Dhp. I say. 2. he wisely considers. he will not be freed.Scepticism (vicikiccha) .Sensual Lust (kamaraga) . There are ten ‘Fetters’—samyojana—by which beings are bound to the wheel of existence. More than any earthly power. who has regard for holy men. from decay. and Attachment to mere Rule and Ritual.3.RIGHT UNDERSTANDING 35 M. WISE CONSIDERATIONS The learned and noble disciple. he considers the worthy.Ill-Will (vyapada) . Scepticism. they all have ‘entered the Stream’ (sotapanna). a snare of views. pain. Is the Entrance to the Stream. he wisely considers. What suffering is. a toil of views. a thicket of views. 2 These are called mere views. is well trained in the noble doctrine. namely. in whom these three fetters have vanished.. And knowing this. from sorrow. he wisely considers.5. More than rule o’er all the world. and what is unworthy. and ensnared in the fetter of views the ignorant worldling will not be freed from rebirth. grief and despair. 22 But those disciples. a puppetshow of views. from suffering.Attachment to mere Rule and Ritual (s-labbata-paramasa) i 4. knows the teaching of holy men. Selfillusion. They are: 1. what the extinction of suffering is. what the origin of suffering is. three fetters vanish. he wisely considers.
may repeat innumerable times during life-time. ‘Non-Returner’. An Arahat.Craving for Immaterial Existence (arupa-raga) 8.grosser form. or four pairs. Dhamma. and which under certain circumstances. One who has overcome the fourth and the ﬁfth Fetters in their . . and not in a state lower than the human world. the perfectly ‘Holy One’. e. after death. he will reach the goal. lit.Restlessness (uddhacca) 10. one who has entered the stream leading to Nibbana.e. he will be reborn only once more in the Sensuous Sphere (kamaloka).Ignorance (avijja). The ‘Path’ consists of the single moment of entering the respective attainment. Each of the aforementioned four stages of Holiness consists of the ‘Path’ (magga) and the ‘Fruition’.An Anagami. and thereafter reach Holiness. sotapanna. Dict.g. ‘Path of Stream Entry’ (sotapatti-magga) and ‘Fruition of Stream Entry’ (sotapattiphala). see B. He has unshakable faith in the Buddha.Craving for Fine-Material Existence (rupa-raga) 7. while living in the Fine-Material Sphere (rupa-loka).e. and Sangha. is called a Sakadagami. ‘Once-Returner’ i. i. is freed from all the ten Fetters. lit. For further details. of ‘Noble Individuals’ (ariya-puggala). He will be reborn seven times.e. Accordingly there are eight types. at the utmost. . and is incapable of breaking the ﬁve Moral Precepts.36 RIGHT UNDERSTANDING 6.etc. is wholly freed from the ﬁrst ﬁve Fetters which bind one to rebirth in the Sensuous Sphere. THE NOBLE ONES (Ariya-puggala) One who is freed from the ﬁrst three Fetters is called a ‘Stream Enterer’ (in Pali: Sotapanna) i.Conceit (mana) 9. By ‘Fruition’ are meant those moments of consciousness which follow immediately thereafter as the result of the ‘Path’.: ariya-puggala.
and in overcoming wrong understanding with attentive mind. who are spotless and perfect. i. the holy path being pursued: this is called the ‘Supermundane Right Understanding’ (lokuttara-samma-ditthi). and to arouse right understanding. of penetration. practised by the ‘Worldling’ (puthujjana). CONJOINED WITH OTHER STEPS Now. 2. which they themselves have understood: this is called the ‘Mundane Right Understanding’ (lokiya-samma-ditthi).RIGHT UNDERSTANDING 37 MUNDANE AND SUPERMUNDANE UNDERSTANDING M. which yields worldly fruits and brings . 2. that there are in the world monks and priests. and in making efforts to overcome wrong understanding.. Thus. as also spontaneously born beings (in the heavenly worlds). The ‘mundane’ (lokiya). in understanding wrong understanding as wrong and right understanding as right. one practises ‘Right Understanding’ (1st factor). Anagami.117 Therefore. Right Understanding is of two kinds: 1. one practises ‘Right Effort’ (6th factor). I say.. . and the next life. that father and mother. that there is fruit and result. there are three things that accompany and follow upon right . or Arahat)—the mind being turned away from the world and conjoined with the path. of right understanding conjoined with the ‘Path’ (of the Sotapanna. and dwelling with attentive mind in the possession of right understanding one practises ‘Right Mindfulness’ (7th factor). both of good and bad actions. who can explain this life and the next life. good results. but is supermundane and conjoined with the path. world. Hence.e. by all those who have not yet reached the ﬁrst stage of Holiness.Sakadagami. there are two kinds of the Eightfold Path: 1. which is not of the .. The ‘supermundane’ (lokuttara) practised by the ‘Noble Ones’ (ariya-puggala). are no mere words. But whatsoever there is of wisdom. The view that alms and offerings are not useless. that there are such things as this life.
He has understood what perception is.e. has a still wider application and is allembracing. and how it arises and passes away. that everything is without a Self (an-atta). however. the Perfect One has won complete deliverance through the extinction. He has understood what consciousness is. 134 . asankhata). for the Nibbana-dhamma is A.The word ‘sankhara’ (formations) comprises here all things that are conditioned or ‘formed’ (sankhata-dhamma). of all inclination to the vain-glory of ‘I’ and ‘mine’. or whether Perfect Ones do not appear in the world. it still remains a ﬁrm condition. and how they arise and pass away. FREE FROM ALL THEORIES Now. Right Effort. rejection. an immutable fact and ﬁxed law: that all formations are impermanent (anicca). whether I admit any theory at all. that all formations are subject to suffering (dukkha). and getting rid of all opinions and conjectures. disappearance. if any one should put the question. for the Perfect One has understood what corporeality is. and Right Mindfulness. The word ‘dhamma’. i. sabbe . 72 THE THREE CHARACTERISTICS Whether Perfect Ones (Buddhas) appear in the world. M.e. Nibbana. as it comprises also the so-called Unconditioned (‘unformed’. Therefore I say. He has understood what feeling is. dhamma . all possible physical and mental constituents of existence.anatta.In Pali: sabbe sankhara anicca. For this reason. fading-away. .. i. He has understood what the mental formations are. he should be answered thus: The Perfect One is free from any theory. and how it arises and passes away. sabbe sankhara dukkha. and how it arises and passes away.38 RIGHT UNDERSTANDING understanding. it would be wrong to say that all dhammas are impermanent and subject to change. namely: Right Understanding. and how it arises and passes away. III.
a perception. now. he should be answered thus: ‘There are three kinds of feeling: pleasurable. painful. a consciousness. If any one should say that feeling is not his Ego. no feeling whatever exists there. mixed up with pleasure and pain. one does not experience the other two. Such a one should be answered thus: ‘Suppose that feeling should become altogether totally extinguished. subject to arising and passing away. is not my Self. if someone should say that feeling is his Self. a feeling. And thus he will consider his Self already in this present life as impermanent. indeed. and indifferent feeling. A. Whosoever. is it then possible to say: “This am I’?” . Which of these three feelings do you consider as your Self?’ Because. And for the same reason. another might say: ‘Feeling. And it is impossible that a being possessed of right understanding should regard anything as the Self. such a thing the wise men in this world do not recognize. at the moment of experiencing one of these feelings.RIGHT UNDERSTANDING 39 permanent and free from change. 15 VIEWS AND DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THE EGO D. if after the extinction of feeling. for it is my Self that feels. admit that his Self has become dissolved. is it then possible to say: “This am I?” Or. are subject to decay and dissolution. 94 A corporeal phenomenon. I. and I also say that there is no such thing. XXII. he should be asked thus: ‘Now. which is permanent and persistent. a mental formation. S. but that all the dhammas (including the asankhatadhamma) lack an Ego (an-atta). must after the extinction of that feeling. in experiencing one of these feelings. eternal and not subject to change. my Self that has the faculty of feeling’. These three kinds of feeling are impermanent. it is correct to say that not only all the sankharas (=sankhatadhamma). and that his Self is inaccessible to feeling. of dependent origin. where there is no feeling. but it also is untrue that my Self is inaccessible to feeling. to fading-away and extinction. 15 Now. thinks that this is his Self.
of consciousness whether past. Visuddhi-Magga XVI quotes the following verse: Mere suffering exists. or mind. whatsoever there is of corporeality. or ten years. one’s own or external. or even for a hundred years and more. of perception. as his Self. and that it is untrue that you have not been. 148 S.40 RIGHT UNDERSTANDING To say that the mind. built up of the four elements. but that which is called thought. for three. M. that you are. For it is evident that the body may last for a year. 1t would be better for the unlearned worldling to regard his body. but no traveller on it is seen’. this is not my Self. any one should ask: ‘Have you been in the past. of feeling. and is it untrue that you are not?’ — you may reply that you have been in the past. during day and night. such an assertion is unfounded. or the mind-consciousness. arises continuously. D. gross or subtle. no sufferer is found. that you will be in the future. rather than his mind. and that it is untrue that you will not be. For an arising and a passing away is seen there. Nirvana is. but no doer of the deed is there. The path is. PRESENT AND FUTURE If now. and passes away as another thing. and seeing the arising and passing away of these things. 9 . this am I not. 62 S. of mental formations. but not the man that enters it. or the mind-objects. present or future. constitute the Self. XXII. ﬁve. and is it untrue that you have not been? Will you be in the future.’ To show the impersonality and utter emptiness of existence. far or near: of this one should understand according to reality and true wisdom: ‘This does not belong to me. and is it untrue that you will not be? Are you. lofty or low. 59 PAST. one would come to the conclusion that one’s Self arises and passes away. or consciousness. for two years. as one thing. Therefore. XII. and that it is untrue that you are not. four. The deed is.
and the way to their extinction. All these are merely popular designations and expressions. mere popular notions. he is liable to believe. 28 Verily. mental formations and consciousness according to reality (i. perceives the Dependent Origination. from ghee the skim of ghee. perception. but unreal the future and present existence. and when it is curd.e. he who perceives the ‘Dependent Origination’ (paticca. XLIV 4 THE TWO EXTREMES (ANNIHILATION AND ETERNITY BELIEF) AND THE MIDDLE DOCTRINE S. either that the Perfect One continues after death. it is only counted as curd: just so was my past existence at that time real. 8 S. and so forth. and my present existence is now real. or butter. their extinction. ‘Soul’) is identical with this body. and he who perceives the truth. or skim of ghee. from curd butter. in that case also a holy life is not possible. from milk curd. but unreal the past and future existence. 25 Truly. The Perfect One indeed makes use of these. Both these two extremes the Perfect .RIGHT UNDERSTANDING 41 In the past only that past existence was real. feeling. samuppada). if one holds the view that the vital principle (jiva. mere conventional terms of speaking. M. from butter ghee. Thus. but unreal the future and present existence. Now only the present existence is real. or Ego) nor understands their arising. as void of a personality. he who does not understand corporeality. the past and future existence. without however clinging to them. but unreal the past and present existence. but unreal the past and the present existence. In the future only the future existence will be real. D. it is not counted as curd. For just as from the cow comes milk. or ghee. or that he does not continue after death. but only as milk. XII. and when it is milk. and if one holds the view that the vital principle is something quite different from the body. perceives the truth. but unreal. in that case a holy life is not possible. and my future existence will be at that time real.
which says: (Paticca-samuppada) . sorrow. XII. . l On the six sense-organs depends ‘Sensorial Impression’ (phassa). -) depend the ‘Karma-formations’ On Ignorance (avijja . such a disciple heaps up neither DEPENDENT ORIGINATION S. On feeling depends ‘Craving’ (tanha).42 RIGHT UNDERSTANDING One has avoided.On craving depends ‘Clinging’ (upadana). or karmaprocess) depends ‘Rebirth’ (jati). This is called the noble truth of the origin of suffering. lamentation. “No god. pain.-ayatana).” (Quoted in Visuddhi-Magga XIX). On clinging depends the ‘Process of Becoming’ (bhava). On sensorial impression depends ‘Feeling’ (vedana). XII. no Brahma can be called The maker of this wheel of life: Empty phenomena roll on. 1 S. however. 51 .(sankhara). On the mental and physical existence depend the ‘Six SenseOrgans’ (sa. On the Karma-formations depends ‘Consciousness’ (viññana. in whom Ignorance (avijja) has disappeared and wisdom arisen. A disciple. On Consciousness depends the ‘Mental and Physical Existence’ (nama-rupa). On the process of becoming (here: kamma-bhava. . starting with rebirth-consciousness in the womb of the mother). . and he has shown the Middle Doctrine. On rebirth depend ‘Decay and Death’ (jara-marana). Thus arises this whole mass of suffering. Dependent on conditions all. grief and despair.
1 Thus. Through the extinction of feeling. . comprises karmic activity in all spheres of existence. the ‘Process of Becoming’ is extinguished. ‘Rebirth’ is extinguished. it refers to karmically wholesome and unwholesome volition (cetana). therefore fresh rebirth continually comes to be. given in the preceding passage. nor demeritorious. while the ‘imperturb-bhisankhara) refer only to the . XII. Through the extinction of consciousness. Thus takes place the extinction of this whole mass of suffering. the ‘Six Sense-Organs’ are extinguished. Through the extinction of the process of becoming.RIGHT UNDERSTANDING 43 meritorious. now there. Through the extinction of sensorial impression. . or volitional activity. Through the extinction of craving. lamentation. through the entire fading away and extinction of this ‘Ignorance’. This is called the noble truth of the extinction of suffering. grief and despair are extinguished. The threefold division of it. the ‘Karma-formations’ are extinguished. obstructed by ignorance (avijja) and ensnared by craving (tanha) seek ever fresh delight. 43 Truly. Through the extinction of the mental and physical existence. ‘Feeling’ is extinguished. in the context of the Dependent Origination. Through the extinction of clinging. ‘Decay and Death’. sorrow. nor imperturbable Karmaformations. or planes of consciousness. the ‘Mental and Physical Existence’ is extinguished. ‘Sensorial Impression’ is extinguished. because beings. ‘Consciousness’ (rebirth) is extinguished. ‘Craving’ is extinguished. Karma. in short.able karma-formations’ (aneñja .to the Fine-Material Sphere (rupavacara). Through the extinction of the six sense-organs. now here. ‘Clinging’ is extinguished. REBIRTH-PRODUCING KARMA M. Through the extinction of Karma-formations.The term sankhara has been rendered here by ‘Karma Formations’ because. Through the extinction of rebirth. Immaterial Sphere (aru S.pavacara). The ‘meritorious karma-formations’ extend also . pain.
or the next life. M. has its source and origin in them: this action ripens wherever one is reborn. moha). for certainly I do teach annihilation—the annihilation. 12 lation. A. destroyed. The Paticca Samuppada. and not able to spring up again.A. which have not sprung from them. are abandoned. conventionally called personality. doctrine of the conditionality of all physical and mental phenomena. which have not their source and origin in them: such actions. be it in this life. hatred and delusion. dosa.44 RIGHT UNDERSTANDING And the action (kamma) that is done out of greed. that springs from them. it shows how. and wherever this action ripens there one experiences the fruits of this action. hatred and delusion. together with that of Impersonality (anatta). in its second part. as well as of the manifold evil and unwholesome things. by explaining them . like a palm-tree torn out of the soil. III. lit. It shows that the various physical and mental life-processes. VIII. rooted out. 33 CESSATION OF KARMA However. date the second and the third Noble Truths. and. through the extinction of craving. through the fading away of ignorance. the Dependent Origination. through the arising of wisdom. hatred and delusion. For the actions which are not done out of greed. animal. is the . of greed. but the outcome of causes and conditions. III. hatred and delusion (lobha.. Hence. etc. all suffering must disappear. Above all. fering is dependent upon conditions. the Paticca-Samuppada explains how the arising of rebirth and suf. or in some future life. man. through the removal of these conditions. the Paticca-Samuppada serves to eluci. 43 A. through the absence of greed. and that I herein train my disciples. 33 In this respect one may rightly say of me: that I teach annihi. namely. no future rebirth takes place again. a doctrine which. forms the indispensable condition for the real understanding and realization of the Buddha’s teaching. are not a mere play of blind chance. that I propound my doctrine for the purpose of annihilation.
Process of Existence (bhava) Future Existence Karma Process (kamma-bhava) 5 causes: 1.9. Five causes do we now produce. 8. 9. and future: 1. 8. together with 8-10. past. 2. Sense-Impression (phassa) Rebirth-Process (upapatti-bhava) 5 results: 3-7 Karma Process (kamma-bhava) 5 causes: 1. The links 3-7.(sankhara) 3. 10 Present Existence 7.RIGHT UNDERSTANDING 45 Past Existence from their very foundations upwards. 9. together with 11-12.-ayatana) l6. represent the Karma-Process. Feeling (vedana) 8. present. containing the ﬁve karmic causes of rebirth. The following diagram shows at a glance how the twelve links of the formula extend over three consecutive existences. 6 Sense Organs (sa. Rebirth (jati) 12. Accordingly it is said in the Patisambhida-Magga: Five causes were there in past. Karma-Formations . Five fruits we reap in future life. 2. Five fruits we ﬁnd in present life. and giving them a ﬁxed philosophical form. Consciousness (viññana) . represent the Rebirth-Process. 10 Rebirth-Process (upapatti-bhava) 5 results: 3-7 11. Craving (tanha) . Mental and Physical Existence (namarupa) 5. . 4. Clinging (upadana) 10. containing the ﬁve Karma-Results. . Ignorance (avijja) 2. Decay and Death (jara-marana) The links 1-2.
46 RIGHT UNDERSTANDING (Quoted in Vis. Magga XVII) For a full explanation see Fund. Dict. . III and B.
I tell you.RIGHT THOUGHT 47 SECOND FACTOR RIGHT THOUGHT (Samma-sankappa) D. being turned away from the world. Thought free from lust (nekkhamma-sankappa). which is not of the world. and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right thought. Thought free from lust.2. But. from ill-will. thought. ratiocination. Hence there are three things that accompany and follow upon Right Thought. is Right Thought? 1. This is called Right Thought. one practises Right Understanding (1st factor). which yields worldly fruits and brings good rcsu1ts. Thought free from cruelty (avihimsa-sankappa). and conjoined with the path. Thought free from ill-will (avyapada-sankappa). one practises Right Mindfulness (7th factor). and in making efforts to overcome evil thought and to arouse right thought. and right thought as right.of the mind (vac--sankhara) are called the ‘Supermundane i Right Thought’ (lokuttara-samma-sankappa). considering. namely: Right Understanding. . 22 What. the holy path being pursued—these ‘verbal operations’ . and Right Mindfulness. but is supermundane. one practises Right Effort (6th factor). and from cruelty—this is called ‘Mundane Right Thought’ (lokiya samma-sankappa). 3. . reasoning. Right Effort. application—the mind being holy. MUNDANE AND SUPERMUNDANE THOUGHT M. is of two kinds: 1. Right Thought. in understanding wrong thought as wrong. 117 Now. now. and conjoined with the path. whatsoever there is of thinking. and in overcoming evil thought with attentive mind. 2. CONJOINED WITH OTHER FACTORS Now.
and what he has heard there. so as to cause dissension here. and abstains from it. and are courteous. or amongst people. is Right Speech? ABSTAINING FROM LYING 1. and if he knows. or for the sake of another person’s advantage. loving. What he has heard here. he does not repeat here. if he has seen nothing. Being at a meeting. Thus he never knowingly speaks a lie. He avoids harsh language. he answers: ‘I have seen nothing’. 21. he answers: ‘I have seen’. X. or in a society. He speaks such words as are gentle. he answers: ‘I know’. if he knows nothing: ‘I know nothing’. Thus he unites those that are divided. ABSTAINING FROM HARSH LANGUAGE 3. or in the king’s court. worthy of conﬁdence. A. he encourages. He avoids tale-bearing. 176 ABSTAINING FROM TALE-BEARING 2. friendly. should robbers and murderers saw through your limbs and . reliable. soothing to the ear. and agreeable to many. or for the sake of any advantage whatsoever. and called upon and asked as witness to tell what he knows. so as to cause dissension there. O monks. not a deceiver of men. he delights and rejoices in concord. he answers. either for the sake of his own advantage. and it is concord that he spreads by his words. Concord gladdens him. or in the midst of his relatives. and those that are united. Herein someone avoids lying and abstains from it.48 RIGHT SPEECH THIRD FACTOR RIGHT SPEECH . In Majjhima-Nicaya No. He speaks the truth. is devoted to the truth. and abstains from it. the Buddha says: ‘Even. he does not repeat there. such words as go to the heart.(Samma-vaca) What now.. and if he has seen.
X. but is supermundane. refraining therefrom—the mind being holy. and from vain talk. He speaks at the right time. and in making efforts to overcome evil speech and to arouse right speech. and conjoined with the path. Abstaining from lying. whosoever should give way to anger thereat would not be following my advice. and va conjoined with the path. 2. one practises Right Effort (6th factor). the abstaining. moderate and full of sense. and free from any hidden malice. He avoids vain talk. wide. CONJOINED WITH OTHER FACTORS Now. and abstains from it. 117 Now. with heart full of love. ABSTAINING FROM VAIN TALK A. speaks of the law and the discipline: his speech is like a treasure. accompanied by arguments. Right Speech. freed from anger and hatred’.Speech’ (lokiya-samma-vaca). in accordance with facts. and that person shall we penetrate with loving thoughts. uttered at the right moment. desisting. which is not of the world. from tale-bearing. But the avoidance of the practice of this fourfold wrong speech. and in . deep. which yields worldly fruits and brings good results. boundless. no evil words shall escape our lips. For thus ought you to train yourselves: ‘Undisturbed shall our mind remain. This is called Right Speech. from harsh language. MUNDANE AND SUPERMUNDANE SPEECH M. is of two kinds: 1.. the holy path being pursued—this is called the ‘Supermundane Right Speech’ (lokuttara-samma-ca). and right speech as right. I tell you. 176 4. in understanding wrong speech as wrong. one practises Right Understanding (1st factor). being turned away from the world.RIGHT SPEECH 49 joints. this is called ‘Mundane Right . friendly and full of sympathy shall we remain. speaks what is useful.
Right Effort. and Right Mindfulness. . namely: Right Understanding. there are three things that accompany and follow upon Right Speech. one practises Right Mindfulness (7th factor).50 RIGHT SPEECH overcoming wrong speech with attentive mind. and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right speech. Hence.
and abstains from it. that he does not take away with thievish intent. He has no intercourse with such persons as are still under the protection of father. from stealing. Right Action. I tell you. he is desirous of the welfare of all living beings. Abstaining from killing. and conjoined with the path. is Right Action? ABSTAINING FROM KILLING 1. and from unlawful sexual intercourse: this is called the ‘Mundane Right Action’ (lokiya-samma-kammanta) which yields worldly fruits and brings good results. Herein someone avoids the killing of living beings. the abstaining. what another person possesses of goods and chattels in the village or in the wood. He avoids stealing. This is called Right Action. desisting. 176 What. nor lastly. MUNDANE AND SUPERMUNDANE ACTION M. now. sister or relatives. mother. is of two kinds: 1. being turned away from the world. Without stick or sword. nor female convicts. ABSTAINING FROM UNLAWFUL SEXUAL INTERCOURSE 3. brother. He avoids unlawful sexual intercourse. with betrothed girls. X. and abstains from it. 2. 117 Now. and abstains from it. ABSTAINING FROM STEALING 2. full of sympathy. the holy path being pursued—this is called the ‘Supermundane Right Action’ (lokuttara-samma- . nor with married women.RIGHT ACTION 51 FOURTH FACTOR RIGHT ACTION (Samma-kammanta) A. But the avoidance of the practice of this threefold wrong action. conscientious. refraining therefrom—the mind being holy.
and in overcoming wrong action with attentive mind. there are three things that accompany and follow upon Right Action. and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right action. and right action as right. CONJOINED WITH OTHER FACTORS Now in understanding wrong action as wrong. one practises Right Effort (6th factor). .52 RIGHT ACTION kammanta). which is not of the world. but is supermundane. namely: Right Understanding. one practises Right Mindfulness (7th factor). and conjoined with the path. one practises Right Understanding (1st factor): and in making efforts to overcome wrong action. Right Effort and Right Mindfulness. Hence. and to arouse right action.
When the noble disciple. which is not of the world. No. in understanding wrong livelihood as wrong.Right Livelihood’ (lokiya-samma-ajiva). to establish right livelihood. Right Livelihood. and conjoined with the path. etc. CONJOINED WITH OTHER FACTORS Now. Now. and in making efforts to overcome wrong livelihood. In the Majjhima-Nikaya. the holy path being pursued—this is called the ‘Supermundane . trickery. and conjoined with the path. it is said: ‘To practise deceit. one practises Right Effort (6th fac- . soothsaying. a hunter. refraining therefrom—the mind being holy. 1 77. and right livelihood as right. 22 1.Right Livelihood’ (lokuttara-samma-ajiva). in intoxicating drinks. Included are the professions of a soldier. avoiding wrong living.’ And in the Anguttara-Nikaya. this is called Right Livelihood. gets his livelihood by a right way of living: this is called ‘Mundane . 2. and in poison’. V. I tell you.(Samma-ajiva) What. a ﬁsherman. usury: this is wrong livelihood. in living beings. but is supermundane. now. 117 1. which yields worldly fruits and brings good results. it is said: ‘Five trades should be avoided by a disciple: trading in arms. When the noble disciple. being turned away from the world. the abstaining. one practises Right Understanding (1st factor). is Right Livelihood? D. But the avoidance of wrong livelihood.RIGHT LIVELIHOOD 53 FIFTH FACTOR RIGHT LIVELIHOOD . avoiding a wrong way of living. 117. is of two kinds: MUNDANE AND SUPERMUNDANE RIGHT LIVELIHOOD M. gets his livelihood by a right way of living. treachery. in ﬂesh. desisting.
and in overcoming wrong livelihood with attentive mind. one practises Right Mindfulness (7th factor).54 RIGHT LIVELIHOOD tor). Right Effort. and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right livelihood. . there are three things that accompany and follow upon Right Livelihood. and Right Mindfulness. Hence. namely: Right Understanding.
and he makes effort. into which no evil thing can enter. exerts his mind and strives. Possessed of this noble ‘Control over the Senses’ he experiences inwardly a feeling of joy. This is called the effort to avoid I. and an odor with the nose.(Samma-vayama) A. now is the effort to Avoid? Herein the disciple rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil. he neither adheres to the whole. a taste with the tongue. is the effort to Overcome? There the disciple rouses his will to overcome the evil. an impression with the body. or an object with the mind. exerts his mind and strives. the effort to avoid. now. unwholesome things that have already arisen. ill-will or grief. a sound with the ear. stirs up his energy. would arise. (Samvara-ppadhana) . He does not retain any thought of sensual lust. when lie perceives a form with the eye. Thus. or any other evil and unwholesome states that may . restrains his senses. and the effort to maintain. What. 13. And he strives to ward off that through which evil and unwholesome things. THE EFFORT TO OVERCOME (Pahana-ppadhana) What.RIGHT EFFORT 55 SIXTH FACTOR RIGHT EFFORT . the effort to overcome. 14 What. is Right Effort? There are Four Great Efforts. now. greed and sorrow. and he makes efforts. stirs up his energy. the effort to develop. nor to its parts. if he remained with unguarded senses. THE EFFORT TO AVOID 2. and he watches over his senses.. IV. unwholesome things that have not yet arisen.
there arise in the disciple. ‘Investigation of the Law’ (dhamma-vicaya). truly. (5) Or. evil and unwholesome thoughts connected with greed. Thus he develops the ‘Elements of Enlightenment’ (bojjhanga). stirs up his energy.56 RIGHT EFFORT have arisen. ‘Energy’ (viriya). and he makes effort. This is called the effort to overcome. and in doing so these evil and unwholesome thoughts of greed. M. 13. he abandons them. then the disciple (1) should. exerts his mind and strives. and ending in deliverance. A. gain another and wholesome object. ‘Unwholesome. now. hatred and delusion. is the effort to Develop? Herein the disciple rouses his will to arouse wholesome things that have not yet arisen. and the mind will inwardly become settled and calm. (2) Or. he should with his mind restrain. on extinction. FIVE METHODS OF EXPELLING EVIL THOUGHTS If. based on solitude. whilst regarding a certain object. by means of this object. he should consider the compound nature of these thoughts. hatred and delusion will dissolve and disappear. THE EFFORT TO DEVELOP (Bhavana-ppadhana) What. on detachment. with teeth clenched and tongue pressed against the gums. he should reﬂect on the misery of these thoughts. ‘Concentration’ (samadhi). ‘Rapture’ (p-ti). on account of it. 20 3. are these thoughts! Blamable are these thoughts! Of painful result are these thoughts!’ (3) Or he should pay no attention to these thoughts. 14 . destroys them. suppress and root out these thoughts. This is called the effort to develop. namely: ‘Mindfulness’ (sati). i ‘Tranquillity’ (passaddhi). causes them to disappear. composed and concentrated. dispels them. IV. (4) Or. and ‘Equanimity’ (upekkha).
’ This is called Right Effort. THE EFFORT TO MAINTAIN Truly. the scion of the sun. IV. of a corpse riddled with holes. and not to allow them to disappear. of a festering corpse. of a corpse blue-black in color. Thus.RIGHT EFFORT 57 (Anurakkhana-ppadhana) . A. stirs up his energy. though ﬂesh and blood of my body dry up. 14 . for example. What. he keeps ﬁrmly in his mind a favorable object of concentration that has arisen. The effort of Avoiding. I shall not give up my efforts till I have attained whatever is attainable by manly perseverance. is the effort to Maintain? Herein the disciple rouses his will to maintain the wholesome things that have already arisen. and he makes effort. for a disciple who is possessed of faith and has penetrated the Teaching of the master. but to bring them to growth. May put an end to suffering. now. energy and endeavour. Overcoming. exerts his mind and strives. And he who ﬁrmly clings to them. of a corpse infested by worms. This is called the effort to maintain. such as the mental image of a skeleton. of a corpse swollen up. it is ﬁt to think: ‘Though skin sinews and bones wither away. to maturity and to the full perfection of development (bhavana). Of Developing and Maintaining: These four great efforts have been shown By him. M. 70 4.
When making a short inhalation. I shall breathe in’: thus he trains hImself.AND OUT-BREATHING . in contemplation of the Mind. to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation. when making a long exhalation. to the entering upon the right path and the realization of Nibbana.. THE FOUR FOUNDATIONS OF MINDFULNESS D. and with mindfulness ﬁxed before him. mindfully he breathes in. ardent.(anapana-sati) Herein the disciple retires to the forest. to the end of pain and grief. now. seats himself with legs crossed. When making a long inhalation.(kayanupassana) But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the body? WATCHING OVER IN. after putting away worldly greed and grief. to the foot of a tree. he knows: ‘I make a short inhalation’: when making a short exhalation. is by the ‘Four Foundations of Mindfulness’.58 RIGHT MINDFULNESS SEVENTH FACTOR RIGHT MINDFULNESS (Samma-sati) What. ‘Clearly perceiving the entire (breath-) body. mindfully he breathes out. is Right Mindfulness? (Satipatthana) . clearly comprehending them and mindful. in contemplation of the Mind-Objects. The only way that leads to the attainment of purity. 22 1. he knows: ‘I make a short exhalation’. or to a solitary place. . And which are these four? Herein the disciple dwells in contemplation of the Body. body erect. CONTEMPLATION OF THE BODY . he knows: ‘I make a long inhalation’. in contemplation of Feeling. he knows: ‘I make a long exhalation’..
to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness. Thus the meditator sees clearly: ‘There is no ego-entity or self in . (Comm. I shall breathe out’: thus he trains himself.g. i. ‘Calming this bodily function (kaya-sankhara). in the context of satipatthana. but no living being. or to other persons..page 67). he beholds how the body arises. It may be used for the development of Tranquillity (samatha-bhavana).e. beholds how it passes away. and he lives independent. Conditioned by ﬁvefold sense-impression arises consciousness. see “The Four Absorptions” on four Absorptions (jha . concentration preparatory to the practice of Insight. unattached to anything in the world.e. beholds the arising and passing away of the body.RIGHT MINDFULNESS 59 ‘Clearly perceiving the entire (breath-) body. or to both. and mental Formations. I shall breathe out’: thus he trains himself. the ﬁve sense organs. . no individual. no man. for attaining the -na. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the body. it is principally intended for tranquillization and . which may be undertaken in the following way. Thus he dwells in contemplation of the body. either with regard to his own person. no woman.) this clear awareness is present in him.. and nothing that belongs to a self. etc. After a certain degree of calm and concentration. He sees that the inhalations and exhalations are conditioned by the body consisting of the four material elements and the various corporeal phenomena derived from them. Here. and together with it the three other ‘Groups of Existence’. A body is there— ‘A body is there. e. Perception.‘Mindfulness of Breathing’ (anapana-sati) is one of the most important meditative exercises. for the development of Insight (vipassana-bhavana) or for a combination of both practices. no self. nor anything belonging to a person. ‘Calming this bodily function. Feeling. the disciple proceeds to examine the origin of breath. or one of the Absorptions. neither a person. has been attained through regular practice of mindful breathing. I shall breathe in’: thus he trains himself. i.
with a skin stretched over it. sitting. acts with clear comprehension in carrying alms bowl and robes. ‘I sit’. (Comm. THE FOUR POSTURES And further. of the reality. he acts with clear comprehension in looking forward and backward.62: VisuddhiMagga VIII. that goes. sitting. or lying down. falling asleep. see M.60 RIGHT MINDFULNESS this so called personality.) (patikula-sañña) .For further details about Ânapana-sati. understanding them thoroughly as impermanent subject to suffering. ‘I lie down’. ‘I stand’. acts with clear comprehension in discharging excrement and urine. the disciple understands (according to reality) the expressions. In all that the disciple is doing. 2. standing. and ﬁlled with manifold impuriCONTEMPLATION OF LOATHSOMENESS . he has a clear comprehension: 1. “I stand” and so forth’. he understands any position of the body. 3. the disciple contemplates this body from the sole of the foot upward. And further. 3. 4. and impersonal. acts with clear comprehension in eating. stands. no real Ego. awakening. standing. and from the top of the hair downward. of his duty. (Comm. etc. ‘The disciple understands that there is no living being. Thereupon he applies the Three Characteristics to these phenomena. drinking. acts with clear comprehension in walking.) MINDFULNESS AND CLEAR COMPREHENSION (sati-sampajañña) And further. but it is only a corporeal and mental process conditioned by various factors’. the disciple acts with clear comprehension in going and coming. acts with clear comprehension in speaking and keeping silent. but that it is by a mere ﬁgure of speech that one says: “I go”.. of his intention. chewing and tasting. . of his advantage. acts with clear comprehension in bending and stretching (any part of his body). whilst going. 118. ‘I go’.
beans. and has contemplated it according to its component elements. brings it to the place of slaughter. the concepts ‘being’. 2 this simile is explained as follows: When a butcher rears a cow. ﬂesh. in an ignorant worldling. bones. with regard to the elements. the heating element and the vibrating element’. sweat. this is husked rice’: just so does the disciple investigate this body. this is sesamum. Similarly. skin. sinews. lymph. ﬁlled with various kinds of grain—with paddy. tears. nasal mucus. as it stands and moves. ANALYSTS OF FOUR ELEMENTS (dhatu) And further. and urine. marrow. ‘cow’ ceases in his mind. slaughters it and looks at the slaughtered cow. whether monk or layman. phlegm. ‘This body consists of the solid element. sesamum and husked rice—and a man not blind opened it and examined its contents. the liquid element. during all that time he has still the notion ‘cow’. mesentery. Just as if a skilled butcher or butcher’s apprentice. bowels. were to sit down at the junction of four highroads: just so does the disciple contemplate this body with regard to the elements. pus.’ Just as if there were a sack. But when he has cut up the slaughtered cow. kidneys. with openings at both ends. nails. and the notion ‘meat’ arises. oil of the joints. spleen. divided it into pieces. lungs. but that it is meat that is sold and bought. ‘man’. But when he has done so. these are beans. ‘personality’. He does not think that he is selling a cow or that people buy a cow. . the disciple contemplates this body. In Visuddhi Magga XIII. heart. etc.RIGHT MINDFULNESS 61 ties: ‘This body has hairs of the head and of the body. saliva. blood.. makes it stand up. however it may stand or move. will not cease until he has mentally dissected this body of his. the notion. teeth. who had slaughtered a cow and divided it into separate portions. liver. diaphragm. and sits down near it to sell the meat. and excrement. skin-grease. bile. thus: ‘That is paddy. binds it to a post. stomach.
And further. has this destiny. held together by the sinews.’ 3. there the skull—so he regards his own body: ‘This body of mine also has this nature. just as if the disciple were looking at bones lying in the charnel-ground. eaten by crows. two. ﬂesh hanging from it. a framework of bones. etc. 9. bleached and resembling shells. there a shin bone. there a thigh bone. just as if the disciple were looking at a corpse thrown on a charnel-ground. stripped of ﬂesh. there a bone of the foot. hawks or vultures.’ Thus he dwells in contemplation of the body. CEMETERY MEDITATIONS 1. swollen up. disconnected and scattered in all directions. or to both. 4. just as if the disciple were looking at a corpse thrown on a charnel-ground. here a bone of the hand. or to other persons. and cannot escape it. has this destiny. And further. Bones heaped together.. A framework of bone. and cannot escape it. either with regard to his own person. by dogs or jackals. and his mind will become ﬁrmly established in the Contemplation of the Elements. He . after the lapse of years. And further. blue-black in color. bespattered with blood. and cannot escape it. has this destiny. just as if the disciple were looking at a corpse thrown on a charnel-ground. has this destiny. there a pelvis. without ﬂesh and blood. held together by the sinews. A framework of bone.62 RIGHT MINDFULNESS the notion ‘personality’. will disappear. And further. but still held together by the sinews. or devoured by all kinds of worms— so he regards his own body. full of corruption—so he regards hIs own body: ‘This body of mine also has this nature. 5. and cannot escape it. 8.’ 7. ‘This body of mine also has this nature. Bones. 6. bespattered with blood. Bones weathered and crumbled to dust—so he regards his own body: ‘This body of mine also has this nature.’ 2. there the spine. one. or three days dead.
of other persons. wind and sun. bitter. 4. 6. . and dangerous to life. Thus does the the disciple dwell in contemplation of the body. without effort. has become one’s habit. beholds the arising and passing away of the body. strengthened and perfected. without difﬁculty. is ﬁrmly established.RIGHT MINDFULNESS 63 beholds how the body arises. With the mind he may obtain ‘Insight into the Hearts of Other Beings’ (parassa-cetopariya-ñana). . 3. sharp. and he lives independent. unattached to anything in the world. He may enjoy the different ‘Magical Powers (iddhi-vidha). and bestow happiness even here. the superhuman. the heavenly and the earthly. the disciple may expect ten blessings: 1. Over delight and discontent he has mastery. as well as bodily pains that befall him. With the ‘Heavenly Ear’ (dibba-sota). he subdues it. unpleasant. patiently he endures wicked and malicious speech. ASSURED OF TEN BLESSINGS M. developed. as soon as it arises. he may hear both kinds of sounds. he does not allow himself to be overcome by fear and anxiety. these he may enjoy at will. mosquitoes and reptiles. 119 Once the contemplation of the body is practised. one’s foundation. though they be piercing. SIX ‘PSYCHICAL POWERS’ (Abhiñña) 5. the distant and the near. he subdues them. attacks by gadﬂies. 2. ‘A body is there’: this clear awareness is present in him. He endures cold and heat. he does not allow himself to be overcome by discontent. The four Absorptions’ (jhana) which purify the mind. disagreeable. He conquers fear and anxiety. hunger and thirst. . the puriﬁed. as soon as they arise. beholds how it passes away. 7. to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness. often repeated.
the beautiful and the ugly. 9. namely: concentration of Will. CONTEMPLATION OF THE FEELINGS (vedananupassana) But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the feelings? In experiencing feelings. With the ‘Heavenly Eye’ (dibba-cakkhu). the happy and the unfortunate. He beholds how the feelings arise. . and concentration of Investigation. or: ‘I have a disagreeable feeling’. and may therefore be attained even by a ‘worldling’ (puthujjana). There are four iddhipada. or: ‘I have a worldly disagreeable feeling’. or Holy One. or: ‘I have an unworldly agreeable feeling’. Thus he dwells in contemplation of the feelings. whilst the last Abhiñña is super-mundane (lokuttara) and exclusively the characteristic of the Arahat. puriﬁed and superhuman. come to know for himself. he may see beings vanish and reappear. the deliverance through wisdom. even in this life. beholds how they pass away.(pubbe-nivasanussati-ñana).64 RIGHT MINDFULNESS 8. The last six blessings (5-10) are the ‘Psychical Powers’ (abhiñña). or: ‘I have a worldly indifferent feeling’. or: ‘I have a worldly agreeable feeling’. either with regard to his own person. D. the base and the noble. or ‘Bases for obtaining Magical Powers’. or: ‘I have an unworldly indifferent feeling’. 2. or to other persons. the stainless deliverance of mind. He may obtain ‘Remembrances of many Previous Births’ . or: ‘I have an indifferent feeling’. The ﬁrst ﬁve of them are mundane (lokiya) conditions. or: ‘I have an unworldly disagreeable feeling’. 10. He may. 22 . the disciple knows: ‘I have an agreeable feeling’. concentration of Mind. concentration of Energy. or to both. through the ‘Cessation of Passions’ (asavakkhaya). It is only after the attainment of all the four Absorptions (jhana) that one may fully succeed in acquiring the ﬁve worldly ‘Psychical Powers’. he may perceive how beings are reborn according to their deeds.
and that there is no Ego. ‘Thought’ and ‘thinking’ correspond rather to the ‘verbal operations of the mind’: vitakka (thought-conception) and vicara -ra-kkhandha. knows the freed mind as freed. or to other persons. . and the not greedy mind as not greedy. and the unfreed mind as unfreed. and the undeveloped mind as undeveloped. which belong to the Sankha Thus he dwells in contemplation of the mind. to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness. and the unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated. knows the developed mind as developed. or moments of consciousness. He knows the cramped mind as cramped. either with regard to his own person. and the not hating mind as not hating: knows the deluded mind as deluded and the undeluded mind as undeluded. knows the concentrated mind as concentrated. and the scattered mind as scattered. ‘Feelings are there’: this clear awareness is present in him. and he lives independent. unattached to anything in the world. he understands that. (discursive thinking).RIGHT MINDFULNESS 65 beholds the arising and passing away of the feelings. or consciousness. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the feelings. or to both. 3. Citta being identical with viññana. He beholds how consciousness arises. no experiencer of the feelings. Citta (mind) is here used as a collective term for the cittas. in the absolute sense (paramattha). should not be translated by ‘thought’. knows the hating mind as hating. there are only feelings. knows the surpassable mind as surpassable and the unsurpassable mind as unsurpassable. The disciple understands that the expression ‘I feel’ has no validity except as a conventional expression (voharavacana). beholds how it passes . CONTEMPLATION OF THE MIND (cittanupassana) But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the mind? Herein the disciple knows the greedy mind as greedy.
THE FIVE HINDRANCES . Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the mind. unattached to anything in the world. He knows how they come to arise. Lust and anger are for ever extinguished .. It may be suppressed by the following six methods: ﬁxing the mind upon an idea that arouses disgust. knows how. right instruction.is lust’. He knows when there is ‘Lust’ (kamacchanda) in him: ‘In me . ‘Restlessness’ is extinguished by reaching Arahatship.’ (n-varana) i . moderation in eating. ‘Mental Worry’. by reaching Sotapanship.66 RIGHT MINDFULNESS away. 4. this clear awareness is present in him. once arisen. ‘Mind is there’. and he knows how they do not rise again in the future. controlling one’s six senses. beholds the arising and passing away of consciousness. 1. friendship with wise and good men. contemplation of the loathsomeness of the body. knows when there are ‘Doubts’ (vicikiccha) in him: ‘In me are doubts’. CONTEMPLATION OF THE MIND-OBJECTS (dhammanupassana) But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of mindobjects? Herein the disciple dwells in contemplation of the mindobjects. they are overcome. ‘Lust’ arises through unwise thinking on the agreeable and delightful. knows when there is ‘Torpor and Sloth’ (th-nai middha) in him: ‘In me is torpor and sloth’. He knows when these hindrances are not in him: ‘In me these hindrances are not’. to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness. For example. knows when there is ‘Restlessness and Mental Worry’ (uddhacca-kukkucca) in him: ‘In me is restlessness and mental worry’.i upon attainment of Anagam-ship. namely of the ‘Five Hindrances. knows when there is ‘Anger’ (vyapada) in him: ‘In me is anger’. and he lives independent.
He knows the eye and visual objects. how it . namely of the seven ‘Elements of Enlightenment’. and the fetter that arises in dependence on them. He knows when there is in him ‘Mindfulness’ (sati). how it arises. He knows what ‘Corporeality’ (rupa) is. namely of the six ‘Subjective-Objective SenseBases’. ‘Enthusiasm’ (p-ti). passes away. body and bodily impressions. how it arises. ‘Concentration’ i (samadhi). how they pass away. and how it is fully developed. . ‘Investigation of the Law’ (dhammavicaya). knows what ‘Perception’ (sañña) is. knows how the fetter is overcome. how it passes away. how it arises. ‘Energy’ (viriya). he also knows. how it arises. THE SENSE-BASES (ayatana) And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects. knows what ‘Feeling’ (vedana) is. and how the abandoned fetter does not rise again in future. how they arise. knows how it comes to arise. ear and sounds. He knows how the fetter comes to arise. mind and mind-objects. and ‘Equanimity’ (upekkha). namely of the ﬁve ‘Groups of Existence’. He knows when it is not in him. ‘Tranquillity’ (passaddhi). how it passes away. knows what the ‘Mental Formations’ (sankhara) are. THE SEVEN ELEMENTS OF ENLIGHTENMENT (bojjhanga) And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects. nose and odors.RIGHT MINDFULNESS 67 THE FIVE GROUPS OF EXISTENCE (khandha) And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects. tongue and tastes. knows what ‘Consciousness’ (viññana) is. how it passes away.
beholds how they pass away. unattached to anything in the world. what Suffering is. The contemplation of corporeality relates to rupakkhandha. by Bhikkhu Soma (Kandy 1967. practised and developed. For further details about Satipatthana see the Commentary to the . is by these four foundations of mindfulness. what the Origin of suffering is.NIBB ANA THROUGH AN AP ANA-SATI . beholds the arising and passing away of the mindobjects. 4. ‘Mind-objects are there’: this clear awareness is present in him. Thus he dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects either with regard to his own person. to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness. to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation.and Out-breathing (anapana-sati). knows according to reality what the Extinction of suffering is. Buddhist Publication Society).68 RIGHT MINDFULNESS THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS (ariya-sacca) And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects.. to the entering upon the right path. or to other persons or to both. namely: 1. the contemplation of feeling. These four contemplations of Satipatthana relate to all the ﬁve . 118 . Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the mind-objects. the four foundations of mindfulness.. knows according to reality. Groups of Existence. namely of the ‘Four Noble Truths’. to vedana viññanakkhandha. translated in The Way of Mindfulness. discourse of that name. to sañña.and sankhara-kkhandha. The only way that leads to the attainment of purity. knows according to reality. He knows according to reality.Watching over In . what the Path is that leads to the extinction of suffering. practised M. brings the Four ‘Foundations of Mindfulness’ to perfection. 3. the contemplation of mind-objects. to the end of pain and grief.. and he lives independent. He beholds how the mind-objects arise. . to -kkhandha.. 2. and the realization of Nibbana. the contemplation of mind.
III. after subduing worldly greed and grief. or (2) joy (sukha). or (3) whilst concentrating the mind. the breath)—at such a time the disciple dwells in ‘contemplation of the body’. bring ‘Wisdom and Deliverance’ to perfection. full of energy. practised and developed. For.and Out-breathing. or (2) makes a short inhalation or exhalation. or (3) extinction. the seven elements of enlightenment. or (3) trains himself to inhale or exhale whilst experiencing the whole (breath-) body. For. or (4) whilst calming down this bodily function (i. or (2) whilst gladdening the mind. after subduing worldly greed and grief.e. clearly comprehending it. Whenever the disciple (1) mindfully makes a long inhalation or exhalation. practised and developed.and Out-breathing I call one amongst the feelings.and Out-breathing. I say. II. For. mindful. or (4) whilst setting the mind free-—at such a time he dwells in ‘contemplation of the mind’. clearly comprehending them. full of energy. comprehending it. without mindfulness and clear comprehension. bring the seven ‘Elements of Enlightenment’ to perfection.. IV. inhalation and exhalation I call one amongst the corporeal phenomena. Whenever the disciple trains himself to inhale or exhale (1) whilst feeling rapture (p-ti). bring the four ‘Foundations of Mindfulness’ (satipatthana) to perfection? . But how does Watching over In. there is no Watching over In. I. Whenever the disciple trains himself to inhale or exhale (1) whilst experiencing the mind. the full awareness of In. mindful. or (4) detachment—at such .RIGHT MINDFULNESS 69 and developed. mindful. after subduing worldly greed and grief. or (3) the mental i functions (cittasankhara). full of energy. Whenever the disciple trains himself to inhale or exhale whilst contemplating (1) impermanence. or (2) the fading away of passion. or (4) whilst calming down the mental functions—at such a time he dwells in ‘contemplation of the feelings’.
what is the abandoning of greed and grief. But how do the four Foundations of Mindfulness. whilst ﬁrm in energy. he wisely investigates. i and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection. Whenever the disciple dwells in contemplation of body. Watching over In.and Out-breathing. mindful. 2. arises supersensuous rapture—at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Rapture’ (p-ti-sambojjhanga). and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection. whilst dwelling with mindfulness. And whenever in him. examines and thinks over the ‘Law’ (dhamma)—at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Investigation of the Law’ (dhammavicaya-sambojjhanga). thus practised and developed. strenuous. full of energy. after subduing worldly greed and grief. mind and mind-objects. he looks on with complete equanimity. at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Mindfulness’ (sati-sambojjhanga). and whenever his mindfulness is present and undisturbed. And whenever. . clearly comprehending them. brings the four Foundations of Mindfulness to perfection. through understanding. practised and developed. after subduing worldly greed and grief—at such a time his mindfulness is undisturbed. And whenever. mindful. and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection. clearly comprehending them.70 RIGHT MINDFULNESS a time he dwells in ‘contemplation of the mind-objects’. 3. Having seen. and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection. his energy is ﬁrm and unshaken—at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Energy’ (viriya-sambojjhanga). feelings. bring the seven ‘Elements of Enlightenment’ (bojjhanga) to full perfection? 1. 4. whilst wisely investigating. examining and thinking over the law.
his spiritual frame and his mind become tranquil—at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Tranquillity’ (passaddhi-sambojjhanga). so that he may drive out of him- . whilst enraptured in mind. in order to drive out of him his wonted forest ways and wishes. his mind becomes concentrated—at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Concentration’ (samadhi-sambojjhanga). on absence of desire. Rapture. thus practised and developed. his forest unruliness. And whenever. Tranquillity. and to accustom him to the environment of the village. And whenever. Concentration and Equanimity. based on detachment. The seven elements of enlightenment thus practised and developed. The four Foundations of Mindfulness. whilst being tranquillized in his spiritual frame and happy. bring wisdom and deliverance. M. and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection. 125 Just as the elephant hunter drives a huge stake into the ground and chains the wild elephant to it by the neck. practised and developed. and to teach him such good behavior as is required amongst men: in like manner also should the noble disciple ﬁx his mind ﬁrmly to these four Foundations of Mindfulness. bring Wisdom and Deliverance (vijja-vimutti) to full perfection? Herein the disciple develops the elements of enlightenment: Mindfulness. Energy.RIGHT MINDFULNESS 71 5. to full perfection. Investigation of the Law. on extinction and renunciation. and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection. obstinacy and violence. and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection. And whenever he looks with complete indifference on his mind thus concentrated—at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Equanimity’ (upekkha-sambojjhanga). And how do the seven elements of enlightenment. 6. 7. bring the seven elements of enlightenment to full perfection.
obstinacy and violence. and win to the True. his wonted worldly unruliness.72 RIGHT MINDFULNESS self his wonted worldly ways and wishes. . and realize Nibbana.
‘Attainment Concentration’ (appanasamadhi). however. used alone. in its widest sense. --samadhi) has two degrees of develRight Concentration (samma opment. ‘Neighborhood Concentration’ (upacarasamadhi). is the kind of mental concentration which is present in every wholesome state of consciousness (kusala-citta). ITS DEVELOPMENT The practising. Samadhi. ‘Wrong Concentration’ is present in unwholesome states of consciousness. and hence is accompanied by at least Right Thought (2nd factor). and hence is only possible in the sensuous. 44 What. developing and cultivating of these things: this is the development (bhavana) of concentration. now. ITS REQUISITES The four ‘Great Efforts’ (6th factor): these are the requisites for concentration. ‘Right Concentration’ (samma-samadhi). Right Effort (6th factor) and Right Mindfulness (7th factor).RIGHT CONCENTRATION 73 EIGHTH FACTOR RIGHT CONCENTRATION (Samma-samadhi) M. not in a higher sphere. is Right Concentration? ITS DEFINITION Having the mind ﬁxed to a single object (cittekeggata. ITS OBJECTS The four ‘Foundations of Mindfulness’ (7th factor): these are the objects of concentration. or Right Concentration. always stands in the Sutta. These Absorptions are mental states beyond the reach of the ﬁvefold . ‘Onepointedness of mind’): this is concentration. lit. attaining it. for samma-samadhi. which is the concentration present in the four Absorptions (jhana). 2. which approaches the ﬁrst absorption without. 1.
No visual or audible impressions arise at such a time. or ‘one who has taken Tranquillity (samatha) as his vehicle (yana)’. or Suddhavipassana-yanika. is called . not during Attainment Concentration. no bodily feeling is felt. possesses the power of conferring entry to the four Supermundane Paths: hence they really have no power to free one permanently from evil things. fully awake. through the strength of concentration. the ﬁvefold sense activity is tempoD.Sukkha-vipassaka. i. is attainable only during Neighborhood-Concentration. which is accompanied by Thought Conception and Discursive Thinking. again. The attainment of these Absorptions. detached from evil things. is not a requisite for the realization of the four Supermundane Paths of Holiness.74 RIGHT CONCENTRATION sense-activity. For samatha and vipassana see Fund IV. This Insight. Diet. however.22 . ‘one who has -) as his vehicle’. however.e. after cultivating the Absorptions. attainable only in solitude and by unremitting perseverance in the practice of concentration. the disciple enters into the ﬁrst Absorption. yet the mind remains active. perfectly alert. The realization of the Four Supermundane Paths is possible only at the moment of deep ‘Insight’ (vipassana) into the Impermanency (aniccata). although all outer sense-impressions have ceased. In these states all activity of the ﬁve senses is suspended. It is attained when. But. taken merely Insight (vipassana who. This is the ﬁrst of the Absorptions belonging to the Fine-Material Sphere (rupavacarajjhana). and ﬁlled with Rapture and Happiness. is born of detachment. THE FOUR ABSORPTIONS (jhana) Detached from sensual objects. He who has realized one or other of the Four Supermundane Paths without ever having attained the Absorptions. -) and Impersonality (anattata) of Miserable Nature (dukkhata this whole phenomenal process of existence. has reached one of the Supermundane Paths is called Saniathayanika. as such. He. and neither Neighborhood-Concentration nor Attainment-Concentration. and B.
but are exclusively focussed on the subject of meditation. and vicara with the wiping of it. but of an ‘exploring’ nature. Doubts. hence they are something secondary compared with consciousness. These ﬁve mental factors present in the ﬁrst Absorption. Happiness. And further: after the fading away of Rapture. are called Factors (or Constituents) of Absorption (jhananga). Vitakka (initial formation of an abstract thought) and vicara (discursive thinking. and ﬁve things are present. Rapture (p-ti). and ﬁlled with Rapture (piti) and Happiness (sukha). And further: after the subsiding of Thought-Conception and Discursive Thinking. there have vanished (the ﬁve Hindrances): Lust. In the second Absorption.: kasina. 43 This ﬁrst Absorption is free from ﬁve things. and there are present: Thought Conception (vitakka). When the disciple enters the ﬁrst Absorption. there are three Factors of Absorption: Rapture. and the ﬁve Hindrances are likewise eliminated.RIGHT CONCENTRATION 75 rarily suspended. the second Absorption. Both are entirely absent in the following Absorptions. he dwells in equanimity. Happiness (sukha). he enters into a state free from ThoughtConception and Discursive Thinking. Dict. vicara being here not discursive. . Torpor and Sloth. mindful. Conceni tration (citt'ekaggata = samadhi). rumination) are called ‘verbal functions’ (vaci-sankhara) of the mind. M. Discursive Thinking (vicara). with clear awareness: and he experiences in his own person that feeling of which the Noble Ones say: ‘Happy lives he who is equanimous and mindful’—thus he enters the third Absorption. See B. In Visuddhi-Magga. In the ﬁrst Absorption both are present. vitakka is compared with the taking hold of a pot. Restlessness and Mental Worry. which is born of concentration (samadhi). samadhi. Ill-Will. nimitta. and by the gaining of inner tranquillity and oneness of mind. and Concentration.
e. the Cemetery Contemplations. of Unbounded Conscious- . IX. M. the Contemplation on the Loathsomeness of Food (Vis. IV. M. Dict.. VII). IX. I). which are based on the fourth Absorption. In Visuddhi-magga forty subjects of meditation (kammatthana) . the 32 parts of the body. VI). M. i. which are ten according to the enumeration in Vis. M. 4). V. 2). M. being the practice of the fourth Brahma-vihara (Vis. VI. through Mindfulness of Breathing (see Vis. ‘Neighborhood-Concentration’ (upacara-samadhi): through the Recollections on Buddha. VIII. The four Immaterial Absorptions (arupa-jjhana or aruppa). The ﬁrst Absorption: through the ten Contemplations of Impurity (asubha-bhavana. Vis. XI. are enumerated and treated in detail. Dhamma and Sangha.76 RIGHT CONCENTRATION In the third Absorption there are two Factors of Absorption: equanimous Happiness (upekkha-sukha) and Concentration -). By their successful practice the following Absorptions may be attained: All four Absorptions. the contemplation of the Body (i. being the practice of the ﬁrst three Brahma-viharas (mudita (Vis. and through the disappearance of previous joy and grief. 3). 1—3. and B. he enters into a state beyond pleasure and pain. Sphere of Unbounded Space. The ﬁrst three Absorptions: through the development of LovingKindness (metta). M. on Morality. Peace (=Nibbana) and death (Vis.). the ten Kasina-exercises (Vis. M. into the fourth Absorption. In the fourth Absorption there are two Factors of Absorption: Concentration and Equanimity (upekkha). IX. Compassion (karuna) and Sympathetic Joy -). VIII. Liberality. 2). the contemplation of Equanimity (upekkha). M.). which is puriﬁed by equanimity and mindfulness. (citt'ekaggata And further: after the giving up of pleasure and pain.e. M. the Analysis of the Four Elements (Vis. are produced by meditating on their respective objects from which they derive their names. Heavenly Beings.
to enlightenment. Ignorance and Craving must be wisely abandoned. which makes one both to see and to know.RIGHT CONCENTRATION 77 ness. 8. of Nothingness. This is the Middle Path which the Perfect One has discovered. 149 S. II Dhp. 5 Develop your concentration: for he who has concentration. The entire object of concentration and meditation is treated in Vis M. these ﬁve Groups of Existence must be wisely penetrated. and which leads to peace. M. of feeling. Thus. LVI. perception. you will put an end to suffering. “And following upon this path. and of Neither-Perception-Nor-NonPerception. to Nibbana. XXII. see also Fund. understands things according to their reality. 275 . And what are these things? The arising and passing away of corporeality. Tranquillity (samatha) and Insight (vipassana) must be wisely developed. III-XIII. IV. to discernment. mental formations and consciousness.
— He avoids unchastity. he does not repeat there. no deceiver of men. and he lives with a heart honest and pure. or his son. he is desirous of the welfare of all living beings. celibate and aloof from the vulgar practice of sexual intercourse. having forsaken a large or small circle of relations. What he has heard here. How if now I were to cut off hair and beard. worthy of conﬁdence.— He avoids tale-bearing and abstains from it.— He avoids lying and abstains from it. is devoted to the truth. conscientious. living chaste. Without stick or sword. 38 MORALITY (Third. Only what is given to him he takes. but the homeless life (of a monk) is like the open air. he does not repeat here.— He avoids stealing. or someone reborn in a good family. so as to cause dissension here. and those that are united he encourages. great or little. He avoids the killing of living beings and abstains from it. he cuts off hair and beard.78 GRADUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE EIGHTFOLD PATH IN THE GRADUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE EIGHTFOLD PATH IN THE PROGRESS OF THE DISCIPLE CONFIDENCE AND RIGHT THOUGHT (Second Factor) Suppose a householder. concord gladdens him. And ﬁlled with this conﬁdence. and what he has heard there. having given up his possessions. he delights and . to fulﬁl in all points the rules of the holy life. and goes forth from home to the homeless life. put on the yellow robe and go forth from home to the homeless life?’ And in a short time. He speaks the truth. and abstains from taking what is not given to him. he fulﬁls the rules of the monks. Not easy is it. so as to cause dissension there. hears the law. puts on the yellow robe. and after hearing the law he is ﬁlled with conﬁdence in the Perfect One. reliable. Thus he unites those that are divided. Fourth. he thinks: ‘Full of hindrances is household life. waiting till it is given. when one lives at home. full of sympathy. Fifth Factor) Having thus left the world. a refuse heap. M.
and it is concord that he spreads by his words. abstains from food in the evening. deception and fraud.PROGRESS OF THE DISCIPLE 79 rejoices in concord. in accordance with facts. plundering and oppressing. and with the alms bowl by means of which he keeps himself alive. just as a winged bird in ﬂying carries his wings along with him. speaks of the law and the discipline. sheep. uttered at the right moment. loving. He avoids the crooked ways of bribery. elephants. He speaks such words as are gentle. He has nothing to do with false measures. nor to its details. fowls. He does not go on errands and do the duties of a messenger. rejects ﬂowers. he is provided with these two things. perfumes. By fulﬁlling this noble Domain of Morality (s-la-kkhandha) he i feels in his heart an irreproachable happiness. moderate and full of sense. attacking. soothing to the ear. as well as every kind of adornment and embellishment.— He does not accept raw corn and ﬂesh. he cleaves neither to the whole. Gold and silver he does not accept. chaining. pigs.— He avoids vain talk and abstains from it. in perceiving a form with the eye— a sound with the ear— an odour with the nose— a taste with the tongue— an impression with the body— an object with the mind. speaks what is useful. And he tries to . He leeps aloof from dance. male and female slaves. song. and are courteous. metals and weights.— He avoids harsh language and abstains from it. High and gorgeous beds he does not use. does not eat at improper times. such words as go to the heart. or goats. friendly. his speech is like a treasure. Wherever he goes. beating. He takes food only at one time of the day (forenoon). He has no part in stabbing. He contents himself with the robe that protects his body. He speaks at the right time. music and the visiting of shows. He eschews buying and selling things. women and girls. accompanied by arguments. ointment. and agreeable to many. or land and goods. CONTROL OF THE SENSES (Sixth Factor) Now. cows or horses.
on a wooded tableland. By practising this noble ‘Control of the Senses’ (indriya-samvara) he feels in his heart an unblemished . with mindfulness ﬁxed before him. when looking forward and backward. body erect. after the meal. ‘Mindfulness and Clear . or on a heap of straw. on a mountain. when speaking and keeping silent. at the foot of a tree. he cleanses his heart from ill-will. He has cast away ‘Torpor and Sloth’ (th-namiddha). standing.He has cast away ‘Ill-will’ (vyapada). sitting. Comprehension’ (sati-sampajañña). Now being equipped with this lofty ‘Morality’ (s-la). he dwells i free from torpor and sloth. from lust he cleanses his heart. chewing and tasting. -macchanda). (n-varana) i .80 GRADUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE EIGHTFOLD PATH IN THE ward off that which should he be unguarded in his senses. happiness. might give rise to evil and unwholesome states. on a burial ground. when bending and stretching his limbs. he chooses a secluded dwelling in the forest. . he dwells with a heart He has cast away ‘Lust’ (ka free from lust. MINDFULNESS AND CLEAR COMPREHENSION (Seventh Factor) He is mindful and acts with clear comprehension when going and coming. to greed and sorrow. Having returned from his alms-round. and ﬁlled with this noble. in the open air. with watchful ABSENCE OF THE FIVE HINDRANCES . he watches over his senses. he dwells with a heart free from ill-will. falling asleep and awakening. in a cleft. when discharging excrement and urine: when walking. cherishing love and compassion toward all living beings. when wearing his robes and alms-bowl. in a rock cave. keeps his senses under control. when eating. i equipped with this noble ‘Control of the Senses’ (indriyasamvara). drinking. he seats himself with legs crossed. loving the light.
he directs his mind towards the Deathless thus. the cori . and turning away from these things. 36 INSIGHT But whatsoever there is of corporeality. ‘subject to pain’ (dukkha). far from evil things. full of conﬁdence in the good. detachment. he cleanses his mind from torpor and sloth. free from the free from the passion for existence (bhav'a passion of ignorance (avijj'asava). (vipassana) (First Factor) A. Nibbana. perception. truly. or consciousness: all these phenomena he regards as ‘impermanent’ (anicca). ruptions of the mind which paralyse wisdom. dwelling with mind undisturbed. IX. as inﬁrm. he cleanses his mind from restlessness and mental worry. as empty and ‘void of an Ego’ (anatta). this is the Highest. the forsaking of every substratum of rebirth. extinction. an enemy. He has cast away ‘Doubt’ (vicikiccha). as an ulcer. NIBBÂNA M. And in this state he reaches the ‘cessation of passions’ (asavakkhaya). ‘Freed am I!’ this knowl- . dwelling free from doubt. namely the end of all Karma formations. He has cast away ‘Restlessness and Mental Worry’ (uddhaccakukkucca). he enters into the Four Absorptions (jhana).And his heart becomes free from sensual passion (kam'asava). a thorn. a burden. a misery. THE ABSORPTIONS (Eighth Factor) He has put aside these ﬁve ‘Hindrances’ (n-varana). And far from sensual impressions. he cleanses his heart from doubt. -sava). the fading away of craving.PROGRESS OF THE DISCIPLE 81 mind. 39 . a disturbance. with heart full of peace. with clear comprehension. mental formations. feeling. ‘This. is Peace.
no more desire. the highest. 140 THE SILENT THINKER ‘I am’ is a vain thought. 26 M. And as he arises no more. And the thinker. no more tremble. M. holiest peace: appeasement of greed. For ever am I liberated. For there is nothing in him whereby he should arise again. how should he have desire’? THE TRUE GOAL Hence. holiest wisdom: to know that all suffering has passed away. indeed. fulﬁlled the Holy Life. indeed. concentration. ‘I shall not be’ is a vain thought. that is its essence. M. how should he grow old again? And as he grows old no more how should he die again? And as he dies no more. ‘This am I’ is a vain thought. has been done. a thorn. naught remains more for this world to do’. how should he tremble? And as he trembles no more. And those who in the future will be Holy and Enlightened Ones. the highest. who in the past were Holy and Enlightened Ones. This is the last time that I’m born. 51 those Blessed Ones also have pointed out to their disciples this self-same goal as has been pointed out by me to my disciples. hatred and delusion. No new existence waits for me. those Blessed Ones also will point out to . This is. is the object of the Holy Life. honour. what was to be done. or the eye of knowledge. one is called ‘a silent thinker’. Vain thoughts are a sickness. M. an ulcer. That unshakable deliverance of the heart: that. or fame. the Silent One.82 GRADUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE EIGHTFOLD PATH IN THE edge arises in the liberated one . This is. ‘I shall be’ is a vain thought. indeed. does no more arise. nor in gaining morality. the purpose of the Holy Life does not consist in acquiring alms. that is its goal. 29 And those. and he knows: ‘Exhausted is rebirth. no more pass away. But after overcoming all vain thoughts.
you should well preserve. as a consolation to the world. well guard. 16 However. weal and welfare of heavenly beings and men. . disciples. The Law be your isle. for the weal and welfare of the many. D. the doctrines which I taught you after having penetrated them myself. for the ‘Law’ (dhamma) and the ‘Discipline’ (vinaya) which I have taught you. The Law be your refuge! Look for no other refuge! Therefore. We have no Master more’. disciples. for the happiness. But thus you should not think. so that this Holy life may take its course and continue for ages.PROGRESS OF THE DISCIPLE 83 their disciples this self-same goal as has been pointed out by me to my disciples. will after my death be your master. it may be that (after my passing away) you might think: ‘Gone is the doctrine of our master.
E. Rider & Co. Some Sayings of the Buddha. LIFE OF THE BUDDHA E. Woodward. TRANSLATIONS FROM THE SUTTA-PITAKA 1. The Buddha. J. An Anthology of the Buddha’s Teaching. London. The Life of Buddha as Legend and History. Bastian & Company. Pivadassi Thera. The Lion ‘s Roar. . Colombo. Many editions.84 BUDDHIST LITERATURE BUDDHIST LITERATURE A selection for further study I. L. The Life of the Buddha in his own words. Buddhism in Translations. J. Thomas. Kegan Paul.A. F. Oxford Press. Warren. Colombo. 496 pp. The Light of Asia. Kegan Paul. Harvard Oriental Series. E. I—lI) Buddhist Publication Society. Y. Early Buddhist Scriptures. C. Selected Buddhist Texts from the Pali Canon.B. Bhikkhu Silacara. Compiled from the Pali Canon.M. Lake House Bookshop. Narada Thera. Edwin Arnold. The Life of the Buddha. (Poetical). The Life of Gotama the Buddha. Colombo. Kassapa Thera & Siridhamma Thera. W. London. Nyanatiloka Thera. A Young People’s Life of the Buddha. London. H. F. ANTHOLOGIES H. Kandy. Colombo 1958. Thomas. Kandy. Dept. The Path to Deliverance. Buddhist Publication Society. (Sutta translations from ‘The Wheel’ Series) Vol. II. Brewster. David Maurice. Kegan Paul. of Cultural Affairs. A Short Study of His Life and His Teachings.
The Middle Length Sayings (Majjhima Nikâya). Pali Text Society. Buddhist Publication Society. F. I. Horner.BUDDHIST LITERATURE 85 2 COMPLETE TEXTS Prof. Dhammapada. Wisdom of the East Series. Rhys Davids and F. The Wheel Series contains annotated translations of many Discourses. Soma Thera. Lake House Bookshop. . B. L. Hare. FL. A. Woodward and F. London.) Buddhist Publication Society. M. F. (Sacred Books of the Buddhists). Dhammapada (Pali text with English prose translation). of the 9th Discourse of Majjhima Nikâya and its Commentary). Rhys Davids. Colombo. Narada Thera. SINGLE DISCOURSES Soma Thera. Songs of the Brethren (Theragâtha). C. Pali Text Society. Woodward. F. 3 vols. 3rd ed. London. Dialogues of the Buddha (Dîgha Nîkâya). of the Satipatthâna Sutta and its Commentary. Tr. Songs of the Sisters (Therigâtha). Tr. F. . Professor S. Tr. The Way of Mindfulness (Transl. Woodward. Gradual Sayings (Anguttara Nikâya). 5 vols. L. Tr. 5 vols. John Murray. Kindred Sayings (Samyutta Nikâya). Pali Text Society. A. Tr. 3 vols. A. M. F. W. Rhys Davids. Tr. Woven cadences (Sutta Nipâta). Pali Text Society. C. C. Radakrishnan. Pali Text Society. Tr. Pali Text Society. II: Udâna and Itivuttaka. T. (Sacred Books of the Buddhists). Pali Text Society. Tr. Minor Anthologies. Vol. Rhys Davids. Tr. 3. Right Understanding (Transl. Tr. Pali Text Society. George Allen & Unwin. Hare.
Pali Text Society. B. Psychological Attitude of Early Buddhist Philosophy and its systematic representation according to Abhidhamma tradition. M. Rhys Davids. Buddhist Publication Society. A Manual of Abhidhamma (Abhidhammattha Sangaha). The Ouestions of King Milinda. Kandy.. W. 2nd enlarged Ed. History of Pali Literature. The Psychology and Philosophy of Buddhism. Dr. F. Govinda. Tr. Tr. Pali text. Anagarika B. Dover Books. 2nd ed. Tr. Kegan Paul. C. D. (Synopsis of all 7 Abhidhamma Books). Guide through the Abhidhamma Pitaka . F. Buddhaghosa (Bhikkhu Ñânamoli. Rider & Co. T. Milinda’s Questions. Lake House Bookshop. 2 vols. Colombo. Semage. HISTORICAL LITERATURE B. 2 vols. Gunasena & Co. Banerji. An Introduction to the Abbidhamma. Tr. Compendium of Philosophy (Abhidhammattha Sangaha). 3rd ed.86 BUDDHIST LITERATURE III. Abhidhamma Studies. W. Rhys Davids. S. Calcutta. V. . Nyanaponika Thera. ABHIDHAMMA Nyanatiloka Mahathera. Law. A. translation and explanatory notes. IV. NON-CANONICAL PALI LITERATURE I. (The most important and comprehensive systematic treatment of the entire Buddhist teachings). Buddhist Publication Society. Researches in Buddhist Psychology. A. Colombo 1971. Horner. London.) The Path of Puriﬁcation (Visuddhi Magga). Colombo. Narada Thera. C. Shwe Zan Aung & C. Punthi Pustak. 2nd ed. Pali Text Society. Jayasuriya. 2 vols. An introduction to Pali Literature.
Perera. NY. Malalasekera. 3rd enlarged ed. Wînternitz. Pali Literature of Ceylon. Narada Thera. Buddhism Explained: An Introduction to the Teaching of Lord Buddha.BUDDHIST LITERATURE 87 M. History of Buddhist Thought. Wettimuny. Its Past & Present.. Buddhism and its Relation to Religion and Science. Ananda Semage. E. Rider & Co. Gunasena & Co. Lake House Bookshop. Dr. Colombo 11. Bangkok. GENERAL LITERATURE Nyanatiloka Thera. Early History of Buddhism in Ceylon. R. The Buddha’s Ancient Path. Colombo. T. (also Grove Press. Nyanaponika Thera. Gordon Frazer.. G. D. Karuna Kusalasaya. The Heart of Buddhist Meditation (Satipatthana). Calcutta University. London.. Kegan Paul. Fundamentals of Buddhism: Four Lectures. 1946. History of Indian Literature. II: Buddhist and Jain Literature. D. Basic Tenets of Buddhism: Aids to the Study and Teaching of the Dhamma. P. Rider & Co. F. VI. Vol. Buddhism in a Nutshell. Gunasena & Co. Buddhism in Thailand. Buddhism in Ceylon. Thomas. Nyanasatta Thera. Its Past and Present.. Buddhist Publication Society.. Colombo. Buddhist Dictionary: A Manual of Buddhist Terms & Doctrines.. Buddhist India. M. Buddhist Publication Society. G.) R. Adikaram. Walpola Rahula. Oxford. Lake House Bookshop. M. 3rd enlarged ed. Colombo. Social Science Association Press. . What the Buddha Taught. Piyadassi Thera. W. Buddhist Publication Society. Nyanatiloka Thera. Colombo. 1971. Frewin & Co. de S. Khantipalo Bhikkhu. H. J. W. Rhys Davids. Colombo. .
P. Vajirañana Mahathera. Buddhist Meditation in Theory and Practice. M. D. Gunasena & Co., Colombo. Nanamoli Thera. Mindfulness of Breathing: Buddhist Texts from the Pali Canon & Commentaries. Buddhist Publication Society. K. N. Jayatilleke. Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge. George Allen & Unwin. G. P. Malalasekera, Ed. Encylopaedia of Buddhism: Vol. 1, Vol. II, fasc. 1ff (to be continued). Published by the Government of Ceylon (Distributors: K. V. G. de Silva & Sons, Colombo).
The Maha Bodhi, A Monthly Journal for International Buddhist Brotherhood. Calcutta, Maha Bodhi Society The Middle Way. A quarterly; organ of the Buddhist Society, London, W.C.I. The Buddhist. Monthly organ of the Colombo Y.M.B.A. Colombo. World Buddhism. Monthly international Buddhist News Magazine. PubIished at 91/1 Dutugemunu St., Dehiwala, Ceylon.
INDEX OF PALI TERMS
abhidhamma-pitaka 2 . abhiñña 63 adosa 32 ajiva lokiya-samma- 53 samma- 27, 53–54 akusala 30 -kammapatha 30 alobha 32 amoha 32 - anagami 36 - - anapana-sati 58, 68 anatt 13 anatta 13, 14–16, 24, 38, 81 anattaniya 14 anattata 23 - bhisankhara 43 - aneñja anicca 13, 24, 38, 81 an-upadisesa-nibbana 25 anurakkhan a-ppadhana 57 . - po-dhatu 9, 10 a appanasamadhi 73 arahat 26 ariya -puggala 36 -sacca 68 Ariya-atthangikamagga 28 .. arupa -bhava 19 -jjhana 76 -raga 36 - arupavacara 43 asankhata 38 asavakkhaya 64, 81 asubha-bhavana 76 - -sankappa 47 avihimsa avijj'asava 81 avijja 36, 42, 45 - avyapada-sankappa 47 ayatana 67 bhav'asava 81 bhava 24, 42, 45 arupa- 19 -ditthi 19, 33 .. kamma- 20, 23, 45 rupa- 19 -tan ha 19 . upapatti- 23, 45 bhavana -ppadhana 56 vipassana- 59 bhuta maha- 9 bojjhanga 56, 67, 70 Buddha 1 cakkhu-viññan a 12 . cetana 11, 12, 21, 43 kusala-akusala- 23 rupa- 11 citt'ekaggata 75, 76 citta 65 kusala- 73 cittanupassana 65 - ra 69 cittasankha cittekeggata 73
dhamma 83 as doctrine 1 as refuge 3 sankhata- 38 -vicaya 56 dhammanupassana 66 dhammavicaya 67
INDEX OF PALI TERMS
-sambojjhanga 70 dhatu 9–11, 61 apo- 9, 10 pathavi- 9 . tejo- 9, 10 vayo- 9, 10 ditthi .. bhava- 19, 33 lokiya-samma- 37 lokuttara-samma- 37 sakkaya- 33, 35 samma- 27, 30–46 sassata- 19, 33 uccheda- 19, 33 vibhava- 19, 33 dibba -cakkhu 64 -sota 63 dosa 31, 44 dukkha 5, 13, 17, 24, 38, 81 dutiyampi 3
gacchami 3 ghana-viññan a 13 .
hadaya-vatthu 9 iddhi-vidha 63 . - da 64 iddhipa indriya-sam m vara 80 . . jara-marana 42, 45 jati 20, 24, 42, 45 jhana 73, 74–77, 81 jhananga 75 jiva 41 jivha-viññan a 13 . jjhana arupa- 76
kam a-tan ha 19 . . - m'asava 81 ka kamacchanda 66, 80 kama-loka 36 kamaraga 35 kamma 20–23, 30–32, 42–46 -bhava 20, 23, 45 kaya- 30, 31 mano- 31, 32 vac-- 30, 32 i kammanta lokiya-samma- 51 lokuttara-samma- 51 samma- 27, 51–52 karuna 76 - ya ka -kamma 30, 31 -viññan a 13 . - kayanupassana 58 kaya-sankhara 59 khandha 8–13, 67 -parinibbana 25 rupa- 9–11 sankhara- 11 sañña- 11 vedana- 11 viññan a- 12 . kilesa-parinibbana 25 kusala -citta 73 -kammapatha 31 kusalaakusala-cetana 23
lobha 31, 44 loka kama- 36 - pa- 36 ru lokiya - -samma-ajiva 53 -samma-ditthi 37 ..
25 kilesa.Sakadagami 36 . Sam sara 16–18 . .36 rupa.42 -raga 36 rupakkhandha 68 . 67.INDEX OF PALI TERMS 91 -samma-kammanta 51 -samma-sankappa 47 .la-sañña 60 patiku . 80. 32 -viññan a 13 .36 . 67 -bhava 19 -cetana 11 -khandha 9–11 -loka 36 nama.2 sutta. 44 mudita 76 nama-rupa 42 namarupa 45 nekkhamma-sankappa 47 nibbana 24–26. 42.25 passaddhi 56... puthujjana 37 raga arupa.25 . -samuppada 6. pitaka .-bhuta 9 maha mana 36 manasikara 12 mano -kamma 31. 69. .-samma-vaca 49 M magga 36 sotapatti. abhidhamma. -samma-kammanta 51 -samma-sankappa 47 . 40–46 .36 rupa 13.56 sam vara. pathavi-dhatu 9 . 75 i -sambojjhanga 70 ppadhana anurakkhan a.ya sakka .disesa. 45 photthabba 9 . paticca .-samma-vaca 49 lokuttara .57 .2 ti.-samma-ajiva 53 -samma-ditthi 37 .. 81 i .76 metta moha 31.pubbe-nivasanussati-ñan a 64 . Sam vara-ppadhana 55 . 45 . bhavana. pahana-ppadhana 55 pañca-s-la 3 i pañña 27 paramattha 65 parassa-cetopariya-ñan a 63 . 67 -sambojjhanga 71 phala sotapatti.. sam yojana 33–36 .36 phassa 12. parinibbana khandha.2 vinaya.55 .2 p-ti 56.25 saupa n-varan a 66. 81 an-upadisesa.rupavacara 43 rupavacarajjhana 74 R N P S sal-ayatana 42. .
71 viriya.ra 13.-vaca 27.70 upekkha.47 lokiya-samma. 35 . 42 . 53–54 -a -ditthi 27. 45. vibhava.kkhandha 68 sañña saran am 3 . 56.70 i samadhi.Suddhavipassana-yanika 74 sukha 69.19 . 67 -sambojjhanga 71 samma. 47 -sati 27.47 lokuttara-samma.s-labbata-paramasa 35 i .47 nekkhamma. 80 i -kkhandha 79 pañca.3 ..60 .47 i sankharakkhandha 68 sankhata -dhamma 38 sañña 13. 38. 10 . saupadisesa-nibbana 25 .47 samma. 51–52 -samadhi 27. Sangha as community 2 as refuge 3 Saniathayanika 74 sankappa avihimsa. samadhi 27..27.76 sukkha-vipassaka 74 suñña 14 sutta-pitaka 2 . 43. 55–57 sampajañña sati. 30–46 . 40–46 ..19 kam a. 42.70 passaddhi. 67 sankha kaya. 80 Satipatthana 68 .92 INDEX OF PALI TERMS -ditthi 33.71 p-ti.-vayama 27. 48–50 .27. 73–77 -sambodhi 1 -sankappa 27.71 sati.6. . 69 . sati 56.. 58–72 -sampajañña 60.59 -khandha 11 vac-. 73–77 samadiyami 4 samatha-bhavana 59 sambojjhanga dhammavicaya. 67 -khandha 11 patikula. 80 samuppada paticca.panna 35 sota sotapatti -magga 36 -phala 36 sota-viññan a 13 . sassata -ditthi 19.70 samma .anapana.padam 4 sikkha s-la 27. 47 . 75 upekkha. bhava. .19 tatiyampi 3 tejo-dhatu 9. 33 ..27. 58–72 . tan ha 24.58 -sambojjhanga 70 samma.jiva 27. satipatthana 58. T tan ha 45 . 67 .60.. -kammanta 27. .
33 .13 jivha. 45. 74. 24.. 81 . 55–57 V vayo-dhatu 9. 67. 67 . ti-ratana 3 ti-saran a 3 . 45 upekkha 56. 75 vica vicaya dhamma. 42. 75 voharavacana 65 .49 samma.9 . 76 -sambojjhanga 71 -sukha 76 . 67 vedana -khandha 11 vedanakkhandha 68 vedananupassana 64 veramani 4 vibhava -ditthi 19. 32 -sankhara 47 vatthu hadaya. 20. 45. viññan a 13.49 lokuttara-samma.v ac a lokiya-samma. 81 upacara-samadhi 76 .13. . 42.. 32 .27. 67 -sambojjhanga 70 vitakka 65.upada rupa 9 .13 viññanakkhandha 68 vipaka 22 vipassana 28. 66. 33 . 45 .pada 35.-vimutti 71 vijja vinaya-pitaka 2 . 80 vya - .12 ghana.27. 66.INDEX OF PALI TERMS 93 th-na-middha 66 i th-namiddha 80 i ti-lakkhan a 13.rasamadhi 73 upaca . 48–50 vaci -kamma 30.ra 65. U uccheda-ditthi 19.56 vicikiccha 35. cakkhu.upadana 20. ti-pitaka 2 .. 10 .upadaya rupa 9 upapatti-bhava 23. -tan ha 19 .13 -khandha 12 mano. 81 -bhavana 59 viriya 56. uddhacca 36 uddhacca-kukkucca 66.13 kaya. 42.13 sota.vayama samma.